122 Matching Annotations
  1. Nov 2023
    1. This means that manufacturers must satisfy the needs of PBMs in order to meet the needs of patients. !function(n){ if(!window.cnxps){ window.cnxps={},window.cnxps.cmd=[]; var t=n.createElement('iframe'); t.display='none',t.onload=function(){ var n=t.contentWindow.document,c=n.createElement('script'); c.src='//cd.connatix.com/connatix.playspace.js',c.setAttribute('defer','1'),c.setAttribute('type','text/javascript'),n.body.appendChild(c) },n.head.appendChild(t) } }(document); (function() { function createUniqueId() { return 'xxxxxxxx-xxxx-4xxx-yxxx-xxxxxxxxxxxx'.replace(/[xy]/g, function(c) { var r = Math.random() * 16 | 0, v = c == 'x' ? r : (r & 0x3 | 0x8); return v.toString(16); }); } const randId = createUniqueId(); document.getElementsByClassName('fbs-cnx')[0].setAttribute('id', randId); document.getElementById(randId).removeAttribute('class'); (new Image()).src = 'https://capi.connatix.com/tr/si?token=546f0bce-b219-41ac-b691-07d0ec3e3fe1'; cnxps.cmd.push(function () { cnxps({ playerId: '546f0bce-b219-41ac-b691-07d0ec3e3fe1'}).render(randId); }); })();

      Drugs not able to compete on quality / effectiveness; a therapy that might work for a patient may be off limits / they may be limited to an option that doesn't work for them, but is the one that's on the PBM formulary

    2. Due to this control doctors cannot base their prescriptions solely on the patients’ medical needs, they must account for the drug formulary when making treatment decisions.

      This is also nuts - value/effectiveness of doctors in network may be limited by formulary

    3. The misalignment of interests arises because PBMs control the list of approved medicines (i.e., the formularies) that determine which treatments patients can access.

      We live in a world where a patient's access to medication is determined largely by who they happen to work for and who somebody in HR [who may not know benefits] has selected as the PBM based on the advice of a Broker / financial pressure

  2. Dec 2022
    1. The system includes a filtering mechanism that allocates some degree of control to whoever is in charge of the box. And isn’t the suggestion box system designed, in part, to enable that layer of control? If they didn’t want the ability to filter, they might have just invited suggestions openly during a meeting with everyone present.§

      Carriers Enclosable vs unenclosable Open-air speech - mostly egalitarian; limited by vocal range, education / intelligence / verbal ability of speaker

      smarter people can develop / access / take advantage of amplifying broadcast mediums Access to broadcast still dependent upon intelligence / capacity of those receiving the message; can keep them deliberately uninformed / low-capacity for processing

      Writing - communicate over time & distance, but requires specialized literacy, ability to verbally encode / decode meaning througfh precise use of language

    1. messy human desires

      The human element is meant to be as extracted as completely as possible

    2. Far from being a vehicle for individualism and selfish freedoms, the self-driving car necessitates a return to the communal and the social.

      Antithesis of the open highway spirit; open-source vs close-sourced driving

    3. With those control systems goes the freedom that the twentieth century idea of the automobile entailed. It is the death drive, virtualized.

      AI is the slow withdrawal of pleasures from human life - driving experience, writing, art

    4. the manufacturers have designed them in such a way as to prevent their owners from mending them themselves

      So what is ownership if it entails built-in dependency?

    5. If I were asked to condense the whole of the present century into one mental picture I would pick a familiar everyday sight: a man in a motor car, driving along a concrete highway to some unknown destination … I think that the 20th century reaches almost its purest expression on the highway. Here we see, all too clearly, the speed and violence of our age, its strange love affair with the machine and, conceivably, with its own death and destruction.

      Cars weirdly coffin-shaped; thinking about the death of distance, the impatience between points, and the necessity to kill intervening 'dead' time spent in transit

    6. “The invention of the ship,” as Paul Virilio wrote, “was also the invention of the shipwreck.”

      Every innovation drags a host of new concepts into existence with it. Ways it can succeed, fail. All clouding around its reputation and providing handles for people to wield it.

