49 Matching Annotations
1. May 2023
2. eli.thegreenplace.net eli.thegreenplace.net

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3. Apr 2023
1. discrete differential geometry

The formulation uses concepts from the nascent field of discrete differential geometry

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5. Mar 2023
6. philosophynow.org philosophynow.org
1. Until the mathematicians Bolyai, Lobachevsky, and Riemann came along. Bolyai tried to deduce a contradiction, assuming that through a point, parallel to a given line, many lines could be drawn. He deduced away like crazy but failed to get a contradiction, and eventually realised that he had invented a new geometry, different from Euclid‘s but just as respectable. Riemann went the other way. He assumed that through a point, parallel to a given line, no line could be drawn. He realised that he too had invented another geometry, in fact the geometry of great circles on a sphere.

直到数学家 Bolyai、Lobachevsky 和 ​​Riemann 的出现。 Bolyai 试图推导出一个矛盾，假设通过一个点，平行于给定的线，可以画出许多线。他疯狂地推导却没有得到矛盾，最终意识到他发明了一种新的几何学，它不同于欧几里德的几何学，但同样值得尊敬。Riemann 走了另一条路。他假设通过一个点，平行于给定的线，不能画出任何线。他意识到他也发明了另一种几何学，实际上是球体上大圆的几何学。

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7. www.w3.org www.w3.org

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8. web.dev web.dev

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9. Feb 2023
1. One of the problems in approaching quantum gravity is the choice for how to best represent it mathematically. Most of quantum mechanics is algebraic in nature but gravity has a geometry component which is important. (restatement)

This is similar to the early 20th century problem of how to best represent quantum mechanics: as differential equations or using group theory/Lie algebras?

This prompts the question: what other potential representations might also work?

Could it be better understood/represented using Algebraic geometry or algebraic topology as perspectives?

[handwritten notes from 2023-02-02]

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11. Dec 2022
12. www.w3.org www.w3.org

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13. May 2022
14. boffosocko.com boffosocko.com
1. Finally, and as fundamentally as there is a numerical memory and a dia-lectical memory, there is a geometry of memory too. Almost every monas-tic mnemotechnical scheme—ladders, roses, buildings, maps—was based ongeometrical figures: squares, rectangles, triangles, circles, and complex refor-mations of these, including three-dimensional structures

She doesn't mention it, but they're not only placing things in order for potential memory purposes, but they're also placing an order on their world as well.

Ladders and steps were frequently used to create an order of beings as in the scala naturae or the Great Chain of Being.

Some of this is also seen in Ramon Lull's Ladder of Ascent and Descent of the Mind, 1305 (Ars Magna)

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15. Apr 2022
16. Local file Local file
1. It will, here again, find amplematerial in the short circuits of Duchamp’s antiart objects: “Metaphor ‘taken atthe letter’: a geometry book suspended by a thread (‘geometry in space’),” not tomention “the ‘Paris air’ ampule.” 10

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17. Mar 2022
18. meenalpathak.wordpress.com meenalpathak.wordpress.com
1. Pierre Bézier (Renault), a French engineer and one of the founders in the field of solid, geometric and physical modelling and Paul De Casteljau (Citroën), a French Mathematician and physicist developed an algorithm to calculate a family of curves. These curves are named as Bézier curves while the algorithm is named after De Casteljau, DeCasteljau’s algorithm. The algorithm and the Bézier curves are used in almost all the graphic tools. Before the invention of these tools, the software could not understand a shape if it wasn’t a circle, a parabola or a basic line. The availability of hardware that could machine complex 3-D shapes and lack of the software that could not communicate the specifics of those shapes created a gap. The Bézier curves solved this issue. They were used in creating the design of body parts of Renault and Peugeot cars as early as in 1960s.

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19. Feb 2022
20. Local file Local file
1. Learning requires effort, because we have to think to understandand we need to actively retrieve old knowledge to convince ourbrains to connect it with new ideas as cues. To understand howgroundbreaking this idea is, it helps to remember how much effortteachers still put into the attempt to make learning easier for theirstudents by prearranging information, sorting it into modules,categories and themes. By doing that, they achieve the opposite ofwhat they intend to do. They make it harder for the student to learnbecause they set everything up for reviewing, taking away theopportunity to build meaningful connections and to make sense ofsomething by translating it into one’s own language. It is like fastfood: It is neither nutritious nor very enjoyable, it is just convenient

Some of the effort that teachers put into their educational resources in an attempt to make learning faster and more efficient is actually taking away the actual learning opportunities of the students to sort, arrange, and make meaningful connections between the knowledge and to their own prior knowledge bases.

