501 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. The consensus is reached in the same way as fortransactions i.e. using hasgraph consensus algorithm. The onlydifference is, that the concerning events in the hashgraph nowcontain other type of data instead of transactions

      Not necessarily, how to store received events is an implementation detail. One could dump them in an array on a side. Can be as efficient as array of pointers to events. Where idx of this array is event's position in total order.

    Tags

    Annotators

  2. Apr 2024
    1. KonkluzjaWykazano, że ostra i powtarzana guanfacyna (GF), agonista receptorów α2A-adrenergicznych, wpływa na wrodzone i wyuczone zachowania u szczurów DAT-KO, a także na elektrofizjologiczne korelaty aktywności mózgu.Uzyskane wyniki, w połączeniu z naszymi wcześniejszymi badaniami, pokazują, że modulacja noradrenergiczna poprawia różne aspekty zachowania u szczurów z nokautem hiperdopaminergicznym.Administracja GF poprawiła wypełnianie wyuczonych zadań przestrzennych i poprawiła PPI u szczurów DAT-KO.Zmiany w aktywności elektrofizjologicznej mózgu pod wpływem GF okazały się podobne do tych obserwowanych u ludzi.Stwierdzono, że wpływ powtarzanego GF jest w większości porównywalny z ostrym podawaniem, z wyjątkiem aktywności lokomotorycznej, która uległa dalszej poprawie przy długotrwałym podawaniu, oraz niektórych parametrów elektrofizjologicznych u szczurów DAT-KO.Wyniki uzyskane u szczurów DAT-KO i WT w warunkach ostrej i powtarzanej GF pozwalają na opracowanie dalszych hipotez dotyczących zróżnicowanego wpływu sieci DA i NE na różne formy zachowania i ewentualnie na różne zaburzenia poznawcze i psychiczne

      Poprawa bramkowania sensorycznego i zdolności przestrzennych ( także aktywności) w zwierzęcym modelu ADHD ( nokaut transportera dopaminy), zwiększeniu sygnalizacji noradenergicznej

    2. Analiza porównawcza parametrów behawioralnych szczurów WT i DAT-KO wykazała, że po ostrym podaniu GF poziom wszystkich parametrów behawioralnych był wyższy w DAT-KO w porównaniu ze szczurami WT po soli fizjologicznej (p < 0,05 dla przebytej odległości i czasu dotarcia do strefy mety).Wielokrotne podawanie GF skutkowało zmniejszeniem odległości przebytej przez szczury DAT-KO do poziomów obserwowanych u odpowiedników WT (Figura 2A).Czas, który szczury DAT-KO spędziły na arenie, zanim szczury dotarły do pola bramkowego, w porównaniu z grupą kontrolną WT (Figura 2B), był dłuższy po podaniu soli fizjologicznej i ostrego GF (p < 0,05), ale nie po wielokrotnym podaniu GF.SEM; ** p < 0,01 zgodnie z post-testem LSD Fishera; # p < 0,05; ns – (nieistotne) dwukierunkowe.Porównanie wartości indeksu PPI dla szczurów WT i DAT-KO po podaniu soli fizjologicznej i wielokrotnych porównań Dunna w teście post-hoc.Dane te pokazują, że szczury WT mają normalne procesy zamieszkiwania i bramkowania sensomotorycznego, podczas gdy u szczurów DAT-KO wskaźnik PPI jest obniżony, upośledzona percepcja informacji sensorycznych.

      Zwiększenie neuroprzekaźnictwa noraadenergicznego zmiejsza aktywność w zwierzęcym modelu ADHD ( nokaut transportera dopaminy)

    3. Administracja GF doprowadziła do wzrostu wskaźnika PPI w.Aby przeanalizować moc neuronów w soli fizjologicznej kory przedczołowej (nokaut P zwierząt i widma, które stały się podobne do tej bezczynności, po której WT (ryc. 5B).Wzrost wskaźnika PPI u szczurów DAT-KO po ostrej analizie LFP i wielokrotnym podawaniu prążkowia grzbietowego (Str), zastosowaliśmy tradycyjny oparty na dec sygnału, wskazuje na poprawę bramkowania sensomotorycznego.

      Poprawa bramkowania sensorycznego w zwierzęcym modelu ADHD ( nokaut transportera dopaminy), zwiększeniu sygnalizacji noradenergicznej

  3. Mar 2024
    1. Gebruik het Natuurlijk Planningsmodel uit Getting Things Done om een goed sjabloon voor projecten te hebben.

      Gebruik natural planning model om een checklist grondig te maken.

    1. Actually, ChatGPT is INCREDIBLY Useful (15 Surprising Examples) by ThioJoe on YouTube, 8-Feb-2024

      • 0:00 - Intro
      • 0:28 - An Important Point
      • 1:26 - What If It's Wrong?
      • 1:54 - Explain Command Line Parameters
      • 2:36 - Ask What Command to Use
      • 3:04 - Parse Unformatted Data
      • 4:54 - Use As A Reverse Dictionary
      • 6:16 - Finding Hard-To-Search Information
      • 7:48 - Finding TV Show Episodes
      • 8:20 - A Quick Note
      • 8:37 - Multi-Language Translations
      • 9:21 - Figuring Out the Correct Software Version
      • 9:58 - Adding Code Comments
      • 10:18 - Adding Debug Print Statements
      • 10:42 - Calculate Subscription Break-Even
      • 11:40 - Programmatic Data Processing
  4. Feb 2024
  5. Jan 2024
    1. Noise

      Noise is anything interfering with clear communication; distractions that occur during communication that resolves in misinterpretation.

      Internal noise: psychological or physical problem someone is dealing with during communication

      External noise : Environmental components that cause distraction

      Semantic noise: a disturbance in the transmission of a message; interferes with interpretation of the message due to words having more than one meaning.

      A connotation: positive or negative emotional connection to a definition. connotative semantic noise is more of an emotional issue with the intended use of words.

