35 Matching Annotations
  1. Nov 2022
    1. https://www.evernote.com/shard/s204/client/snv?noteGuid=5b7828b7-c4f9-4242-b62f-788eeb44c76e&noteKey=34f69bfeebbb6bca&sn=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.evernote.com%2Fshard%2Fs204%2Fsh%2F5b7828b7-c4f9-4242-b62f-788eeb44c76e%2F34f69bfeebbb6bca&title=Powerful%252C%2Bnon-judgmental%2Bquestions

      Powerful, non-judgmental questions

      • If you had to guess, what would have to be true for you to...?
      • If you did know...
      • (on tangent) ...and how does that relate to you?
      • What's not allowing you to...?
      • What prevents you from asking…?
      • Do you want to go into this?
      • What's your criteria for saying yes?
      • What would have you say yes?
      • What are the things we're lacking?
      • What's the scary question that you're not asking?
      • What are the qualities you want for [being, action, process, etc.]?
      • How would you behave if you were the best in the world at what you do?

      I'm starting a list of powerful, non-judgmental questions for coaching or just relationships in general. Here's the starting batch https://t.co/ktsYVxkQna pic.twitter.com/Dq1zQnWqAS

      — Tiago Forte (@fortelabs) January 15, 2019
      <script async src="https://platform.twitter.com/widgets.js" charset="utf-8"></script>

      These questions and similar ones (work this out) could be interesting prompts to be included on a syllabus or as starts for an annotated syllabus. (eg: What do you want to get out of this class? What do you already know about these areas? How can we expand on what you know? What would you like to explore?, etc.)

    1. Goal SettingGoal setting was used by physiotherapists to activate and motivate patients, to determine what meaningful therapy would be for the patient and to set discharge limits (Leach, Cornwell, Fleming, and Haines, 2010Leach E, Cornwell P, Fleming J, Haines T 2010 Patient centered goal-setting in a subacute rehabilitation setting Disability and Rehabilitation 32: 159–172. [Taylor & Francis Online], [Web of Science ®], [Google Scholar]; Pashley et al, 2010Pashley E, Powers A, McNamee N, Buivids R, Piccinin J, Gibson BE 2010 Discharge from outpatient orthopaedic physiotherapy: A qualitative descriptive study of physiotherapists’ practices Physiotherapy Canada 62: 224–234. [Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®], [Google Scholar]; Rindflesch, 2009Rindflesch AB 2009 A grounded-theory investigation of patient education in physical therapy practice Physiotherapy Theory and Practice 25: 193–202. [Taylor & Francis Online], [Google Scholar]; Thomson, 2008Thomson D 2008 An ethnographic study of physiotherapists’ perceptions of their interactions with patients on a chronic pain unit Physiotherapy Theory and Practice 24: 408–422. [Taylor & Francis Online], [Google Scholar]). Goal setting seemed particular of physiotherapists’ interest, as patients did not spontaneously mention goal setting as important for patient-centered physiotherapy. Patient-centered physiotherapists, however, tried to allow the patients to define their own goals in collaboration (Larsson, Liljedahl, and Gard, 2010Larsson I, Liljedahl K, Gard G 2010 Physiotherapists’ experience of client participation in physiotherapy interventions: A phenomenographic study Advances in Physiotherapy 12: 217–223. [Taylor & Francis Online], [Google Scholar]; Pashley et al, 2010Pashley E, Powers A, McNamee N, Buivids R, Piccinin J, Gibson BE 2010 Discharge from outpatient orthopaedic physiotherapy: A qualitative descriptive study of physiotherapists’ practices Physiotherapy Canada 62: 224–234. [Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®], [Google Scholar]; Thomson, 2008Thomson D 2008 An ethnographic study of physiotherapists’ perceptions of their interactions with patients on a chronic pain unit Physiotherapy Theory and Practice 24: 408–422. [Taylor & Francis Online], [Google Scholar]; Trede, 2000Trede FV 2000 Physiotherapists’ approaches to low back pain education Physiotherapy 86: 427–433. [Crossref], [Google Scholar]). This was done by facilitating them and guiding them, using education and dialogue to determine the patients’ goals (Larsson, Liljedahl, and Gard, 2010Larsson I, Liljedahl K, Gard G 2010 Physiotherapists’ experience of client participation in physiotherapy interventions: A phenomenographic study Advances in Physiotherapy 12: 217–223. [Taylor & Francis Online], [Google Scholar]; Leach, Cornwell, Fleming, and Haines, 2010Leach E, Cornwell P, Fleming J, Haines T 2010 Patient centered goal-setting in a subacute rehabilitation setting Disability and Rehabilitation 32: 159–172. [Taylor & Francis Online], [Web of Science ®], [Google Scholar]; Rindflesch, 2009Rindflesch AB 2009 A grounded-theory investigation of patient education in physical therapy practice Physiotherapy Theory and Practice 25: 193–202. [Taylor & Francis Online], [Google Scholar]; Thomson, 2008Thomson D 2008 An ethnographic study of physiotherapists’ perceptions of their interactions with patients on a chronic pain unit Physiotherapy Theory and Practice 24: 408–422. [Taylor & Francis Online], [Google Scholar]; Trede, 2000Trede FV 2000 Physiotherapists’ approaches to low back pain education Physiotherapy 86: 427–433. [Crossref], [Google Scholar]). Goals were mostly created in collaboration between the physiotherapist and the patient (Leach, Cornwell, Fleming, and Haines, 2010Leach E, Cornwell P, Fleming J, Haines T 2010 Patient centered goal-setting in a subacute rehabilitation setting Disability and Rehabilitation 32: 159–172. [Taylor & Francis Online], [Web of Science ®], [Google Scholar]; Trede, 2000Trede FV 2000 Physiotherapists’ approaches to low back pain education Physiotherapy 86: 427–433. [Crossref], [Google Scholar]). However, some physiotherapists made no or little mention of patient-centered goals (Pashley et al, 2010Pashley E, Powers A, McNamee N, Buivids R, Piccinin J, Gibson BE 2010 Discharge from outpatient orthopaedic physiotherapy: A qualitative descriptive study of physiotherapists’ practices Physiotherapy Canada 62: 224–234. [Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®], [Google Scholar]).

