130 Matching Annotations
  1. Apr 2024
  2. Mar 2024
    1. It will be seen from the foregoing that care isrequired in the appKcation of the card system,and that neglect must sooner or later lead to failure. There wasindeed a time when it seemed doubtful whether the card systemwould survive the first attempts. It was even tried and abandonedby some. These early failures were in the main due to the absenceof expert labour and to the higher order of accuracy required ascompared with the book system. The systems were not thenplanned out with that care that is bestowed upon them now. Onesystem would be started and presently there would be a decisionto alter it so as to fall in with riper experience. In the absenceof one system consistently adhered to the files soon got into achaotic condition until at last they had to be abandoned, for infact they had become useless.

      This sort of failure is still seen today with people setting up note taking systems in a variety of digital environments.

  3. Jan 2024
    1. Zusammenfassender Artikel über Studien zu Klimafolgen in der Antarktis und zu dafür relevanten Ereignissen. 2023 sind Entwicklungen sichtbar geworden, die erst für wesentlich später in diesem Jahrhundert erwartet worden waren. Der enorme und möglicherweise dauerhafte Verlust an Merreis ist dafür genauso relevant wie die zunehmende Instabilität des westantarktischen und möglicherweise inzwischen auch des ostantarktischen Eisschilds. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2023/dec/31/red-alert-in-antarctica-the-year-rapid-dramatic-change-hit-climate-scientists-like-a-punch-in-the-guts

  4. Nov 2023
    1. NHS interpreting service problems contributed to patient deaths

      This being BBC, and me being also a medical interpreter, I trust that this is true.

  5. Oct 2023
    1. “It’s so freeing, it’s beautiful in a way, to have a great failure. There’s nowhere to go but up.”

      —David Lynch

    1. how do we 01:03:46 meet not match right so this is an image that meets all of this these images are going to go for 01:04:00 decontextualized singular responses that are going to create more double binds if you try to solve for life on land you're going to end up with life on 01:04:12 water being a disaster life in water or life in the air or life right if you try to solve for one you get into these contradictions and double binds
      • for: holism, progress trap, double bind, SDG failure

      • comment

        • In the current silo'd approach typified by the SDGs, unintended consequences, or progress traps are unavoidable and are built into the approach itself.
    1. In short, the combination of blind intelligence, due to the vision of the country’s leaders, and the absence of troops around the Strip allowed this assault to take place with the human toll that we know.
      • for: Hamas 2023 attack on Israel - reason for failure
  6. Sep 2023
  7. Aug 2023
    1. Whole humans and more than human. Sustainability and systems are a window into the spiritual for many because it’s about wholes.So not a pillar. Rather a deeper level of understanding.
    1. The challenge is that we're now nearly thirty years in the future and despite the best efforts of many people, we haven't yet cracked the nut of sustainable business or sustainability more broadly.
      • new trailmark: - new trailmark
        • replace "for" with "adjacency"
      • adjacency
        • between
          • sustainability
          • failure,
          • root causes
      • source: reason why the author started asking the question:
        • what's missing in sustainability that makes it unachievable after decades of trying?
    1. Damanhur’s mock battles prevent the kind of burn-out you find when the most empathetic people in a community get tasked with dealing with the emotional needs of others, putting a lot a strain on the shoulders of a few.
    2. she writes about her time cutting and baling hay, making butter, driving a tractor, cutting firewood, baking bread, and taking care of children, animals and the wellbeing of her peers.
      • for: intentional communities, intentional communities - failures
      • comment
        • modern, industrialized society is still a massively interdependent system
        • what many who start intentional communities don't realize is this refined interdependency give us a lot of time savings
        • we find that out when we live in an intentional community and have to make everything ourselves
    3. When the Welsh social reformer Robert Owen established New Harmony in 1825, on 20,000 acres in Indiana, he attracted an enthusiastic following, gaining more than 800 members in just a little over six weeks.
      • for: intentional communities - case study - New Harmony
      • paraphrase
        • New Harmony
        • Year: 1825
        • Location: Indiana
        • Size: 20,000 acres
        • Members: 800 in first 6 weeks
        • ideals
          • environment
          • education
          • abolish private property
        • problems
          • low percentage of hard skills
            • 140 of 800 had skills contributing to local industry,
            • 36 were skilled farmers
          • indiscriminate and allowed too many without skills to join
          • intentional communities are often the most attractive for a dangerous constellation of actors
            • dreamers,
            • drifters,
            • seekers in need of belonging,
            • the needy and wounded,
            • the egomaniacal and power-thirsty
            • free riders, lazy and without skills
          • founder was absent a large percentage of the time
    4. the more relevant drivers that cause many communities to unravel sound more like the challenges afflicting any organisation today: capital constraints, burn-out, conflict over private property and resource management, poor systems of conflict mediation, factionalism, founder problems, reputation management, skills shortage, and failure to attract new talent or entice subsequent generations.
      • for: intentional communities, intentional communities - failure
      • paraphrase
        • reasons for failure:sound more like the challenges afflicting any organisation today:
          • capital constraints,
          • burn-out,
          • conflict over private property
          • conflict over resource management,
          • poor systems of conflict mediation,
          • factionalism,
          • founder problems,
          • reputation management,
          • skills shortage,
          • failure to attract new talent
          • failure to entice subsequent generations.
    5. the irony is that many of the administrative and managerial forces that individuals are running away from within mainstream society are exactly the organisational tools that would make intentional communities more resilient:
      • for: intentional communities,
      • irony
      • paraphrase
        • the irony is that many of the administrative and managerial forces that individuals are running away from within mainstream society
          • are exactly the organisational tools that would make intentional communities more resilient
    6. attrition rates for intentional communities are not all that different from many other types of human endeavour.
      • for: stats, intentional community, intentional communities, - stats - intentional communities
        • intentional communities fail at a rate slightly higher than most startups
        • startup failure rate is around 90%
        • longevity of Fortune 500 companies listed in 1955 to 2017
          • failure rate of 88%
        • S&P companies average lifespan: 15 years
    7. Generally, intentional communities fail at a rate slightly higher than that of most start-ups. Only a handful of communities founded in the US during the 19th century’s ‘golden age of communities’ lasted beyond a century; most folded in a matter of months. This golden age birthed more than 100 experimental communities, with more than 100,000 members in total who, according to the historian Mark Holloway in Heavens on Earth (1951)
      • for: stats, intentional community, intentional communities, stats - intentional communities
        • intentional communities fail at a rate slightly higher than most startups
      • for: intentional community, intentional communities, eco-community, ecocommunity
      • title
        • Utopia Inc Most utopian communities are, like most start-ups, short-lived. What makes the difference between failure and success?
    1. The sixth step, most essential as well, is to Accept the Wins

      Owning the losses means also owning the wins.

