66 Matching Annotations
  1. Nov 2023
      • for: three great separations, alienation, financial capital vs social capital, the great simplification, linked in post - social capital
    1. Why do we feel so dissatisfied with the Western way? I think it’s because we have valued financial capital over social capital.
      • for: The Great Simplifcation, Nate Hagen, The Great Complexification, The Great Alienation, three great separations

      • comment

        • Last night, I had a thought about Nate Hagen's "The Great Simplification" project. Seeing Annilina's post this morning made me think of a recent film I annotated on the isolated Jarawa people living on a once desolate island off the coast of India
        • Watching the events of modern Indians exploited the Jarawa is like watching colonialism unfold in realtime.
        • The Jarawa people interviewed said how they are happy with the life they have lived before modernity discovered them.
        • Progress, especially the Western flavored one beginning with Colonialism, the Enlightenment and the Industrial Revolution has set a trajectory for what we might call "The Great Complexification".
          • Remember when watches and clocks were all mechanical spring and windup? Now billions of them depend on batteries. Do we really need to modernize everything? It simply creates more waste and greater demands on nature for natural resources. Do we really need exponentially increase stuff with an Internet of Things?
        • Western influenced progress has led us into multiple progress traps, which now make up the many threads of the current polycrisis.
        • Along with the Great Complexification, we also have the Great Alienation. John Ikard writes of the "Three Great Separations":
        • These created successively more alienation. As progress marched towards modernity, we created more and more technology that broke apart community and making us dependent on transportation and communication technology to maintain it or some proxy of it. Today, we live in cities teeming with millions, yet there is widespread alienation in the mere act of walking or driving down a crowded street.
        • It is the irony of modernity that it packs so many people into small spaces, and yet we are all estranged to each other.
  2. Aug 2023
    1. there's 00:08:43 nothing there that could be secured and here's the important point I think we experienced that we experience it as a sense of lack 00:08:58 that is to say the sense that something is wrong with me something is missing something isn't quite right I'm not good enough and the reality is I think all of us to 00:09:14 some degree have some sense of that some sense of lack even though we might ignore it or cover it up there's there's some sense of that but because it's mostly sort of unconscious in the sense that we don't 00:09:29 really know where it comes from
      • for: sense of lack, sense of self, sense of self and sense of lack, human condition, poverty mentality, alienation, separation, emptiness, emptiness of emptiness, W2W, inequality
      • key insight
        • sense of self is equivalent to
          • sense of lack
          • duality
          • disconnection
          • alienation
          • separation
          • solidification - the opposite of emptiness
      • comment
        • this sense of lack that is intrinsically associated with the sense of self is perhaps the deepest root of our unhappiness
        • this is a key insight for sharing for both those who have too much (the 1%) as well as those who are so materially impoverished and deprived that they are forced to adopt survivalist strategies to stay alive, and if successful, take on a hard edge to survivalism, over-appreciating materialism
        • the same mistake is committed on both end of the disparity spectrum, both groups are still under the illusion that that sense of lack can be filled
    1. At the same time, our whole sense of community has been lost as the requirement of modern societies rely on us living in anonymous neighbourhoods with people we don’t know or share much of anything in common. Who are these representatives presuming to represent anymore anyway?
  3. Apr 2023
    1. Johnston, J. & Sullivan, M. (2020). Parental Alienation: In Search of Common Ground Fora More Differentiated Theory. Family Court Review, 58(2), 270–292.
    2. Fidler, B. J., Deutsch, R. M., & Polak, S. (2019). “How am I supposed to treat these cases?”Working with families struggling with entrenched parent–child contact problems. InL. Greenberg, B. Fidler, & M. Saini (Eds.), Evidence-informed interventions forcourt-involved families (pp. 227–259). New York, NY: Oxford University Press
    3. Fidler, B., & Bala, N. (2020). Concepts, controversies and conundrums of alienation:Lessons learned in a decade and reflections on challenges ahead. Family CourtReview, 58(2), 576-603
    4. What’s the Research Say?2020 Survey of Resist and/or Refuse Dynamics• Collaboration between National Council of Juvenile andFamily Court Judges (NCJFCJ) and the Association of Familyand Conciliation Courts (AFCC) in 2020• Represents the largest sample of responses on this topic.Over 500 pages of comments were submitted by participants.• Aim – to ‘take the temperature’ of the professional cultures.• Most participants indicated receiving no more than 4 hours oftraining on resist/refuse dynamics• Most (+85%) were unaware of tools available to differentiaterealistic estrangement from alienating behavior by a parent15Saini, 2021Knowns1516Saini, 2021Knowns16