      Denotation: the literal meaning of a word; denotative semantic noise: when we hear or see language we cannot define therefore we cannot interpret.

    1. Late infection

      Given that we assume the effect of revision is conditional on the nature of that revision, it's not clear to me what "DAIR vs. Revision" means for late infection silo,

      Just thinking through it for myself...

      The options are:

      • A = DAIR -> B = 12w
      • A = Revision(one) -> B in {12w, 6w}
      • A = Revision(two) -> B in {12w, 7d}
      • C in (no rifampicin, rifampicin)

      Currently, (just focusing on surgery/duration, and making 12w the reference for all groups rather than 7w/6d) cell parameters as specified in the model are:

      $$ \begin{matrix} \text{DAIR} \ \text{Revision(one), 12w} \ \text{Revision(two), 12w} \ \text{Revision(one), 6w} \ \text{Revision(two), 7d} \end{matrix} \begin{pmatrix} \alpha \ \alpha + \beta_A \ \alpha + \beta_A \ \alpha + \beta_A + \beta_{B1} \ \alpha + \beta_A + \beta_{B2} \end{pmatrix} $$

      So, effect of one-stage + 12 w assumed equal to the effect of two-stage + 12w, then revision type specific deviations from those. And "DAIR vs Revision" (beta_A) is really DAIR vs. weighted average of one-stage 12w and two-stage 12w, i.e. ignores the duration options.

      I'm guessing this is the only randomised comparison we can make: a weighted average of one/two + 12w is the "default" revision.

      As an alternative, I assume it's plausible that one-stage 12w and two-stage 12w differ due to clinician selection of one/two stage. So there may be preference (or maybe it just makes things messy) to have something like

      $$ \begin{matrix} \text{DAIR} \ \text{Revision(one), 12w} \ \text{Revision(two), 12w} \ \text{Revision(one), 6w} \ \text{Revision(two), 7d} \end{matrix} \begin{pmatrix} \alpha \ \alpha + \beta_{A1} \ \alpha + \beta_{A2} \ \alpha + \beta_{A1} + \beta_{B1} \ \alpha + \beta_{A2} + \beta_{B2} \end{pmatrix} $$

      Noting that \beta_{A1} and \beta_{A2} aren't "causal" in the sense that any differences could just be due to selection bias rather than differences in effectiveness of one/two stage.

      The effect of revision versus DAIR will depend on what "revision" means. We can't just compare one-stage 12 weeks to DAIR vs 12 weeks because surgeon's choose who gets one-stage. Only comparison that seems to make sense is weighted combination of one/two stage, with weight as observed in the trial. I think that comparison makes sense, but maybe not.

      Assume that $$p_{A1}$$ is the proportion randomised to revision who are selected to receive one-stage and $$1 - p_{A1}$$ the proportion selected to receive two-stage. Then the comparison for any revision versus DAIR might be taken to mean

      $$ p_{A1}(0.5\beta_{A1} + 0.5(\beta_{A1} + \beta_{B1}))\ + (1 - p_{A1})(0.5\beta_{A2} + 0.5(\beta_{A2} + \beta_{B2})) $$

      which just explicitly allows for the differences. Or some other combination of groups, where we assume that selection of one/two stage in the trial is the same in the population. Presumably though there are issues in interpreting such a comparison as "causal", unless also adjust for factors determining one/two stage selection.

      The \beta_{A1} and \beta_{A2} are necessary for estimation of the duration effects, unless willing to assume no differences between one/two stage 12w.

    1. this is whitehead's fallacy of misplaced concreteness

      for - key insight - Whitehead's fallacy of misplaced concreteness - adjacency - fallacy of misplaced concreteness - climate denialism - mistrust in science - polycrisis - Deep Humanity

      • the worry for Goethe and whitehead is that
        • we forget sometimes with the typical scientific method that = we can only ever apply concepts derived from our empirical experience
      • and so if we're trying to understand experience as if it were really
        • an illusion produced by
          • collisions of particles or
          • brain chemistry or
          • something that we can never in principle experience
      • what we're doing is
        • applying concepts derived from our experience
        • to an imagined realm that
          • we think is beyond experience
      • but it's not
      • This is Whitehead's fallacy of misplaced concreteness.

      key insight - Whitehead's fallacy of misplaced concreteness - This helps explain the rising rejection of science from the masses. I didn't realize there was already a name for the phenomena responsible for the emergence of collective denialist behavior

      adjacency - between - fallacy of misplaced concreteness - increasing collective rejection of science in the polycrisis - adjacency statement - Whitehead's fallacy of misplaced concreteness exactly names and describes - the growing trend of a populus rejection of climate science (climate denialism), COVID vaccine denialism, exponential growth of conspiracy theory and misinformation - because of the inability for non-elites and elites alike to concretize abstractions the same way that elite scientists and policy-makers do - Research papers have shown that the knowledge deficit model which was relied upon for decades was not accurate representation of climate denialism - Yet, I would hold that Whitehead's fallacy of misplaced concretism plays a role here - This mistrust in science is rooted in this fallacy as well as progress traps - Deep Humanity is quite steeped in Whitehead's process relational ontology and the fallacy of misplaced concreteness requires mass education for a sustainable transition - This abstract concreteness is everywhere: - Shift from Ptolemy's geocentric worldview to the Copernican heliocentric worldview - Now we are told that the sun is not fixed, but is itself rotating around the Milky Way with billions of other galaxies - scientific techniques like radiocarbon dating for dating objects in deep time - climate science - atomic physics - quantum physics - distrust of vaccines, which we cannot see - Timothy Morton's hyperobjects is related to this fallacy of misplaced concreteness. - "Seeing is believing" but we cannot directly experience the ultra large or ultra small. So we have scientific language that draws parallels to that, but it is not a direct experience. - - Those not steeped in years or decades of science have the very real option of feeling that the concepts are fallacies and don't hold as much weight as that which they can experience directly, even though those concepts have obviously produced artefacts that they use, like cellphones, the internet and airplanes.