  3. Nov 2022
    1. Such people  can’t conceive of a world different from the one they occupy. A world where their “tech skills” are useless because humanity actually made progress.

      oof. but beautiful encapsulation of incentives (or lack thereof) to promote actual change, vs just "working with what we have"

  4. Oct 2021
    1. While lacking a mandate to actually rule Lebanon, Hezbollah has successfully occupied the shell of an almost completely failed state. Sanctions have created a vicious feedback loop, in which attempts to curb Hezbollah’s influence just deteriorate the Lebanese state, which allows Hezbollah to fill the vacuum of state function. The Lebanese military is desperately trying to hold the center as the only legitimate state institution. But the military lacks the capacity to hold on to power, and Hezbollah has proved that a mandate is easier to build than capacity. Hezbollah also has a powerful ally in the victorious Assad government in Syria, both of which now have an interest in repatriating as many Syrian refugees as possible to undermine Sunni influence in Lebanon. Repatriation prevents the Sunnis from growing their base in Lebanon, and protects Hezbollah’s Shiite base from the internal threat of Sunni influence.


    2. No one has enough power to take full control of the state and the military and govern Lebanon on their own. The consequence is a country in free-fall.

      Is it really a country if the competing groups are so incompatible? If becoming "stable" requires one or more groups abdicating entirely, is it really only trying to become a country of a particular kind?

    3. Lebanon is exceptional in this sense because many of the subcomponents of its political order are puppets of the region’s most powerful states.

      Blend of conflicting interests masquerading as a single state; parasitized & pulled apart from within

    4. A 36-year-old father of two who had no choice but to accept support from Hezbollah described the dynamic well to Bloomberg: “They starve you so you have to run to them for food.”

      There we go - bad then

    5. Hezbollah is developing the institutional logic of a regime—military strength, administrative capability, and an independent foreign policy—without formalizing its rule over the state. The organization has crafted itself a hybrid status: state-like power without formal state responsibilities or sovereignty.

      Is this bad because its bad, or bad because it's hezbollah? Many "formal" responsibilities are ceremonial/performative?

    6. Near the end of the night, the dance floor went limp after yet another power cut. Again, few people complained; eye-rolling and some nihilistic shrugs were the main responses. Many Beirutis described this whole experience to me as a humiliation.

      Red light stop / green light go; living on pause, permanent hiccups

    7. The strike was likely authorized by Paris and Washington, both of which have warned several times against Hezbollah circumventing the state to provide a solution to the fuel crisis themselves.

      Fight over who gets to provide a solution to crisis: that is amazing perspective... if you try to help, we'll spend resources that could be pooled into helping to undermine your efforts to help and kill you for trying.

    8. I jumped into a U.S.-supplied Humvee to join them on their patrol. The convoy of six Humvees, a handful of jeeps, and a few dozen soldiers were heavily armed for good reason.

      We back lebanon againt hezbolah/syriah; our way of saying "thanks for tolerating the sanctions?

    9. Without the authoritative presence and broad mandate of the military, the Western powers and Lebanon’s other religious sects all fear Hezbollah could move into the power vacuum and take control of the country. The irony is that if the much weaker Lebanese military ever tried to extricate Hezbollah, it would likely be defeated.

      Likelihood of foreign intervention?

    10. only

      Compared to what? We have NO IDEA what the standard of living is there, only that inflation is very bad.

    11. because its ranks boast members from all the major religious sects

      Interesting; does this somehow keep it.. largely neutral? Preserves peace somewhat by not appearing to be an agent of any particular side?

    12. Until recently, smugglers were purchasing fuel at a Lebanese central bank-subsidized rate and selling it for profit to both the Syrian government and to rebel groups. Realizing these subsidies were a perverse incentive, and to help preserve Lebanon’s diminishing foreign currency reserves, the central bank rescinded the subsidies back in July causing fuel prices to skyrocket

      Fuel arbitrage incentives; creates another security problem requiring additional resources (and fuel / water) to deal with (ie combatting smugglers (aka entrepreneurs))

    1. Such projects take decades, generations.

      Time preference not our strong suit

    2. In a fiat currency system, neither money nor government debt are real. They are illusions, mass delusions. This allows politicians to periodically bring the nation to the imaginary brink, point the cameras into a fictitious abyss, and then rescue us from a crisis of their own creation – all with the stroke of a pen.

      money is a theatrical prop

    1. There will be three billion gamers by next year, according to a Newzoo study. And as Loftus puts it: “People are going to need to wear something.”

      THIS is it - web 3 is making consumers mutiplicitous - opens marketts WITHIN games, subworlds that can be exploited / marketed to / fashion trends will sweep games, online subcultures (maybe) - people have markeable personas on and off the web, new context for targeted advertising / commerce.

      Will cannabalize physical economies?

      Accessorize for a zoom meeting - digital suits, etc digital costumes. Something to wear at digital concerts, in games; your Perona will not be birthed into the metaverse clothed, accessorized...

      Assets will be portable across platforms.

    1. To tell the people to make their own laws is to mock them just as I should mock you if I said, “Gentlemen, you are the people; write your own plays.”