      Interesting point that patients do not spontaneously mention goal setting. How does this impact on your understanding of what patients value? If you reframe or guide the conversation to explore goals, will the patient feel heard? or managed?

    2. Communicative abilities of a patient-centered physiotherapist meant being receptive to what the patient has to say, correctly interpreted, and giving explanations in a way patients understand (Fleiss and Cohen, 1973Fleiss JL, Cohen J 1973 The equivalence of weighted kappa and the intraclass correlation coefficient as measures of reliability Educational and Psychological Measurement 33: 613–619. [Crossref], [Web of Science ®], [Google Scholar]; Trede, 2000Trede FV 2000 Physiotherapists’ approaches to low back pain education Physiotherapy 86: 427–433. [Crossref], [Google Scholar]). Purposefully changing communication styles depending on the patient (Hiller, Guillemin, and Delany, 2015Hiller A, Guillemin M, Delany C 2015 Exploring healthcare communication models in private physiotherapy practice Patient Education and Counseling 98: 1222–1228. [Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®], [Google Scholar]). Having the ability to explain in lay terms, directly speaking to the patient, listening, and asking appropriate questions were of importance (Cooper, Smith, and Hancock, 2008Cooper K, Smith BH, Hancock E 2008 Patient-centredness in physiotherapy from the perspective of the chronic low back pain patient Physiotherapy 94: 244–252. [Crossref], [Web of Science ®], [Google Scholar]; Kidd, Bond, and Bell, 2011Kidd MO, Bond CH, Bell ML 2011 Patients’ perspectives of patient-centredness as important in musculoskeletal physiotherapy interactions: A qualitative study Physiotherapy 97: 154–162. [Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®], [Google Scholar]; Pashley et al, 2010Pashley E, Powers A, McNamee N, Buivids R, Piccinin J, Gibson BE 2010 Discharge from outpatient orthopaedic physiotherapy: A qualitative descriptive study of physiotherapists’ practices Physiotherapy Canada 62: 224–234. [Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®], [Google Scholar]; Potter, Gordon, and Hamer, 2003Potter M, Gordon S, Hamer P 2003 The physiotherapy experience in private practice: The patients’ perspective Australian Journal of Physiotherapy 49: 195–202. [Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®], [Google Scholar]).
    3. Personal communication and communication skills were far more important than the provision of scientific facts (Trede, 2000Trede FV 2000 Physiotherapists’ approaches to low back pain education Physiotherapy 86: 427–433. [Crossref], [Google Scholar]). By personal communication, a bond was established and the therapy shifted from therapist to patient centered (Hiller, Guillemin, and Delany, 2015Hiller A, Guillemin M, Delany C 2015 Exploring healthcare communication models in private physiotherapy practice Patient Education and Counseling 98: 1222–1228. [Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®], [Google Scholar]).