    2. The fifth step is to have Selective Memory only choose to remember the events that serve the future. Things that help to improve in the future.

      It's like Marcus Aurelius wrote (in a slightly different way): "Ask yourself at any moment, is this essential?" In this way it would become: "Ask yourself at any moment, does this help me?"

    3. The fourth step is to Apply the Reflection. Adjust behavior based on reflection. We improve not for validation, we improve for ourselves (stoic philosophy)

      Document the journey in for example a journal. Make a comparison between what would be done in the past and what will be done in the future.

      Data collection. Measurement.

      Marginal Gains. It's sort of a daily continous Kolb's cycle but in a more lightweight form. I can already see the power in this. Absolute gem.

      Could also be overwhelming if applied to a lot. therefore, use the power law and focus on what is essential to life change. (thanks Dr. Benjamin Hardy.)

    4. The third step is to Reflect and think into the future. Extract meaning and lessons from the failure. Think about opportunities.

      Reflection increases confidence. Kolb's can help with this a lot.

    5. The second step is Sit with the loss in order to find the (root) cause of the loss or pain. Do not avoid the pain, don't distract oneself, instead embrace it and feel it.

      Endurance can be trained. Comfort with uncomfortability can be trained in the same way.

      Accept and sit in the fire. Embrace the turmoil.

    6. The first step to deal with loss of any kind, be it a girlfriend, love, job, purpose, etc. Is to ACCEPT YOU LOST

      Failure = Failure.

      Failure is inevitable, and will be part of any learning process. Therefore it should not be avoided at all costs. It should be used to learn from. However; there is also no point in seeking failure, for if failure is not something negative, there is no point to improve (says the author at least)

    1. “If everyone did it the world would be a better place.”
      • for: intentional communities - failure
      • comment
        • moral highground and not actually having a collective scaling strategy are the reasons why this typically fails
    2. these kinds of issues are systemic and intrinsic and maybe even foundational to intentional communities.
      • for: intentional community, intentional communities, intentional communities - failure
      • claim
        • intentional communities have a fatal flaw, an intrinsic Achilles Heel
    3. 478 intentional communities since the 1820s have now shrunk to 112 worldwide in the last 30 years)
      • for: intentional community, intentional communities, intentional communities - failure, stats, stats - intentional communities
      • stats
        • of 478 intentional communities since the 1820s,
        • 112 exist worldwide in the last 30 years (1988 - 2018
      • for: intentional community, intentional communities, intentional communities - failure, stats, stats - intentional communities
      • stats
        • of 478 intentional communities since the 1820s,
        • 112 exist worldwide in the last 30 years (1988 - 2018
    1. how do you how do you think about what that community looks like and how you communicate that because in many senses you could say obviously you're hoping to build utopia 00:09:30 not dystopia right but but utopia and dystopia are different things with different people right and you could start out on this journey with uh with everyone saying we're going 00:09:42 to go to here point point a and then actually they decide their life changes they have a family or whatever they want to go over here and they put a lot of time into this or and equally point a could actually end up not looking like what they want to to be 00:09:55 part of how are you managing that journey for the people as part of the path
      • for: intentional community, intentional communities, DAO community, decentralized cities, Jonathan Hillis, Nora Bateson, intentional communities - failure
      • comment
        • this is a critical question
        • unfortunately, many people have tried living in intentional communities over many decades and the success rate is not high
        • listen to what Nora Bateson has to say about her experience of living in idealistic intentional communities and why they fail

      and

      https://hyp.is/ISC75i5JEe6lgW93D0Ye_A/docdrop.org/video/GE39xfNRRyw/

    1. I   grew up at Esalen and all these crazy new age-ey  sort of places, and I can tell you that I have   00:54:38 seen every flavor of self-help and personal  development that you could shake a stick at.   And none of them work. They all breed assholes.  I mean, I'm sorry, but if you're an asshole,   there's no way around it. Nothing's going to fix  you. And if you're not an asshole, then everything   is going to make you less of an asshole. So the reason that's important is that there's   00:55:02 a lot of pressure on how people should live, how  they should think, how they should be, how they   should feel. And this top-down instructional of  telling people how to live, think and feel is,   I think, a completely un-ecological process that  is interrupting the possibilities
      • for: intentional community, intentional communities,
    2. I can tell you that   my experience is that intentional communities  are not only not fun, but a disaster.   00:51:53 And one of the reasons they're both not fun and  a disaster is that they have a mission statement.   They already know where they're going and there's  some abstracted map-like idea that everyone thinks   that they're cohering to. But then it turns  out that everyone actually interpreted that   differently and the way they interpreted it  yesterday changed. And so that thing becomes   00:52:16 the territory on which you are in polarity with  each other and not the thing that you agree about.   The thing you fight about most is the mission  statement.
      • for: ecological civilization
        • Nora Bateson
          • Nora shares about the many diverse intentional communities she has lived in and found them all dysfunctional.
          • The problem is that they have a mission statement, a purpose.
          • The perspectival knowing is different for each person.
          • How do you nurture unintentional community?
          • support unintentional possibility
          • top-down instructional is an unecological process
          • The question "who can you be when you are with me?" is preferred over "what should you be?"
  8. Jun 2023
    1. I just can't get into these sort of high-ritual triage approaches to note-taking. I can admire it from afar, which I do, but find this sort of "consider this ahead of time before you make a move" approaches to really drag down my process.But, I do appreciate them from a sort of "aesthetics of academia" perspective.

      Reply to Bob Doto at https://www.reddit.com/r/Zettelkasten/comments/14ikfsy/comment/jplo3j2/?utm_source=reddit&utm_medium=web2x&context=3 with respect to PZ Compass Points.

      I'll agree wholeheartedly that applying methods like this to each note one takes is a "make work" exercise. It's apt to encourage people into the completist trap of turning every note they take into some sort of pristine so-called permanent or evergreen note, and there are already too many of those practitioners, who often give up in a few weeks wondering "where did I go wrong?".

