79 Matching Annotations
1. Last 7 days
2. arxiv.org arxiv.org
1. according to my entire history

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3. Apr 2024
4. arxiv.org arxiv.org
1. Every p-block with a payment in r-coins by a correct trader p ̸ = ris eventually approved or disapproved by an r-block [provided p and r are friends or have acommon friend in SG(B)]a.

Strange that you need to have a friend-path in order to use `r`'s coins. I'd expect `r` to accept&approve a message from me, given I hold his coin (which he can see from my message).

2. An r-block b that repays a redemption claim with comment (redeem, P ), P =[p1, p2, . . . , pk], k ≥ 1, has a payment in pi-coins, i ∈ [k], provided the balance of r does notinclude any pj -coins for any 1 ≤ j < i at the time of creating b, and has a payment in r-coins,r /∈ P , provided the balance of r does not include any P -coins at the time of creating b

Why have signed coins?

Makes it possible to track which coins been equivocated.

But what's the use for it?

What's the difference between "you can't use these specific coins as they were equivocatedly used already" and "you can't use these opaque coins, as they are in equivocation"?

Later, at least, may succed given equivocation issuer have enough balance for both. Although then there's no point in creating equivocation in the first place. So nevermind, won't happen, except by silly equivocators.

3. An r-block b with an empty payment and comment (disapprove, h′) pointsto an r-coin payment block b′, where h′ points to the reason for disapproval: To b′, if it isunbalanced, or to a block b′′ equivocating with b′

Again, this can be derived out of DAG. Seems redundant.

It would somewhat spare computation, as one can check equivocation by following a pointer, but then he would need to ensure that both equivocated blocks are observed by a self-parent chain of the "DISAPPROVE" issuer.

4. Given a blocklace B and two agents p, r ∈ Π, the r-coins balance of p in B isthe sum of r-coins payments accepted by p in B minus the sum of r-coins payments issued by p in B.

Great, so r-balance of `p` is derived by the history of ops regarding `r`. So no need for `p` to calculate it and add to every op, would be redundant. Not sure the derivation is the proposed protocol though.

5. Finality: A p-block consumes a non-p-block b′ with a payment to p only if r approves b′.

Would be nice to have finality optional. As to not incur round-trip to a possibly offline `r`. Double-spends will be detected and punished. Given the value of double-spend spend is less than a cost - no incentive to do so.

6. consisting of r-coins, which can be thought of as IOUs issued and signed by r

Why do coins need to be signed?

7. The black agent mints a black coin, increasing its balance from 3 to 4 coins

Why to capture `4`? Ops like `burn(10)`, `mint(1)` do the same, yet being more semantic, as they convey what happens, rather than the result.

E.g., when green has 3 green_coins, and we see `send(1, green_coin, (to) black), send(3, green_coins, (to) green)` did green just miscalculated his balance (should be 2), or did he sent and minted one at the same time?

8. C

That looks messy, accidentally so, it seems.

1. Green agent only needs to REDEEM(green_coin) op to convey what he wants.

2. Self-payments are redundant.

3. Links other than self-parent and other-parent(s) are redundant. You can derive anybody's balance out of their self-parent chain.

3.1 Other-parent_s_ make the order of received messages ambiguous.

1. `REPAY` is redundant. When `REDEEM` is received, and given one can indeed redeem (recepient has his coin at the moment of receival) - the REDEEM should be automatic. I.e., plainly observing that `REDEEM` been accepted by recepient is enough to derive out of it one of 1) it's a suffessfull redeem 2) it's a failed redeem.
9. and the red agent acceptsthe payment, increasing its balance to 6 black coins.

Why does he need to explicitly accept? Can't it be done by default? Can he reject?

10. The black agent approves the payment

Why does he need to approve? It is a mean of equivocation detection. But it requires all coins going through its creator. Incurring latency and possible indefinete out-of-service as creator goes offline.

Why is it not optional? Like we can exchange coins with recepient directly, and he may come to redeem it later, if he wishes, detecting eqiuvocation at that point.

Some services, that offer say a cup of coffee, would be willing to take the risk of loosing \$5 of value on to-be-detected equivocations. Since equivocators will be punished severily that does not worth 5\$ of value. So they can be rest assured that nobody's gonna do that.

Now this example holds if coffee provider prices in currency other than its own, say bank's.

And banks are generally online. But still. Why force it? Let them do a round-trip to currency owner at their choice, a tradeoff that's up to them.

11. decreasing its balance to 2 black coins

Why does red agent need to issue `pay` to itself?

What red agents holds after he transferred 1 black coin can be derived from history his ops.

We can't trust what he issues, he may issue to self 1000 black coins. So we'd need to go check history whether he computed it right.

But then again, if we need to do that, why issue an explicit payment to self?

12. Agree to redeem any domestic coin issued in return for any foreign coin held. Forexample, Alice must agree to a request by Bob to redeem an Alice-coin Bob holds against any coin heldby Alice.

The device of Alice may be offline, e.g., smartphone discharged. We can't assume constant connectivity.

13. eachpricing their goods and services in terms of their own personal coins. Next, assume that every two villagersexchange 100 personal coins with each other

Pricing in your own coins means personal coins may not match in value behind them. One may offer a cup of coffee for 1 coin, another for 5. Simply exchanging 100 coins with each other would mean one'll get 1/5 of value from this exchange. So 1:5 exchange would be needed. But how to know that in advance?

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5. arxiv.org arxiv.org
1. Minting: Each agent p mints (i.e. creates initial NFTs with)its own p-coins, as many as it pleases

An agent may create as many agent's coins as he pleases.