      communication far more important that provision of scientific facts

    4. Figure 2. Proposed framework for patient-centeredness in physiotherapy.

      proposed framework for patient centredness in physiotherapy

    1. McAllister et al. highlighted the importance of the clinical consultation as a conversation, paced and directed by both participants [5McAllister M, Matarasso B, Dixon B, et al. Conversation starters: re-examining and reconstructing first encounters within the therapeutic relationship. J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs. 2004;11:575–582. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2850.2004.00763.x [Crossref], [PubMed], [Google Scholar]]. Sacks et al. maintain that people take turns to talk by following a set of conventional rules that assign speaker time and direction, and any deviation could indicate a person's attempt to display power, status or influence [6Sacks H, Schegloff EA, Jefferson G. A simplest systematics for the organization of turn-taking for conversation. Language. 1974;50(4):696–735. doi: 10.1353/lan.1974.0010 [Crossref], [Web of Science ®], [Google Scholar]]. Interruptions may not simply be a reflection of status or dominance however, they may reflect a speaker's enthusiasm, interest or spontaneity [22Irish JT, Hall JA. Interruptive patterns in medical visits: the effects of role, status and gender. Soc Sci Med. 1995;41(6):873–881. doi: 10.1016/0277-9536(94)00399-E [Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®], [Google Scholar]]. Furthermore, it is important they are not interpreted as signs of power, control or dominance, rather they are indicative of interpersonal relationships, such as neutrality, power or rapport [39Goldberg JA. Interrupting the discourse on interruptions. J Pragmat. 1990;14:883–903. doi: 10.1016/0378-2166(90)90045-F [Crossref], [Google Scholar]], which is particularly pertinent to healthcare where power differentials prevail. This was seen in the current study, both in theme 3, and when the patient interjects with humour in the penultimate quote. Practical guides to clinical communication skills concur with Sacks’ model and the two most important skills have been identified as: the ability to allow the patient to speak without interruption; and the ability to truly hear what the patient is trying to say [40Jackson C. Shut up and listen. A brief guide to clinical communication skills. Dundee: Dundee University Press; 2006; p. 1. [Google Scholar]].

      power in the clinical conversation.

      Practical guides to clinical communication skills concur with Sacks’ model and the two most important skills have been identified as: the ability to allow the patient to speak without interruption; and the ability to truly hear what the patient is trying to say [40Jackson C. Shut up and listen. A brief guide to clinical communication skills. Dundee: Dundee University Press; 2006; p. 1. [Google Scholar] ].

    2. McAllister et al. highlighted the importance of the clinical consultation as a conversation, paced and directed by both participants [5McAllister M, Matarasso B, Dixon B, et al. Conversation starters: re-examining and reconstructing first encounters within the therapeutic relationship. J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs. 2004;11:575–582. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2850.2004.00763.x [Crossref], [PubMed], [Google Scholar]]. Sacks et al. maintain that people take turns to talk by following a set of conventional rules that assign speaker time and direction, and any deviation could indicate a person's attempt to display power, status or influence [6Sacks H, Schegloff EA, Jefferson G. A simplest systematics for the organization of turn-taking for conversation. Language. 1974;50(4):696–735. doi: 10.1353/lan.1974.0010 [Crossref], [Web of Science ®], [Google Scholar]]. Interruptions may not simply be a reflection of status or dominance however, they may reflect a speaker's enthusiasm, interest or spontaneity [22Irish JT, Hall JA. Interruptive patterns in medical visits: the effects of role, status and gender. Soc Sci Med. 1995;41(6):873–881. doi: 10.1016/0277-9536(94)00399-E [Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®], [Google Scholar]]. Furthermore, it is important they are not interpreted as signs of power, control or dominance, rather they are indicative of interpersonal relationships, such as neutrality, power or rapport [39Goldberg JA. Interrupting the discourse on interruptions. J Pragmat. 1990;14:883–903. doi: 10.1016/0378-2166(90)90045-F [Crossref], [Google Scholar]], which is particularly pertinent to healthcare where power differentials prevail. This was seen in the current study, both in theme 3, and when the patient interjects with humour in the penultimate quote. Practical guides to clinical communication skills concur with Sacks’ model and the two most important skills have been identified as: the ability to allow the patient to speak without interruption; and the ability to truly hear what the patient is trying to say [40Jackson C. Shut up and listen. A brief guide to clinical communication skills. Dundee: Dundee University Press; 2006; p. 1. [Google Scholar]].