In mathematics, rather than showing a handful of methods for solving a problem, the teacher might help students to explore those problem solving spaces first and then assist them into creating these algorithms. I can't help but think about Inventional Geometry by William George Spencer that is structured this way. The teacher has created a broader super-structure of problems, but leaves it largely to the student to do the majority of the work.

#### Annotators

21. www.scientificamerican.com www.scientificamerican.com
1. https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/an-ancient-greek-astronomical-calculation-machine-reveals-new-secrets/

Overview and history of the Antikythera mechanism and the current state of research surrounding it.

Antikythera mechanism found in diving expedition in 1900 by Elias Stadiatis. It was later dated between 60 and 70 BCE, but evidence suggests it may have been made around 205 BCE.

## Functions

One of the primary purposes of the device was to predict the positions of the planets along the ecliptic, the plane of the solar system.

The device was also used to track the positions of the sun and moon. This included the moon's phase, position and age (the number of days from a new moon). It also included the predictions of eclipses.

Used to track the motions of the 5 known planets including 289 synodic cycles in 462 years for Venus and 427 synodic cycles in 442 years for Saturn.

Risings and settings of stars indexed to a zodiac dial

## Definitions

metonic cycle, a 19-year period over which 235 moon phases recur; named after Greek astronomer Meton, but discovered much earlier by the Babylonians. The Greeks refined it to a 76 year period.

saros cycle, the 223 month lunar cycle which was used by the Babylonians to predict eclipses. A dial on the Antikythera mechanism was used to predict the dates of the solar and lunar eclipses using this cycle.

synodic events: conjunctions with the sun and its stationary points

## People

Archimedes - potentially the designer of an early version of the Antikythera mechanism

Elias Stadiatis - diver who discovered the Antikythera mechanism

Albert Rehm - German philologist who the numbers 19, 76 and 223 inscribed on fragments of the device in the early 1900s

Derek J. de Solla Price, published Gears from the Greeks in 1974. Identified the gear train and developed a complete model of the gearing.

Michael Wright - 3D x-ray study in 1990 using linear tomography; identified tooth counts of the gears and understood the upper dial on the back of the device

Tony Freeth - author of article and researcher whose made recent discoveries.

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22. output.jsbin.com output.jsbin.com

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23. bl.ocks.org bl.ocks.org

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24. gist.github.com gist.github.com

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25. www.maissan.net www.maissan.net

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26. Jan 2022
27. mattferraro.dev mattferraro.dev

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28. cubic-bezier.com cubic-bezier.com

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29. Dec 2021
30. cormullion.github.io cormullion.github.io

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31. Oct 2021
32. www.soul-flower.com www.soul-flower.com
1. Metatron’s Cube

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33. www.onetribeapparel.com www.onetribeapparel.com
1. The Flower of Life

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34. ciechanow.ski ciechanow.ski

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35. Jun 2021
1. "dividing n-dimensional space with a hyperplane."

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37. math.stackexchange.com math.stackexchange.com
1. If you have a vector space, any vector space, you can define linear functions on that space. The set of all those functions is the dual space of the vector space. The important point here is that it doesn't matter what this original vector space is. You have a vector space V

One of the better "simple" discussions of dual spaces I've seen:

If you have a vector space, any vector space, you can define linear functions on that space. The set of all those functions is the dual space of the vector space. The important point here is that it doesn't matter what this original vector space is. You have a vector space V, you have a corresponding dual V∗.

OK, now you have linear functions. Now if you add two linear functions, you get again a linear function. Also if you multiply a linear function with a factor, you get again a linear function. Indeed, you can check that linear functions fulfill all the vector space axioms this way. Or in short, the dual space is a vector space in its own right.

But if V∗ is a vector space, then it comes with everything a vector space comes with. But as we have seen in the beginning, one thing every vector space comes with is a dual space, the space of all linear functions on it. Therefore also the dual space V∗ has a corresponding dual space, V∗∗, which is called double dual space (because "dual space of the dual space" is a bit long).