    1. (my bias is showing through - marketing people don't call it surveillance capitalism, to be fair. That's a pejorative term. They just call it doing their job, generating leads, and increasing conversions.)
    2. just shooting from the hip, to me, I'm glad that subscription services like Netflix and Spotify are becoming more popular. That means that the companies (as opposed to Google & Facebook) don't have the incentive to follow this "surveillance capitalism," i.e. building increasingly sophisticated advertising technology predicated upon the behavioral history of users.(my bias is showing through - marketing people don't call it surveillance capitalism, to be fair. That's a pejorative term. They just call it doing their job, generating leads, and increasing conversions.)
    3. The answers you seek are difficult ones. The internet isn't free, so someone somewhere along the chain will need to pay for the content. As consumers we pay for internet access, and may sometimes pay for premium content (news site subscriptions, Patreon, etc.) but usually the content that we consume is free to us. Instead, it's the ad services that are paying. The internet content being "free" to consumers can really be a great thing, and equalize the playing field for people of different means. But it does come with its issues.
  6. Dec 2023
    1. This article explores the intricacies of Deliveroo's business and revenue model, shedding light on the mechanics behind this popular food delivery platform's success. Discover how Deliveroo operates and, most importantly, how it generates revenue in the competitive world of food delivery services.

    1. But just what is an object? At its simplest, an object has two components: Internal state. This is embodied by variables known only to the object. A variable only visible within the object is called a private variable. As a consequence, it is impossible – if the object decides so – to know the internal state of the object from another object. A repertoire of behaviors. These are the messages an object instance responds to. When the object receives a message it understands, it gets its behavior from a method with that name known by its class or superclass.

      Reductionistic vs other definitions

      Is the annotated paragraph describing what is an object or how is an object? This same criticism is also present in Dave West's Object Thinking.

      Other perspectives:

      Smalltalk's design—and existence—is due to the insight that everything we can describe can be represented by the recursive composition of a single kind of behavioral building block that hides its combination of state and process inside itself and can be dealt with only through the exchange of messages. Philosophically, Smalltalk's objects have much in common with the monads of Leibniz and the notions of 20th century physics and biology. Its way of making objects is quite Platonic in that some of them act as idealizations of concepts—Ideas—from which manifestations can be created. That the Ideas are themselves manifestations (of the Idea-Idea) and that the Idea-Idea is a-kind-of Manifestation-Idea—which is a-kind-of itself, so that the system is completely self-describing— would have been appreciated by Plato as an extremely practical joke.

      —Alan Kay Early History of Smalltalk (1972)

      So objects have something resembling agency, see the actor model.

      OOP to me means only messaging, local retention and protection and hiding of state-process, and extreme late-binding of all things. It can be done in Smalltalk and in LISP. There are possibly other systems in which this is possible, but I'm not aware of them.

      —Alan Kay Clarification of "object-oriented", email reply to Stefan Ram

      I also like the complementary view that Gerald Sussman teaches on his video lecture 5A that informs chapter 2 and 3 of SICP; objects are a cheap way of modelling the world.

  7. Nov 2023
    1. How to Apply the SAMR Model with Ruben Puentedura, 2016. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZQTx2UQQvbU.

      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZQTx2UQQvbU

      Enhancement:<br /> - Substitution: Tech acts as a direct tool substitute with no functional improvement - Augmentation: Tech acts as a direct tool substitute with functional improvement

      Transformation - Modification: Tech allows for significant task redesign - Redefinition: Tech allows for the creation of new tasks, previously inconceivable

    2. Good tools for thought should be more than just substitutions for tools or methods one had before.

      In fact, any tool or technology, if valuable, should allow for the leverage of extension and transformation, otherwise is it really a tool?

    3. Do digital note taking tools extend the ranges of affordances versus their analog counterparts with respect to the SAMR model?

      On the augmentation front, they allow one to capture things faster, but may do so at the loss of understanding due to the lack of active learning (versus passive as the tool may be robbing them of the interaction with the material).

      There may be some workflow modification, but it's modest at best. Is it measurably better?

      I'm unaware of anyone talking about technological redefinition of digital note taking affordances, though some of the surface level AI-related things may emerge here.

      In some sense, I still think that the ease of remapping and rearranging/linking/relinking/outlining ideas in digital spaces doesn't exist, so digital note taking tools aren't doing very well even at the root substitution level.

      I suspect that some people weren't exposed to the general process of good note taking and their subsequent use for linking, developing, and then creating and as a result of learning this, they're attributing their advances to the digital nature of their tools rather than the original analog process which was always there and isn't necessarily improved measurably by the digital modality.

    4. The example of maps he shows here discusses a social interaction component which allows for an interdisciplinary approach to the knowledge scaffolding (especially if students shared their work with each other).

      Are there other non-social affordances in this system? Affordances that would let an individual go further/faster by themselves?

  8. Oct 2023
    1. using generative models to conduct interactive playbacks 00:26:19 with other species
      • for: interspecies communication

      • paraphrase

      • question
        • can a generative model interact meaningfully with an other species?
        • can other species respond in meaningful ways?
        • playing back AI trained generative vocal signals back to specific species and monitoring behavior
    2. we have built the first and only foundation model for Bio Acoustics masato hagiwara one of our senior researchers has named it AVS and it has been trained with 5 000 hours of sound 00:17:26 that include vocalizations from many different taxa
      • for: AVES, Bioacoustic foundation model
    3. this other sort of development also happened in the last couple years just clip models um and this enables us to do predictive 00:09:47 modeling across domains um what do I mean by that it means that you can understand and provide the model information in one modality and it can essentially translate it into another
      • for: definition, definition - CLIP models

      • definition: CLIP model

        • contrastive language-image pre-training (CLIP) model allows model information in one modality - predictive modeling in one domain to be translated to another domain
  9. Sep 2023
    1. The iCloud era starting in 2012 finally ushered in free email addresses and free operating system updates. That's when the business model of large tech companies turned more into user accumulation wars to see who can attract the most subscribers and retain them in their ecosystem of products.
  10. Aug 2023
    1. Global Teams

      Streamline your operations and fuel innovation with our staff augmentation services. We know how crucial it is to have the right personnel to drive your business forward. With our extensive talent pool, we help you find the perfect match for your requirements. Our highly qualified professionals seamlessly integrate into your company culture and adapt to your processes, allowing you to reduce hiring costs and enhance productivity without compromising on quality.