      Multi-Factorial Approach

      • There is a clear consensus about the importance of a multi-factorial approach in cases of RRD
      • 87% of respondents believe that PAB by the preferred parent is "only one of a number of influential factors useful in explaining RRD"
    5. Washington State PsychologicalAssociationAlaska Psychological Association2021 NW Psychological Fall ConventionOctober 15-17, 2021

      WSPA Convention October 16, 2021 Leslie Drozd, PHD, leslie@lesliedrozdphd

      Title: When a Child Resists or Refuses Contact with a Parent.

    1. Michael Bone and Brian Ludmer, in particular, have written on this issue.  Note especially that lawyers without strong experience in this area will be highly likely to lose your case.  Experience in other areas of law is insufficient for lawyers to win alienation cases.
    1. and passes the DaubertgatekeepingExpert testimony on parental alienation “aided the court by providing a counterintuitiveexplanation as to the dynamics...present in [the] situation.”Expert testimony met the threshold level of reliability ~ DaubertstandardSupreme Judicial Court of Maine(Bergin v Bergin, __ A.3d __ (2019)) (2019 WL 3788326
    2. The phenomenon of PA is “well known”...-“Thephenomenaofparentalalienationarewellrecognizedinternationallyand,s a d l y,arefrequentlyallegedorencounteredincustodyandvisitationlitigation....Thespecificterm‘parentalalienation’doesnotyetappearasa psychiatricdiagnosisintheofficialclassificationoftheAmericanPsychiatricAssociation,althoughitsfeaturescommonlymaybesubsumedunderoneormoreotherdiagnosticcategories...”McClainv. McClain, 539S. W.3d 170,182(2017)(CourtofAppealsofTennessee
    3. Dr. Amy Baker et al. (2011), Brief Report on Parental Alienation SurveySurveyconductedat2010meetingoftheAssociationofFamilyandConciliationCourts(AFCC).300attendeescompletedsurveyregardingPA.98%endorsed,“Doyouthinkthatsomechildrenaremanipulatedbyoneparenttoirrationallyandunjustifiablyrejecttheotherparent?”
    1. Proposal for Parental Alienation Relational Problemto be Included in“Other Conditions That May Be a Focus of Clinical Attention”in DSM-5-TRSubmitted to DSM-5-TR Steering CommitteeNovember xx, 2022Submitted by William Bernet, M.D., and Amy J. L. Baker, Ph.D.
    1. The child’ssense of disconnection and inauthentic realityare reinforced when alienated parents repeat their false narratives to third partiesas part of their alienationcampaign

      As likely Kate did with her son (who then did it to peers), then DHS agent, then the MHP counselor, then doctors, then CIRT counselor, then school administrators, then mental hospital "counselors", then the judges she introduced her to, then 2nd DHS agent, and so on

    2. Losses Experienced by Children Alienated from a ParentJennifer J. Harman, Mandy L. Matthewson, Amy J.L. Baker
    1. What did we find? Of the more than 200 empirical studies we reviewed, 40% were published since 2016. This means that many of the reviews published before 2016—such as the ones critics rely on to argue that parental alienation research is in its “infancy”—are hopelessly outdated. Our study leaves no doubt that parental alienation is a valid concept supported by a robust and well-developed scientific literature. This literature sports several hallmarks of a maturing scientific field. First, the number of studies is increasing each year. Second, the type of studies increasingly favors quantitative (e.g., statistical analysis) over qualitative (e.g., descriptive) methods. Third, the studies increasingly test hypotheses and situate the design and results in a theoretical and explanatory framework.
    1. Developmental Psychology and the Scientific Status of Parental AlienationJennifer J. Harman 1 , Richard A. Warshak 2 , Demosthenes Lorandos 3 , and Matthew J. Florian 41 Department of Psychology, Colorado State University2 Independent Practice, Richardson, Texas, United States3 Psychlaw.net, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States4 Eris Enterprise, LLC, Fort Collins, Colorado, United State
    1. criteria proposed by Judge Richard Dollinger are related to scientific and clinical issues that provide the basis for expert testimony in cases where PA is alleged.
    2. Up until recently, there were no legal criteria for defining parental alienation. Now we have some guidance from New York State. The recently decided NYS AD case of JF v. DF (NY Law Journal, 12/27/18; filed 12/06/18) provides legal criteria for identifying parental alienation (PA) based on tort law. These criteria are intended to differentiate parental alienation from more conventional examples of poor parenting, such as missed phone calls or the occasional vulgarity or snide remark about the other parent.
    1. dies showthat when courts remove severely alienated children from the influence ofthe alienating parent and order an appropriate intervention, at least 90%of the children are restored to a satisfactory relationship with bothparents