      Practical guides to clinical communication skills concur with Sacks’ model and the two most important skills have been identified as: the ability to allow the patient to speak without interruption; and the ability to truly hear what the patient is trying to say [40Jackson C. Shut up and listen. A brief guide to clinical communication skills. Dundee: Dundee University Press; 2006; p. 1. [Google Scholar] ].

    3. Clinical implicationsTo the best of our knowledge, this is the first time the prevalence and nature of overlaps and interruptions have been reported in patients presenting with low back pain. This work has highlighted the complexity of evaluating the impact of communication during clinical encounters. Clinicians need to ensure that the pendulum of current clinical practice does not swing towards pathoanatomy and physiology, biomechanics and technological advances at the expense of treating the patient as a person and providing truly patient-centred care. Therefore, clinicians at the forefront of practice, whatever their profession, need to invest time evaluating and developing their own communication skills (for example by audio-recording consultations or engaging in peer observation, with patients’ consent) to optimize non-specific treatment effects and ultimately enhance patients’ experience and outcomes.

      noting the importance of taking time to evaluate and develop your clinical communication skills.

    1. Whilst this study intended to explore participants’ perceptions of the impact of empathy on a clinical encounter, participants focused their discussion on how the attributes of both the clinician and patient, as well as external factors, could affect the delivery of empathy during a clinical encounter. Participants identified building rapport, active listening, verbal and non-verbal communication to be factors that could influence the patient-clinician relationship, which is supported in the literature, alongside empathy which has been shown to affect the patient-clinician relationship, improving clinical outcomes, diagnoses and adherence to therapy [3Hojat M, Mangione S, Kane G, et al. Relationships between scores of the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy (JSPE) and the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI). Med Teach. 2005;27(7):625–628. doi: 10.1080/01421590500069744 [Taylor & Francis Online], [Web of Science ®], [Google Scholar],8–12Beck R, Daughtbridge R, Sloane P. Physician-patient communication in the primary care office: a systematic review. J Am Board Fam Med. 2002;15(1):25–38. [Google Scholar]Hojat M, Gonnella J, Nasca T, et al. Physician empathy: definition, components, measurement, and relationship to gender and specialty. Am J Psychiat. 2002;159(9):1563–1569. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.159.9.1563 [Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®], [Google Scholar]Shapiro J, Morrison E, Boker J. Teaching empathy to first year medical students: evaluation of an elective literature and medicine course. Educ Health: Change in Learn Practice. 2004;17(1):73–84. doi: 10.1080/13576280310001656196 [Crossref], [PubMed], [Google Scholar]Stepien K, Baernstein A. Educating for empathy. J Gen Intern Med. 2006;21(5):524–530. doi: 10.1111/j.1525-1497.2006.00443.x [Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®], [Google Scholar]Rakel D, Barrett B, Zhang Z, et al. Perception of empathy in the therapeutic encounter: effects on the common cold. Patient Educ Couns. 2011;85(3):390–397. doi: 10.1016/j.pec.2011.01.009 [Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®], [Google Scholar]].