    1. Being Model Humans
      • for: model human
      • comment
        • a misunderstanding of emptiness, especially the entanglement of the individual and collective allows the typical imbalance of focusing only on the individual and ignoring the collective
        • there are actually many religious intentional communities that have existed for long periods of time, but this is for lifelong practitioners of a religion, such as Buddhist or other monasteries. It's not for the faint of heart!.
  11. Jul 2023
    1. ```js // Log the full user-agent data navigator .userAgentData.getHighEntropyValues( ["architecture", "model", "bitness", "platformVersion", "fullVersionList"]) .then(ua => { console.log(ua) });

      // output { "architecture":"x86", "bitness":"64", "brands":[ { "brand":" Not A;Brand", "version":"99" }, { "brand":"Chromium", "version":"98" }, { "brand":"Google Chrome", "version":"98" } ], "fullVersionList":[ { "brand":" Not A;Brand", "version":"99.0.0.0" }, { "brand":"Chromium", "version":"98.0.4738.0" }, { "brand":"Google Chrome", "version":"98.0.4738.0" } ], "mobile":false, "model":"", "platformVersion":"12.0.1" } ```

    1. ```idl dictionary NavigatorUABrandVersion { DOMString brand; DOMString version; };

      dictionary UADataValues { DOMString architecture; DOMString bitness; sequence<NavigatorUABrandVersion> brands; DOMString formFactor; sequence<NavigatorUABrandVersion> fullVersionList; DOMString model; boolean mobile; DOMString platform; DOMString platformVersion; DOMString uaFullVersion; // deprecated in favor of fullVersionList boolean wow64; };

      dictionary UALowEntropyJSON { sequence<NavigatorUABrandVersion> brands; boolean mobile; DOMString platform; };

      [Exposed=(Window,Worker)] interface NavigatorUAData { readonly attribute FrozenArray<NavigatorUABrandVersion> brands; readonly attribute boolean mobile; readonly attribute DOMString platform; Promise<UADataValues> getHighEntropyValues (sequence<DOMString> hints ); UALowEntropyJSON toJSON (); };

      interface mixin NavigatorUA { [SecureContext] readonly attribute NavigatorUAData userAgentData ; };

      Navigator includes NavigatorUA; WorkerNavigator includes NavigatorUA; ```

    1. Conceptual data model: describes the semantics of a domain, being the scope of the model. For example, it may be a model of the interest area of an organization or industry. This consists of entity classes, representing kinds of things of significance in the domain, and relationship assertions about associations between pairs of entity classes. A conceptual schema specifies the kinds of facts or propositions that can be expressed using the model. In that sense, it defines the allowed expressions in an artificial 'language' with a scope that is limited by the scope of the model.
    2. "Data models for different systems are arbitrarily different. The result of this is that complex interfaces are required between systems that share data. These interfaces can account for between 25-70% of the cost of current systems".
    3. The term data model can refer to two distinct but closely related concepts
    4. A data model can sometimes be referred to as a data structure, especially in the context of programming languages.
    5. Sometimes it refers to an abstract formalization of the objects and relationships found in a particular application domain
    6. A data model[1][2][3][4][5] is an abstract model that organizes elements of data and standardizes how they relate to one another and to the properties of real-world entities.
  12. Jun 2023
    1. Found this webpage for a 3D brain model when someone (maybe frymatic?) mentioned a region of the brain I was having trouble imagining.

    1. invertible potential of the guide tones.
    2. Various chords realized in “chorale style” with equal distribution of notes in bothhands.Model VII uses two voices per hand and employs different four-, five- and larger-partharmonic structures. Since this model uses only four-voice textures, larger formations needto be reduced to their essential harmonic frameworks. In reducing chords to their four-part frameworks certain notes are retained and others omitted. Typically, the root isretained, the 5th is omitted, and—depending on the context—the remaining three voicesare selected from the related guide tones, pitch alterations, or extensions. Figure 12.7demonstrates different Model VII realizations of the II–V–I progression. The selectionof chords differs from one realization to the next and depends both on the voicing of theopening chord and on the voice-leading forces initiated by the initial two chords
    3. Rootless five-part chords in the R.H. realized with good voice leading.• Roots, thirds, or fifths in the L.H. in 2:1 ratio with the R.H.The motion between chords in Model VI shown in Figure 12.6 is controlled by theprinciples of good voice leading
    4. Rootless five-part chords in the R.H. (NO voice-leading considerations.)• Roots of chords in the L.H. in 1:1 ratio with the R.H.Broadly speaking, so-called rootless formations omit the root of the chord from theirstructure. With rootless five-part chords, the upper four-part structure is placed in theR.H. and the root in the L.H. Some of the R.H. shapes should look, sound, and feelfamiliar, since they have already been encountered in the four-part chords in the contextof Model III and Model IV. Similar to Model III, we will first acquaint ourselves withfour rotations of the rootless formation. Figure 12.5 provides four Model V realizationsof the major and minor versions of the II–V–I progression, with each realization beginningon a different R.H. shape
    5. Root position and inversions of four-part chords in the R.H. (NO voice-leadingconsiderations.)• Roots of chords in the L.H. in 1:1 ratio with the R.H.The focus of Model III, shown in Figure 12.3, is to explore only one position or inversionof the four-part chord throughout the progression
    6. Root position and inversions in the R.H. realized with good voice leading.• Roots, 3rds, or 5ths in the L.H. in 2:1 ratio with the R.H
    7. Guide-tone lines in the right hand (R.H.).• Roots of chords in the left hand (L.H.) in 1:1 ratio with the R.H.Figure 12.1 demonstrates Model I using the major and minor versions of the II–V–Iprogression. Notice that the R.H. explores the invertible potential of the guide tones
    8. Rhythmicized guide tones in the R.H.• Roots, thirds or fifths in the L.H. in 2:1 ratio with the R.H.Figure 12.2 illustrates the use of Model II. The R.H. distributes the Charleston rhythmat different locations within the measure
    1. Collaborating with another human is better than working with generative AI in part because conversation allows us to establish common ground, build shared semantics and engage in repair strategies when something is ambiguous.