      Studies show that when courts remove severely alienated children from the influence of the alienating parent and order an appropriate intervention, at least 90%of the children are restored to a satisfactory relationship with both parents

    1. Demosthenes Lorandos, William Bernet & Richard Sauber (2013), Parental Alienation: Handbook for Mental Health and Legal Pro-fessionals
    2. Journal of Family Medicine and Disease Prevention
    1. Ten Parental Alienation Fallacies That Compromise Decisions in Courtand in Therapy

      Richard A. Warshak Professional Psychology: Research and Practice © 2015 American Psychological Association 2015, Vol. 46, No. 4, 235–249 0735-7028/15/$12.00 http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pro0000031

    2. an evaluation finds that a child is severely and irrationallyalienated from a parent, and that it is in the child’s best interests torepair the damaged relationship, the evaluator should exercisecaution about recommending a course of traditional psychotherapywhile the child remains apart from the rejected parent. Recom-mendations for therapy in such circumstances should include ad-vice to the court about imposing (a) a time frame after which theimpact of treatment will be assessed, (b) explicit criteria forevaluating progress and success of treatment, and (c) contingencyplans in the event that the treatment is ineffective. For instance, ifthe judge informs the parties that a failed course of therapy mayresult in an increase in the child’s time with the rejected parent orin a reversal of custody, this may help increase the child’s moti-vation to participate meaningfully in treatment and the favoredparent’s support for treatment
    3. child.Courts cannot enforce orders for parent–child contactagainst an alienated teen’s wishes.A judge who understoodthat a 13-year-old’s decision to sever his relationship with hisfather reflected impaired judgment nevertheless acquiesced to theboy’s demands because, “He is now of an age where, even if hemay be too immature to appreciate what is best for him, he cannotbe physically forced to remain where he does not want to be”(Korwin v. Potworowski, 2006, ¶ 145). This judge is not alone.Other judges, child representatives, parenting coordinators, psy-chotherapists, and parents often report feeling stymied when ado-lescents refuse to cooperate with the court-ordered parenting timeschedule (DeJong & Davies, 2012;Johnston, Walters, & Fried-lander, 2001). These children can be so convincing about theirresolve to have their way with respect to avoiding a parent thatthey convince the court that they are beyond its authority. Theyinduce a sense of helplessness in judges.Adults need not feel helpless in the


      Adults need not feel helpless in the face of oppositional behavior from alienated teens. Two studies have reported that most children's protests evaporate when reunited with a rejected parent (Clawar & Rivlin, 2013; Warshak, 2010b) and this is illustrated anecdotally by high profile cases (Warshak, in press). Instead of appeasing children's demands, the court can order an intervention to assist children in adjusting to court orders that place them with their rejected parent (Warshak, 2010b).

      Adolescents comply with many rules and expectations that are not of their own choosing. It is an error to assume that they do not benefit from an assertion of authority on the part of the court and their parents. Teens need adult guidance, structure, and limits as much as if not more than do younger children. When a teen has been violent toward a rejected parent, allowing the teen's wishes to determine the outcome of a custody case can be seen as rewarding violent behavior (Warshak, 2010b). Children of any age need to understand that they are not above the law or beyond its reach.

      Child custody evaluators and educative experts should inform the court about the benefits and drawbacks of various means of giving adolescents a voice in a custody dispute (Dale, 2014: Warshak, 2003b). Courts also need to learn about the suggestibility of adolescents and their susceptibility to immature judgment and external influence.