      It's useful to know that these methods and tools exist, particularly for younger students, but I would never recommend that one apply them on a daily or even weekly basis. Maybe if one was having trouble with a particular idea or thought and wanted to more exhaustively explore the adjacent space around it, but even here going out for a walk in nature and allowing diffuse thinking to do some of the work is likely to be just as (maybe more?) productive.

      It could be the sort of thing to write down in your collection of Oblique Strategies to pull out when you're hitting a wall?

  9. May 2023
  10. Apr 2023
    1. Holding Negligent Doctors AccountableWhen a doctor fails to diagnose your medical condition, it can have serious consequences. We put our trust in medical workers to identify a disease to increase our chances of recovery. A doctor’s failure to diagnose is a form of medical malpractice because such negligence can cause significant injury

      I want: - monetary and punitive damages - I want to put it in the spot light that most "psychotherapists" are not qualified, but people, themselves, think they are, and law language makes them think they are - that law, nor anything, meaningfully restrictions anyone from making a "diagnosis" - that not only are psychotherapists not qualified, they are not qualified to know when they are not qualified and refer out - that there is gross insufficiency in not only oversight, but no meaningful sufficient method/tools by which to measure and enforce oversight - that there is gross insufficiency in sound method to match mental needs to mental services - to provide parents and children and welfare the tools and ammo to select, apply, enforce, and measure performance of services - further to do the same for every other person in this world who is in need of, receiving ineffective, receiving damage because of wrong, mental care.

  11. Mar 2023
    1. Every child who fails in his school work or is in danger of failing should be given a mental examination. The examination takes less than one hour, and the result will contribute more to a real understanding of the case than anything else that could be done. It is necessary to determine whether a given child is unsuccessful in school because of poor native ability, or because of poor instruction, lack of interest, or some other removable cause.

      I agree with this statement because if someone is failing there is a reason behind why they are failing. There could be many causes as to why someone fails something. This is important to the history of psychology because failure has happened many times throughout history and there are probably some underlining factors as to why some psychologists failed at certain things. Some causes of failure are lack of interest, poor instruction, poor self-esteem, and things happening at home that are distracting.

    2. When instruction must be repeated, it means that the school, as well as the pupil, has failed.

      I agree with this statement because the student failed because they couldn't understand the material, but it is the school's fault for not providing the tools for the student to be successful such as tutoring or help make course work easier to understand. I think this is important to the history of psychology because we have more resources now that are being used to help students not fail. Back in history there probably wasn't many resources to make sure someone would pass a class or understand material. There are many resources now that are being used to help improve intelligence and prevent failure.

    3. While we cannot hold all children to the same standard of school progress, we can at least prevent the kind of retardation which involves failure and the repetition of a school grade. It is well enough recognized that children do not enter with very much zest upon school work in which they have once failed. Failure crushes self-confidence and destroys the spirit of work. It is a sad fact that a large proportion of children in the schools are acquiring the habit of failure. The remedy, of course, is to measure out the work for each child in proportion to his mental ability.

      I agree that failure crushes self-confidence and destroys the spirit students have. I think that trying to prevent children from failure is the best thing someone can do because no one likes to fail at anything. I think this can relate to anyone but, I will use a psychologist as an example, for example, a psychologist does an experiment, but the experiment fails, it might make the psychologist not want to do another experiment. When I failed a reading assessment I felt like crying and that I would always be bad at reading. I think failure is important to the history of psychology because there were probably many failures when trying to acquire knowledge about different things. They overcame failure by understanding their mental abilities which is being used to help prevent children from failing because they are trying to measure each children's mental ability so they can be taught correctly and will possibly won't fail. This is important to history as well because everyone is different and so they can't hold children to the same standard of school progress.

    1. Michel Thomas Method Review

      Michel Thomas method also includes: - atomic pieces built up as building blocks into larger pieces - lots of encouragement to prevent the feeling of failure

      Downsides: - there is no failure mode which can nudge people into a false sense of performance when using their language with actual native speakers

      This reviewer indicates that there is some base level of directed mnemonic work going on, but the repetition level isn't such that long term retention (at least in the space repetition sort of way) is a specific goal. We'll need to look into this piece more closely to firm this up, however.

    1. more research and development dollars focus, for example, onnew medications for the pets of the affuent than for all African trop-ical diseases. And monies spent on innovations in the packaging anddistribution of bottled water for rich-world consumers dwarfs researchand development investments in clean-water systems for the poor inAsia and Africa

      // - market driven solutions distort achieving a good life for all - rather, they prioritize meeting the desires of the rich rather than the needs of the poor - investment flows to where money is expected to be made, not necessarily for any form of justice

    1. for instance, when the recipient’s address is full (a soft bounce: just wait and re-send) or worst, when it’s non-existent (a hard bounce: you need to remove the account from your list)
  12. Feb 2023
  13. Jan 2023
    1. The moral vocabulary that climate activists and public health professionals use is not able to activate the moral and political imagination that effective ecological and health governance require. To respond to the recurring crises that are coming, the governance of complex societies must be able to reach the tap roots latent in their own moral ethos, politics, and motivational structures.

      !- identification : of failings of current climate activists

    1. As I detail in a later section

      Search indicates the word "later" appears in this book 123 times, about half of them (57 by a quick count) are in contexts of the author saying he'll explain something later in the book. This is an annoying habit and would be better replaced with links to the exact pages where the material occurs.

      Alternately/in addition to, an index could be immensely helpful here.

      How does a book which speaks so heavily of indices and their value not have an index?

    Tags

    Annotators

  14. Dec 2022
    1. transitions are hard and require a well-thought through strategy to prevent failure, especially if the goal is to be whole ethically.
    2. The myth that this was caused by Craigslist or Google drives me bonkers. Throughout the 80s and 90s, private equity firms and hedge funds gobbled up local news enterprises to extract their real estate. They didn’t give a shit about journalism; they just wanted prime real estate that they could develop. And news organizations had it in the form of buildings in the middle of town. So financiers squeezed the news orgs until there was no money to be squeezed and then they hung them out to dry. There was no configuration in which local news was going to survive, no magical upwards trajectory of revenue based on advertising alone. If it weren’t for Craigslist and Google, the financiers would’ve squeezed these enterprises for a few more years, but the end state was always failure.

      danah boyd posits that journalism in the United States didn't fail as the result of Craigslist or Google, but because of hedge funds and investors acquiring them to strip out their valuable real estate.