    2. Carlyle, in the same sense, was a Fascist. In fact, Carlyle matters because Carlyle is our political most recent common ancestor. Carlyle’s thought is ancestral to all political narratives that competed seriously for power in the 20th century. In embryo, Carlyle is a Fascist, a Communist and a Fabian (not classical) liberal.

      The egg of thought that split into three separate paths

    3. Most human beings are not entrepreneurs; they should not be entrepreneurs; even in a competitive economy, they do not need to be entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurs, like generals, are essential but never in great quantity.

      Very true, and yet, at least in tech, we are obsessed with "founder culture", read insights by successful entrepreneurs

    4. Note also: this incentive is in fact far more hard-headed than any metric of hedonic economism—such as GDP, which is measuring the amount of desire satisfied by the productive sector. At best GDP is a revenue metric. A prudent manager will manage an enterprise to maximize capital and profit, not revenue.

      Also agreed; measures how much, not how well

    5. This sounds like a grim reality and indeed it is. But it has a silver lining. Since the people are the property of the regime, the people are the assets of the regime. The regime’s incentive is therefore to maintain and improve this human capital. Note that this incentive is precisely aligned with the traditional maxim of state: salus populi suprema lex, the health of the people is the supreme law.

      Hinges on a word / interpretation. But then how the regime decides to control social/cultural values matters a lot too - what fields of industry are even allowed to exist, for instances, dictates the culture of the society, the degree of choice & freedom. Gov could be perfectly humane in its implementation of what jobs there are, while being simultaneously freedom-limiting

    6. As Shaw so wittily shows us, Ruskin’s political perspective boils down to the basically Bolshevik belief that the people are the property of the regime. There is no such thing as a citizen—only a subject. The idea that the people can rule the government is just a fraud—like QAnon—but older. The government has no choice but to rule the people. This is the purely absolutist Renaissance or Machiavellian theory of sovereignty.

      Thank you.

    7. by buying back medallions

      A safety net, but assumes the parent entity is managing its finances

    8. When price is fixed, the market competes only on quality. The highest-quality providers can choose their clients, and may have waiting lists; the lowest-quality providers have to hustle hard not to fall out of the profession.

      Enter the client who doesn't want to wait for the best person; the wealthy person can shop around, or might offer a premium to skip a month-long waitlist? Price adjustment happens on both the demand & supply sides?

    9. Any working status system is a much better quality incentive than price.


    10. The false, unnatural and destructive system is when the bad workman is allowed to offer his work at half-price, and either take the place of the good, or force him by his competition to work for an inadequate sum.

      Define "good" & "bad" - is "bad" inexperienced? A black worker? Agree that people who shop on rates maybe feel higher rates, on average, are a proxy for quality, but this penalizes exceptional workers & stifles competition via innovation?

    11. The natural and right system respecting all labor is, that it should be paid at a fixed rate, but the good workman employed, and the bad workman unemployed.

      Really the wage of the bad is $0, not $x for good reputation, $x-y for not-so-good

    12. And even in the 21st-century startup, no robber band but associated for legal purposes, no cultural trope is quite so motivating as an enemy—any engineer will work an extra hour a day for that feeling of maybe even killing some despised corporate behemoth. The genus Homo has made great strides, but Pan is never far beneath the skin.

      So many companies taking the "robin hood" narrative, or of crusading for social well-being - all so much wolf-in-sheeps-clothing? Or is it sincere? Is it sincere and true?

    13. But a band of men associated for purposes of legal production and accumulation is usually animated, it appears, by no such emotions, and none of them are in anywise willing to give his life for the life of his chief.

      True, largely, but do not underestimate the length to which money talks & breeds convenience, complacency, tolerance (though not loyalty)

    14. Libertarians, did you ever wonder why the government has this weird, paternalistic, almost feudal concept of an “employee”—where a company doesn’t just buy bulk labor from its workers, but is responsible for caring for them in this semi-creepy way?

      Care not only for economic dimension but for people's well-being. Unfortunately neither are often satisfied. Perhaps because at the end of the day, the personal welfare concerns are so much window dressing; qualitative nebulous wisps that are never considered, let alone measured and "tracked"; it really is all just business, despite the platitudes.

    15. It is because of John Ruskin. Or because Ruskin was right. Or even because he was wrong, if in a seductive way—but I think he was right. In any case, Anglo-American leftism from the Ruskinites till now contains this feudal tendency to patronize the worker, either directly by the state, or by a private employer deputized by the state.

      genealogy of belief

    16. Soul

      Can't "soul" be the blend of all? Economy, politics, social, etc?