      If the evidence suggests that the child's viewpoints do not reflect mature judgment independent of the other parent's un- healthy influence, or the child's expressed preferences are unlikely to serve the child's best interests, the court should impress on the adolescent, either directly or through agents of the court, the necessity of complying with the residential schedule put in place by the court. The parents and the child should understand that failure to comply with court orders will not be overlooked and will not result in the court capitulating to the overt demands of the adolescent. A firm stance by the court brings the added benefit of relieving the child of needing to maintain a parent's approval by refusing to spend time with the other parent.

    4. Alienated Adolescents’ Stated Preferences ShouldDominate Custody Decision
    1. The APA and the Mental Health Child Abuse ScandalMental Health is Commonly Complicit in Child AbuseThe American Psychological Association (APA) Should Revise Its Policy

      Large collection of research and authoritative statements

    1. the overarching paradigm that underlies the global system, however useful it might have been, is not only obsolete, but actively pushing us toward self-annihilation. This paradigm reduces human existence to competition between disconnected, materially-defined units whose primary imperative is individual material self-maximisation and accumulation. Yet it is precisely this way of being that is eroding our mental health and destroying planetary life-support systems. Our inherently relational nature, the fact that our well-being is tied up with our connections to others – that we are fundamentally interconnected – is obfuscated.Moving through the global phase-shift, then, requires us to completely reorient ourselves into a new way of being in the world, rooted in new ways of understanding our relationship with the world that actually connect with reality.

      In Other Words The human INTERbeing - our relational nature - our Dunbar number past - is denied by modernity

  4. Mar 2023
    1. Sustainable consumption scholars offer several explanations forwhy earth-friendly, justice-supporting consumers falter when itcomes to translating their values into meaningful impact.
      • Paraphrase
      • Claim
        • earth-friendly, justice-supporting consumers cannot translate their values into meaningful impact.
      • Evidence
      • “the shading and distancing of commerce” Princen (1997) is an effect of information assymetry.
        • producers up and down a supply chain can hide the negative social and environmental impacts of their operations, putting conscientious consumers at a disadvantage. //
      • this is a result of the evolution of alienation accelerated by the industrial revolution that created the dualistic abstractions of producers and consumers.
      • Before that, producers and consumers lived often one and the same in small village settings
      • After the Industrial Revolution, producers became manufacturers with imposing factories that were cutoff from the general population
      • This set the conditions for opaqueness that have plagued us ever since. //

      • time constraints, competing values, and everyday routines together thwart the rational intentions of well-meaning consumers (Røpke 1999)

      • assigning primary responsibility for system change to individual consumers is anathema to transformative change (Maniates 2001, 2019)
      • This can be broken down into three broad categories of reasons:

        • Rebound effects
          • https://jonudell.info/h/facet/?max=100&expanded=true&user=stopresetgo&exactTagSearch=true&any=jevon%27s+paradox
          • increases in consumption consistently thwart effciency-driven resource savings across a wide variety of sectors (Stern 2020). -sustainability scholars increasingly critique “effciency” both as:
            • a concept (Shove 2018)
            • as a form of“weak sustainable consumption governance” (Fuchs and Lorek 2005).
          • Many argue that, to be successful, effciency measures must be accompanied by initiatives that limit overall levels of consumption, that is, “strong sustainable consumption governance.
        • Attitude-behavior gap

        • Behavior-impact gap

  5. Jan 2023
    1. by self-alienation what i mean um 01:25:35 is our being in profound confusion about who and what we are about having an idea of what we are that is totally at odds with our actual mode 01:25:48 of existence or nature that's what i mean so i'm alienated from myself when i think that i'm one thing but i'm really something else and these are various ways 01:26:01 of understanding the content of that self-alienation i think that i am toto generally different from the objects of my experience that there's me as pure subject that's one 01:26:14 kind of thing and there's that all of that stuff including all of you folks my computer screen that i'm looking at now my dog lying right next to me all of those things are merely object and i'm subject 01:26:28 so i think of myself as pure subject is like the eye in the visual field i know that that's not what i am i know that i'm an embedded embodied being in a network of dependent origination but i 01:26:40 don't experience myself that way that's a dimension of self-alienation i think of myself as a being that i know immediately that i know my sensations 01:26:52 just by having them i know what i think just by thinking it i know what my emotions are just by experiencing them and that none of that introspective experience none of that awareness is 01:27:04 mediated by anything and that's stupid because i know that the only way that i can know myself is through an introspective activity and that introspection is conceptually laden and that i can be self-deceived and that 01:27:18 my psychiatrist might know me much better than i know myself that my wife knows me better than i know myself and that my dog knows me better than i know myself so i know that i don't have that immediate awareness but i think of 01:27:29 myself as having it that's another dimension of self-alienation i think of myself as a free agent who can act in a way that's totally uncaused just by doing things because i will them 01:27:43 that i've got this free will that is unconstrained by causality i know that that's crazy i know that i'm a biological organism and that everything i do is caused by previous causes and conditions 01:27:55 but i don't experience myself that way that's another dimension of self-alienation i know that i am a plurality that i've got a brain with lots of different centers of activity lots of different 01:28:07 kinds of cognition happening at the same time of which i'm totally unaware visual processing auditory processing language processing emotions that are subliminal and so forth 01:28:18 sensations that i barely register i know that there's inner complexity but i experience it as a subject of unity that's another dimension of self-alienation all of these are ways that we fail to 01:28:31 know ourselves and all of them cascade from the illusion that we ourselves