    3. Perception of failure can bring about failure, but it doesn’t always.
    4. Perceptions of failure don’t always lead to shared ideas of how to learn from these lessons.
    5. There are failures that everyone can agree are failures (e.g. the explosion of the Challenger), but most failures are a matter of perception.
    1. Can't annotate on https://feedback.mailgun.com/forums/156243-feature-requests/suggestions/39905227-provide-meaningful-delivery-status-description-rat so posting here instead.

      Anonymous commented · May 26, 2021 4:36 AM

      Without your comment I'd never find the real issue, because I was only look at permanent failures. That error message is really misleading, hope they can fix this.

      Kelly commented · December 30, 2020 2:35 AM

      Yes we desperately need this too. Half of our recipients were soft bounced due to "Too old" but we could still send to them previously on other ESPs.

    2. Certain email servers, Yahoo especially, throttle deliveries when multiple inbound is detected from the same IP. When this happens, Mailgun sends a "temporary" severity bounce. Mailgun will continue to retry over a period of time. If it can't deliver after 8 hours. The email will permanently fail with severity: permanent and reason: old.
    3. Just to add that there is also reason: old. This happens when email cannot be delivered after 8 hours. It should still be treated as a non permanent bounce though.
    4. I did some further digging and found that there is a reason property that can be used to determine whether Mailgun added an email address to its bounce suppression list:
    5. ...but even repeated soft bounces is a message level event, not one that means there will never be an opportunity to deliver to this address again. Hence Mailgun itself not adding this to their permanent uppression list..but that implies, right, that they will send to the permanent failure hook in this case?

      That could be a problem, if it actually send to the permanent failure hook in this case. Then you would have to hit their bounces API to check whether it's actually a permanent failure / hard bounce for the recipient as opposed to just for this message.

    6. From that quote above, it is clear Mailgun recognise this issue themselves (the possibility of one-off soft bounces for a variety of reasons) and therefore do not add these contacts to their permanent bounce list - unless its a true hard bounce. But they are rightly still alerting that the message in question has permanently failed to be delivered on this occasion.
    7. Mailgun, with its permanent failure webhook, is sending a message about a permanent failure of that specific message - it is Campaign that is then making a decision to translate this message, about just that one message, into a permanently bounced (suppressed) contact, and blocking all future emails to that contact - based on, what is clearly quite possibly just a temporary failure. It's really the distinction between a single message level (temporary) problem and a (permanent) contact level problem that is being lost with Campaign's current approach.
    8. but that before marking the contact as a bounced, Campaign should double check it was really a hard bounce that would affect future deliverability.
    9. some are legit bounces (people who typed emails wrongly etc) - but some are 'too old' which is a generic deliverability type message (according to Mailgun)

      too old error

    10. This becomes, then, a thorny problem - these perfectly valid emails, that are affected by this temporary issue - are marked as permanently bounced in Campaign...when they really shouldn't be given this bigger picture.
    11. But these are not permanent failures - they ARE permanent for that message of course

      Exactly. I arrived at the same conclusion.

    12. his is not wonderfully clear/great form Mailgun's end (as they are effectively translating a temporary delivery issues into a message about a permanent contact failure) - but the net effect is pretty broken handling of temporary bounces against contacts, which just creates inaccuracies and a bit of a mess.
  15. Oct 2022
    1. An adviser should have their students explicitly practice decisions 25 and 26, test their solutions, and try to come up with the ways their decisions could fail, including alternative conclusions that are not the findings that they were hoping for. Thinking of such failure modes is something that even many experienced physicists are not very good at, but our research has shown that it can be readily learned with practice.

      To help fight cognitive bias, one should actively think about potential failure modes of one's decisions and think about alternative conclusions which aren't part of the findings one might have hoped for. Watching out for these can dramatically help increase solution spaces and be on the watch out for innovative alternate or even better solutions.

  16. Sep 2022
    1. This code is much easier to understand as it do not add levels of indentation and follows the principle where the 0 indentation level is the principal path of the application where other paths are exceptions or rare cases.
  17. Aug 2022
    1. Industrious, shy herbivores they may be, but the beavers of the Tierra del Fuego archipelago on the southern tip of South America are such a menace that scientists are planning the largest eradication project ever attempted.

      Okay, so don't translocate beavers. It seems like they could reap havoc if there is no natural predators.

  18. Jul 2022
    1. NOTES AND REFERENCES

      Dear god I really hate when publishers do their references/notes like this. Sitting here at the end, unlinked to the actual text. There's a special place in hell for editors that do this in the digital age.

  19. Jun 2022
    1. Research is messy and full of failed attempts. Trying to protect students from that reality does them a disservice.

      Yup. This is basically a version of "don't coddle your students".

    1. https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/the-complicated-legacy-of-e-o-wilson/

      I can see why there's so much backlash on this piece.

      It could and should easily have been written without any reference at all to E. O. Wilson and been broadly interesting and true. However given the editorial headline "The Complicated Legacy of E. O. Wilson", the recency of his death, and the photo at the top, it becomes clickbait for something wholly other.

      There is only passing reference to Wilson and any of his work and no citations whatsoever about who he was or why his work was supposedly controversial. Instead the author leans in on the the idea of the biology being the problem instead of the application of biology to early anthropology which dramatically mis-read the biology and misapplied it for the past century and a half to bolster racist ideas and policies.

      The author indicates that we should be better with "citational practices when using or reporting on problematic work", but wholly forgets to apply it to her own writing in this very piece.

      I'm aware that the magazine editors are most likely the ones that chose the headline and the accompanying photo, but there's a failure here in both editorial and writing for this piece to have appeared in Scientific American in a way as to make it more of a hit piece on Wilson just days after his death. Worse, the backlash of the broadly unsupported criticism of Wilson totally washed out the attention that should have been placed on the meat of the actual argument in the final paragraphs.

      Editorial failed massively on all fronts here.


      This article seems to be a clear example of the following:

      Any time one uses the word "problematic" to describe cultural issues, it can't stand alone without some significant context building and clear arguments about exactly what was problematic and precisely why. Otherwise the exercise is a lot of handwaving and puffery that does neither side of an argument or its intended audiences any good.

