255 Matching Annotations
  1. Apr 2022
    1. Augmenting knowledge about sources of frustration

      Starting a course with explicit acknowledgement of sources of frustration could be helpful. A workshop that enables students to identify and anticipate sources of frustration - plus find ways of mitigating them. Requires going meta immediately!

    2. lack of common learning goals among the student

    3. imbalance in the level of commitment

    4. The implication for instructors is that it is important to to know when intervention is needed in online CSCL and to what degree.

      Question of hosting - how much/little facilitation is vital here. The paper recommends regular monitoring of online activities and intervening when clearly required. I wonder if the use of sync Stand-ups to address issues IRT would also help given the issues with attempting to collaborate async?

      The instructor should play an active role in the collaborative process. He or she should be proactive in monitoring and intervening in collaborative activities (Chapman & van Auken, 2001; Hansen, 2006) and should ensure that the group works effectively (Tideswell, 2004; Brindley, Walti, & Blaschke, 2009) through mechanisms for assistance, feedback, and evaluation.

    5. be aware of sources of frustration and will take corrective actions.

    6. Institutions may supply learning environments that facilitate social interaction and collaboration and assure effective support to students with technological difficulties. Technological difficulties can cause student frustration as well as communication problems, which hamper collaborative processes such as explanations, sharing answers, and negotiation (Ragoonaden & Bordeleau, 2000).

    7. assessment inequities are important sources of frustration; the implication for institutions is that they must conduct a coherent assessment.

    8. CSCL activities should be designed with the aim of guaranteeing a certain level of positive interdependence (Johnson & Johnson, 1998) and individual accountability (Slavin, 1989) to the students.

    9. students may struggle with the development of a sense of interdependence and intersubjectivity (Lushyn & Kennedy, 2000) and must abandon subjective, individualistic conceptions of learning (Dirkx & Smith, 2004)

    10. students is the need to have realistic expectations and exercise responsibility in course enrollment by ascertaining beforehand the time, effort, prior knowledge, volume, and quality of work required

    11. Preparing the learner for collaboration through instruction and development of the social and group skills necessary to work effectively in a group will have a positive effect upon the collaborative experience (Chapman & van Auken, 2001; Tideswell, 2004).

    12. students’ main source of self-declared frustration is the teammates’ commitment imbalance

    13. explain the interest and objectives of online CSCL activities to the incoming students and provide an introduction to online CSCL and teamwork competencies.

    14. First, there is a need at the institutional level to offer the students information about the learning models in general, and the online CSCL activities specifically, in order to allow them to adjust their expectations, preferences, and decision

    15. Participants expected the instructors to be actively engaged with learners, providing them with clear guidance, expectations, and requirements. This finding confirms that students expected consistent and timely feedback from the instructor (Vonderwell, 2003)

    16. Assigning group grades without attempting to distinguish between individual members of the group is both unfair and deleterious to learning and may in some circumstances even be illegal (Kagan, 1997; Millis & Cottell, 1998).

    17. Most group projects require extra time (Goold, Craig, & Coldwell, 2008), and groups must take responsibility for organizing their collaboration and individual inputs (Lizzio & Wilson, 2005).

    18. participants in the study reported feeling frustrated by the presence of an expert and dominant member who impeded the development of shared understanding and effort.

    19. imbalance in quality of individual contributions leads to frustration. There is no situation of pure knowledge or skills or development symmetry: There are no two individuals in the world with the same knowledge (Dillenbourg, 1999).

    20. Skill in learning collaboratively means knowing when and how to question, inform, and motivate one’s teammates, knowing how to mediate and facilitate conversation, and knowing how to deal with conflicting opinions (McManus & Aiken, 1995).

    21. problems with negotiation skills. Responses mentioned a lack of member attributes that foster relationship building, such as amiability, openness, and respect for others.

    22. connection, contact and sense of reality, and immediate social presence are strong influences as well as the sense of community (Melrose & Bergeron, 2006; Rettie, 2003, Sallnäs, 2004).