      !- explanation : self alienation - the model by which we navigate reality is at odds with the actual mode of existence - I feel I am different than the objects of my experience - The subject does not mix with the objects

    2. self-alienation that is if i think that i'm a self but i'm really a person that i really don't know who i am just as if i thought that a dollar had 01:02:13 its value intrinsically in the value of the paper and the ink i wouldn't understand anything about finance currency or purchases

      Second consequence : self alienation self

  6. Apr 2022
    1. As a scheme, Scientology worked because it did what all successful religious grifts do: it offered an alienated social group a community and a solution to its defining problems, articulated in the vernacular of its tastes.
  7. Jan 2022
    1. And expropriation to me means something like what you, Anna, mean by ‘alienation’ (Tsing 2015Tsing, Anna Lowenhaupt. 2015. The Mushroom at the End of the World: On the Possibility of Life in Capitalist Ruins. Princeton: Princeton University Press. [Crossref], [Google Scholar]: 5): a being separated from what makes you alive, a condition in which you also stop thinking, imagining, and noticin

      Dieses Konzept der Enteignung fordert nicht etwas Eigenes, sondern Beziehungen, ein Miteinander-Sein von Heterogenem, das aufeinander angewiesen ist. Entfremdung setzt hier nicht etwas Essentielles, z.B. ein Wesen des Menschen, voraus. Sie entzieht Gemeingüter und trennt damit die Einzelnen oder Individuen von den Voraussetzungen ihres Lebens—ohne dass diese Voraussetzungen immer dieselben wären und ohne dass sie als idyllisch oder harmonisch verstanden werden müssen.

      Man kann einen solchen Prozess der Enteignung auch beim Web und den digitalen Technologien beschreiben, übrigens auch dort in Verbindung mit einer Modernisierungsfront. Das Web ist ein Bereich der commons, ein Gemeingut. Die verschiedenen kommerziellen Silos nehmen den an ihm Beteiligten das Eigentum—nicht etwas, das ihnen gehört, sondern etwas, das ihnen gemeinsam ist oder ein gemeinsames Ökosystem bildet— und machen sie dann zu, wie Stengers es hier nennt, beneficiaries. Um das durchzusetzen, wird die Hardware enteignet, der frei programmierbare Rechner, und das Ganze findet im Namen der Modernisierung statt, obwohl das Web gar nicht modernisiert werden muss.

  8. May 2021
  9. Feb 2021
  10. Apr 2019
    1. repulsiven Weltbeziehung, bei der sich Welt und Subjekt sogar feindlich gegenüberstehen

      kommt vor. in extremen situationen allerdings nur: liebeskummer, depression. Entfremdung hat sonst konkretere Adressaten. neben der individuellen E. auch eine Makro-E.: eine soziale Tendenz, eine E. qua --> Paradigma

  11. Oct 2018
    1. In my case risk relates to the potential sacrifice of privilege.  By demanding that education be the practice of freedom I risk rocking what is, for the most part, an extremely comfortable boat. The truth is, I don’t ever have to do anything to combat oppression, and my life will be just fine. However, for anyone marginalised by systemic oppression, incurring risk is an unfortunate but necessary element of speaking truth to power. On the daily.
  12. Aug 2018
    1. Lewin’s famous final clause, “there is nothing so practical as a good theory,” means that understanding (theory) can guide useful action (the practical), so theory (understanding) can be empowering. A lack of meaning and under­standing of events also makes it very hard to know what one should do (norm- lessness or anomie), because it is nearly impossible to know what to do in a situation if one cannot comprehend it.