      This paragraph mentions one of the key skills from the health coaching conversation module. - note relevance to practice

    2. The key finding from this study indicates that teaching empathy per se, may be best done when working in a clinical setting, as clinicians are able to draw on their clinical experience and immediately take new ideas into their clinical encounters to further enhance their skills. Whilst methods of developing empathy in students have been shown to be successful [16Brunero S, Lamont S, Coates M. A review of empathy education in nursing. Nurs Inq. 2010;17(1):65–74. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1800.2009.00482.x [Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®], [Google Scholar],20Bombeke K, Van Roosbroeck S, De Winter B, et al. Medical students trained in communication skills show a decline in patient-centred attitudes: an observational study comparing two cohorts during clinical clerkships. Patient Educ Couns. 2011;84(3):310–318. doi: 10.1016/j.pec.2011.03.007 [Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®], [Google Scholar],21Batt-Rawden S, Chisolm M, Anton B, et al. Teaching empathy to medical students. Acad Med. 2013;88(8):1171–1177. doi: 10.1097/ACM.0b013e318299f3e3 [Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®], [Google Scholar],27Fernández-Olano C, Montoya-Fernández J, Salinas-Sánchez A. Impact of clinical interview training on the empathy level of medical students and medical residents. Med Teach. 2008;30(3):322–324. doi: 10.1080/01421590701802299 [Taylor & Francis Online], [Web of Science ®], [Google Scholar],31Lim B, Moriarty H, Huthwaite M. “Being-in-role”: a teaching innovation to enhance empathic communication skills in medical students. Med Teach. 2011;33(12):e663–e669. doi: 10.3109/0142159X.2011.611193 [Taylor & Francis Online], [Web of Science ®], [Google Scholar],33–36Bayne H. Training medical students in empathic communication. J Spec Group Work. 2011;36:316–329. doi: 10.1080/01933922.2011.613899 [Taylor & Francis Online], [Google Scholar]Norfolk T, Birdi K, Walsh D. The role of empathy in establishing rapport in the consultation: a new model. Med Educ. 2007;41:690–697. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2923.2007.02789.x [Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®], [Google Scholar]Das Gupta S, Charon R. Personal illness narratives: using reflective writing to teach empathy. Acad Med. 2004;79:351–356. doi: 10.1097/00001888-200404000-00013 [Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®], [Google Scholar]Tiuraniemi J, Läärä R, Kyrö T, et al. Medical and psychology students’ self-assessed communication skills: a pilot study. Patient Educ Couns. 2011;83:152–157. doi: 10.1016/j.pec.2010.05.013 [Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®], [Google Scholar]], the increase in empathy levels has not been shown to have a carry over longer than 7 days following the intervention,[16Brunero S, Lamont S, Coates M. A review of empathy education in nursing. Nurs Inq. 2010;17(1):65–74. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1800.2009.00482.x [Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®], [Google Scholar],35Das Gupta S, Charon R. Personal illness narratives: using reflective writing to teach empathy. Acad Med. 2004;79:351–356. doi: 10.1097/00001888-200404000-00013 [Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®], [Google Scholar]]. Multiple studies, however, have identified a decrease in empathy levels in medical and healthcare students over the duration of their education [6Nunes P, Williams S, Sa B, et al. A study of empathy decline in students from five health disciplines during their first year of training. Int J Med Educ. 2011;2:12–17. doi: 10.5116/ijme.4d47.ddb0 [Crossref], [Google Scholar],16Brunero S, Lamont S, Coates M. A review of empathy education in nursing. Nurs Inq. 2010;17(1):65–74. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1800.2009.00482.x [Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®], [Google Scholar],19Hojat M, Vergare M, Maxwell K, et al. The devil is in the third year: a longitudinal study of erosion of empathy in medical school. Acad Med. 2009;84(9):1182–1191. doi: 10.1097/ACM.0b013e3181b17e55 [Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®], [Google Scholar],20Bombeke K, Van Roosbroeck S, De Winter B, et al. Medical students trained in communication skills show a decline in patient-centred attitudes: an observational study comparing two cohorts during clinical clerkships. Patient Educ Couns. 2011;84(3):310–318. doi: 10.1016/j.pec.2011.03.007 [Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®], [Google Scholar],23Sherman J, Cramer A. Measurement of changes in empathy during dental school. J Dent Educ. 2005;69(3):338–345. [Crossref], [PubMed], [Google Scholar]], and in a review of these studies [24Neumann M, Edelhäuser F, Tauschel D, et al. Empathy decline and its reasons: a systematic review of studies with medical students and residents. Acad Med. 2011;86(8):996–1009. doi: 10.1097/ACM.0b013e318221e615 [Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®], [Google Scholar]], the authors identified four possible reasons for this: negative experiences with clinical supervisors; a feeling of vulnerability as a student, resulting in reduced self-confidence; a lack of social support and increased workload combined with long clinical placement hours [24Neumann M, Edelhäuser F, Tauschel D, et al. Empathy decline and its reasons: a systematic review of studies with medical students and residents. Acad Med. 2011;86(8):996–1009. doi: 10.1097/ACM.0b013e318221e615 [Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®], [Google Scholar]]. The student physiotherapists in this study stated that there were multiple factors to focus on whilst on clinical placement, and that their focus was more on their personal development and academic grades rather than their focus being on empathising and communicating with patients. Students did however acknowledge the importance of empathic communication during clinical encounters, but deemed other aspects of their education to be a priority. Neumann et al. [24Neumann M, Edelhäuser F, Tauschel D, et al. Empathy decline and its reasons: a systematic review of studies with medical students and residents. Acad Med. 2011;86(8):996–1009. doi: 10.1097/ACM.0b013e318221e615 [Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science ®], [Google Scholar]] report similar findings, with medical students’ empathy levels showing a significant decline at the point that they enter clinical practice during their educational programme, due to their focus on academic work, improving clinical skills and lack of time to relax and de-stress.