    17. That, however, is not so. It would be so if the servant were an engine of which the motive power was steam, magnetism, gravitation, or any other agent of calculable force.

      Good theory, if point of society is to extract as much labor out of people as possible. Among other questions - is their labor useful? Does it enable the lord of the household to accomplish extremely valuable things he otherwise wouldn't be able to?<br> But these are not the right questions, because, in addition to being economic machines, people are other types of machines, simultaneously

    18. The Tory is a man who believes that those who are qualified by nature and training for public work, and who are naturally a minority, have to govern the mass of the people. That is Toryism. That is also Bolshevism.

      Vanguard / oligarchy of powerful elites ruling society, governing wishy-washy, fickle masses

    19. Some of you, in view of the shooting, repudiate Bolshevism as a blood-stained tyranny, and revolt against the connection of Ruskin's name with it. But if you are never going to follow any prophet in whose name Governments have been guilty of killing those who resist them, you will have to repudiate your country, your religion, and your humanity.

      When nobody has a clean conscience, cleanliness must be relative? [Fatal reasoning by itself; must include holding gov to higher standard]

    20. The people are the judges of the laws and of plays; but they can never be the makers of them.

      Everybody wants all this accountability & responsibility, but nobody has the time / expertise; if division of labor specialization works in economic matters (broadly), does it also not work in matters of social organization & political economy?

    21. “It is not for the like of me to say. It is the business of people who have the power and the knowledge to understand these things, and take it on themselves to right them.”

      Deference to the "expert"; however none exist in those times; ie the industrial phenomenon was so new that who could have extensive knowledge of what "worked best"?

    22. Ruskin never gave one moment's quarter to all that. He set no store by it whatever, any more than his famous contemporary, Charles Dickens, in his own particular department the most gifted English writer since Shakespeare, and resembling Ruskin in being dominated by a social conscience.

      In context, watching the transformation of London, from slum to industrial society taking slum population as largest input for labor

    23. For Ruskin, who is accepted neither by Socialist nor by practical political economists, nevertheless strikes at the very root-disease of modern “civilization” when he condemns commercialism and the struggle for mere material possessions, showing that life is the only true wealth, and that the richest man is he whose existence is the most useful, many-sided and helpful.

      In that sense, he could be a capitalist, focused broadly on improving society through other means; being useful in non-material/consumerist terms that are nonetheless "valued" by consumers

    24. I put the question whether in the course of time there has developed any living political activity on behalf of which you might enlist Ruskin if he were living at the present time.

      What ideology would find this person useful?

    1. NFTs are compatible with anything built using Ethereum. An NFT ticket for an event can be traded on every Ethereum marketplace, for an entirely different NFT. You could trade a piece of art for a ticket!

      There - opens up GIGANTIC barter economy possibilities - will shut out old middle men & create new ones - swap airline tickets / hotel reservations for concert tickets or memorabilia

    2. As everything becomes more digital, there's a need to replicate the properties of physical items like scarcity, uniqueness, and proof of ownership. Not to mention that digital items often only work in the context of their product.


    3. Really they can be used to represent ownership of any unique asset, like a deed for an item in the digital or physical realm.

      What people don't get - it's not images, it's property rights. The image aspect will subside, but other use cases are coming (we'll see)

    1. As a result, cloud-rendering servers typically face utilization issues due to the need to plan for peak demand. A cloud-gaming service might require 75,000 dedicated servers for the Cleveland area at 8PM Sunday night, but only 4,000 at 4AM Monday. As a consumer, you can purchase a $400 GPU and let it sit offline as much as you want, but data-center economics are oriented toward optimizing for demand.

      Power generation metaphors; peak vs off-peak demand; can off-peak generation be stored / repurposed? What would a computing power battery look like?

    2. And even at ultra-low latency, it makes little sense to stream (versus locally process) AR data given the speed at which a camera moves and new input data is received (i.e. literally the speed of light and from only a few feet away). Given the intensive computational requirements of AR, it’s therefore likely our core personal/mobile devices will be able to do a ‘good enough’ job at most real-time rendering.

      Data streaming rates, computing power, video displays, etc, all the technologies will progress at different rates, and this differential will play a role in determining the best solution for advancing

    3. but being able to access them from more devices is better than only being able to access them from your best device). 

      Democratizing access > sharpening the experience for a few

    1. Reliability is fairly obvious. Our ability to shift to virtual labor and education is directly dependent on reliable quality of service. This spans both overall uptime, as well as the consistency of other attributes such as download/upload bandwidth, and latency. For many of those who ‘live online’ today, much of the above might seem alarmist. Netflix streams in 1080p or even 4K perfectly fine most of the time! However, services such as Netflix leverage reliability solutions that don’t work well for games or Metaverse-specific applications.