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6. Aug 2023
7. www.atozblogz.com www.atozblogz.com
1. History of Blockchain Technology

Explore the evolution of blockchain technology in our comprehensive guide. Learn its history and impact. Stay updated in 2023. >> History of Blockchain Technology

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8. Mar 2023
9. robinwinslow.uk robinwinslow.uk
1. Bitcoin was an interesting idea for a decentralised currency, until someone thought they could profit from it. There were interesting games that people enjoyed in the crypto space until people inevitably turned them into a pure profit making ventures. And the one I personally feel most bitter about: the decentralised web is a real movement that really fucking matters. Web3 ate up that movement and fucked it up for years.

比特币（一开始）是一个去中心化货币的有趣想法，直到有人发现可以从中获利。在加密货币领域有一些有趣的游戏，人们很喜欢，直到人们不可避免地把它们变成一个纯粹的盈利性企业。而我个人觉得最痛苦的是：去中心化网络是一场真正的运动，真他〇的重要。Web3 吞噬了这场运动，并遗祸多年。

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10. Feb 2023
11. newtum.com newtum.com
1. How to Create a Cryptocurrency This course will guide you through the complete process of how to create a cryptocurrency, Just like Bitcoin and Litecoin, with your own blockchain network. Your coin can be mined just like other coins in the Crypto Market. No coding experience is required. Just basic knowledge of computers and servers is required.

Here I learn how to make cryptocurrency.

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12. Jan 2023
13. docdrop.org docdrop.org
1. can have a pretty outsized  carbon footprint and I'm wondering how   you reconcile the vast amount of computational  power necessary to accomplish this work and its   negative impact on the environment and whether  or not this is something you all are considering

## Question: has the project considered the energy impact?

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14. Dec 2022
15. docdrop.org docdrop.org
1. The cypherpunks Who Um was this move-in from the 1990s these sort of 00:05:33 radical crypto little Libertarians who and that they call themselves crypto anarchists even who believe that they could use encryption tools and anonymity tools enabled by encryption to take power away from governments and 00:05:46 corporations and give it to individuals and they dreamed up you know things that would become vpns and tour and the dark web essentially and that's where Wikileaks came from for instance 00:05:58 Julian Assange was a Cypher Punk too who dreamed of using these tools to give anonymity to journalistic sources um but then in 2011 just as I was like uh writing a book that was kind of in 00:06:10 some ways a history of the cyberpunks um I Came Upon what seemed to be this new Cypher Punk invention which was Bitcoin you know

!- In other words : crypto emerged from the cyberpunk movement - another example of progress traps - as the cyberpunks could not imagine how it would be gamed for criminality

2. Bitcoin was monetizing this new Anonymous underworld of the internet and um that it was a way to kind of like send a briefcase full of unmarked bills from anywhere across the internet to 00:07:25 anywhere else in the world without identifying yourself and only now you know I mean not quite now but like only about almost a decade later that I kind of fully have this Epiphany that 00:07:38 actually it was the opposite the Bitcoin was the opposite of untraceable that it was in fact extremely traceable and that not only that but but it had served as a kind of trap for people seeking 00:07:51 Financial privacy and particularly criminals uh cyber criminals of every stripe for years and years and once I sort of Saw that this had happened I actually really 00:08:02 it came from seeing Justice departments announcements of takedowns and in each one they credited this one company called chain analysis which was uh I knew at the time a Bitcoin a 00:08:15 cryptocurrency tracing firm and it's began you know I sort of like read the research I'd seen hints over the years of how traceable cryptocurrency was but once I saw like how many of these cases 00:08:27 chain analysis specifically this startup tracing cryptocurrency was involved in

!- traceability: of cryptocurrency - US government solved many cases with a company called Chain Analysis - who had figured out the vulnerability and traceability of cryptocurrency

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16. Nov 2022
17. milkyeggs.com milkyeggs.com
1. If you want to read a poorly researched fluff piece about Sam Bankman-Fried, feel free to go to the New York Times (PDF). If you want to understand what happened at Alameda Research and how Sam Bankman-Fried (SBF), Sam Trabucco, and Caroline Ellison incinerated over \$20 billion dollars of fund profits and FTX user deposits, read this article. (And follow me on Twitter at @0xfbifemboy!)

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18. www.wired.com www.wired.com
1. Unlike a cryptocurrency like Bitcoin, the digital yuan is issued directly by China’s central bank and does not depend on a blockchain. The currency has the same value as its analog equivalent, the yuan or RMB, and for consumers the experience of using the digital yuan is not that different from any other mobile payment system or credit card. But on the back end, payments are not routed through a bank and can sometimes move without transaction fees, jumping from one e-wallet to another as easily as cash changes hands.

## Not a cryptocurrency, not a bank card

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19. Sep 2022
20. davidgerard.co.uk davidgerard.co.uk
1. You throw away computing power as fast as possible to show you deserve the bitcoins. Your chance of winning the bitcoin lottery is in direct proportion to how much you waste. Bitcoin mining now uses over 0.5% of all the electricity in the world — for the same seven transactions per second it managed to do in 2009. Bitcoin is the most inefficient payment system in human history.

## Proof-of-work effects

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21. codono.com codono.com
1. Binance Clone is an Asset trading platform developed by Codono integrated with multi coins and tokens wallet using Coin nodes or even 3rd party wallets Like CryptoApis, and Coinpayments. Also, Our Product enables the fastest Liquidity with multiple Liquidity Providers.

A cryptocurrency exchange script for trading assets, such as cryptocurrencies, tokens, fiats other assets. Script has market-making or liquidity options provided. Codono supports All fiat currencies. You can create a market Between Fiat-Crypto, Fiat-Fiat, and Crypto-Crypto. Moreover it supports almost any Coin/Token, ie Bitcoin[BTC,LTC,Doge] , Tron [Trc10+TRC20]*, Ethereum Based[ ETH -ERC20, BNB-BEP20, FTM, SOL, Private Networks], XRP, XMR, Waves ,Coinpayments, and many more.