      barriers for students developing and practicing skills in communication and empathy

  2. Sep 2022
    1. It’s the oxygen mask metaphor. Before you put on the oxygen mask of other people, you have to put it on yourself. So self-care first.
  3. Apr 2022
    1. crucial difference between traditional apprenticeships and modern schooling: inthe former, “learners can see the processes of work,” while in the latter, “theprocesses of thinking are often invisible to both the students and the teacher.”Collins and his coauthors identified four features of apprenticeship that could beadapted to the demands of knowledge work: modeling, or demonstrating the taskwhile explaining it aloud; scaffolding, or structuring an opportunity for thelearner to try the task herself; fading, or gradually withdrawing guidance as thelearner becomes more proficient; and coaching, or helping the learner throughdifficulties along the way.

      This is what’s known as a cognitive apprenticeship, a term coined by Allan Collins, now a professor emeritus of education at Northwestern University. In a 1991 article written with John Seely Brown and Ann Holum, Collins noted a

      In a traditional apprenticeship, a learner watches and is able to imitate the master process and work. In a cognitive apprenticeship the process of thinking is generally invisible to both the apprentice and the teacher. The problem becomes how to make the thinking processes more tangible and visible to the learner.

      Allan Collins, John Seely Brown, and Ann Holum identified four pedagogical methods in apprenticeships that can also be applied to cognitive apprenticeships: - modeling: demonstrating a task while focusing on describing and explaining the steps and general thinking about the problem out loud - scaffolding: structuring a task to encourage and allow the learner the ability to try it themself - fading: as the learner gains facility and confidence in the process, gradually removing the teacher's guidance - coaching: as necessary, the teacher provides tips and suggestions to the learner to prompt them through potential difficulties

  4. Feb 2022
  5. www.janeausten.pludhlab.org www.janeausten.pludhlab.org
    1. “Rest! He has only come three and twenty miles today; all nonsense; nothing ruins horses so much as rest; nothing knocks them up so soon. No, no; I shall exercise mine at the average of four hours every day while I am here.”

      How do you normally travel to your vacations? While we now depend on machines to get us where we are going, relying on animals used to be the norm. In Regency England, your travel would have depended on having access to horses, as John Thorpe indicates in this passage. While Thorpe argues that rest ruins horses, his treatment of horses counters the common practices at the time, hinting at his callous character. While traveling it was common to stop at coaching inns to get food, alcohol, rest, and fresh horses before continuing on the journey. The term “stagecoach” derives from the fact that journeys were undertaken in stages of 15-20 miles in length. At each stage stop, horses would be changed to ensure the health of the horses and the speed of the journey. Hired horses only traveled between stages, going back and forth between posts that averaged about ten miles apart. So, you would use your own horses for the first part of a journey and leave them at the coaching inn for your servant to retrieve, while continuing on your journey with hired horses. This process would be repeated at each stage of travel.

      Domestic tourism was a growing area of interest for many Britons in the late 17th and early 18th centuries. While the European Grand Tour has been popularized in literature, domestic tourism was celebrated as a patriotic way to learn about the history and modern state of Britain, as well as offering an enjoyable leisure pursuit. As John Thorpe offers to Catherine Morland earlier in this chapter, one aspect of the leisurely pursuits offered by domestic tourism was exploring the countryside by the phaeton, as depicted in this painting by George Stubbs. Travel thus became something undertaken as an activity unto itself, rather than an uncomfortable method of arriving at one’s destination. Perhaps John Thorpe and James Morland are themselves enjoying a domestic tour of Britain when they encounter their family members in Bath.

  6. Aug 2021
    1. There are two ways for someone to be in this quadrant. The unhealthy way, as a people pleaser, with associated resentment and chaos. In a healthy way, everything feels very clear. It’s easy to fit feedback into their mental model, and adjustments feel natural and build on what they are currently working on. This comes from having a good idea themselves about what is happening and how they think they can improve.

      good point on the people-pleaser mindset, also worth considering with ADHD/ASD employees - try and foster more curiosity than chaos

    2. How do your reports respond to feedback? As managers, it’s our job to grow the people we work with. This is how we build a bench, and scale ourselves and the organization. Of course, this is easy to say and hard to do, and we’ve all encountered a spectrum of people: those with whom it’s easy to accelerate and have a real and lasting impact on, and those where the lasting impact is the relief we feel once we no longer work with them.

      this is also why it is important to have a good culture of frequent feedback. Since it is key to growing the organization, feedback can't be saved for quarterly reviews only.

    1. Empower managers to facilitate effective learning transfer As Fergal explains, managers have a key role to play in facilitating effective learning transfer. “Research shows that managers play the most critical role in learning transfer - especially in the post-training environment. Every learner needs a manager who understands them, and how they want to learn and grow. They need to have the right coaching style, and they need the right resources.”In most organizations, instructional design focuses on the needs of the learner. But as Fergal explains, focusing on the needs of your managers can pay dividends. “Ideally, you’d have the manager attend the same training as the learner. The problem is, managers are always stretched. So, what you can do instead is develop specific guidance for your managers.” Provide a script for managers to support their team’s learning

      many managers are not used to the coaching-for development approach, or take a hands-off approach to supporting learning and development - managers need to be proactive, and can use support from the L&D team on how to facilitate effective learning transfer / discussions with their teams

  7. May 2021
    1. An important point to note is that there's a difference between coaching and mentoring. A coach's job is to improve a particular skill, but a mentor plays a more holistic role in helping a mentee improve

      Mentoring and Coaching are different, and being able to identify the differences between the two is important.

      For managers, sometimes they need to wear a coaches hat, or a mentors hat - but these are roles that a manager can have but not their only job.

      Considerations for L&D programs

      • how can mentoring fit in with L&D?
      • how can coaching fit in with L&D?
  8. Mar 2021
    1. Coaching increases the likelihood that teachersadopt new teaching practices. Manyforms of coaching in education are newly developed approaches. These approaches begin with the creation of theories and practices.

      This resource discusses a framework for coaching that can support teacher development. The paper goes into how coaching pertains to education and teaching, the description of the framework and how to use the model. Rating: 7/10

    1. Instructional coaching is among the fastest-growing forms of support for teachers’ professional learning (Darling-Hammond et al., 2009), and for good reason. When compared to other common forms of teacher professional development, such as one-day workshops, coaching is an exciting possibility because it embodies two essential aspects of effective professional development: It is ongoing and located in the context of teachers’ daily work (Hawley & Valli, 1999).

      This resource discusses how instructional coaching can be beneficial for teachers professional learning. This provides how coaching can work for teachers and how it can be done effectively. Rating: 7/10

    1. 1Effective Coaching: Improving Teacher Practice and Outcomes for All Learners

      This resource discusses how to effectively coach teachers to improve their practice. It provides a framework for effective coaching practices. Rating: 8/10

    1. Instructional coaching can be a supplement to professional development in that it involves a sustained collaborative relationship between coach and teacher, is ideally tailored to the teacher’s individual needs, and is provided by a coach, who typically has years of practical teaching experience

      This resource discusses instructional coaching for professional development for teachers. It discusses the frameworks and what it is important. Rating: 7/10

    1. The purpose of this review was to address the central theme of technology-enhanced learning (TEL) in coaching. “Technology-enhanced learning” (TEL), has become a widely-accepted term for describing the interface between digital technology and teaching.