      Keep in mind all the improvements in reliability, bandwidth, latency, just since Netflix went to all-streaming, that have happened behind the scenes in the last 10 years.

    2. muscle memory

      Lolz, but true... just don't associate gamers with "muscle"... (sorry)

    3. Many players already struggle with bandwidth and network congestion for online games that require only positional and input data. The Metaverse will only intensify these needs. The good news is that broadband penetration and bandwidth is consistently improving worldwide. Compute, which will be discussed more in Section #3, is also improving and can help substitute for constrained data transmission by predicting what should occur until the point in which the ‘real’ data can be substituted in.

      Data/bandwidth/access inequality will be among the next big concerns/issues: areas offering high speed reliability will enable residents of those markets opportunity to transact & experience things off limits to "underserved" data markets (solvable via satellite internet?) in ways that pose a severe disadvantage to the latter

      Control over the distribution & availability of this technology will be extremely vital (and will hopefully be egalitarian, but... it means $$$ and vested interests will seek to establish gatekeeper roles).

      Per the chart below, it appears some markets will remain substantially ahead of others (who knows how the tech will ultimately be deployed), but the rollout of web 3metaverse technology will likely NOT be an egalitarian digital immersion accessible by all people, not even close.

  5. Apr 2019
    1. In September 2017, Pompeo sought authority for the CIA to make covert drone strikes without the Pentagon's involvement, including inside Afghanistan.

      Did he get it? Scary thought; program had very little accountability as it was.

    1. This wasn’t expected, but also shouldn’t be a huge shock. Despite the US hyping Russia as a threat for decades, Russia hasn’t spent deeply on its military in years, and drawing down from Syria, they don’t have much costly overseas engagement.

      To contextualize, you can still spend a hell of a lot on development, but if you don't have costly mobilizations it can make it look like you aren't spending as much as others; in fact, you are arguably making 'smarter' investments?

    1. A home provides stability and financial predictability

      Financial crisis? Only 10 years ago?

    2. one way that localities could qualify for grants under the Warren bill is by implementing rent stabilization or rent control.

      By making sure renters stay where they are and that landlords cannot get market rent for their properties, it will discourage the building of rental units and encourage the selling of existing rental units.

    3. first-time homebuyers

      Why only first time buyers? Why not renters? If they have been actively disadvantaged by predatory policies in the past, aren't they likely to need more assistance? Also, is this what she means by 'reparations'?

    4. this policy would stand in the way of homes being adapted to meet new needs

      In circumstances where it makes more sense to rent, and there is a potential renter, why prevent that transaction from taking place?

    5. sold to new owner-occupants, rather than to landlords who would rent them out

      Isn't it the owner's property? Why shouldn't they get to decide the highest value use of the property? The bank would sell or rent the foreclosed precisely TO profit from it, especially if the previous owner is no longer able to make payments on the bank; they are losing money on the property if nobody is paying...?

  6. Mar 2019
    1. therefore at least to some extent a failure

      this is strange; I suppose you can 'succeed' in carrying out the utterance, but it does not consecrate anything, which... is the entire point? So, strange to say that it fails only in part when in another sense it fails completely. It's like I succeeded in taking a shot but missed the basket?

    2. One thing we might go on to do, of course, is to take it all back

      How can you take back an action? (though you could retract a claim about an action, of course)

    3. So far then we have merely felt the firm ground of prejudice slide away beneath our feet.

      Not absolute; not bedrock (though we thought it was). And merely? This is "merely" the dissolution of what you thought reality was?

    4. That this is SO can perhaps hardly be proved, but it is, I should claim, a fact.

      Haha - claiming "truth" for something that he acknowledges might not be provable - 'take my word for it, it's a fact'. Use of the performative again in "claim," e.g. "I claim" cannot be responded to with "that's not true!"

    5. outward and audible sign

      Proverbial tip of the iceberg; the "seen" part.

    6. Here we should say that in saying-these words we are doing some- thing-namely, marrying, rat her than reporting some- thing, namely that we are marrying

      Important distinction between doing and reporting; the former obviously an action, and the latter a verifiable statement. But can the lines blur? Is "I do" ever reporting the fact that you are getting married, which is verifiable?

    7. Yet to be 'true' or 'false' is traditionally the characteristic mark of a statement.

      All statements are boolean: T/F

    8. all cases considered

      Not sure that all cases considered are worth considering...?