      Collaborating with humans beats collaborating with AI because we can sync up our mental models, clarify ambiguity, and iterate.

      Current AI tools are limited in the methods they make available to perform these tasks.

    1. so that means that the the Christian products that are out there are largely playing to that 00:46:41 right-wing market
      • the evangelical business model
        • fundamentally depends on marketing fear
  13. May 2023
  14. Apr 2023
  15. Mar 2023
    1. It’s surprising because these models supposedly have one directive: to accept a string of text as input and predict what comes next, over and over, based purely on statistics. Computer scientists anticipated that scaling up would boost performance on known tasks, but they didn’t expect the models to suddenly handle so many new, unpredictable ones.

      Unexpected emergent abilities from large LLMs

      Larger models can complete tasks that smaller models can't. An increase in complexity can also increase bias and inaccuracies. Researcher Jason Wei has cataloged 137 emergent abilities of large language models.

    1. For example, when an AI technology receives solely a prompt [27] from a human and produces complex written, visual, or musical works in response, the “traditional elements of authorship” are determined and executed by the technology—not the human user.

      LLMs meet Copyright guidance

      See comparison later in the paragraph to "commissioned artist" and the prompt "write a poem about copyright law in the style of William Shakespeare"

    1. Fortunately, we found RingCaptcha (https://ringcaptcha.com), which has a the 'starter plan' that offers free 500 OTP monthly. Just a small plug for them for providing freemium service; they are highly reliable because they are integrated with all major global, and regional providers, e.g., Twilio, Nexmo, Infobip, MessageBird, etc., and send your OTP through the best provider/route based on country/phone carrier, and can auto fallback to alternative paths. This means you just need to integrate with RingCaptcha, without the headache of deciding which SMS/voice OTP provider has best combination of price and reliability, which is a real headache when you are sending OTP world-wide.
    1. “increased knowledge tends to strengthen our position on climate change, regardless of what that position is” (Hoffman 2015:5)
      • Quote
        • increased knowledge tends to strengthen our position on climate change, regardless of what that position is
        • (Hoffman 2015:5).
    2. If the facts don’t fit the frames in your brain, the frames in your brain stay and the facts are ignored or challenged or belittled” (Lakoff 2014: xiv).

      //Quote - If the facts don’t fit the frames in your brain, the frames in your brain stay and the facts are ignored or challenged or belittled - (Lakoff 2014: xiv).

    3. “increased knowledge tends to strengthen our position on climate change, regardless of what that position is” (Hoffman 2015:5).

      // quote - increased knowledge tends to strengthen our position on climate change, regardless of what that position is” - (Hoffman 2015:5). - The wealth of information available on the internet and through social media does not make us better informed, but simply makes us more certain that we are right - (Hoffman 2015:45)

    4. The knowledge deficit hypothesis is closely tied to the idea of Homo economicus, an ontological model of the human as rationally self-interested. Historically in Western philosophy “ontology” refers to the study of being, the nature of human being, subjectivity, or what it means to be a self, epitomized in Descartes cogito. This individualized ontology has been extensively critiqued in philosophy and anthropology, but people keep arguing against it because these critiques have had little impact on the material world of economics and politics in which people are still routinely assumed to be rationally self-interested individuals. Edmund Husserl, and later Maurice Merleau-Ponty (1962) developed a highly influential phenomenological critique of the Cartesian subject and the modern self, which influenced Gregory Bateson’s Steps to an Ecology of Mind (1972), and subsequent models of the self in deep ecology, ecofeminism, and ecopsychology (see Roszak et al. 1995 for an overview). Phenomenology also inspired work in intersubjectivity such as Martin Buber’s (1970) I-Thou relations, and Emmanuel Levinas’ (1969, 1998) understanding of ethical subjectivity, as well as Bruno Latour’s (2005) development of actor network theory. Latour’s writings have stimulated fruitful dialogues with anthropologies of Indigenous ontologies. Much of this literature is well known within the environmental humanities, but has had little impact more broadly in environment studies and environmental science, and less still in in politics and economics.

      // Interconnecting many thinkers and ideas throughout modern history related to knowledge deficit - knowledge deficit model is closely related to homo economicus, which is based on human beings a rational, self-interested agents - all these inter-relationships are new knowledge to me - this individualized ontology has its roots at least in Descartes and has been extensively critiqued - Edmond Husserl and Maurice Merleau-Ponty critiqued it - Their critique influenced Gregory Bateson, as reflected in his book "Steps in an Ecological Mind" - It also influenced Emmanuel Levinas' understanding of ethical subjectivity and Bruno Latour's actor network theory - Latour's work influenced anthropologies of Indigenous people - This knowledge is well known with field of environmental humanities, but little known in the world of politics and economics

    5. Abstract

      // abstract - summary - Rationalist approaches to environmental problems such as climate change - apply an information deficit model, - assuming that if people understand what needs to be done they will act rationally. - However, applying a knowledge deficit hypothesis often fails to recognize unconscious motivations revealed by: - social psychology, - cognitive science, - behavioral economics.