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22. Jul 2022
23. bam.kalzumeus.com bam.kalzumeus.com
1. In principle, you could use stablecoins as money, like how you use deposits as money. Stablecoins are not used like money; rather than facilitating almost the entire diversity of transactions in the economy, they are overwhelmingly used for a few niche use cases.

## Uses of stablecoins

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24. bam.kalzumeus.com bam.kalzumeus.com
1. Crypto is a good example, to avoid stigmatizing developing nations. There is an exchange rate, constantly changing, between the stablecoins USDC and USDT, between both of those coins (independently) and the dollars they theoretically represent. Different rates prevail in different places and different transaction sizes. This makes stablecoin-settled commerce very rare relative to money-settled commerce.

## Cryprocurrencies, even those said to represent dollars, have a constantly evolving exchange rate

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25. Jun 2022
1. Apr 5, 2022 — MicroStrategy (MSTR), a bitcoin-accumulating business-intelligence software company, said it bought another 4,167 BTC for around \$190.5 million.microstrategy bitcoinmicrostrategy bitcoin holdingsmicrostrategy bitcoin holdings chartmicrostrategy bitcoin purchase historymicrostrategy selling bitcoinbitcoin pricePeople also search for

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27. davidgerard.co.uk davidgerard.co.uk
1. “Smart contract” is a fancy term for small computer programs that run directly on a blockchain. Bridges work by having a smart contract on both the blockchains. The bridge uses a relay to transmit messages back and forth between the smart contracts on each of the two blockchains

## How blockchain bridges work

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28. www.morningbrew.com www.morningbrew.com
1. Stoller acknowledged that there might be a “genuine leap of technical capacity” brought about by crypto, but he hasn’t seen it for himself. The rampant and accruing amount of fraud involving crypto is also an indicator of intent to Stoller. “If blockchain proponents want to advance their technology, they would eagerly seek to get rid of the fraud, but I don't see that happening,” he said. “That signals to me the fraud is the point.” Or more specifically, as Kelsey Hightower argues, money is the point: “It’s not like someone looked at blockchain and said, ‘Oh, my God, we finally have a better database for storing transactions!’” Instead, what made blockchain’s big promises so compelling were stories of people turning a small amount of money into a lot. “And in our society, we equate morality to money,” Hightower said.

## “The fraud is the point”

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29. www.schneier.com www.schneier.com
1. To me, the problem isn’t that blockchain systems can be made slightly less awful than they are today. The problem is that they don’t do anything their proponents claim they do. In some very important ways, they’re not secure. They doesn’t replace trust with code; in fact, in many ways they are far less trustworthy than non-blockchain systems. They’re not decentralized, and their inevitable centralization is harmful because it’s largely emergent and ill-defined. They still have trusted intermediaries, often with more power and less oversight than non-blockchain systems. They still require governance. They still require regulation. (These things are what I wrote about here.) The problem with blockchain is that it’s not an improvement to any system—and often makes things worse.

## Blockchain does not improve monetary systems

With cryptocurrencies—built on blockchain—we still need: centralization, trust, regulation, governance, and a whole host of other things that are already in TradFi.

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30. blog.cryptographyengineering.com blog.cryptographyengineering.com
1. Proof-of-work is not the only technology we have on which to build consensus protocols. Today, many forward-looking networks are deploying proof-of-stake (PoS) for their consensus. In these systems, your “voting power” in the network is determined by your ownership stake in some valuable on-chain asset, such as a new or existing electronic token. Since cryptocurrency has coincidentally spent a lot of time distributing tokens, this means that new protocols can essentially “cut out the middleman” and simply use coin ownership directly as a proxy for voting power, rather than requiring operators to sell their coins to buy electricity and mining hardware. Proof-of-stake systems are not perfect: they still lead to some centralization of power, since in this paradigm the rich tend to get richer. However it’s hard to claim that the result will be worse than the semi-centralized mess that proof-of-work mining has turned into.

## Proof-of-Stake can replace Proof-of-Work

This is a big caveat here...the nature of the tech leads to a centralization of power that means "the rich tend to get richer." For the sake of removing the environmental consequences of consensus building, does it seem worthwhile to anoint a subset of users to get richer from the use of the tech?

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31. May 2022
32. www.vox.com www.vox.com
1. What emerged was a picture that was simultaneously murky and clarifying, in that there’s not one good answer. Some of what it does is promising; a lot of what it does — even boosters admit — is trash, and trash that’s costing some people a lot of money. This probably isn’t the death knell for crypto — it’s gone through plenty of boom and bust cycles in the past. It would be unwise to definitively say that crypto has no chance of being a game changer; it would also be disingenuous to claim it is now.

Article summary: cryptocurrency isn't all that useful now, but that doesn't necessarily mean it won't be useful in the future.

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33. hbr.org hbr.org
1. Blockchains are immutable, which means once data is recorded, it can’t be removed. The idea that blockchains will be used to store user-generated data for services like social networks has enormous implications for user safety. If someone uses these platforms to harass and abuse others, such as by doxing, posting revenge pornography, uploading child sexual abuse material, or doing any number of other very serious things that platforms normally try to thwart with content-moderation teams, the protections that can be offered to users are extremely limited. The same goes for users who plagiarize artwork, spam, or share sensitive material like trade secrets. Even a user who themself posts something and then later decides they’d rather not have it online is stuck with it remaining on-chain indefinitely.

