41 Matching Annotations
  1. Apr 2024
  2. Feb 2024
    1. Ausführlicher Bericht über die neue Studie zum Zustand des Amazonas-Regenwalds. Bis 2050 drohen 10-47% einen Kipppunkt zu erreichen, jenseits dessen sie ihre jetzigen Funktionen für Kohlenstoff- und Wasser Zyklen verloren. Die Studie beschäftigt sich mit 5 Treibern für Wasser-Stress. Um den Regenwald sicher zu erhalten, ist der Verzicht auf jede weitere Entwaldung und das Einhalten der 1,5°-Grenze nötig. https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2024/feb/14/amazon-rainforest-could-reach-tipping-point-by-2050-scientists-warn

  3. Jan 2024
  4. Nov 2023
      • for: MET, MST, MCT, FET, MET - information, MST - information, Amanda N. Robin, major evolutionary transition, major system transition, facilitating evolutionary transition

      • Title:Major Evolutionary Transitions and the Roles of Facilitation and Information in Ecosystem Transformations

      • Author: Robin et al.
      • Date: 2021

      • Abstract

        • A small number of extraordinary “Major Evolutionary Transitions” (METs) have attracted attention among biologists.
        • They comprise novel forms of
          • individuality and
          • information,
        • and are defined in relation to organismal complexity, irrespective of broader ecosystem-level effects.

        • This divorce between

          • evolutionary and
          • ecological consequences
        • qualifies unicellular eukaryotes, for example, as a MET although they alone failed to significantly alter ecosystems.

        • Additionally, this definition excludes revolutionary innovations not fitting into either MET type

          • (e.g., photosynthesis).
        • We recombine
          • evolution with
          • ecology
        • to explore how and why entire ecosystems were
          • newly created or
          • radically altered
        • as Major System Transitions (MSTs).

        • In doing so, we highlight important morphological adaptations that spread through populations because of

          • their immediate, direct-fitness advantages for individuals.
        • These are Major Competitive Transitions, or MCTs.

        • We argue that often
          • multiple
            • METs and
            • MCTs
        • must be present to produce MSTs.

        • For example, sexually-reproducing, multicellular eukaryotes (METs) with

          • anisogamy and
          • exoskeletons (MCTs)
        • significantly altered ecosystems during the Cambrian.

        • Therefore, we introduce the concepts of Facilitating Evolutionary Transitions (FETs) and Catalysts as

          • key events or agents that are insufficient themselves to set a MST into motion,
          • but are essential parts of synergies that do.
        • We further elucidate the role of information in MSTs as transitions across five levels:

          • (I) Encoded (Genetic);
          • (II) Epigenomic;
          • (III) Learned;
          • (IV) Inscribed; and
          • (V) Dark Information.
        • The latter is ‘authored’ by abiotic entities rather than biological organisms.

        • Level

          • IV has arguably allowed humans to produce a MST, and
          • V perhaps makes us a FET for a future transition that melds
            • biotic and
            • abiotic life
          • into one entity.
        • Understanding the interactive processes involved in past major transitions will illuminate both
          • current events and
          • the surprising possibilities that abiotically-created information may produce.

      Indyweb / Indranet citations - Michael Levin, Roy Baumeister, Adam Omary youtube conversation - specifically, the question about whether a social superorganism of global human civilization / society / culture constitutes a new Major Evolutionary Transition of Individuality - https://hyp.is/rQgvZn2hEe6-TF8HFSS9mg/docdrop.org/video/UfoVTA0ilsY/

  5. Oct 2023
    1. We define such remarkable morphological adaptations as Major Competitive Transitions (MCTs), while acknowledging the definition’s subjective nature.
      • for: definition, definition - MCT, definition - major competitive transition