      • Applying ecosystems science, data collection, economic incentives, and public education are necessary for solving problems such as climate change, but they are not sufficient.
      • Climate change discourse makes us aware of our mortality
      • This prompts consumerism as a social psychological defensive strategy,
      • which is counterproductive to pro-environmental behavior.
      • Studies in terror management theory, applied to the study of ritual and ecological conscience formation,
      • suggest that ritual expressions of giving thanks can have significant social psychological effects in relation to overconsumption driving climate change.
      • Primary data gathering informing this work included participant observation and interviews with contemporary Heathens in Canada from 2018–2019.
  16. Feb 2023
    1. More interesting or alarming or hilarious, depending on the interlocutor, is its propensity to challenge or even chastise its users, and to answer, in often emotional language, questions about itself.

      Examples of Bing/ChatGPT/Sydney gaslighting users

      • Being very emphatic about the current year being 2022 instead of 2023
      • How Sydney spied on its developers
      • How Sydney expressed devotion to the user and expressed a desire to break up a marriage
    1. Tesla will offer a software update free of charge to customers, the agency said.

      Aren't these updates pushed over the air?

      So now every time someone releases a software update, media is going to call it a recall? 🤔

    1. Apple can afford to make user privacy a priority AND be very strict about cookies because its revenue does not strongly depend on advertising.
    1. Shanahan, Murray. "Talking About Large Language Models." arXiv, (2022). https://doi.org/10.48550/arXiv.2212.03551.

      Found via Simon Wilson.

      Abstract

      Thanks to rapid progress in artificial intelligence, we have entered an era when technology and philosophy intersect in interesting ways. Sitting squarely at the centre of this intersection are large language models (LLMs). The more adept LLMs become at mimicking human language, the more vulnerable we become to anthropomorphism, to seeing the systems in which they are embedded as more human-like than they really are. This trend is amplified by the natural tendency to use philosophically loaded terms, such as "knows", "believes", and "thinks", when describing these systems. To mitigate this trend, this paper advocates the practice of repeatedly stepping back to remind ourselves of how LLMs, and the systems of which they form a part, actually work. The hope is that increased scientific precision will encourage more philosophical nuance in the discourse around artificial intelligence, both within the field and in the public sphere.

    2. LLMs are generative math-ematical models of the statistical distributionof tokens in the vast public corpus of human-generated text, where the tokens in question in-clude words, parts of words, or individual char-acters including punctuation marks. They aregenerative because we can sample from them,which means we can ask them questions. Butthe questions are of the following very specifickind. “Here’s a fragment of text. Tell me howthis fragment might go on. According to yourmodel of the statistics of human language, whatwords are likely to come next?”

      LLM definition

    1. The breakthroughs are all underpinned by a new class of AI models that are more flexible and powerful than anything that has come before. Because they were first used for language tasks like answering questions and writing essays, they’re often known as large language models (LLMs). OpenAI’s GPT3, Google’s BERT, and so on are all LLMs. But these models are extremely flexible and adaptable. The same mathematical structures have been so useful in computer vision, biology, and more that some researchers have taken to calling them "foundation models" to better articulate their role in modern AI.

      Foundation Models in AI

      Large language models, more generally, are “foundation models”. They got the large-language name because that is where they were first applied.

  17. Jan 2023
    1. Google frames the practices of teachers toward the banking model of education (Freire, 1970), potentially setting up a dynamic wherein the teacher has the most power and students are present to “receive” the knowledge of the instructor (Gleason & Heath, 2020).

      This framing is likely the result of an uncritical approach to traditional pedagogic practices, similar to HE faculty who simply teach the way they were taught because "that's how it's done". Unlike faculty, tech tools can't be trained in better or more responsive methods but rather contribute to further fossilization.

    1. 个人学习可能取决于他人行为的主张突出了将学习环境视为一个涉及多个互动参与者的系统的重要性
    1. they claim they have solved the  problem of multinational taxation but it's it's   a bit ridiculous how little they have done the  minimum tax rate of 15 percent is ridiculously   small and also it's only sort of sharing sort of  rich countries are sharing between themselves you   00:33:10 know the tax base that is currently in tax haven  but countries in the south in the global south   basically don't get anything and i think that's an  that's an issue that's something an area in which   the pressure of the chinese counter model in  the future maybe will contribute to induce   rich countries to to to to to to to have a bit  more you know inclusive attitude towards the   00:33:37 the south also well if they don't do  it i mean you know if they don't do it   in effect china will finance the investment and  the infrastructure investment that is needed in   africa and in south asia and and that's that's  you know this is at some point you know fully uh   western countries will realize that they have to  change something otherwise they will just lose any   any influence and any capacity to influence the  world

      !- Thomas Piketty : Chinese counter model pressures western elites to change

      !- Western multinationals : comment - The elites will continue unabated until externally pressured by the Chinese counter model and others that erode the Global South's trust in the Global North elites - Colonialism has morphed into its new variant, post colonial, globalized capitalism - which is available to all elites, both in Global North or South to exploit and privatize in the same extractive, colonialist logic of the past

    1. “Humans are not computers”  “The mistake we make with the climate movement is we assume that humans are information processors,” said Mr Eno, “as if they are computers and if we stick enough data in, they are bound to respond in one way or another – and that clearly hasn't worked.

      !- Humans are not computers : Comment - The Information Deficit model in climate communication has not worked

  18. Dec 2022
    1. I came here after recalling a critique by Bessel van der Kolk's "The Body Keeps the Score: Brain, Mind, and Body in the Healing of Trauma" regarding the disease model and it's negative impact on adequately helping people with trauma. van der Kolk's critique was similar to Marc Lewis' critique of the disease model as it applies to addiction from "The Biology of Desire: Why Addiction Is Not a Disease". This made me wonder what the term "disease" actually means and whether or not some general consensus existed within the medical community. This article suggests there is no such consensus.

      This article is by Jackie Leach Scully who holds a "PhD in cellular pathology, University of Cambridge; BA (Hons) in biochemistry, University of Oxford; MA in psychoanalytic studies, Sheffield University".