## Nothing is forgotten on the blockchain

Once something is recorded in the blockchain ledger, it is almost impossible to remove (except, say, for a community-agreed-upon hard fork of the ledger). All of the ills of social media become even more permanent when recorded directly in a blockchain.

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34. Apr 2022
35. www.buzzfeednews.com www.buzzfeednews.com
1. Biometrics play an important role in colonial history: British administrators began experimenting with them in the 1850s as a way to control and intimidate their subjects in colonial India. Worldcoin’s activities in India, as well as other former British colonies such as Zimbabwe, where banks are banned from processing crypto transactions, and Kenya, where a new law forbids the transfer of biometrics data beyond the country’s borders, evoke Silicon Valley’s history of ignoring sensitive cultural issues and skirting regulations.

## Colonial history of biometrics

Article text links to The Origin of Finger-Printing . Nature 98, 268 (1916). https://doi.org/10.1038/098268a0.

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36. Jan 2022
37. web3isgoinggreat.com web3isgoinggreat.com
1. https://web3isgoinggreat.com/web1

List of failures and scams in the crytpo space.

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38. www.noemamag.com www.noemamag.com
1. And protecting life-supporting cooperation requires suppressing certain kinds of selfishness. Biologists, unlike many economists, grasp when the “greed is good” ethos gets deadly.

At what scale might such cooperative efforts fail?

Look at the scale of the bitcoin bros using crypto and bitcoin as a completely selfish endeavor. Has this reached a scale for social failure? (Separate from the end date at which the bitcoin/crypto system completely fails and collapses?)

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39. Nov 2021
40. www.nasdaq.com www.nasdaq.com
1. t wasn't long ago that very few people had heard the word “cryptocurrency,” and even less knew what it meant.

This is still true even in my country, Nigeria. The word "cryptocurrencies" is only popular among the younger generations.

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41. tezos.com tezos.com
1. In our Design Science Studio session today, Niki Selken suggested that we purchase Tezos to experiment with NFTs.

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42. wallet.kukai.app wallet.kukai.app
1. Niki Selken, Gray Area, shared Kukai with the Design Science Studio today as an easy way to get some crypto, using a single sign on with Google.

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43. Sep 2021
44. www.ft.com www.ft.com
1. Inside the cult of crypto Debate? No thanks. Doubts? Not welcome. How the world of cryptocurrency diehards really works

https://www.ft.com/content/9e787670-6aa7-4479-934f-f4a9fedf4829

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45. hypothes.is hypothes.is
1. Cryptocurrency Exchange Development

Build a robust, secure and user-friendly Cryptocurrency Exchange Platform for your traders with our Cryptocurrency Exchange Software. As a best-in-class Cryptocurrency Exchange Development Company, Maticz offer top-notch Cryptocurrency Exchange Development Services on White Label mode to ensure growth-centric digital transformation. Get Complete Cryptocurrency Exchange Software solutions to unlock revenue and growth for your Crypto business.

46. Jun 2021

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48. Mar 2021
49. www.nasdaq.com www.nasdaq.com
1. Digital currencies are secured using cryptography and combining that with their role as a currency gives us the compound word cryptocurrency.

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50. Jul 2020
51. www.irs.gov www.irs.gov

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52. Oct 2019
53. crxextractor.com crxextractor.com
1. Was it helpful? Donate some BTC!

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54. Jun 2019
55. www.nytimes.com www.nytimes.com
1. The company has sky-high hopes that Libra could become the foundation for a new financial system not controlled by today’s power brokers on Wall Street or central banks.

Facebook want another way to circumvent government? Well, let's circumvent Facebook.

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56. Feb 2019
57. www.blocktempo.com www.blocktempo.com
1. 若先不論這些國家實踐國家數字貨幣的可能性，比特幣這種無主權的貨幣背後的區塊鏈技術，確實勾起了這些反美國家的興趣。 在數位化時代下，透過分散式帳本技術，它賦予了國家發行具有主權性質的密碼貨幣的能力，這也讓國際政治之間的糾紛多添了一些變數。 一方想要透過區塊鏈自建金融體系，一方想要強烈抵制這樣的行為，區塊鏈作為達到開放性金融（Open Finance）的一種「手段」，而美國作為目前世界的霸權，反美政權有機會挑戰該國對於世界經濟的「完全主導權」？還是對於透過區塊鏈創造金融壁壘的想像只是曇花一現？值得關注。

<big>评：</big><br/><br/> 「比特币这种无主权货币背后的区块链技术，赋予了国家发行具有主权性质的密码货币的能力」，此番境遇，放到加密货币市场遇冷的 2019 年初来看，着实有股「有心栽花花不开，无心插柳柳成荫」的意味。分布式账本技术真的能在国际政坛间再度搅起波澜吗？区块链技术真能引导现有体系走向开放性金融（Open Finance）吗？或许，人类自身的求生欲会给予上述提问一个肯定的答复，但是这种充满跳跃性的惊喜感赖以维系的前提在于——比特币是一种无主权的货币，信息技术能够自由流动。

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58. www.blocktempo.com www.blocktempo.com
1. 駭客入侵了 DNS 的服務商，欺騙惡意將用戶從一個站點重定向到虛假網站點，在竊取用戶的敏感個人資訊後，使用它來訪問用戶的帳戶。 簡單的舉例來說，你在前往銀行的路上迷路了，有人假冒警察給你指了一條通往假銀行的路，你在存錢之後輸入了銀行密碼，假銀行就拿著你的密碼去真銀行領錢。照理來說，真銀行不該負責，而是真警察沒有做好被假冒的風險防護。（唯一不同的是，在網路世界你必須要詢問 DNS 才能知道銀行的所在） 因此，遭受攻擊的是 DNS 的提供商，而不是交易所本身。照理來說，交易所沒有承擔責任的義務。