So we have the dual space, but we also want to know what sort of functions are in that double dual space. Well, such a function takes a vector from V∗, that is, a linear function on V, and maps that to a scalar (that is, to a member of the field the vector space is based on). Now, if you have a linear function on V, you already know a way to get a scalar from that: Just apply it to a vector from V. Indeed, it is not hard to show that if you just choose an arbitrary fixed element v∈V, then the function Fv:ϕ↦ϕ(v) indeed is a linear function on V∗, and thus a member of the double dual V∗∗. That way we have not only identified certain members of V∗∗ but in addition a natural mapping from V to V∗∗, namely F:v↦Fv. It is not hard to prove that this mapping is linear and injective, so that the functions in V∗∗ corresponding to vectors in V form a subspace of V∗∗. Indeed, if V is finite dimensional, it's even all of V∗∗. That's easy to see if you know that dim(V∗)=dimV and therefore dim(V∗∗)=dimV∗=dimV. On the other hand, since F is injective, dim(F(V))=dim(V). However for finite dimensional vector spaces, the only subspace of the same dimension as the full space is the full space itself. However if V is infinite dimensional, V∗∗ is larger than V. In other words, there are functions in V∗∗ which are not of the form Fv with v∈V.

Note that since V∗∗again is a vector space, it also has a dual space, which again has a dual space, and so on. So in principle you have an infinite series of duals (although only for infinite vector spaces they are all different).

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38. math.stackexchange.com math.stackexchange.com
1. There are some very beautiful and easily accessible applications of duality, adjointness, etc. in Rota's modern reformulation of the Umbral Calculus. You'll quickly gain an appreciation for the power of such duality once you see how easily this approach unifies hundreds of diverse special-function identities, and makes their derivation essentially trivial. For a nice introduction see Steven Roman's book "The Umbral Calculus".

Note to self: Look at [[Steven Roman]]'s book [[The Umbral Calculus]] to follow up on having a more intuitive idea of what a dual space is and how it's useful

2. Dual spaces also appear in geometry as the natural setting for certain objects. For example, a differentiable function f:M→R

Dual spaces also appear in geometry as the natural setting for certain objects. For example, a differentiable function f:M→R where M is a smooth manifold is an object that produces, for any point p∈M and tangent vector v∈TpM, a number, the directional derivative, in a linear way. In other words, ==a differentiable function defines an element of the dual to the tangent space (the cotangent space) at each point of the manifold.==

3. The dual is intuitively the space of "rulers" (or measurement-instruments) of our vector space. Its elements measure vectors. This is what makes the dual space and its relatives so important in Differential Geometry, for instance.

A more intuitive description of why dual spaces are useful or interesting.

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39. en.wikipedia.org en.wikipedia.org
1. To put it succinctly, differential topology studies structures on manifolds that, in a sense, have no interesting local structure. Differential geometry studies structures on manifolds that do have an interesting local (or sometimes even infinitesimal) structure.

Differential topology take a more global view and studies structures on manifolds that have no interesting local structure while differential geometry studies structures on manifolds that have interesting local structures.

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40. Apr 2021
41. www.redblobgames.com www.redblobgames.com

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42. Mar 2021
43. web.cs.iastate.edu web.cs.iastate.edu
1. ts geo-metric meaning is also more obvious as the rotation axis and angle can be trivially recovered.

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44. Nov 2020
45. icla2020b.jonreeve.com icla2020b.jonreeve.com
1. the word gnomon in the Euclid and the word simony in the Catechism

Joyce seems to like putting elements from mathematics in his works. He referred the "Ithaca" episode of Ulysses as a "mathematical catechism" in his letter. Maybe he found some connections between geometry and Catechism as he was a very knowledgeable writer.

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46. May 2020
47. www.scientificamerican.com www.scientificamerican.com

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48. arxiv.org arxiv.org
1. Qian, Y., Expert, P., Panzarasa, P., & Barahona, M. (2020). Geometric graphs from data to aid classification tasks with graph convolutional networks. ArXiv:2005.04081 [Physics, Stat]. http://arxiv.org/abs/2005.04081

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49. Feb 2020
50. marxdown.github.io marxdown.github.io
1. the area of the triangle itself is expressed by something totally different from its visible figure, namely, by half the product of the base multiplied by the altitude
2. In order to calculate and compare the areas of rectilinear figures, we decompose them into triangles

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51. Oct 2019
52. www.iste.co.uk www.iste.co.uk
1. Space and Geometry