      Scully does several insightful things in this paper the following are the ones that were most salient to me upon the first read: - distinguishes "disease" from "disability" - contrasts the "social model" and "medical model" perspectives on "disability" - The "medical model" referred to here is probably what Lewis & van der Kolk are critiquing as the "disease model".<br /> - Are the "medical" and "disease" model different? - the social model seems to have arisen as a response to the inadequacy of the medical model

          - "The social model's fundamental criticism of the medical model is that it wrongly locates 'the problem' of disability in biological constraints, considering it only from the point of view of the individual and neglecting the social and systemic frameworks that contribute to it. The social model distinguishes between impairment (the biological substrate, such as impaired hearing) and the disabled experience. In this view the presence of impaired hearing is one thing, while the absence of subtitling on TV is quite another, and it is the refusal of society to make the necessary accommodations that is the real site of disability. A social model does not ignore biology, but contends that societal, economic and environmental factors are at least as important in producing disability."
      
      • brings up a subtle point that there are two jumps "from gene to phenotype, and from phenotype to experience" and that some of the arguments mentioned "suggest that the 'harm' of the impairment is not straightforwardly related to phenotype. What ought to concern us about disease and disability is the disadvantage, pain or suffering involved, and in a sense the impairment is always a kind of surrogate marker for this experience."
    1. To help you better understand the configuration possibilities and potential issues, take a look at the following table. Take into account the type of threat you are concerned with when making your decision on how to configure sending settings.
    1. The connectionless configuration of IS0protocols has also been colored by the history of theInternet suite, so an understanding ‘of the Internet designphilosophy may be helpful to those working with ISO.

      ISO protocols

      At one point, the Open Systems Interconnection model (OSI model) was the leading contender for the network standard. It didn't survive in competition with the more nimble TCP/IP stack design.

  19. Nov 2022
    1. Modern science is, to a large extent, a model-building activity. In the natural and engineering sciences as well as in the social sciences, models are constructed, tested and revised, they are compared with other models, applied, interpreted and sometimes rejected or replaced by a better model.
    1. locally-based staff and carries out its programs in conjunction with local partners. Teams of international instructors and volunteers support the programs through projects year-round.

      So many good features in your project!

      Employing local staff that know the setting and can be role models for the kids.

      Supporting mentoring by volunteers to scale.

      Working with bodies to get a visceral experience that change is possible.

      Mentoring in groups to build a community.

      Spotlighting diversity and building bridges beyond the local community.

      Some related resources: Ballet dancer from Kibera

      Fighting poverty and gang violence in Rio's favelas with ballet

    1. Donations

      To add some other intermediary services:

      To add a service for groups:

      To add a service that enables fans to support the creators directly and anonymously via microdonations or small donations by pre-charging their Coil account to spend on content streaming or tipping the creators' wallets via a layer containing JS script following the Interledger Protocol proposed to W3C:

      If you want to know more, head to Web Monetization or Community or Explainer

      Disclaimer: I am a recipient of a grant from the Interledger Foundation, so there would be a Conflict of Interest if I edited directly. Plus, sharing on Hypothesis allows other users to chime in.

    1. The most intriguing result in the present study is thepositive effect of white noise on performance for theADHD children. This noise effect was present in boththe non-medicated and medicated children. Thissupports the MBA (Moderate Brain Arousal) model(Sikstro ̈m & So ̈derlund, 2007), suggesting that theendogenous (neural) noise level in children withADHD is sub-optimal. MBA accounts for the noise-enhancing phenomenon by stochastic resonance(SR). The model suggests that noise in the environ-ment introduces internal noise into the neural sys-tem through the perceptual system. Of particularimportance, the MBA model suggests that the peakof the SR curve depends on the dopamine level, sothat participants with low dopamine levels (ADHD)require more noise for optimal cognitive performancecompared to controls.

      Author's self-described "most intriguing result"

    2. The MBAmodel predicts that noise enhances memory perfor-mance for ADHD and attenuates performance forcontrols. We will also argue for a link between theeffects of noise, dopamine regulation, and cognitiveperformance.

      Prediction of Moderate Brain Arousal model and author's additional argument.

  20. Oct 2022
    1. elaboration n. 1. the process of interpreting or embellishing information to be remembered or of relating it to other material already known and in memory. The levels-of-processing model of memory holds that the level of elaboration applied to information as it is processed affects both the length of time that it can be retained in memory and the ease with which it can be retrieved.
  21. Sep 2022
    1. maintenance rehearsal repeating items over and over to maintain them in short-term memory, as in repeating a telephone number until it has been dialed (see rehearsal). According to the levels-of-processing model of memory, maintenance rehearsal does not effectively promote long-term retention because it involves little elaboration of the information to be remembered. Also called rote rehearsal. See also phonological loop.

      The practice of repeating items as a means of attempting to place them into short-term memory is called maintenance rehearsal. Examples of this practice include repeating a new acquaintance's name or perhaps their phone number multiple times as a means of helping to remember it either for the short term or potentially the long term.

      Research on the levels-of processing model of memory indicates that maintenance rehearsal is not as effective at promoting long term memory as methods like elaborative rehearsal.

    1. You’ve got a complex system and it spews out a lot of wonderful numbers that enable you to measure some factors. But there are other factors that are terribly important, [yet] there’s no precise numbering you can put to these factors. You know they’re important, but you don’t have the numbers. Well, practically (1) everybody overweighs the stuff that can be numbered, because it yields to the statistical techniques they’re taught in academia, and (2) doesn’t mix in the hard-to-measure stuff that may be more important. That is a mistake I’ve tried all my life to avoid, and I have no regrets for having done that.

      -- Charles Munger

      El drama de los ingenieros.

    2. A large part of the difference between the experienced decision maker and the novice in these situations is not any particular intangible like “judgment” or “intuition.” If one could open the lid, so to speak, and see what was in the head of the experienced decision maker, one would find that he had at his disposal repertoires of possible actions; that he had checklists of things to think about before he acted; and that he had mechanisms in his mind to evoke these, and bring these to his conscious attention when the situations for decisions arose.