<big>评：</big><br/><br/> 比特币诞生初期，就有人欢呼 “We don't need banks anymore”。时至今日，对此愿景翘首以盼的拥趸也大有人在，只不过他们把目光移向了比普惠金融更高阶的开放性金融，措辞也变得更为「绅士」：By crypto like Bitcoin we can “bank” the unbanked（为那些没能享受到金融基础服务的底层民众提供服务）。试问，假以时日加密货币登上舞台，人类是否还需要银行？如果需要，这种状态还会持续多长时间？在未来，银行这条清结算渠道是否会演化成其他范式，而非被取代？ <br/><br/> 对此，许多人认同「非黑即白」的二元论答案，或者再暧昧一点，他们会说，要达到质变的最终目的，不过是时间长短的问题。「将 DNS 提供商比作警察，交易所比作银行」，如是比喻固然沿袭了旧世界的工程化思维，却无疑给了这群人当头一棒。

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59. Jan 2019
60. www.technologyreview.com www.technologyreview.com
1. Regulating cryptocurrency without hindering innovation is a challenge for many governments. But Japan seems to be striking a pretty good balance. After the Coincheck incident, the FSA “studied very hard about cryptocurrency and cybersecurity” and wound up better informed than most consultants in the industry, says Oki Matsumoto, chairman and managing director of Monex, Coincheck’s new owner.

<big>评：</big><br/><br/>中介是多余的，但是它促进了市场资本主义中社会和人的有机互惠，散发出人情味儿；去中介化的点对点模式是高效的，但却单一追求不信任个体间的速生联系，显得冰冷淡漠。在行业监管这件事上，日本政府也活学活用玩起了「去中介化」，甩掉了那帮以兜售智谋为生的顾问，直接参与到行业监管政策的制定和落实过程中。这本不是什么很有人情味的举动，但却因为一个较为开放的结果而受到了区块链从业者的一致好评。或许这将启发人们思考，什么是「合格」（qualified）的监管者？什么是「好」（enlightened）的监管者？怎样才能被 Oki Matsumoto 称为 “better informed”?

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1. Grin is easily the most technologically advanced and fascinating cryptocurrency to be released since Bitcoin. It'll be interesting seeing Bitcoin maximalists come up with logic to convince themselves to be OK with shilling it. Personally, I'm a big fan, will be buying lots of it!

<big>评：</big><br/><br/> 2018 年的冬天对于加密货币市场来说无疑是寒冷的，但仍然阻挡不住投资机构们对新一代隐私币 Grin 的兴趣。没有 ICO，没有预挖，开发团队不接受投资只接受捐赠——所有这些都让这张「咧嘴笑脸」带上了谜一般的独特气质。 <br/><br/> 值得提出的是，在 Grin 最初的挖矿设计中，团队采取的是 Cuckoo Cycle 算法，这是完全抗 ASIC 的算法。团队每 6 个月会调整一次算法参数，来保持抗 ASIC 的特性，并希望凭此做到真正的去中心化挖矿——用团队自己的话来说就是 “specifically designed to be resistant to Bitcoin style hardware arms-races”。 <br/><br/> 看起来很酷吧？更酷的是，这份「螳臂当车式」勇气背后的社会意义。这话听来不免有点末世英雄的悲壮，但对于那些在面对疯狂通胀不惜冒险自行挖矿的委内瑞拉民众来说，何尝不是雪中送炭？Medium 上 @kovalskee 的一篇文章亦呼应了这一点： <br/><br/>

In the first years it is mass distribution and adoption by merchants and services will be the key over time to realizing Grin’s vision, and over a long time horizon Grin can likely become a store of value. Perhaps that which will drive demand will be a single privacy- or micropayment-focused service “killer app” (the holy grail so highly sought out in the “crypto” space) that will propel usage of Grin. Perhaps it’ll be an array of applications or use-cases focused on privacy. It might be in the developing world, in some authoritarian regime, in emerging markets, or in the West.

<br/><br/>以为故事说到这儿就完了？并非如此。Cuckoo Cycle 算法的精心设计无法阻止一些公司秘密研究 ASIC，故而仍不能做到完全抵抗中心化的算力聚集。因此 Grin 团队规划了一个限定期，预计之后的新算法将对「抗 ASIC」特性进行改进，从「完全抗 ASIC」逐渐过渡到「对 ASIC 友好」——即在两年的时间里，从最初的「90% GPU + 10% ASIC」转为「100% ASIC」。这样的妥协之举使得算力不会在项目初始阶段过分集中，甚至能让个人 computing devices 也得以参与到挖矿中来。 <br/><br/> 说到底，算力的中心化趋势是任何 PoW 算法区块链都不可避免的问题。在萎靡熊市里半路杀出的 Grin，为这群急需新鲜感的玩家示范了如何在腹背受敌的牢笼里自娱自乐般带着镣铐起舞。而这支舞留给人们的思考，却已然超出了资本博弈的范畴，触及到了更广的社会维度。

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62. blockcast.it blockcast.it
1. 援引《彭博社》消息，華爾街證券研究公司 Fundstrat Global Advisors 的聯合創辦人 Tom Lee 12 月 13 日向客戶發電郵時透露，已經厭倦人們不斷詢問目標價格，有鑑於加密貨幣的內在波動性，該公司將停止提供任何「實現公允價格」的時程表。 換句話說，這表示華爾街最著名的比特幣預言家，已經決定放棄對其價格進行預測。 原因很簡單，若回顧 Tom Lee 過去的研究報告，我們會發現他曾預測比特幣的價格將在 2018 年終達到 20,000 美元的目標價格；而年終的預測價格則為 25,000 美元。到了 11 月，他將目標價格削減至 15,000 美元，但比特幣當時的交易價格僅為 5,500 美元，隨後更跌至 4,000 美元左右。總體而言，比特幣價格全年下降超過 70%，而 Tom Lee 最近一次預測的「公允價格」範圍在 13,800 美元到 14,800 美元之間。

<big>评：</big><br/><br/>出于加密货币与生俱来的独特性，其价格走势本不应该被人为地解读，而场外观众们也无需矫情地揣测低迷熊市与失守分析师之间的暧昧联系。比特币可谓区块链世界第一个广为人知的创业项目，考虑到它对现有金融体系的颠覆性冲击，这些华尔街拥趸们的「洋相」或许不失为一种班门弄斧式的保身明哲。

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63. www.jinse.com www.jinse.com
1. 欲戴皇冠，必承其重。“交易即挖矿”曾使FCoin撬动了老牌交易所的地位，不可否认它是成功的，它可以帮助新交易所快速积累用户和交易量，但FT没有实际价值支撑，则是一切崩盘最根本的原因。蜂拥而来的用户并没有忠诚度，对于交易所来说并不是健康的发展模式，人们最关心的是平台币涨跌，交易所的政策、发展、生态建设与他们毫无关系。当进度条推动到此时，和张健所说的要建立一个透明社区的理想，恐怕已经相去甚远。

<big>评：</big><br/><br/>「忠诚度」这一概念对区块链玩家来说，或许是烫手山芋。抱团取暖向来是人类偏爱的过冬方式之一，但实际上，他们需要释出的不是忠诚（loyalty），而是信任（trust）。忠诚一旦聚集，很容易又落回中心化的窠臼，后果如同勒庞在《乌合之众》一书里所言：「群体不善推理，却急于采取行动。它们目前的组织赋予它们巨大的力量。我们目睹其诞生的那些教条，很快也会具有旧式教条的威力，也就是说，不容讨论的专横武断的力量」。

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64. cointelegraph.com cointelegraph.com
1. According to Capital, customers can purchase Bitcoin for the sums of 50, 100 or 250 euros. The tobacco shop then provides a ticket with an alphanumeric code and a QR code, which can then be used to obtain the purchased bitcoins via Keplerk’s website. The magazine adds that Keplerk collects a 7 percent fee on each payment, 1.25 of which then goes to the tobacco shop.

<big>评：</big><br/><br/> 大众获得加密货币的渠道越来越广，这是件好事吗？抛开「万事都有好坏两面」的哲学论断不谈，我们似乎没有理由认为这是件坏事——加密货币愈加普及和流行，愈加深入日常生活，从而间接影响到人们的思维观念。但值得关注的是，在这五花八门的渠道里，有多少被中心化的力量操控着？当比特币像烟草一样成为专营专卖的「商品」和重要的财政收入来源，当大头交易所托管了市面上流通的绝大部分数字资产，「去中心化」的理想可能又将化为一纸空谈。届时人们关心的不是「怎样构筑新的价值体系」，而是「怎样挣更多的钱抽更好的『烟』」。

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65. www.8btc.com www.8btc.com
1. 市场并不是保持不动的，减产一方面会减小市场抛压，可能使得人们会将其视为一种利好，但通常会在分叉发生前表现出来，而一旦落地之后，所谓的利好就会被消耗一空，并在短时间内表现为利空。而等到市场转向理性之后，又会逐步平衡。

<big>评：</big><br/><br/> 「比如我们当中很多人喜欢吃甜食，但由于担心发胖又不得不控制自己的食欲。什么原因造成我们爱吃甜食呢？人类在 200 多万年的进化过程中，绝大多数时间都处于营养不良和饥荒的边缘，饥饿是造成人类死亡的最大威胁。这种环境下，爱吃甜食的人往往可以获得更多热量，更容易存活，并把自己的基因传递下去。由于我们是远古时期爱吃甜食人类的后代，所以我们今天爱吃甜食的行为就不难理解了。但现代社会中物质极大丰富后，高热量食物随处可见，吃甜食这种曾经帮助人类生存的习惯却变成了一个负担，成了一种看似不理性的行为。因此很多现代社会里看起来非理性的心理和行为实际上都是深度理性的：这些心理和行为在远古时期曾经有利于我们祖先生存和繁衍后代。」 </br></br> 从进化论角度来看， 这些在远古时期理性的心理和行为可以解释现代股票市场中很多看似非理性的投资行为，此类行为偏差其实是人类长期进化的结果。 </br></br> 尽管如此，我们仍难以回答的问题是：进化到廿一世纪的现代人类，果真在进化过程中尝到甜头了吗？社会学家告诉我们「是的没错，我们站在前人的肩膀上」，但与此同时化学家们在努力地合成「代糖甜味剂」，以打消人类摄入甜食的最后顾虑。在新一波糖衣炮弹的冲击下，密码朋克们构想的理性世界可能会演化成与「廿一世纪理性的非理性金融体系」并无大异的光怪图景。

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1. Who would have thought crypto investors would be U.S. securities law experts by the end of 2018

<big>评：</big><br/><br/>《金瓶梅》第四十八回有曰：「常言：『兵来将挡，水来土掩』。事到其间，道在人为，少不的你我打点礼物，早差人上东京，央及老爷那里去」。人生如戏，每个人顾及的都是如何演好自己的戏份。好在如今已不是投机倒把等同犯罪的年代，嗅觉灵敏的市场玩家们逢场作戏也无可厚非，但是谁来「打点礼物」制造惊喜呢？2018年，玩家们反倒收获了不少惊恐。<br/><br/>专业的投资者和政客总是能在自己的地盘上长袖善舞，但是在这个野蛮生长的年代，恐怕他们也得多向口译员们学习快速熟悉陌生领域的技能——共情、抗压、不服输，或许称之为「人格特质」更加合适。

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67. www.technologyreview.com www.technologyreview.com
1. Billions of dollars are “wasted” via proof of work, which results in a “loss of resources that’s spread out across every single cryptocurrency user, and ultimately through all the environmental externalities, every single person in society.” It‘s also pretty bad for the brand: “Like, it could mean the difference between anyone who really cares about the environment being your friend versus trying to stop you.”