    9. the only merit I should like to claim for it is that of being true, at least in parts

      You would think the goal of an essay would be to find or argue a truth, but here he is marginalizing it; truth is not the goal.

      Arguing that truth and falsehood are not what matters; that the performative exists outside such claims (as we learn later).

      Using the performative in his opening through the use of "I claim"; and here he claims truth. He performs his own argument.

    10. we shall next consider what we actually do say about the utterance concerned when one or another of its normal concomitants is absent

      So the utterance is surrounded by other ceremonial trappings, and without which there is a presumption that the utterance is hollow, that the accompaniments make it "complete"; suggests that the ceremony becomes greater than the sum of its parts by being able to bring about this binding force which the parts cannot do individually; or can they - is just the utterance enough to describe and seal the inward act? The other question is, does the utterance imply (and describe) the other trappings?

    11. our word is our bond

      And yet these are just words; as believable or unbelievable as the uttering of an oath?

    12. Thus 'I promise to . . . 9 obliges me-puts on record my spiritual assumption of a spiritual shackle.

      The consecration of the oath; but when is the uttering just a garnishment? For some, the internal / spiritual bond is the key thing, binding regardless of whether the one to whom the words are uttered believes them or not; the words are just words, but the intent is everything. The intent can exist without the words, and so the words can exist without the intent. It is the words though that offer a public record of commitment, and against which one's character is judged and assessed in accordance with their ability to live up to them.

    13. fictitious

      Interesting choice of words; many swear that they are real and binding, but, yes, they are imaginary (in our culture); we require signed contracts, and verbal oaths are nice, but have a romantic tinge to them and we expect them maybe to not be kept as frequently.

    14. the outward utterance is a description, true or false, of the occurrence of the inward performance

      The process by which we arm feelings of guilt / responsibility / etc to trigger when we have second thoughts about the vow we've made

    15. Surely the words must be spoken 'seriously' and so as to be taken 'seriously' ?

      Requires a certain solemnity, yes, but how many vows or promises are made with no intention of ever keeping them? Or only that they were meant in the moment, but that future circumstances resulted in the changing of one's heart/mind?

    16. tircumstantes

      Drilling down to the even-more-particular; not just anyone can marry somebody, at any time, at any place, with a word (and have it mean anything); requires person w/ particular qualifications / authority / occasion / etc.

      Also requires a society/set of institutions that considers such acts normal and reasonable. In this way, the particulars affected by the occasion are part of a much large general sphere in which they are legitimized and sanctioned; and outside of that may exist a larger sphere which is baffled by them.

    17. very commonly necessary that either the speaker himself or other persons should also perform certain other actions

      While the naming or the uttering of "I do" symbolically 'seals' or makes the transaction official, the naming or the uttering is part of a longer ceremony. Not sure about betting though; it would be strange somehow if a complete stranger bet another with no prior interaction (i.e. no mechanism to build trust, etc), but it could happen

    18. dangerous


    19. convert the propositions above

      Make them more particular; less general

    20. but in some other way

      Aren't the words more ceremonial? i.e. in marriage, they bind symbolically, but what really matters is the legal stamp of the JOP? But that's not what everybody stands, applauds or weeps for; maybe on some level that's what we're doing with words here?

    21. current

      Good qualifier; reminds us that language is always shifting.

    22. it indicates that the issuing of the utterance is the performing of an action

      Is it true that the function of the utterance is to assign metadata in some way?

    23. perfornative sentence

      Performs an action affecting particulars in a way that cannot be measured or perceived outside of the moment in which the utterance takes place.

    24. I assert this as obvious and do not argue it

      Is this phrase also an exercitive, neither true nor false?

    25. Examples :

      Involve the:

      • creation of relationships
      • creation of dividing lines which, prior to the uttering of the sentence, did not 'exist'; i.e. prior to "I do" they were not married, but afterwards they are; prior to "I name this ship...", it had no name, but afterwards it does; they are historical mile markers of sorts.
      • involves particulars; not all women are my wife; this one is. Not all ships are named; but this one is.
      • must be said aloud or in print, and often needs to be backed by some legal authority to "legitimate" the action; of course, anybody can name something, but the 'officially recognized' name can only come from a certain privileged source / I can marry a random woman just by saying "I do" to her, but the 'marriage' is not recognized, etc'; privileges some constructs over others by a vested authority
      • also denote things that cannot be done for me; I must utter them in order for them to take effect (be true); they require agency (or the appearance of agency)
      • the statements themselves are neither true or false, they just are; ex-post we can decide that a subsequent statement identifying the brother as the legal heir to the watch is 'true' or 'false'; but the original declaration is neither(?)
      • involve the combination of words with some ceremony or ritual that somehow enshrines it (in the case of the bet maybe the ritual is the exchange of money, but not sure if that fits the bill). Almost like incantations of sorts.
    26. exercit ives

      "A speech act in which a decision is made regarding action; examples include orders and grants of permission."