      • definition: major competitive definition

        • remarkable morphological adaptations that confer major competitive advantages in survival or reproduction.
        • example:
          • water-to-land transition,
          • land-to-water transition,
          • creation of new niche - evolution of flying organisms
          • vascular tissue of plants
  6. Aug 2023
  7. Jul 2023
    1. Julian Huxley
      • Julian Huxley's biology work was to lay the seed of
        • how one individual organism transforms over many generations
          • into a new higher-level individual organism
        • he called this the "movement of individuality"
        • It has also come to be known as
          • major transitions
          • major evolutionary transition (MET)
          • evolutionary transitions in individuality
        • grandson of Thomas Huxley
        • brother of Aldous Huxley (Brave New World)
        • wrote The Individual in the Animal Kingdom (1912)
        • advocated for closed, independent systems with harmonious parts
        • endorsed gradients of individuality
        • "closure is never complete, the independence never absolute, the harmony never perfect"
  8. Jun 2023
  9. Feb 2023
    1. somewhere, somehow, through evolutionary iteration, a bunch of individual, independent, single-celled organisms stumbled upon governance principles that made them fitter together. Such “fundamental organizational changes in the history of life”1, known as major evolutionary transitions, had happened before — the eukaryotes that became multicellular are themselves held to be the result of symbiosis, and that’s not even the beginning — and have happened since.

      Other references for METs: https://jonudell.info/h/facet/?max=100&expanded=true&user=stopresetgo&exactTagSearch=true&any=major%2Bevolutionary%2Btransition

      • Each = MET is a transition from many to a unified individual
      • or from one superorganism level to a higher order superorganism level
  10. Jan 2023
  11. Dec 2022
    1. transitions are hard and require a well-thought through strategy to prevent failure, especially if the goal is to be whole ethically.
  12. Jun 2022
  13. May 2022
    1. One example of a siloed approach to critical infrastructure is the European Programme for Critical Infrastructure Protection’s framework and action plan, which focuses on reducing vulnerability to terror attacks but does not consider integrating climate or environmental dimensions.39       Instead of approaching critical infrastructure protection as another systems maintenance task, the hyper-response takes advantage of ecoinnovation.40 Distributed and localized energy, food, water, and manufacturing solutions mean that the capacity to disrupt the arterials that keep society functioning is reduced. As an example, many citizens and communities rely on one centralized water supply. If these citizens and communities had water tanks and smaller-scale local water supply, this means that if a terror group or other malevolent actor decided to contaminate major national water supplies—or if the hyperthreat itself damaged major central systems—far fewer people would be at risk, and the overall disruption would be less significant. This offers a “security from the ground up” approach, and it applies to other dimensions such as health, food, and energy security.

      The transition of energy and other critical provisioning systems requires inclusive debate so that a harmonized trajectory can be selected that mitigates against stranded assets. The risk of non-inclusive debate is the possibility of many fragmented approaches competing against each other and wasting precious time and resources. Furthermore, system maintenance of antiquated hyperthreat supporting systems as pointed out in Boulton's other research. System maintenance is a good explanatory concept that can help make sense of much of the incumbent financial, energy and government actors to preserve the hyperthreat out of survival motives.

      A template for a compass for guiding energy trajectories is provided in Van Zyl-Bulitta et al. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/333254683_A_compass_to_guide_through_the_myriad_of_sustainable_energy_transition_options_across_the_global_North_South_divide which can also be a model for other provisioning systems.

    2. This is the vision of OP Sapiens Star—that human’s evolution is not finished, and that the hyperthreat provides the impetus for a quantum leap into a new way of being. Through achieving a galactically significant mission—saving Earth’s ecological integrity—the Homo sapiens species “stars” within the universe. Humans go from being a menace and fighting one another to being heroic, creative, and tolerant.    

      This can be interpreted as an instantiation of the hero's journey, in the context of research that combines evolution with ecology as in the research paper: Major Evolutionary Transitions and the Roles of Facilitation and Information in Ecosystem Transformations (Robin et al., 2021).From this lens, cumulative cultural evolution (CCE) was first made possible through spoken language, then accelerated through written language. The authors claim that another Major System Transition (MST).is emerging, which they posit to be abiotic in nature involving Artificial Intelligence.

      Faced with a self-induced civilization-scale threat, we may ask whether a major cultural evolution may be necessary to avoid catastrophe and whether it may constitute another MST. Could a rapid higher level global understanding of the epistemological dualism of self and other which undergirds normative alienation, othering and conflict, both with others of our own species, of other species and with the planetary system itself play a major role in the transition?