      One example of meaning/alienation is a lack of understanding which interrupts sensemaking and creates a sense of friction in how to react/behave.

  13. Jul 2018
  14. Mar 2017
    1. I never regret the eleven months which hardened my resolve, to go beyond 98 'Nos' to get to the precious, unexpected 'Yes's'. I was nobody, I was selling nothing, I could be nobody selling anything.




    2. For the next eleven months, first thing Monday morning, I listened to the moustachioed sales manager reeling off the figures before disappearing into his office. Each week, there were those whose heads dropped... There were those whose heads dropped over a period of two or three weeks consecutively... There were those who would suddenly be absent...



    3. For the next eleven months, I was deafened by the drone of a robot. Every twenty minutes or so, the robot would stand up with a pre-contract and head off down the corridor to notch up a new sale.


    4. The people on the other end were targets. They were nothing. They were nobody.




    5. I decided to colour the numbers black with a Bic biro to make dialling more of a challenge.


    6. For the next eleven months, I dialled the dial on the grey phone one hundred times per day, to make two sales.


    7. There was nothing. I was nobody. I resolved myself to make the box a job.




    8. He cared for nothing about my story.


  15. Apr 2016
  16. Dec 2015
    1. Estrangement appears not only in the fact that the means of my life belong to another and that my desire is the inaccessible possession of another, but also in the fact that all things are other than themselves, that my activity is other than itself, and that finally – and this goes for the capitalists too – an inhuman power rules over everything.
  17. Nov 2015
    1. Who is the third who walks always beside you? When I count, there are only you and I together

      In this final section of the poem, Eliot conveys the ambiguity and alienation of identity. To be exiled is to be stripped of your humanity. Eliot conveys this idea in several ways; by use of imagery and language techniques.

      Firstly, the image of the 'third walking beside you' is one that is hard to picture due to the lack of description. The 'third' appears almost like a silhouette or a shadow, which in itself creates its own connotations. Is the 'third' a replication of the character walking? or perhaps they are symbolic of the consequences of being exiled. Interestingly, the 'third' is not given a gender, we cannot tell 'whether a man or a woman' and therefore is presented as simply a 'thing'. It is this ambiguity which alienates this figure from what is happening in the poem. Readers cannot connect with the 'third'. However, we are forced to view this ambiguous figure as part of the group due to the use of the word 'third'. They are neither part of nor not a part of the party and therefore are in an inbetween state

      Image Description

      In a poem that is packed with voices and narrations, this 'third' is not given any direct speech. Instead we are introduced to this silhouette through the eyes of a persona. Not only has the 'third' been stripped of identity and gender identity, but also speech, both within the poem and in the explicit words on the page.

      As the speaker walks through the ‘unreal city’ of London in THE BURIAL OF THE DEAD, he comes into contact with ghostly figures. London is populated by the dead. Each man ‘fixed his eyes before his feet’ in a synonymous manner. These men embody the ambiguity shown by the ‘third man’ and represent this sense of exile. Eliot’s use of language heightens this further with the inclusion of ‘dead sound on the final stroke of nine’. What is dead sound? And why is nine the final stroke? His diction choices convey a sense of death and banishment. The poem is ‘haunted’ by these ghosts just as the speaker is haunted by the ‘third man’ in the final section.

  18. Oct 2015
    1. Here one can neither stand nor lie nor sit There is not even silence in the mountains

      The description recalls someone who has been exiled from civilization and forced to wander a wasteland of sorts

    2. (And I Tiresias have foresuffered all

      Tiresias was transformed into a woman for seven years, a sort of "exile" from his/her original gender/identity. Could this also be a commentary on losing one's sense of masculinity in the modern age?

    3. If you don’t like it you can get on with it, I said. Others can pick and choose if you can’t. But if Albert makes off, it won’t be for lack of telling. You ought to be ashamed, I said, to look so antique.

      Lil's problems with her husband Albert reflect a superficiality and conflict of values in the modern/urban age, which can alienate/exile a person if they fail to meet those expectations. A similar problem arises in Elliot's "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock"