2,132 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. In an Open Science context,  “infrastructure” -- the "structures and facilities" -- refers to the scholarly communication resources and services, including software, that we depend upon to enable the scientific and scholarly community to collect, store, organise, access, share, and assess research.
    1. The “linguistic turn” in the social sciences focused on the socially constructed nature of “reality” (Berger & Luckmann 1979). With this turn, the focus was on the role of language as both describing and construing our understanding of what takes place in society. This means that we cannot assume that language (such as it is produced, for instance, in policy documents, legislation, parliamentary debates, interviews, etc.) merely describes reality; it also construes the ways in which we understand and conceptualise that (social) reality. Another implication of the linguistic turn in the social sciences is that policy texts cannot and should not be dismissed as “mere rhetoric”, with little to do with “real policy” (Saarinen 2008).
    1. When we are collecting new data to address a research question addressed in another context, it can be near impossible to re-create ex-act contexts with participants; researchers simply do not have that sort of control over any research context. This suggests that reproduction, rather than replication, may be a more useful goal.

      reproduction rather than replication may be a more useful goal for research work setting.

  2. Nov 2022
    1. Donations

      To add some other intermediary services:

      To add a service for groups:

      To add a service that enables fans to support the creators directly and anonymously via microdonations or small donations by pre-charging their Coil account to spend on content streaming or tipping the creators' wallets via a layer containing JS script following the Interledger Protocol proposed to W3C:

      If you want to know more, head to Web Monetization or Community or Explainer

      Disclaimer: I am a recipient of a grant from the Interledger Foundation, so there would be a Conflict of Interest if I edited directly. Plus, sharing on Hypothesis allows other users to chime in.

    1. while there aregroups potentially benefiting from the case studies relating to their field of research (egwriters benefiting from studies in Panel D, engineers benefiting from studies in PanelB), there are mentions of these potential beneficiaries across all the panels

      The beneficiaries of research named by REF impact case studies are heterogeneous across all UOAs

    1. Research funders and providers are having to compete with other public services, and,as such, must be able to advocate the need for funding of research. Leaders within thesector must have compelling arguments to ‘make the case’ for research. For example,the Research Councils each publish an annual impact report which describe the waysin which they are maximising the impacts of their investments. These reports includeillustrations of how their research and training has made a contribution to the economyand society.10 The analysis of Researchfish and other similar data can support thedevelopment of these cases

      For research councils, being able to illustrate how their research impacts the economy and society helps them to compete for and justify their continued funding.

    1. All research… All significant research is, in some respects, bottom-up. There is no alternative. And so, the only research that you can do top-down entirely is research for which you already have the solution.

      Research, by design, is a bottom-up process.

    1. If you want to read a poorly researched fluff piece about Sam Bankman-Fried, feel free to go to the New York Times (PDF). If you want to understand what happened at Alameda Research and how Sam Bankman-Fried (SBF), Sam Trabucco, and Caroline Ellison incinerated over $20 billion dollars of fund profits and FTX user deposits, read this article. (And follow me on Twitter at @0xfbifemboy!)
    1. Dr. Miho Ohsaki re-examined workshe and her group had previously published and confirmed that the results are indeed meaningless in the sensedescribed in this work (Ohsaki et al., 2002). She has subsequently been able to redefine the clustering subroutine inher work to allow more meaningful pattern discovery (Ohsaki et al., 2003)

      Look into what Dr. Miho Ohsaki changed about the clustering subroutine in her work and how it allowed for "more meaningful pattern discovery"

    1. Quadrants I and II: The average student’s scores on basic skills assessments increase by21 percentiles when engaged in non-interactive, multimodal learning (includes using textwith visuals, text with audio, watching and listening to animations or lectures that effectivelyuse visuals, etc.) in comparison to traditional, single-mode learning. When that situationshifts from non-interactive to interactive, multimedia learning (such as engagement insimulations, modeling, and real-world experiences – most often in collaborative teams orgroups), results are not quite as high, with average gains at 9 percentiles. While notstatistically significant, these results are still positive.

      I think this is was Thomas Frank was referring to in his YT video when he said "direct hands-on experience ... is often not the best way to learn something. And more recent cognitive research has confirmed this and shown that for basic concepts a more abstract learning model is actually better."

      By "more abstract", I guess he meant what this paper calls "non-interactive". However, even though Frank claims this (which is suggested by the percentile increases shown in Quadrants I & II), no variance is given and the authors even state that, in the case of Q II (looking at percentile increase of interactive multimodal learning compared to interactive unimodal learning), the authors state that "results are not quite as high [as the non-interactive comparison], with average gains at 9 percentiles. While not statistically significant, these results are still positive." (emphasis mine)

      Common level of signifcances are \(\alpha =.20,~.10,~.05,~.01\)

    1. Using a shortcut1 you can either share the url to their service or inject their javascript library and start annotating and commenting Medium style on any article you read, even on your phone!

      Wouln't the Hypothesis bookmarklet be preferable and easier to use?

    1. Holy mackerel, when I saw the subject line of this topic I thought about Zoot – which I have not thought about in many months, and not for many years before that. Zoot was my introduction to this sort of “everything bucket” app. I also tried Info Select – which is also on Windows and may be an answer to @Claude’s question, assuming it’s still updated – and then to DevonThink and Evernote. My introduction to Zoot was an article by journalist James Fallows, of all people. He is the former editor-in-chief of The Atlantic, and reports mainly on public policy and politics. I wonder if he is still using Zoot? Three more probable options: Microsoft OneNote will be the most accessible to most Windows users. It doesn’t get you the search and “see also” of DevonThink. Obsidian and Roam Research take a different approach to the content-organization problems than DevonThink/OneNote/Evernote do. They rely on links and backlinks, like a personal Wikipedia. But they achieve the same goal of organizing information. They have search. AFAIK there’s nothing comparable to “see also,” but users report the same kind of serendipitous connections just by following the links they themselves made in the past. Another liability of Roam and Obsidian compared with DT: DT supports pretty much any kind of document that your computer can read, whereas Obsidian only supports Markdown, PDF, and images. I’m not as familiar with Roam, but I believe it has the same limitations. P.S. Partial answer to my own question: Fallows comes up in this forum as a person who advocated DT in a 2005 NYTimes article about “everything bucket” apps.

      From a discussion on DEVONthink alternatives for Windows users.

    1. Athens Research is winding down their note taking application.

      Potentially the first of more to come?

      Athens the OSS project is winding down. The company is still operating, but taking time to reset and explore new ideas. Open to chats and convos. Thanks all ❤️ https://t.co/Y7ROM86WSy

      — Jeff Tang 🏛 (Ohio) (@tangjeff0) November 11, 2022
      <script async src="https://platform.twitter.com/widgets.js" charset="utf-8"></script>
    1. https://hypothes.is/search?q=tag%3A%27etc556+etcnau%27

      Randomly ran across a great tag full of education resources...

      Seems to be related to this class:<br /> ETC 556 - Contexts And Methods Of Technology In Adult Education

      Description: This course is designed for adult educators in the various contexts, including: higher education, military, non-profit, health and business settings. Through research, readings and collaborative activities, students will gain an understanding of various adult learning methods that include, but are not limited to, training, professional development, performance improvement, online and mobile learning. Letter grade only.

      https://catalog.nau.edu/Courses/course?courseId=011553&catalogYear=2223

    1. A number of skeptical hypotheses or scenarios have been proposed which can be used as the basis for arguments to the effect that we lack knowledge of various propositions about objects in the external world, propositions that we normally take for granted and that we assume are obviously true. Descartes’ Evil Genius hypothesis is perhaps the best known such hypothesis.

      test

    1. “People always say of great athletes that they have a sixth sense,” Malcolm Gladwell says in Miracle and Wonder: Conversations with Paul Simon. “But it’s not a sixth sense. It’s memory.” Gladwell then analogizes James’ exacting memory to Simon’s. In the way James has precise recall of basketball game situations, Simon has it of sounds and songs. “Simon’s memory is prodigious,” Gladwell says. “There were thousands of songs in his head. And thousands more bits of songs—components—which appeared to have been broken down and stacked like cordwood in his imagination.”

      In Miracle and Wonder: Conversations with Paul Simon, Malcolm Gladwell comments on the prodigious memories of both Paul Simon with respect to sounds and Lebron James with respect to basketball game play.

      Where these sorts of situational memories built and exercised over time or were they natural gifts? Or perhaps natural gifts that were also finely tuned over time?

    1. Tout introduced original research into the undergraduate programme, culminating in the production of a Final Year thesis based on primary sources.[7]

      Thomas F. Tout, one of the founders of the Historical Association, was one of the first professors to introduce original research into the undergraduate program in the early 1900s.

  3. Oct 2022
    1. https://www.explainpaper.com/

      Another in a growing line of research tools for processing and making sense of research literature including Research Rabbit, Connected Papers, Semantic Scholar, etc.

      Functionality includes the ability to highlight sections of research papers with natural language processing to explain what those sections mean. There's also a "chat" that allows you to ask questions about the paper which will attempt to return reasonable answers, which is an artificial intelligence sort of means of having an artificial "conversation with the text".

      cc: @dwhly @remikalir @jeremydean

    1. (Note, by contrast, how much of the literature refers to the design orcreation of new groups (e.g. Goodman and Associates 1988). From our viewpoint, thecentral questions more involve the detection and support of emergent or existingcommunities.

      Research ideas!

    2. he ways people actuallywork usually differ fundamentally from the ways organizations describe that work in manuals,training programs, organizational charts, and job descriptions.

      Hidden curriculum -> Hidden duties and processees

    1. for as Dialectic will have shown all branches oflearning to be inter-related, so Rhetoric will tend to show that all knowledgeis one.

      How did we shift from inter-related subjects and "one knowledge" of rhetoric in the Middle Ages to such strict departmentalization in the academy to only now be moving back toward multi-disciplinary research?

    1. Learning organization plays an important role in improving organizationalperformance. It is well-known from various sectors that this variable plays a significantrole in enhancing the performance of various organizations and is used for promotingeffective competitive advantage. Although there are many studies in this area ofmanagement, very few studies are available on Higher Education Institutions (HEIs).

      scarce research LO in HEI

      learning Organization, strategy adoption and Knowledge Transfer as Factors for improving Performance of Higher education institutions: a literature review ammar s. Habtoor *, Darwina ahmad arshad, Hazlinda Hassan School of Business Management, College of Business, Universiti Utara Malaysia

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    1. https://www.loom.com/share/a05f636661cb41628b9cb7061bd749ae

      Synopsis: Maggie Delano looks at some of the affordances supplied by Tana (compared to Roam Research) in terms of providing better block-based user interface for note type creation, search, and filtering.


      These sorts of tools and programmable note implementations remind me of Beatrice Webb's idea of scientific note taking or using her note cards like a database to sort and search for data to analyze it and create new results and insight.

      It would seem that many of these note taking tools like Roam and Tana are using blocks and sub blocks as a means of defining atomic notes or database-like data in a way in which sub-blocks are linked to or "filed underneath" their parent blocks. In reality it would seem that they're still using a broadly defined index card type system as used in the late 1800s/early 1900s to implement a set up that otherwise would be a traditional database in the Microsoft Excel or MySQL sort of fashion, the major difference being that the user interface is cognitively easier to understand for most people.

      These allow people to take a form of structured textual notes to which might be attached other smaller data or meta data chunks that can be easily searched, sorted, and filtered to allow for quicker or easier use.

      Ostensibly from a mathematical (or set theoretic and even topological) point of view there should be a variety of one-to-one and onto relationships (some might even extend these to "links") between these sorts of notes and database representations such that one should be able to implement their note taking system in Excel or MySQL and do all of these sorts of things.

      Cascading Idea Sheets or Cascading Idea Relationships

      One might analogize these sorts of note taking interfaces to Cascading Style Sheets (CSS). While there is the perennial question about whether or not CSS is a programming language, if we presume that it is (and it is), then we can apply the same sorts of class, id, and inheritance structures to our notes and their meta data. Thus one could have an incredibly atomic word, phrase, or even number(s) which inherits a set of semantic relationships to those ideas which it sits below. These links and relationships then more clearly define and contextualize them with respect to other similar ideas that may be situated outside of or adjacent to them. Once one has done this then there is a variety of Boolean operations which might be applied to various similar sets and classes of ideas.

      If one wanted to go an additional level of abstraction further, then one could apply the ideas of category theory to one's notes to generate new ideas and structures. This may allow using abstractions in one field of academic research to others much further afield.

      The user interface then becomes the key differentiator when bringing these ideas to the masses. Developers and designers should be endeavoring to allow the power of complex searches, sorts, and filtering while minimizing the sorts of advanced search queries that an average person would be expected to execute for themselves while also allowing some reasonable flexibility in the sorts of ways that users might (most easily for them) add data and meta data to their ideas.


      Jupyter programmable notebooks are of this sort, but do they have the same sort of hierarchical "card" type (or atomic note type) implementation?

    1. Underlining Keyterms and Index Bloat .t3_y1akec._2FCtq-QzlfuN-SwVMUZMM3 { --postTitle-VisitedLinkColor: #9b9b9b; --postTitleLink-VisitedLinkColor: #9b9b9b; --postBodyLink-VisitedLinkColor: #989898; }

      Hello u/sscheper,

      Let me start by thanking you for introducing me to Zettelkasten. I have been writing notes for a week now and it's great that I'm able to retain more info and relate pieces of knowledge better through this method.

      I recently came to notice that there is redundancy in my index entries.

      I have two entries for Number Line. I have two branches in my Math category that deals with arithmetic, and so far I have "Addition" and "Subtraction". In those two branches I talk about visualizing ways of doing that, and both of those make use of and underline the term Number Line. So now the two entries in my index are "Number Line (Under Addition)" and "Number Line (Under Subtraction)". In those notes I elaborate how exactly each operation is done on a number line and the insights that can be derived from it. If this continues, I will have Number Line entries for "Multiplication" and "Division". I will also have to point to these entries if I want to link a main note for "Number Line".

      Is this alright? Am I underlining appropriately? When do I not underline keyterms? I know that I do these to increase my chances of relating to those notes when I get to reach the concept of Number Lines as I go through the index but I feel like I'm overdoing it, and it's probably bloating it.

      I get "Communication (under Info. Theory): '4212/1'" in the beginning because that is one aspect of Communication itself. But for something like the number line, it's very closely associated with arithmetic operations, and maybe I need to rethink how I populate my index.

      Presuming, since you're here, that you're creating a more Luhmann-esque inspired zettelkasten as opposed to the commonplace book (and usually more heavily indexed) inspired version, here are some things to think about:<br /> - Aren't your various versions of number line card behind each other or at least very near each other within your system to begin with? (And if not, why not?) If they are, then you can get away with indexing only one and know that the others will automatically be nearby in the tree. <br /> - Rather than indexing each, why not cross-index the cards themselves (if they happen to be far away from each other) so that the link to Number Line (Subtraction) appears on Number Line (Addition) and vice-versa? As long as you can find one, you'll be able to find them all, if necessary.

      If you look at Luhmann's online example index, you'll see that each index term only has one or two cross references, in part because future/new ideas close to the first one will naturally be installed close to the first instance. You won't find thousands of index entries in his system for things like "sociology" or "systems theory" because there would be so many that the index term would be useless. Instead, over time, he built huge blocks of cards on these topics and was thus able to focus more on the narrow/niche topics, which is usually where you're going to be doing most of your direct (and interesting) work.

      Your case sounds, and I see it with many, is that your thinking process is going from the bottom up, but that you're attempting to wedge it into a top down process and create an artificial hierarchy based on it. Resist this urge. Approaching things after-the-fact, we might place information theory as a sub-category of mathematics with overlaps in physics, engineering, computer science, and even the humanities in areas like sociology, psychology, and anthropology, but where you put your work on it may depend on your approach. If you're a physicist, you'll center it within your physics work and then branch out from there. You'd then have some of the psychology related parts of information theory and communications branching off of your physics work, but who cares if it's there and not in a dramatically separate section with the top level labeled humanities? It's all interdisciplinary anyway, so don't worry and place things closest in your system to where you think they fit for you and your work. If you had five different people studying information theory who were respectively a physicist, a mathematician, a computer scientist, an engineer, and an anthropologist, they could ostensibly have all the same material on their cards, but the branching structures and locations of them all would be dramatically different and unique, if nothing else based on the time ordered way in which they came across all the distinct pieces. This is fine. You're building this for yourself, not for a mass public that will be using the Dewey Decimal System to track it all down—researchers and librarians can do that on behalf of your estate. (Of course, if you're a musician, it bears noting that you'd be totally fine building your information theory section within the area of "bands" as a subsection on "The Bandwagon". 😁)

      If you overthink things and attempt to keep them too separate in their own prefigured categorical bins, you might, for example, have "chocolate" filed historically under the Olmec and might have "peanut butter" filed with Marcellus Gilmore Edson under chemistry or pharmacy. If you're a professional pastry chef this could be devastating as it will be much harder for the true "foodie" in your zettelkasten to creatively and more serendipitously link the two together to make peanut butter cups, something which may have otherwise fallen out much more quickly and easily if you'd taken a multi-disciplinary (bottom up) and certainly more natural approach to begin with. (Apologies for the length and potential overreach on your context here, but my two line response expanded because of other lines of thought I've been working on, and it was just easier for me to continue on writing while I had the "muse". Rather than edit it back down, I'll leave it as it may be of potential use to others coming with no context at all. In other words, consider most of this response a selfish one for me and my own slip box than as responsive to the OP.)

    1. Il y a un point, en particulier, qui me frappe chaque jour davantage : ce que l’archive du chercheur d’hier peut apprendre au chercheur d’aujourd’hui, sur le plan de la méthodologie.

      Translation:

      There is one point in particular that strikes me more every day: what the archive of yesterday's researcher can teach today's researcher, in terms of methodology.

      With the rarer exceptions of writers like Erasmus, Melanchthon, Agricola, U. Eco, and G. Weinberg who wrote manuals or others like John Locke (on Indices), E. Bernheim, Langlois/Seignobos, and B. Webb who tucked reasonable advice on research and note taking methods in their texts or appendices one of the benefits of of researcher archives is not just the historical record of the researcher's evolving thought, but to actually show specific types of methodology and changes through time.

    1. The most important thing about research is to know when to stop.How does one recognize the moment? When I was eighteen orthereabouts, my mother told me that when out with a young man Ishould always leave a half-hour before I wanted to. Although I wasnot sure how this might be accomplished, I recognized the advice assound, and exactly the same rule applies to research. One must stopbefore one has finished; otherwise, one will never stop and neverfinish.

      Barbara Tuchman analogized stopping one's research to going out on a date: one should leave off a half-hour before you really want to.

      Liink to: This sounds suspiciously like advice about when to start writing, but slightly in reverse: https://hypothes.is/a/WeoX9DUOEe2-HxsJf2P8vw

      One might also liken these processes to the idea of divergence and convergence as described by Tiago Forte and others.

    1. Goutor recommended the use of bibliographic cards not only for their standard uses as sourcing, information, and footnotes, but for creating potential scopes of work and research for planning purposes, especially in planning out one's reading and note taking using various archives and resources to make more effective and productive use of one's time. (p13) This can be potentially very useful for visiting archives and sources for which one does not have easy or frequent access.

    2. There is a difference between various modes of note taking and their ultimate outcomes. Some is done for learning about an area and absorbing it into one's own source of general knowledge. Others are done to collect and generate new sorts of knowledge. But some may be done for raw data collection and analysis. Beatrice Webb called this "scientific note taking".

      Historian Jacques Goutor talks about research preparation for this sort of data collecting and analysis though he doesn't give it a particular name. He recommends reading papers in related areas to prepare for the sort of data acquisition one may likely require so that one can plan out some of one's needs in advance. This will allow the researcher, especially in areas like history or sociology, the ability to preplan some of the sorts of data and notes they'll need to take from their historical sources or subjects in order to carry out their planned goals. (p8)

      C. Wright Mills mentions (On Intellectual Craftsmanship, 1952) similar research planning whereby he writes out potential longer research methods even when he is not able to spend the time, effort, energy, or other (financial) resources to carry out such plans. He felt that just the thought experiments and exercise of doing such unfulfilled research often bore fruit in his other sociological endeavors.

    3. Goutor indicates that "a certain amount of individual in methods is commendable, and indeed necessary." but that "it soon becomes apparent that there are some ways of doing things more efficient and ultimately more productive than others". But he goes on to bemoan that how to manuals offer little help.

      (p3, Introduction)

    1. You do not reallyhave to study a topic you are working on; once your areinto it, it is everywhere. You are sensitive to its themes;you see and hear them everywhere in your experience,especially, it always seems to me, in apparently unrelatedareas. Even the mass media, especially bad movies andcheap novels and picture magazines and night radio, aredisclosed in fresh importance to you.
  4. Sep 2022
    1. maintenance rehearsal repeating items over and over to maintain them in short-term memory, as in repeating a telephone number until it has been dialed (see rehearsal). According to the levels-of-processing model of memory, maintenance rehearsal does not effectively promote long-term retention because it involves little elaboration of the information to be remembered. Also called rote rehearsal. See also phonological loop.