  14. Jan 2022
    1. The key thing about the REST approach is that the server addresses the client state transitions. The state of the client is almost totally driven by the server and, for this reason, discussions on API versioning make little sense, too. All that a client should know about a RESTful interface should be the entry point. The rest should come from the interpretation of server responses.
  15. Sep 2021
    1. ween societies at greatly differing economic levels). It is also that there has never been any single type of "the transition". The stress of the transition falls upon the whole culture: resistance to change and assent to change arise from the whole culture. And this culture includes the systems of power, property-relations, religious institu- tions, etc., inattention to which merely flattens phenomena and trivializes analysis. Above all, the transition is not to "industrialism" tout court but to industrial capitalism or (in the twentieth century) to alternative systems whose features are still indistinct. Wh

      Speaking about transitions within societies and cultures can be problematic as they are complex and intertwined between individuals, families, and larger structures and institutions. The transition to industrialization is often seen as a foregone conclusion when, in fact, it was a gradual struggle over time. Glossing over these types of transition can trivialize analysis of the complex effects at play.

  16. Oct 2020
  17. Jan 2018
    1. Several phases can be distinguished in transitions

      Dinámica a través del tiempo: 1- Surgimiento de la innovación en el nicho, en un contexto (paisaje) y régimen determinados. No existe aún un diseño dominante y pueden existir diversas alternativas técnicas en etapa de experimentación 2- La innovación se comienza a probar en pequeños nichos de mercado donde se posibilita la especialización. Comienza a surgir una comunidad técnica dedicada a mejorar el diseño, que establece nuevas reglas y una trayectoria para el desarrollo. En este punto los procesos de aprendizaje decantan en una mejora del desarrollo y los usuarios comienzan a interactuar e incorporarlo en sus prácticas, explorando nuevas funcionalidades. Resultado: estabilización de reglas, diseño dominante, articulación prefs de usuarios 3- El desarrollo sale a competir con el régimen, tanto por causas internas (mejoras en costos, performance, usuarios interesados) como externas (ventanas de oportunidad). El régimen puede tener problemas internos o estar sometido a presiones externas, originar externalidades negativas que cambien su percepción en los actores. Los factores están interconectados 4- El desarrollo reemplaza a la tecnología dominante, convirtiéndose en el nuevo régimen gradual, ya que los intereses afectados se resisten.

    2. iteral connotation ofrelativedhardnessTand to include the material aspects of society

      A nivel macro, dentro de la mlp el landscape es el factor exógeno, de mayor rigidez, e incluye arrangements de tipo material [diseño urbano, tendido eléctrico, mapa de caminos] y no tanto [cambios culturales]

    3. Niches are important, because they provide locations for learning processes

      key no sólo procesos de aprendizaje si no también desarrollo de redes sociales de contención

    4. This stability is dynamic

      El régimen ST es un factor de estabilidad, donde los cambios ocurren de forma incremental, originan trayectorias técnicas y path dependency

    5. technological niches

      El nivel micro, donde ocurre la innovación, protegida de la selección del mercado cuando todavía se encuentra en etapas de baja performance.



  18. Oct 2017
    1. It is this practice of judicious, critical, ingenuous reading that we mustadopt in order to understand the ways in which Austen uses the texts of otherwriters to create her own fiction*in order, that is, to rethink the meaningof‘‘influence’’as it pertains to this central figure in the history of women’swriting.

      In this sentence, the author makes a transition between Austen's expectations for her readership's literary knowledge and reading practices and the notion of literary influence. Here, she argues that Austen's requirement for "judicious, critical, ingenuous reading" is necessary for the reader to understand how influence operates in Austen. I am not quite sure if I agree with this assessment. In the later paragraphs, I do not feel that the author's argument explicitly shows that informed readership is necessary to understand influence in Emma. Rather, the audience gives more of a plot summary and information about the reading practices within the novel, not those required for its audience.

  19. Oct 2016
    1. One needs only to think of the sequence where, just for the fun of it and with no real narrative purpose, the toys knock over a huge container of bouncing balls in the toy store.
  20. Sep 2016
  21. Mar 2016