    27. the uttering of the sentence is, or is a part of, the doing of an action, which again would not normally be described as saying something

      The action is performed with the uttering of the sentence.

    28. Yet they will succumb to their own timorous fiction, that a statement of 'the law' is a statemknt of fact.

      When in doubt, defer to authority.

    29. disguise'

      Is the disguise applied moreso by the reader's bias than the author's intent?

    30. parti pris

      pre-conceived view or bias

    31. Whatever we may think of any particular one of these views and suggestions, and however much we may deplore the initial confusion into which philosophical doctrine and method have been plunged, it cannot be doubted that they are producing a revolution in philosophy.

      Makes me think of a generation set in its ways butting up against a younger "less respectful" generation that is "doing it all wrong"; i.e. generational divide between viewpoints; some may think a revolution hardly necessary, that it is fine the way it is and that they are simply being disruptive.

    32. Constative'

      "denoting a speech act or sentence that is a statement declaring something to be the case"

    33. It has come to be seen that many specially perplexing words embedded in apparently descriptive statements do not serve to indi- cate some specially odd additional feature in the reality reported, but to indicate (not to report) the circumstances in which the statement is made or reservations to which it is subject or the way in which it is to be taken and the like.

      Qualifying / conditional factors?

    34. We very often also use utterances in ways beyond the scope at least of traditional grammar.

      And how does the reader know exactly, and to what extent, the boundaries of a definition are being pushed by the use of a word which they think they are familiar with?

    35. For how do we decide which is which? What are the limits and definitions of each ?

      There is an unaddressed problem which hinders clear communication; there is no standard criteria for the establishment of intent in communication. (Doubt that's what the ultimate argument is, but seems to be the set-up)

    36. It is, of course, not reaw correct that a sentence ever is a statement: rather, it is used in making a smmt, and the statement itself' is a 'logical construction' out of the dings of satements.

      A sentence remains a sentence; it is just a tool or vehicle for the delivery of something which depends entirely on its configuration.

    37. It was for too long the assumption of philosophers that the business of a 'statement' can only be to 'describe' some state of affairs, or to 'state some fact', which it must do either truly or falsely.

      The utility of the vehicle used to distinguish truth from falsehood itself rests on an assumption; purports that there is or maybe ought to be a 'purpose' to a statement.

    38. discussed

      Makes it feel inclusive; a conversation.

    1. Mr. Fiske’s Florida Congressional Committee is one of a string of political action committees with anodyne names — NorPac in New Jersey, To Protect Our Heritage PAC outside Chicago, the Maryland Association for Concerned Citizens outside Baltimore, among others — that operate independently of Aipac but whose missions and membership align with it.

      Fund-raising conducted by satellite / affiliates

    1. Two-fold arguments are also put forward concerning the just and the unjust

      Examples here are more oriented toward personal freedom / libertarian values; points out that the same action applied to the same person, can be either potentially just or unjust depending on the circumstances, and also that there will be local conflicts and differences in opinion (e.g. in preventing a friend from committing suicide, they may be angry and disagree that your actions are just, though others may support your decision and think it is indeed just).

      There is no universal sanctity of property rights or freedom from bodily restraint by others; violence is in some cases justified, and in others not.

    2. Since if anyone should ask those who say that the same thing is both disgraceful and seemly whether they have ever done anything seemly, they would admit that they have also done something disgraceful, if disgraceful and seemly are really the same thing.

      In removing the context, the actions become effectively neutral, in that they are simultaneously good and bad; the actions themselves exist without judgment, and the judgment is only the product of the culture in which they take place (or are regarded)

    3. But there is also an argument about the disgraceful and the seemly which says that each is distinct from the other. Since if anyone should ask those who say that the same thing is both disgraceful and seemly whether they have ever done anything seemly, they would admit that they have also done something disgraceful, if disgraceful and seemly are really the same thing.

      Depends perhaps upon in whose eyes we are judged; to consider the judgment of all would result in paralysis, and goes back again to "the right thing" being dependent upon its context and actors.

      One is maybe always simultaneously appeasing certain gods and transgressing against others.

    4. but the right occasion

      The right occasion = the opportune moment; context-specific.

    5. And if you investigate in this way, you will see another law for mortals: nothing is always seemly or always disgraceful, but the right occasion takes the same things and makes them disgraceful and then alters them and makes them seemly.