      The practice of repeating items as a means of attempting to place them into short-term memory is called maintenance rehearsal. Examples of this practice include repeating a new acquaintance's name or perhaps their phone number multiple times as a means of helping to remember it either for the short term or potentially the long term.

      Research on the levels-of processing model of memory indicates that maintenance rehearsal is not as effective at promoting long term memory as methods like elaborative rehearsal.

    1. In a set of groundbreaking studies in 1932, psychologist Frederic Bartlett told volunteers a Native American legend about a young man who hears war cries and, pursuing them, enters a dreamlike battle that eventually leads to his real death. Bartlett asked the volunteers, who were non-Native, to recall the rather confusing story at increasing intervals, from minutes to years later. He found that as time passed, the rememberers tended to distort the tale's culturally unfamiliar parts such that they were either lost to memory or transformed into more familiar things.

      early study relating to both culture and memory decay

      What does memory decay scale as? Is it different for different levels of "stickiness"?

    1. @BenjaminVanDyneReplying to @ChrisAldrichI wish I had a good answer! The book I use when I teach is Joseph Harris’s “rewriting” which is technically a writing book but teaches well as a book about how to read in a writerly way.

      Thanks for this! I like the framing and general concept of the book.

      It seems like its a good follow on to Dan Allosso's OER text How to Make Notes and Write https://minnstate.pressbooks.pub/write/ or Sönke Ahrens' How to Take Smart Notes https://amzn.to/3DwJVMz which includes some useful psychology and mental health perspective.

      Other similar examples are Umberto Eco's How to Write a Thesis (MIT, 2015) or Gerald Weinberg's The Fieldstone Method https://amzn.to/3DCf6GA These may be some of what we're all missing.

      I'm reminded of Mark Robertson's (@calhistorian) discussion of modeling his note taking practice and output in his classroom using Roam Research. https://hyp.is/QuB5NDa0Ee28hUP7ExvFuw/thatsthenorm.com/mark-robertson-history-socratic-dialogue/ Perhaps we need more of this?

      Early examples of this sort of note taking can also be seen in the religious studies space with Melanchthon's handbook on commonplaces or Jonathan Edwards' Miscellanies, though missing are the process from notes to writings. https://www.logos.com/grow/jonathan-edwards-organizational-genius/

      Other examples of these practices in the wild include @andy_matuschak's https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DGcs4tyey18 and TheNonPoet's https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_sdp0jo2Fe4 Though it may be better for students to see this in areas in which they're interested.

      Hypothes.is as a potential means of modeling and allowing students to directly "see" this sort of work as it progresses using public/semi-public annotations may be helpful. Then one can separately model re-arranging them and writing a paper. https://web.hypothes.is/

      Reply to: https://twitter.com/BenjaminVanDyne/status/1571171086171095042

    1. Live-Roaming: Using Roam to teach students in college

      I'd listened to this whole episode sometime since 2022-04-05, but didn't put it in my notes.

      Mark Robertson delineates how he actively models the use of his note taking practice (using Roam Research) while teaching/lecturing in the classroom. This sort of modeling can be useful for showing students how academics read, gather, and actively use their knowledge. It does miss the portion about using the knowledge to create papers, articles, books, etc., but the use of this mode of reading and notes within a discussion setting isn't terribly different.

      Use of the system for conversation/discussion with the authors of various texts as you read, with your (past) self as you consult your own notes, or your students in classroom lectures/discussion sections is close to creating your own discussion for new audiences (by way of the work your write yourself.)

      https://www.buzzsprout.com/1194506/4875515-mark-robertson-history-socratic-dialogue-live-roaming.mp3

    1. The second is the fact that, formany persons, the tasks of critical scholarship arenot without their charm; nearly every one findsin them a singular satisfaction in the long runand some have confined themselves to these taskswho might, strictly speaking, have aspired to higherthings.

      what about people who may have been on the spectrum, and naturally suited to these endeavors, but who may have wished to hide from the resultant fame or notoreity? Those researchers surely existed in the past.