  20. Apr 2022
  21. Mar 2022
    1. Shirky has described the pre-Web era of publishing as working on a “filter, then publish” paradigm, subjecting text to editors and publishers before making it available; now, Shirky observes, the paradigm has flipped to “publish then filter.”103 In that sense, Shirky adds, “there is no such thing as information overload, there is only filter failure.”104

      Is das flipped classroom eigentlich auch schon ohnehin flipped - wie das publishing nicht erst gefiltert wird? Irgendwie (weiß noch nicht wie) glaube ich, dass diese Drehung auf der einen Seite auch im Klassenraum Wiederhall findet

    Tags

    Annotators

    1. young companies typically fail because you have a charismatic leader with a bunch of beliefs, but those beliefs don't translate to the rest of their company

      failure in communication

    1. The imperial dream was always there, but you know, empires are often the creation of a very small gang of people at the top. I don’t think the Russian people [are] interested in this war. I don't think that the Russian people want to conquer Ukraine or to slaughter the citizens of Kyiv.

      The interesting modern historical question is why does a small gang of authoritarian leaders seem to rise up to the top and take over Russia? Is there some fundamental lesson that the people of Russia have not yet learned that creates this atmosphere of enabling authoritarianism? Yeltsin tried but it failed and this vacuum created the space for the opportunity Putin to step in. The danger of failed democracy is authoritarianism waiting in the wings.

  22. Feb 2022
    1. Indeed, the Jose-phinian card index owes its continued use to the failure to achieve a bound

      catalog, until a successor card catalog comes along in 1848. Only the<br /> absence of a bound repertory allows the paper slip aggregate to answer all inquiries about a book ’ s whereabouts after 1781. Thus, a failed undertaking tacitly turns into a success story.

      The Josephinian card index was created, in part on the ideas of Konrad Gessner's slip method, by accumulating slips which could be rearranged and then copied down permanently. While there was the chance that the original cards could be disordered, the fact that the approximately 300,000 cards in 205 small boxes were estimated to fill 50 to 60 folio volumes with time and expense to print it dissuaded the creation of a long desired compiled book of books. These problems along with the fact that new books being added later was sure to only compound problems of having a single reference. This failure to have a bound catalog of books unwittingly resulted in the success of the index card catalog.

  23. Jan 2022
    1. Respiratory failure can be broadly categorized as hypoxemic respiratory failure (respiratory insufficiency) or hypercapnic respiratory failure (ventilatory failure), and the two forms may coexist

      Hypercapnic and Hypoxic Resp failure can co-exist

    2. Acute respiratory failure is defined as the requirement for mechanical ventilation longer than 48 hours postoperatively or unplanned reintubation for cardiac or respiratory failure.

      Respiratory failure defined.

  24. Dec 2021
    1. One of my greatest concerns about this field today is that almost all of the problem discovery happens by a kind of self-interested navel-gazing process, where product builders take the quote “build things you would want to use” a little too literally, and build products for the small niche group of people interested in note-taking tools and processes. This leads to products that seem useful to a small group of other people who are also working in this space and familiar with its vernacular and concepts, but are unusable or unapproachable by most people outside of that small community. I think this is a dangerous failure mode.

      The level of complexity to using some of these tools is also a huge hurdle for the everyday user as well. Some require deep knowledge of the tool along with coding ability as well.

      Perhaps this complexity barrier will come down over time, but some projects don't seem to be working toward making things easier and simpler for the end user.

  25. Nov 2021
    1. we have a very 00:38:26 unwieldy process of more than close to 200 countries with very stark differences sometimes and very different starting points so i think all of this doesn't really 00:38:39 make a good sort of negotiation process and if we if we go to the next cup my sense is that the process is extremely slow and we are 00:38:50 more or less at say setting ourselves up for failure but also you know we are going to one cup after another we with a great sense of a predictability of something that we know it's not going 00:39:03 to work at the pace at which it needs to work

      countries negotiating may not be as effective as working at the individual / civil society level to appeal to the wealthy demographics, who are responsible for the lions share of emissions.

  26. Oct 2021
  27. Sep 2021
    1. No one is going to be able to imagine a text online without annotations anymore.” They also foresaw a day when the site’s algorithmic evaluation of your Genius annotations — their “Genius IQ” — would be so widely accepted that it “could impact your grades in primary school and your ability to get a job in a certain field.” (“We’re going to have annotations on other sites, so every other site in the world like the Wall Street Journal and the New York Times are going be Genius-powered and they’re going to have our annotations on them. And then the Genius platform will take over the internet; everyone’s most important statistic that they have in life is their Genius IQ.”)

      Great example of the overly optimistic rose colored glasses of the venture fund backed tech elite. How do they still get away with such blatant failures? Who hold them socially and financially accountable?

  28. Apr 2021
  29. Mar 2021
  30. Feb 2021
  31. Jan 2021
  32. Dec 2020
    1. An authority that answers to itself, that derives its power not from an open system, but from a closed system is a tyranny and prone to a failure-denial cycle in which each failure is then covered up by greater abuses of power until the resulting disaster can no longer be covered up.

      failure-denial cycle

    1. If only Santa Anna had not repealed the Constitution of 1824. If only Santa Anna had not dissolved the legislatures. If only Santa Anna had not killed every Texan prisoner. If only Santa Anna had not gone to sleep without posting a guard at San Jacinto. If only Santa Anna had done any of these things Texas would probably still be a Mexican state; however, Santa Anna did none of these things. In fact it was his failure to do any of these things that caused Texas to become an independent republic.

      This is good opinion/info to support my claim. If only Santa Anna had given mercy to the Texans, he could've used them against their side, and they could've helped him get more prisoners or win the revolution and continue his rein over Texas.

    2. At first Santa Anna's policy of execution carried the desired effect; all the Texans ran toward the American border (see map). However, his policy backfired. All the weak hearted Texan soldiers quit the army leaving only the hard core men.

      This is good to show how his execution of Texas soldiers wasn't working for him because everyone was willing to fight even harder, not going to die without a fight.

  33. Nov 2020
    1. Chevy tried an all-emoji press release about a new car that came across as very forced, proving that less is more when it comes to using emojis in emails. Not to mention, it’s almost impossible to decipher the message they’re trying to communicate.
    1. How can we help our students feel safe?

      I feel like this question needs to be asked more. We talk about our classrooms as being places where it should be "safe" to take risks and to fail, but it's not enough for us to assert it, and I'd argue not enough for us to implement only the policies which would address our own concerns. We really have to ask how our students perceive their safety.