      No universal truths, however this wisdom is not universally regarded as true, and many would argue that universal truths or laws do exist.<br> Paradox of claiming that there are no universal laws is that in doing so, you are making a claim of a universal law.

    6. against the law

      As examples rise in degree of 'extremity', they brush up against norms and laws, an act that may be celebrated in one culture is punishable by death or ostracism in another, simply based on the geography or time in which it takes place. By keeping location and temporality intact, the author is able to refrain from making absolute claims about any of the actual behaviors and just cite them as things that are, irrespective of judgment. The degree to which the reader judges them may be dependent upon the reader's interpreting the behaviors not as context-specific acts, but as archetypes(?) or fixed representations of those acts which stand outside of time and place.

    7. the most beautiful grave imaginable

      Shifts to more 'extreme' examples, but points out that this perverse (to the greeks) act is BEAUTIFUL and an act of love to others; perhaps their reverence is inversely proportional to the Greeks' horror.<br> Also, in using such 'extreme' examples, the author shows that in fact nothing is truly extreme, because it is all a matter of context, and concepts of extremity introduce limits or constrain these things to a spectrum which is not necessarily accurate; it all depends on the context, and something cannot "depend" strongly or weakly based on the actual act, but only on the context.

    8. I go on to the things which cities and peoples regard as disgraceful

      Switches to point out arbitrary differences in culture; be born in one area and you believe x, be born in another and you believe y, but largely it is a matter of the random happenstance of one's birth. These beliefs are human creations, and vary depending on where the humans live.

    9. (although for men to do so in the palaistra aid gymnasium is seemly.)

      The "good" and the "bad" can be seemingly arbitrarily different between identity groups. Why is it seemly for person of type x and unseemly for person of type y?

    10. And I am not saying what the good is, but I am trying to explain that the bad and the good are not the same but that each is distinct from the other

      Not trying to identify a moral absolute, just point out that it is relative and therefore that there is no absolute.

    11. I think it would not be clear what was good and what was bad if they were just the same and one did not differ from the other; in fact such a situation would be extraordinary

      Is this sarcasm? Is he saying that such a duality would be extraordinary in that it would violate the philosophers' attempts to categorize and assign general rules? Not sure...

    12. But there is another argument which says that the good is one thing and the bad another, and that as the name differs, so does the thing named.

      This serves as a sort of refrain in the verse/chorus structure of the text. It is constructed like a song in some respects.

    13. And death is bad for those who die but good for the undertakers and gravediggers.

      Use of the progressive method of providing examples; in this case, linear from health to death. Further on in the text from mundane to extreme.<br> Examples here shift from the personal (the sick individual) to a class (professions); there is a hierarchy and blending here of sorts in that any member of any of the professions listed could find themselves as the individual afflicted by the example condition/problem, and as such we find that the same person could potentially hold these conflicting opinions at different stages in their life, and that neither is necessarily wrong nor contradictory.

    14. And, further, incontinence in these matters is bad for the incontinent but good for those who sell these things and make a profit. And again, illness is bad for the sick but good for the doctors. And death is bad for those who die but good for the undertakers and gravediggers.

      i.e. it depends on who you're asking; all are likely to express sympathy, but also their livelihoods depend on the decline of the other.

    15. or at one time good and at another time bad for the same person

      Not fixed

    16. Two-fold arguments concerning the good and the bad are put forward in Greece by those who philosophize. Some say that the good is one thing and the bad another, but others say that they are the same, and a thing might be good for some persons but bad for others, or at one time good and at another time bad for the same person.

      Good & bad, or things with which we agree and disagree. They are sometimes put forth as absolutes or dividing lines, but in reality, there may be disagreement about whether things are in fact, good or bad. Instead of arguing back and forth over who is right, the interesting discourse may be in where the differences lie.

    17. Suppose someone should question the man who says this as follows: Why don't you assign your household slaves their tasks by lot, so that if the teamster drew the office of cook, he would do the cooking and the cook would drive the team, and so with the rest ?

      How do these "fish out of water" statements compare back to previous examples? Seems to imply that, if you took an Athenian and placed them in Sparta, that they would consider the Spartan culture still foreign and would be at a disadvantage trying to operate within the context (which is likely)? They would see things through the lens of an Athenian, which, on the other hand, may provide certain perspective that the Spartans take for granted. Perhaps it is a reminder that opportunity is not democratically distributed, and that the moments and circumstances conducive to certain results cannot be manufactured by moving the pieces around, because they depend so much not only on the context in which they happen, but the experience and history of those who find themselves within the situation?