      What about the quickening of these research databases in the digital era that allow researchers like Thomas Piketty to do work on the original sources, but still bring them into a form that allows the analysis and writing critically about them over the span of their own lifetimes? How many researchers are there like this?

    2. It would be very interesting to have information on the methodsof work of the great scholars, particularly those who undertooklong tasks of collection and classification. Some information ofthis kind is to be found in their papers, and occasionally in theircorrespondence. On the methods of Du Cange, see L. Feugfere, Mudesur la vie et les ouvrages de Du Gomge (Paris, 1858, 8vo), pp. 62 sqq_,

      Indeed! I find myself having asked this particular question in a similar setting/context before!!!

  5. Aug 2022
    1. Study 1 was a 3-year longitudinal study of two cohorts of AfricanAmerican college students at a university where African Amer-icans represented less than 10%, and Whites represented morethan 50%, of the student body over the course of data collection(see Mendoza-Denton et al., 2002).
    2. Given these converging lines of research, we tested whetherfriendships with majority-group peers would buffer minoritystudents who are high in RS-race from feelings of alienation anddiscomfort in historically White university settings.
    3. Givenresearch documenting the benefits of cross-group friend-ship for intergroup attitudes, we tested whether friend-ships with majority-group peers would attenuate theeffects of RS-race within these contexts
  6. www.researchgate.net www.researchgate.net
    1. Zande, 1999), we report a study in which friendship was inducedbetween same- and cross-group dyads of Latinos/as and Whites.
    2. Building on the experimental paradigm used by Wright andcolleagues (Wright et al., 1998, 2002, 2005; Wright & van der
    3. Wright and his colleagues(see Wright, Aron, & Tropp, 2002; Wright, Brody, & Aron, 2005;Wright, Ropp, & Tropp, 1998; Wright & van der Zande, 1999)described research that provided initial evidence for the causaleffects of cross-group friendship on self-reported anxiety.
    4. Even though interactions between members of different socialgroups are sometimes characterized by anxiety and threat (Blas-covich, Mendes, Hunter, Lickel, & Kowai-Bell, 2001; Mendes,Blascovich, Lickel, & Hunter, 2002; Stephan & Stephan, 1985,2000), a growing body of research suggests that cross-groupfriendship can attenuate such anxiety.
    5. The authors induced cross-group friendship between Latinos/as and Whites to test the effects ofcross-group friendship on anxiety in intergroup contexts.
    1. Given the strong coupling between data andcryptosystems in blockchains, the potential vulner-ability of these cryptosystems to quantum attacks,the likely introduction of capable quantum com-puters in the mid-term future—not to mention theusual high monetary value of the assets secured byblockchains—it is important to more deeply under-stand their current level of vulnerability.

      Author states its motivation: - strong coupling between data and cryptosystems in BCh - the cryptosystems potential vulnerability to quantum computers - the likely introduction of quantum computers in the mid-term future - also the high monetary value of the assets secured plus momentum of BCh.

    1. The discussion above implies that a new explanation or theory can only be justified if it is seen as different from, and possibly opposed to, established knowledge. Without such differentiation, there is no way of determining whether it illuminates things better than previous research. The detection of unexpected difference – of tensions in the empirics or how they are interpreted – indicates the need for new research.
    1. German publishers send out so-called book cards to book shops along with their newreleases. On them, bibliographic information is printed. Those book cards are also in postcardsize, i.e. A6, and their textual structure allows for them to be included in the reference filebox.

      Automatic reference cards!

      When did they stop doing this!!!

    1. And there’s beginning to be more and more of an understanding on the scientific side and more and more interest on the side of people who are interested in developing tools for thought for understanding. How does the workflow of thinking happen when you have these tools that magnify your capabilities? There really hasn’t been a fraction of the amount of research on that as there has been on the development of the tangible tools themselves.

      Bias towards researching tangible things needs time to be overcome, it's also a gear shift to higher level of complexity in viewpoint. Compare to my searches in my fav topics list, where does this apply / potential hardening of focus?

  7. Jul 2022
    1. They're drawing primarily from students with the following broad interests: - learning sciences / educational psychology - sociology of education (to influence policy/practice) - those with strong real-world experience (looking to apply it to a specific area)

      tuition coverage & stipend<br /> must be based in Baltimore<br /> prefer one speaks to faculty members for alignment of research areas and mentorship prior to joining