<big>评：</big><br/><br/>被时代洪流裹挟着的个体，在多大程度上遭受非主流的社会边际现象之冲击？我们固然可以辩称，蝴蝶效应在社会学领域的渗透是毋庸置疑的，哥斯达黎加矿厂工人的罢工很可能促成伏尔加河沿岸青年的思想革命。但是真正的区块链世界不会惧怕这下自成蹊的「燎原之火」——「牵一发而动全身」不过是停留在次贷危机那个旧世界的脆弱秩序——在新世界里，每个独立个体都是主流之外的完整存在，他们自己即是主流。

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68. chainb.com chainb.com

<big>评：</big><br/><br/>鲁迅先生曾说过这么一句话：「我家院子里有两棵树，一棵是枣树，另一棵也是枣树」。有趣的是，以「榨取」用户隐私商业价值起家的 Facebook，其创始人 Zuckerberg 为了避免狗仔队的骚扰，把自家房子周围的其他四所房子也给买了下来。现在，我们可以回答，what is beside the walled garden? It’s another walled garden.

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69. bitcoinexchangeguide.com bitcoinexchangeguide.com
1. DX Exchange uses Nasdaq’s Financial Information Exchange (FIX) protocol to facilitate trades. Using this platform, DX Exchange allows users to swap tokenized stocks in major global companies, including Amazon, Baidu, Apple, Facebook, Google, Intel, Microsoft, Netflix, Nvidia, and Tesla. All of these companies will be available for trading on the platform as easily as you would swap tokens on a conventional cryptocurrency exchange.

<big>评：</big><br/><br/>

DX.Exchange 此举中，值得讨论的一点在于，「每一种数字代币都有一股普通股作为支撑，持有者将有权获得相同的现金股息，尽管这些公司本身并未参与其中」。 </br></br> 这让人联想到这些年来社交网络上有关「被代表」的讨论。时不时有声音呼吁民众对巨型官僚机构和商业公司保持警惕，但是当「代表」与「被代表」的两方角色互换，反转后的清奇画面又让人惊愕。这样一来，那些发声者又该如何回应？也许他们可以说，这不过是巨型商业公司的自导自演而已。

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70. cointelegraph.com cointelegraph.com
1. The Bank of England’s survey asks participants to choose their preferred way to receive money as a Christmas gift, showing the options cash, bank transfer, gift voucher and digital currency. At press time, 8,230 people have responded and 70 percent of them have chosen digital currency.Cash is in second place, with 21 percent of respondents indicating it as a their “favorite way to get” money as a gift. Bank transfers and gift vouchers are currently the least popular forms, chosen by 7 percent and 2 percent of respondents respectively.

<big>评：</big><br/><br/>「礼物」是一种颇有人文主义关怀的存在，它让人直观感受到 “live in the moment” 的美好。不管是国外的 gift card 还是中国人喜欢发的红包，它们身上那种「即时触碰」的特质都能触发某种廉价而有质感的梦幻——就像过去几十年人类为各种平权运动摇旗呼喊时一样。<br/><br/>现如今，数字货币以暧昧的身份介入到这场并无虚荣可言的游戏中。有多少人是奔着它的匿名性而去？可能暗恋中的小青年和别有心思的贿赂者会为了不暴露身份而选用其作为礼物。但是不争的事实是，大部分人已不再贪图现世，转而把目光锁定在了未来的价值。

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71. Oct 2018
72. sluggerotoole.com sluggerotoole.com
1. We must be careful to distinguish between blockchain ledgers and proof-of-work, because they are separate things that just happen to have been combined to make Bitcoin. There are energy-efficient ways of managing blockchain ledgers, such as proof-of-stake algorithms. Some of these algorithms are already being implemented by rival cryptocurrency schemes

. . .

PoW is obscenely wasteful, consuming more electricity than all of Ireland to generate an endless stream of mathematical garbage.

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73. Jul 2018
74. joi.ito.com joi.ito.com
1. The Practice of Change Joi's Keio University Graduate School of Media and Governance PhD Dissertation.

Joi Ito's dissertation, openly licensed CC BY.

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75. Nov 2017
76. www.newscientist.com www.newscientist.com
1. Bitcoin mining uses a lot of electricity -- currently as much as Ecuador.

The cryptocurrency network Ethereum recently announced that it will try "proof of stake" rather than "proof of work".

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77. Jul 2017
78. www.bloomberg.com www.bloomberg.com
1. Chipmakers Nvidia, AMD Ride Cryptocurrency Wave — for Now

Shares of Nvidia Corp. and Advanced Micro Devices Inc. have gained at least 14 percent since the beginning of June, spurred in part by about a 10-fold boom from April to June in a market, known as ethereum, for a currency that can be used to buy computing power over the internet.

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79. Jun 2016
80. vessenes.com vessenes.com
1. DAO, a venture capital fund based on Ethereum cryptocurrency, was hacked, and ether coins valued at about \$55M were fraudulently transferred. This article gives some details of the hack.

http://www.wsj.com/articles/investment-fund-based-on-digital-currency-to-wind-down-after-alleged-hack-1466175033 The account with the stolen ether coins has been frozen, and they plan to undo the fraudulent transactions. But this itself is disturbing to some, as part of the idea behind cryptocurrency is lack of a central authority.