  34. Oct 2020
    1. complexity in financial innovations is itself an important risk factor for systemic failure in the financial sector
    1. Ahrens notes that in most cases, students fail not because of a lack of ability, but because they lose a personal connection to what they are learning: “When even highly intelligent students fail in their studies, it’s most often because they cease to see the meaning in what they were supposed to learn (cf. Balduf 2009), are unable to make a connection to their personal goals (Glynn et al. 2009) or lack the ability to control their own studies autonomously and on their own terms (Reeve and Jan 2006; Reeve 2009).”
  35. Aug 2020
  36. Jul 2020
  37. Jun 2020
    1. Just as journalists should be able to write about anything they want, comedians should be able to do the same and tell jokes about anything they please

      where's the line though? every output generates a feedback loop with the hivemind, turning into input to ourselves with our cracking, overwhelmed, filters

      it's unrealistic to wish everyone to see jokes are jokes, to rely on journalists to generate unbiased facts, and politicians as self serving leeches, err that's my bias speaking

  38. May 2020
  39. Apr 2020
    1. Before we get to passwords, surely you already have in mind that Google knows everything about you. It knows what websites you’ve visited, it knows where you’ve been in the real world thanks to Android and Google Maps, it knows who your friends are thanks to Google Photos. All of that information is readily available if you log in to your Google account. You already have good reason to treat the password for your Google account as if it’s a state secret.
    2. You already have good reason to treat the password for your Google account as if it’s a state secret. But now the stakes are higher. You’re trusting Google with the passwords that protect the rest of your life – your bank, your shopping, your travel, your private life. If someone learns or guesses your Google account password, you are completely compromised. The password has to be complex and unique. You have to treat your Google account password with the same care as a LastPass user. Perhaps more so, because it’s easier to reset a Google account password. If your passwords are saved in Chrome, you should strongly consider using two-factor authentication to log into your Google account. I’ll talk about that in the next article.
    1. Heart failure44 (23%)28 (52%)16 (12%)<0·0001Septic shock38 (20%)38 (70%)0<0·0001Coagulopathy37 (19%)27 (50%)10 (7%)<0·0001Acute cardiac injury33 (17%)32 (59%)1 (1%)<0·0001Acute kidney injury28 (15%)27 (50%)1 (1%)<0·0001
  40. Jul 2019
    1. might markets just not work?

      Same thing in publishing, too. Lots of people say journal costs are inflated & they can run one cheaper. They're right, but there are two considerations: a) in a market economy prices reflect more than just costs. They reflect the economic value, which includes things like brand value, prestige and also, as this & the other posts argue, an inflation due to productivity rising in adjacent market sectors. So the market failures seem to come from a) the difficulty knowing how much something should cost (having comparables and not having too much complexity to understand) and b) too high value ascribed to the status or prestige (which, if understood as a social consensus proxy that reduces the complexity of actually understanding the business & what it's value to the consumer should be, collapses b into a).