      This resource discusses how to use technology-enhanced learning in coaching. This is a great resource for educators who want to develop professional developments for teachers to use technology to aid in learning. Rating: 7/10

  9. Feb 2021
    1. The theme of emptiness as a precondition to significant learning shows up in the familiar tale of the wise man who comes to the Zen master, haughty in his great wisdom, asking how he can become even wiser. The master simply pours tea into the wise man’s cup and keeps pouring until the cup runs over and spills all over the wise man, letting him know without words that if one’s cup is already full there is no space in it for anything new. Then there is the question of why young people sometimes learn new things faster than old people; why my teenage daughters, for example, learned the new dances when I didn’t. Was it just because they were willing to let themselves be foolish and I was not?
  10. Jan 2021
    1. Leadership is not necessarily coming up with all the answers

      Not only does this mean that you have to work with your team but it also takes the pressure off of you to always come up with the solutions to everyone else's problems. By all means, give input if you're asked but don't feel pressured to provide answers to all questions.

      When you answer a question, people will feel like the decision has been made and further discussion will be closed off.

  11. Oct 2020
    1. dig deeper into what motivates them

      Find out what motivates individual contributors to broaden the options that enable coaching.

    1. According to The Center for Educational Policy Research at Harvard University (2015), “[The] structural separation, in which teachers develop their skills primarily through individual trial and error rather than through observation and collaboration with others, has been a major barrier to improving instruction.” Video-based coaching serves as a structure to foster personal reflection and growth by allowing teachers the opportunity to see their practice, and share it with others, in a safe, supported way.

      Video Based Coaching is a high-leverage learning practice used by instructors to engage conversation. Observation and collaboration is a structure to scaffold personal reflection into personal growth and shared understanding. Used as a component of a professional development plan, VBC enhances participant exchange during coaching and feedback sessions. Rating 8/10

  12. Nov 2019
    1. The authors present the benefits of coaching in professional development for educators in today's technologically advanced classrooms. Of particular interest is the explanation of the different methods of coaching: executive, coactive, cognitive, and instructional. They suggest that coaching provides more successful outcomes than single workshops and stress that finding the correct method for each situation and organization is crucial.

      10/10

    1. Davis and Curry stress the importance of tech coaches in schools to help instructors integrate technology effectively. They present key factors to consider when using tech coaching, including the importance of having a clear plan and defined roles.

      8/10

  13. Jun 2019
    1. It has been our nonprofit technology company was started in 2011 the goal, the problem we're trying to solve is is essentially to bring collaboration to the web at scale

      Hey, the point you should have made here.....

  14. May 2019
    1. interesting story about how this guy, who did play football professionally, would like math teachers to take a few points from football coaches.

      good for the overall sentiment and the individual interest & inspiration

  15. Apr 2019
  16. learn-us-east-1-prod-fleet01-xythos.s3.us-east-1.amazonaws.com learn-us-east-1-prod-fleet01-xythos.s3.us-east-1.amazonaws.com
    1. The tips center on five concepts: building relationships, positive focus, communication, partnership, and support. Working to improve these elementshelps create an emotionallyintelligent work environment where all employees feel they are valued and their opinions are respected. When leaders identify strengths-based strategies to build relationships, approach interactions with a positive perspective, develop positive communication strategies to support teachers, and identify additional ways to support them, they empower the teachers they work with tothrive, not just survive,in the earlychildhood setting.
  17. Nov 2018
    1. This article is from a education journal and is credible and relevant. It covers andragogy and transformitive learning as they can be utilized with adult learners. The focus on transformational learning theory is of particular interest.

      8/10

  18. Jun 2016
    1. Infact,whenGallimoreandRolandactuallyrecordedandcategorized2,326ofCoachWooden’sactsofteaching,theyfoundthatonly6.6%wereactsofdisapprovalwhile6.9%wereactsofpraise(Coyle,2009).Thatmeansthemajorityofhisinteractionswithhisathleteswerejudgmentfreestatementsofinformation

      Great coaches are stinting with praise and blame.

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