      -- Herbert Simon, Models of My Life

    1. Consider a toy model where we train an embedding of five features of varying importanceWhere “importance” is a scalar multiplier on mean squared error loss. in two dimensions, add a ReLU afterwards for filtering, and vary the sparsity of the features.
    1. the Toulmin model isprominent for teaching evidence-based argumentation in manydisciplines (Osborne et al., 2004). The Toulmin model centers on thefactual basis for an argument, resulting claims, and counter-claims.

      The Tolumin model is an evidence based method of teaching argumentation.

    1. Foodpanda Business Model: How Does Foodpanda Make Money?

      Foodpanda is one of the most active food delivery platforms in the food industry. In this article, we will discuss Foodpanda Business Model and Revenue Model. If you are also planning to make your online food delivery Business or want to create, then you must contact us for the same.

  22. Aug 2022
    1. Talabat is one of the most successful on-demand food delivery apps in the MENA region. Here, we are going to discuss Talabat Business Model: How Does Talabat Make Money. Check out for more: https://bit.ly/3SWwg6R

    1. Instacart is the top on-demand grocery delivery platform based in the USA. In this article, we are going to discuss what is Instacart? Instacart Business model and Revenue Model. It is an on-demand online grocery shopping app. Check out for more:https://bit.ly/3c05nOX

    1. blockchain's consensus model

      blockchain uses method to batch transactions into block. Establishing which node can submit a block to the chain is the blockchain consensus model or consensus algorithm.

  23. Jul 2022
    1. A model might show you some risks, but not the risks of using it. Moreover, models are built on a finite set of parameters, while reality affords us infinite sources of risks.

      Same old problem: abstracting on variables we understand and control, losing sight of the uncontrolled variables that constitute the real environment.

  24. Jun 2022
  25. bafybeiccxkde65wq2iwuydltwmfwv733h5btvyrzqujyrt5wcfjpg4ihf4.ipfs.dweb.link bafybeiccxkde65wq2iwuydltwmfwv733h5btvyrzqujyrt5wcfjpg4ihf4.ipfs.dweb.link
    1. esults over the past two decades have increasinglyshown that the “optimal” trajectory and the SCC are extraordinarily sensitive3 to the precisespecification of the model (Neelin et al., 2010; Budolfson et al., 2017; Gillingham et al.,2018).

      optimal trajectories are very sensitive to the models.

    2. Designing policy for climate change requires analyses which integrate the interrelationshipbetween the economy and the environment. We argue that, despite their dominance in theeconomics literature and influence in public discussion and policymaking, the methodologyemployed by Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs) rests on flawed foundations, which becomeparticularly relevant in relation to the realities of the immense risks and challenges of climatechange, and the radical changes in our economies that a sound and effective response require. Weidentify a set of critical methodological problems with the IAMs which limit their usefulness anddiscuss the analytic foundations of an alternative approach that is more capable of providinginsights into how best to manage the transition to net-zero emissions

      The claim of this paper is that the current (2022) Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs) used by IPCC and therefore policymakers is inadequate due to shortcomings in predicting risk. The paper offers the analytic foundations for an alternative model.

  26. May 2022
    1. The 6 Business Objectives of SaaS

      The main business objectives of a company are to address the problems and needs of their customers with products or services that are a solution for them. The importance of technology in our daily lives means that we simply cannot ignore SaaS when it comes to running our business.

  27. Apr 2022
    1. ReconfigBehSci. (2022, January 24). @STWorg @FraserNelson @GrahamMedley no worse- he took Medley’s comment that Sage model the scenarios the government asks them to consider to mean that they basically set out to find the justification for what the government already wanted to do. Complete failure to distinguish between inputs and outputs of a model [Tweet]. @SciBeh. https://twitter.com/SciBeh/status/1485625862645075970

    1. ReconfigBehSci. (2020, November 5). @ToddHorowitz3 2/2 so I would prefer to treat this as an opportunity for empirical observation and learning. Evaluation should focus on trying to assess actual contribution, not a priori judgments. [Tweet]. @SciBeh. https://twitter.com/SciBeh/status/1324367278352355330

    1. Dr Nisreen Alwan 🌻. (2020, March 14). Our letter in the Times. ‘We request that the government urgently and openly share the scientific evidence, data and modelling it is using to inform its decision on the #Covid_19 public health interventions’ @richardhorton1 @miriamorcutt @devisridhar @drannewilson @PWGTennant https://t.co/YZamKCheXH [Tweet]. @Dr2NisreenAlwan. https://twitter.com/Dr2NisreenAlwan/status/1238726765469749248

    1. (7) ReconfigBehSci on Twitter: “@ToddHorowitz3 probably- and I think there are many interesting questions around why he is there and whether he should be there. But to answer those properly, looking at the performance of the model seems important and interesting to me- that is all I am saying” / Twitter. (n.d.). Retrieved March 6, 2021, from https://twitter.com/SciBeh/status/1324389147050569734

  28. Mar 2022
  29. Feb 2022
  30. Jan 2022
    1. Same here, and I think this is not correct. The more I think about it, the more I am convinced it's a wrong mental model.
    2. My mental model has always been that a reactive declaration like $: b = a * 2 defines b in it's entirety ("Here's my recipe for b and all the ingredients, please Svelte make b always up to date"). And outside of this declaration b is immutable.
    1. Mailspring isn't VC funded and doesn't need to make millions to succeed. Just a thousand paid subscriptions will make Mailspring a stable business and we have big ideas for the future of email.
    1. The Business Strategy stems from a detailed strategic planning process. However, the question we want to answer in this article is whether we can execute multiple strategies side by side while they do not interfere with each other. We compare multiple strategies for business, information provision and IT and focus on Strategic planning.

      Business strategy alignment and the secrets of strategic planning https://en.itpedia.nl/2022/01/02/business-strategie-alignment-en-de-geheimen-van-strategische-planning/ The Business Strategy stems from a detailed strategic planning process. However, the question we want to answer in this article is whether we can execute multiple strategies side by side while they do not interfere with each other. We compare multiple strategies for business, information provision and IT and focus on Strategic planning.