  41. Mar 2019
    1. WorkIt comes first. Creative projects from around the network.WorkingAll about working here, and the people who do.NewsThe latest media coverage + insights from us.AboutWho we are, where to find us.ContactHow to get in touch.Follow us onFacebookTwitterInstagramOfficesPortland224 NW 13th AvePortland, OR 97209USA503 937 7000AmsterdamHerengracht 258-2661016 BV AmsterdamThe Netherlands+31 20 712 6500New York150 Varick StNew York, NY 10013USA917 661 5200Tokyo1-7-13, KamimeguroMeguro-ku, TokyoJapan 153-0051+81 3 5459 2800London16 Hanbury StLondon E1 6QRUK+44 20 7194 7000Shanghai1035 Changle RoadShanghai 200031ChinaDelhi314, DLF South CourtSaketNew Delhi 110017 India+91 11 4200 9595 São PauloRua Natingui, 442 Vila MadalenaSão Paulo – SP 05443-000Brazil+55 11 3937-9400Click to revealPlay VideoPlayCurrent Time 0:09/Duration Time 0:09Loaded: 0%Progress: 100.00%Non-Fullscreen+PDX Nike: Dream Crazier Click to revealPlay VideoPauseCurrent Time 0:00/Duration Time 0:12Loaded: 0%Progress: 3.41%Non-Fullscreen+NYC Bud Light: Ingredients Click to revealPlay VideoPlayCurrent Time 0:11/Duration Time 0:11Loaded: 0%Progress: 100.00%Non-Fullscreen+PDX Coca-Cola: A Coke is a Coke Click to revealPlay VideoPlayCurrent Time 0:05/Duration Time 0:14Loaded: 0%Progress: 38.53%Non-Fullscreen+PDX TurboTax: 2019 Tax Season Campaigns Play VideoPlayCurrent Time 0:00/Duration Time 0:08Loaded: 0%Progress: 6.70%Non-Fullscreen+PDXOld Spice: Men Have Skin TooOld Spice’s Newest Global Brand Ambassador Deon Cole Reminds the World: Men Have Skin Too.View work Back to Back: Fast Company Names W+K #1 Most Innovative In Advertising for the Second Year in a RowFor staying two steps ahead of culture—for Nike, KFC, and more.Read the story Wieden+Kennedy is a global, independent agency that creates strong and provocative relationships between good companies and their customers. +AMSØrsted: Hello To A Better FutureEncouraging the next generation to make green choices.View work Play VideoPlayCurrent Time 0:00/Duration Time 0:10Loaded: 0%Progress: 7.64%Non-Fullscreen+SHNike: DRIBBLE &___DRIBBLE &___ is a reminder that athletes can be much, much more than just athletes. View work From Fast Company: "Wieden+Kennedy just keeps doing it"The largest remaining independent agency strives to make advertising that transcends branding and drives the pop-culture conversation.Read the story Play VideoPlayCurrent Time 0:00/Duration Time 0:14Loaded: 0%Progress: 0.00%Non-Fullscreen+SHNike: Shanghai's Never Done Nike’s “Shanghai's Never Done” celebrates the never-satisfied spirit of Shanghai athletes by centering on a man who seems stuck in the past.View work +LDNDeliveroo: Food FreedomOur debut campaign for Deliveroo celebrates the freedom to have what you want, when you want it, where you want itView work Play VideoPlayCurrent Time 0:00/Duration Time 0:09Loaded: 0%Progress: 0.00%Non-Fullscreen+NYCFord: Built Ford Proud Our first Ford work spotlights the innovation and manufacturing might of America’s favorite automotive brand.View work Play VideoPlayCurrent Time 0:00/Duration Time 0:06Loaded: 0%Progress: 0.00%Non-Fullscreen+PDXNike: Dream CrazyDon’t ask if your dreams are crazy. Ask if they’re crazy enough.View work Play VideoPlayCurrent Time 0:00/Duration Time 0:07Loaded: 0%Progress: 0.00%Non-Fullscreen+AMSInstagram: Parent ToolsA series of online videos showcasing the instant power of Instagram’s tools.View work +AMSThe Case For ChaosW+K Amsterdam's Martin Weigel breaks down the difference between what the corporation wants and what creativity needs.Read the story Play VideoPlayCurrent Time 0:00/Duration Time 0:08Loaded: 0%Progress: 0.00%Non-Fullscreen+SPNike BrasileiragemFor the 2018 World Cup, we celebrated a new generation while throwing back to an iconic spot.View work Play VideoPlayCurrent Time 0:00/Duration Time 0:12Loaded: 0%Progress: 0.00%Non-Fullscreen+LDNThree: Phones Are GoodThree takes on the phone cynics with a new brand campaign.View work Play VideoPlayCurrent Time 0:00/Duration Time 0:06Loaded: 0%Progress: 0.00%Non-Fullscreen+NYCBud Light: Dilly DillyA cultural phenomenon starts with two simple words.View work <div class="video-react-controls-enabled video-react-paused video-react-user-active video-react-workinghover video-react content__preview__image__video_preview " style="width:100%px;height:100%px;" tabindex="-1"><video class="video-react-video content__preview__image__video_preview " muted="" preload="auto" loop="" playsinline="" src="//videos.ctfassets.net/ckso4uqg4vio/4JxXPjosgwW6Iiw4Ea2gCc/ef88449c842f6ff4300dc88cdd3f7578/Shiseido-previewvideo.mp4"></video><div class="video-react-loading-spinner content__preview__image__video_preview "></div><button class="video-react-big-play-button video-react-big-play-button-left content__preview__image__video_preview big-play-button-hide" type="button" aria-live="polite" tabindex="0"><span class="video-react-control-text">Play Video</span></button><div class="video-react-control-bar video-react-control-bar-auto-hide content__preview__image__video_preview "><button class="content__preview__image__video_preview video-react-play-control video-react-control video-react-button video-react-paused" type="button" tabindex="0"><span class="video-react-control-text">Play</span></button><div class="content__preview__image__video_preview video-react-volume-menu-button-horizontal video-react-vol-3 video-react-volume-menu-button video-react-menu-button-inline video-react-control video-react-button video-react-menu-button" role="button" tabindex="0"><div class="video-react-menu"><div class="video-react-menu-content"><div class="content__preview__image__video_preview video-react-slider-horizontal video-react-slider" tabindex="0" aria-label="volume level" aria-valuenow="100.00" aria-valuetext="100.00%" aria-valuemin="0" aria-valuemax="100"><div class="content__preview__image__video_preview video-react-volume-level" style="width:100.00%;"><span class="video-react-control-text"></span></div></div></div></div></div><div class="video-react-current-time video-react-time-control video-react-control content__preview__image__video_preview "><div class="video-react-current-time-display" aria-live="off"><span class="video-react-control-text">Current Time </span>0:00</div></div><div class="video-react-time-control video-react-time-divider content__preview__image__video_preview " dir="ltr"><div><span>/</span></div></div><div class="content__preview__image__video_preview video-react-duration video-react-time-control video-react-control"><div class="video-react-duration-display" aria-live="off"><span class="video-react-control-text">Duration Time </span>0:00</div></div><div class="video-react-progress-control video-react-control content__preview__image__video_preview "><div class="video-react-progress-holder content__preview__image__video_preview video-react-slider-horizontal video-react-slider" tabindex="0" aria-label="video progress bar" aria-valuenow="NaN" aria-valuetext="0:00" aria-valuemin="0" aria-valuemax="100"><div data-current-time="0:00" class="video-react-play-progress video-react-slider-bar" style="width:NaN%;"><span class="video-react-control-text"><span>Progress</span>: NaN%</span></div></div></div><button class="content__preview__image__video_preview video-react-icon-fullscreen video-react-fullscreen-control video-react-control video-react-button video-react-icon" type="button" tabindex="0"><span class="video-react-control-text">Non-Fullscreen</span></button></div></div>+TYOShiseido WASO: All Things Beautiful Come From NatureTo launch a new product for a new audience, we created a digital/mobile campaign that fused nature, technology and art.View work It’s Not (All) Rocket Science: How Brand Mission Guided KFC’s TurnaroundHow the Colonel became the King of branded everything. Read the story <div class="video-react-controls-enabled video-react-paused video-react-user-active video-react-workinghover video-react content__preview__image__video_preview " style="width:100%px;height:100%px;" tabindex="-1"><video class="video-react-video content__preview__image__video_preview " muted="" preload="auto" loop="" playsinline="" src="//videos.ctfassets.net/ckso4uqg4vio/gRmHQGU4QoYIKooaUsCGY/4a4ef51b1efa473aef02399ab7067d64/Nike-dadading-previewvideo.mp4"></video><div class="video-react-loading-spinner content__preview__image__video_preview "></div><button class="video-react-big-play-button video-react-big-play-button-left content__preview__image__video_preview big-play-button-hide" type="button" aria-live="polite" tabindex="0"><span class="video-react-control-text">Play Video</span></button><div class="video-react-control-bar video-react-control-bar-auto-hide content__preview__image__video_preview "><button class="content__preview__image__video_preview video-react-play-control video-react-control video-react-button video-react-paused" type="button" tabindex="0"><span class="video-react-control-text">Play</span></button><div class="content__preview__image__video_preview video-react-volume-menu-button-horizontal video-react-vol-3 video-react-volume-menu-button video-react-menu-button-inline video-react-control video-react-button video-react-menu-button" role="button" tabindex="0"><div class="video-react-menu"><div class="video-react-menu-content"><div class="content__preview__image__video_preview video-react-slider-horizontal video-react-slider" tabindex="0" aria-label="volume level" aria-valuenow="100.00" aria-valuetext="100.00%" aria-valuemin="0" aria-valuemax="100"><div class="content__preview__image__video_preview video-react-volume-level" style="width:100.00%;"><span class="video-react-control-text"></span></div></div></div></div></div><div class="video-react-current-time video-react-time-control video-react-control content__preview__image__video_preview "><div class="video-react-current-time-display" aria-live="off"><span class="video-react-control-text">Current Time </span>0:00</div></div><div class="video-react-time-control video-react-time-divider content__preview__image__video_preview " dir="ltr"><div><span>/</span></div></div><div class="content__preview__image__video_preview video-react-duration video-react-time-control video-react-control"><div class="video-react-duration-display" aria-live="off"><span class="video-react-control-text">Duration Time </span>0:00</div></div><div class="video-react-progress-control video-react-control content__preview__image__video_preview "><div class="video-react-progress-holder content__preview__image__video_preview video-react-slider-horizontal video-react-slider" tabindex="0" aria-label="video progress bar" aria-valuenow="NaN" aria-valuetext="0:00" aria-valuemin="0" aria-valuemax="100"><div data-current-time="0:00" class="video-react-play-progress video-react-slider-bar" style="width:NaN%;"><span class="video-react-control-text"><span>Progress</span>: NaN%</span></div></div></div><button class="content__preview__image__video_preview video-react-icon-fullscreen video-react-fullscreen-control video-react-control video-react-button video-react-icon" type="button" tabindex="0"><span class="video-react-control-text">Non-Fullscreen</span></button></div></div>+DLNike: DaDaDingWe made a music video to show the power of women in sport. And it was FIERCE. AS. (You Know)View work +NYCLyft: StaycationGetting New Yorkers off their block and into an exotic (local) destination.View work The work comes f |WorkWorkingNewsAboutContactPortland224 NW 13th AvePortland, OR 97209USA503 937 7000New BusinessMaggie Jenningsmaggie.jennings@wk.com1 503-937-7838AmsterdamHerengracht 258-2661016 BV AmsterdamThe Netherlands+31 20 712 6500New BusinessBen Proutben.prout@wk.com+316 52 86 71 49New York150 Varick StNew York, NY 10013USA917 661 5200New BusinessJacqueline Steelejacqueline.steele@wk.com1 917-661-5265Tokyo1-7-13, KamimeguroMeguro-ku, TokyoJapan 153-0051+81 3 5459 2800New BusinessRyan Fisherryan.fisher@wk.com81-80-4753-8114London16 Hanbury StLondon E1 6QRUK+44 20 7194 7000New BusinessZoe Mitchellwklondon.newbiz@wk.com+44 207 194 7000Shanghai1035 Changle RoadShanghai 200031ChinaNew BusinessBryan Tilsonbryan.tilson@wk.com86 21 5158 3975Delhi314, DLF South CourtSaketNew Delhi 110017 India+91 11 4200 9595 New BusinessGautham Narayanannewbizdelhi@wk.com+91 11 4200 9595São PauloRua Natingui, 442 Vila MadalenaSão Paulo – SP 05443-000Brazil+55 11 3937-9400New BusinessFernanda Antonellifernanda.antonelli@wk.com+55 11 3937 9401© Wieden Kennedy 2018 · Legal StuffFollow us onFacebookTwitterInstagram