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53. Jun 2019
54. tele.informatik.uni-freiburg.de tele.informatik.uni-freiburg.de
1. In 1953 I realized that the straight line leads to the downfall of mankind. But the straight line has become an absolute tyranny. The straight line is something cowardly drawn with a rule, without thought or feeling; it is the line which does not exist in nature. And that line is the rotten foundation of our doomed civilization. Even if there are places where it is recognized that this line is rapidly leading to perdition, its course continues to be plotted. ..Any design undertaken with the straight line will be stillborn. Today we are witnessing the triumph of rationalist know-how and yet, at the same time, we find ourselves confronted with emptiness. An aesthetic void, dessert of uniformity, criminal sterility, loss of creative power. Even creativity is prefabricated. We are no longer able to create. That is our real illiteracy.   Friedensreich Hundertwasser

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55. Dec 2018
56. www.washingtonpost.com www.washingtonpost.com
1. “vanishing point” geometry

More here.

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57. Nov 2018
58. iphysresearch.github.io iphysresearch.github.io
1. Grassmannian Learning: Embedding Geometry Awareness in Shallow and Deep Learning

就喜欢这些用微分流形讲机器学习的~！

应该写个 Paper Summary 表示尊敬~~~

2. Classification and Geometry of General Perceptual Manifolds

一篇Physical Review X 上的文章~ 读读看~

Paper Summary

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59. Mar 2018
1. The Use of Projective Geometry in Computer Graphics

Chapter 2: 射影几何的一般性介绍

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61. Mar 2016
62. arxiv.org arxiv.org
1. Letβ:V×V→Wbe a symmetric bilinear form whereVand (W,h,i) arereal vector spaces of finite dimensionnandp, respectively, equipped withinner products.Thes-nullityνsofβfor any integer 1≤s≤pis defined byνs= maxUs⊂Wdim{x∈V:βUs(x, y) = 0 for ally∈V}.HereβUs=πUs◦βwhereUsis anys-dimensional subspace ofWandπUs:W→Usdenotes the orthogonal projection.LetR:V×V×V×V→Rbe the multilinear map with the algebraicproperties of the curvature tensor defined byR(x, y, z, w) =hβ(x, w), β(y, z)i − hβ(x, z), β(y, w)i.Lemma 4.Assume that2p < nandνs< n−2sfor all1≤s≤p. LetV=V1⊕V2be an orthogonal splitting such thatR(x, y, z, u) =R(x, y, u, v) =R(x, u, v, w) = 0for anyx, y, z∈V1andu, v, w∈V2. Then,S=span{β(x, y) :x∈V1andy∈V2}= 0.

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63. ac.els-cdn.com ac.els-cdn.com
1. second fundamental_form h satisfies h(TpL,xTpLj =0 forallp E M

Para o nosso caso, assumir essa hipótese com respeito a decomposição do espaço tangente ao longo do bordo.

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64. Dec 2015
65. www.mathunion.org www.mathunion.org
1. Let M be an rc-dimensional manifold of class C°° and g any given Riemannian metric on M. We will consider the following classical problem motivated by differential geometry. Does there exist an embedding u = (w1,..., uq) : M -> R9 such that the usual euclidian metric of R9 induces on the submanifold u(M) the given metric gl In other words, w must satisfy E(w) := du-du = g, (1) or in local coordinates 9 du1 du1 _ ,tîâ?â?"Qij' The dot in (1) denotes the usual scalar product of R9. The notion embedding means, that w is locally an immersion and globally a homeomorphism of M onto the subspace u(M) of R*. If an embedding w : M -• R9 satisfies (1) on the whole M, we speak of an isometric embedding. If w is an immersion and a solution of (1) in a (possibly small) neighbourhood of any point of M, we speak of a local isometric embedding.

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66. Mar 2015
67. arxiv.org arxiv.org
1. θ dμ ≥ p 16 π | Σ |

Qual a relação dessa desigualdade com a dita desigualdade de Penrose Riemanniana provada por Huisken-Ilmanen e Bray?

2. GIBBONS-PENROSE INEQUALITY

Qual a relação dessa desigualdade com a dita desigualdade de Penrose Riemanniana provada por Huisken-Ilmanen e Bray?

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68. Oct 2013
69. rhetoric.eserver.org rhetoric.eserver.org
1. Order, in the first place, is necessary in geometry, and is it not also necessary in eloquence?

comparison between geometry and rhetoric