The creators of DAO proclaimed that the code is the contract. So if no laws were broken in the course of the hack, one could argue that the transfer is legitimate under those terms. https://medium.com/@Swarm/daos-hacks-and-the-law-eb6a33808e3e

Apparently there are new attacks already. https://www.reddit.com/r/ethereum/comments/4ot3z8/dao_is_under_attack_again/

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81. May 2016
82. digitaldisrupt.bcgperspectives.com digitaldisrupt.bcgperspectives.com
1. Hence Linux, hence Wikipedia. Because these communities could grow and collaborate without geographic constraint, major work was done at significantly lower cost and often zero price.

I would argue this was a mistake which we are now paying for structurally.

If Linux was licensed such that derivative profitable use payed equity to the contributors to Linux, than many more people would share in the profits of Google, Facebook, Amazon, Rackspace, and so many more. If you take Google as an example, the company earns ~4.5M\$ in profit per employee, of course 80% of their infrastructure is free software. Now imagine that each project on github was wired up using microtransaction systems and a system for assigning equity to those who contribute to the source code. Then as for-profit use of the application generates microtransactions that revenue is split by the current equity distribution to the equity holders.

This distribution of revenue would allow for a hybrid between the open and distributed, also a more sovereign participation model of open source and the benefits of economic integration rather than simple exposure to economic exploitation.

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83. jpkoning.blogspot.com jpkoning.blogspot.com
1. Recent posts by Adrian Hope Baille and Sina Motamedi have got me thinking again about the idea of the Federal Reserve (or any other central bank for that matter) adopting bitcoin technology. Here's an older post of mine on the idea, although this post will take a different tack.

This post seems to have gotten the conversation started across some important sites about the idea of a federal backed cryptocurrency in the US.

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84. Feb 2016
85. freedom-to-tinker.com freedom-to-tinker.com

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86. Jan 2016
87. r3cev.com r3cev.com
1. http://r3cev.com/s/Watermarked-tokens-and-pseudonymity-on-public-blockchains-Swanson.pdf

Yet if a network is comprised of known and trusted entities with legal, off-chain obligations to fulfill, then you have a set of different security assumptions to build around. And in the case of financial institutions, a feature such as proof-of-work via mining, which is currently core to public blockchains is an unnecessary and even redundant.

This paper explores several of the drawbacks and challenges of using public blockchains for securing off-chain titles and concludes that these types of networks are not fit-for-purpose for globally regulated financial institutions.

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88. Dec 2015
89. www.ibtimes.co.uk www.ibtimes.co.uk
1. Omidyar Network, established in 2004 by eBay founder Pierre Omidyar, is funding a company called eCurrency Mint, eCM, for a technology that will allow central banks to issue digital currency called cryptocomplex cash. They have been working with 30 central banks, and two of them are about to announce deployment.

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90. Nov 2015
91. www.wired.com www.wired.com
1. 80 percent of those transactions are mere speculation, where bitcoin is traded as a commodity in search of a profit. That 20 percent figure is actually much higher than in previous years, but Coinbase hopes to push it higher still. This morning, in an effort to nudge bitcoin toward the mainstream, the company unveiled the country’s first bitcoin debit card. It’s called the Shift Card, and it lets you spend bitcoin at any merchant—both online and off—that accepts an ordinary VISA card.
2. The more people who use bitcoin, the more useful it becomes—the closer we get to a place where we can send money across the Internet as easily as we send texts or emails.

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92. www.economist.com www.economist.com
1. Blockchains can also implement business rules, such as transactions that take place only if two or more parties endorse them, or if another transaction has been completed first.
2. Blockchains are also the latest example of the unexpected fruits of cryptography. Mathematical scrambling is used to boil down an original piece of information into a code, known as a hash. Any attempt to tamper with any part of the blockchain is apparent immediately—because the new hash will not match the old ones. In this way a science that keeps information secret (vital for encrypting messages and online shopping and banking) is, paradoxically, also a tool for open dealing.
3. The blockchain is an even more potent technology. In essence it is a shared, trusted, public ledger that everyone can inspect, but which no single user controls. The participants in a blockchain system collectively keep the ledger up to date: it can be amended only according to strict rules and by general agreement. Bitcoin’s blockchain ledger prevents double-spending and keeps track of transactions continuously. It is what makes possible a currency without a central bank.
4. But most unfair of all is that bitcoin’s shady image causes people to overlook the extraordinary potential of the “blockchain”, the technology that underpins it. This innovation carries a significance stretching far beyond cryptocurrency. The blockchain lets people who have no particular confidence in each other collaborate without having to go through a neutral central authority. Simply put, it is a machine for creating trust.

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93. May 2015
94. thenewstack.io thenewstack.io
1. I’m intrigued by the notion that social networks could eventually replace our currency. If economic growth lives up to the hype, we’ll all live like the rich someday, so why not print our own money, too?

I've often thought that my ideal currency would actually be a multitude of currencies, each person minting their own (or even multiple), but I don't see at all what this has to do especially with art.

I think the point being made is that art has valued tied to the reputation of the artist. Mostly true, perhaps, but probably not unique to art. Credit scores seem not dissimilar except that individuals aren't lenders. Familiar social dynamics like "friendship" and "trust" might capture what we're talking about, though.

2. we can build a cryptocurrency where each digital coin is unique and singular, just like the art hoarded in Basel and Singapore.

Is there a crypto-currency that doesn't do this? Each coin is unique. I would think that's a necessary (though not sufficient) condition for preventing double spending.

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95. Nov 2014
96. d3c33hcgiwev3.cloudfront.net d3c33hcgiwev3.cloudfront.net
1. i should really read the whole thing..