      I applied for an internship here 3 years in a row after graduating from portfolio school. Never got an interview. This is me failing harder.

  42. Jan 2019
    1. No technique, no professional skill can be acquired without exercise; nor can the art of living, the technê tou biou, be learned without askesis that should be understood as a training of the self by oneself.

      Like any other skill, living "well," which differs depending on the person, requires lived experience. It involves navigating life through achievements and failures through which skills are acquired.

  43. Oct 2018
    1. At the time, the young children’s father had been granted full custody of the children, and Lacey was only allowed to be with them under his supervision. She had been prevented from gaining custody over these children because in 2008 she was found to be taking care of them while using drugs.

      Al Lacey perder la custodia por su adicción, es muy probable que sus hijos pequeños hayan desarrollado una falta de apego a la madre que es quien usualmente provee la base segura para que el infante y el niño pueda "aventurarse a salir" y explorar los espacios y su ambiente. La falta de este proceso critico para aprender y desarrollarse como entidad propia puede causar baja autoestima que contribuye a que el adulto sea ansioso, necesitado e ineficaz.

  44. Jun 2018
  45. Sep 2017
    1. we simply had far less experience in component-based architectures and open application programming interfaces (APIs) that allow the interconnection and communication of systems and components

      technical reasons for NGDLE failure

    2. At an institutional level, the lack of a clearly articulated transition path from the LMS to a potentially more flexible, component-based successor was undoubtedly a significant factor.

      Institutional reason for NGDLE failure.

  46. Feb 2017
    1. There is an unsettling gap between our pedagogical goals and the structural rewards of university. Students fear that taking chances in an assignment might mean a lower grade. Taking a class outside their main discipline might prove a stretch and lower their GPA. This produces risk-averse behaviour rather than bold, fearless action. We need opportunities to better align the learning goals we say we aspire to teach and the learning outcomes we get.

      Fear of failure

  47. Jan 2017
    1. Anderson's theory of Faulting explains some of the faults found in nature but fails to find all types of fault and fault system.

      Parabolic failure envelope again as it gets into negative stresses.

      At high stresses( opposite of tensile stresses) plastic deformation occurs at high normal stress, shear stress would be independent here. if the differential stress is known you can start to form a composite failure envelope in which the 5 fault types occur at different differential stresses

    2. The relationship between the shear stresses vs the normal stresses will determine the type of fracture seen and it is called the composite failure envelope- KNOW THIS PAGE

      Coulomb failure criterion: shear stress = Cohesion + The multiplication between the normal stress and mu is the coefficient of internal friction.

      KNOW THE SHEAR FAILURE CRITERIA PAGES !!!

      sigma 1- sigma3= sigma failure..... There is a straight line between the failure point of shear stress and the difference between sigma 3 and sigma 1.

      There's failure points of larger differences will be of the same angle... in the diagram it;s about 60 degrees. this is the coefficient of internal friction or mu.

      IF you generate a fault is always 30 degrees to sigma 1 and 60 degrees to sigma 3

    3. The stresses build up around the discontinuity or hole and that can be concentrated on the edges is the shape has a an elliptical shape. The more elongated the crack to more stress is concentrated at the edges of crack. The total stress was the same but because of the discontinuity the bonds at the edges of the crack saw too much stress and with this the geologic stresses of 100 see total stresses of 1000 in those sports which would mean the paradox we had is essentially solved. stresses at the tips of cracks will continually keep multiply and continue cracking until... no more airplane wings. The concentration is caused by the loss of the stress the crack or hole could have handled if were whole. Nature keeps propagating the cracks so while t the hole may keep getting bigger the force the stresses likely will not get more intense.

      Wednesday we will se how this works with compression

  48. Jan 2016