    23. conversations are often characterized by multiple and somewhat schizophrenic patterns of interaction.

    24. difficulties with regard to communication as another source of frustration. Communication was reported to be essential in keeping group members focused on their responsibilities in relation to the common goal

    25. Having unshared goals among the teammates of the group is the second most important factor

    26. Social loafing behavior creates an imbalance of effort and participation (Goold, Craig, & Coldwell, 2008), such that free riders (Kerr & Bruun, 1983) are able to take advantage of the contributions of others

    27. A common frustrating experience was associated with a poor work ethic and with some members who did not fulfill their obligations. Creating more work for the other members in the group is the direct consequence.

    28. Some students coming to online collaborative learning for the first time do not care for the idea of group work and can be apathetic or even on occasion actively hostile to the whole idea (Roberts & McInnerney, 2007). Students struggle with the development of a sense of interdependence and intersubjectivity with their online groups (Lushyn & Kennedy, 2000) but end up holding fast to subjective, individualistic conceptions of learning.

    29. The consequences of student frustration (Borges, 2005) can generate a load that has to be borne by all the agents involved in the learning experiences: students, teachers, and institutions.

    30. They may also experience stress and frustration in collaborating with people they do not know well (Curtis & Lawson, 2001).

    31. Frustration is a concept related to goal attainment (Lazar, Jones, Bessiere, Ceaparu, & Shneiderman, 2004). People may feel frustrated when they are deprived of their expectations or are not able to complete their plans (Handa, 2003; Mandler, 1975).

    32. they clearly find consensus decision making and production of a product much less satisfying

    33. difficulties in communication

    34. imbalance between the individual and collective grades

    35. imbalance in the level of commitment

    36. quality of the individual contributions

    37. lack of shared goals

    38. difficulties related to group organization

    39. perception of an asymmetric collaboration among the teammates was identified by the students as the most important source of frustration

    40. identify the sources to which the learners attribute their frustration

    41. Despite the pedagogical advantages of collaborative learning, online learners can perceive collaborative learning activities as frustrating experiences.

    42. If the right environment is created, both high performing and low performing students are able to reflect on and articulate their opinions about their experience and the outcomes of their learning

    43. the dissatisfaction and reluctance that students express over mandatory participation in group projects often result from a sense of not having full control over the quality of the project and the subsequent grade assigned, particularly when someone in the group has less than satisfactory performance.

    44. indications that the asynchronous format hinders the negotiation of difficult issues and conversations that require quick, direct turn-around

    45. the technology can be the source of either frustration or motivation

    46. Students who are assigned a group project without an adequate level of readiness and/or guidance may be set up for failure. An interesting factor discussed by Sanders (2008) is that students are often ill-equipped through their previous educational experiences to collaborate (in general) or peer-review and often see colleagues as rivals.

    47. Group projects require that learners be present on a particular schedule, reducing the flexibility and convenience factor in online study and possibly causing anxiety and/or resentment, particularly if the purpose of the group work is not clear and the group experience is not positive.

    48. instructional strategies can be an effective motivational tool to encourage participation and to enhance collaborative learning in small groups; thus, they can be a positive alternative to using grading as an incentive. As well, instructional strategies such as the ones described herein provide students with a positive experience of group work and contribute to learner autonomy and self-direction

    49. Grading the study group project would not only undermine the values and motivational aspects of the course design but based on the data gathered in MDE 601 would not have a positive impact in terms of participation by learners or the quality of the work presented by the groups.

    50. The strategies employed in the course to both communicate the value of collaborative learning and to increase motivation to participate in the study groups in MDE 608 were identified as follows:

      Transparency of expectations Details of the requirements to participate in a study group are posted in the course syllabus. The purpose (learning objectives) of collaboration and expectations of the learners are made very clear in the main conference. If students communicate reluctance about study group participation, instructors encourage participation and are open about discussing the purpose and process. Clear instructions The group task, timelines, and usability of the desired product are described in detail, giving students the best opportunity to focus on collaborating to share ideas and the workload rather than leaving them to spend a great deal of time trying to clarify the task and develop a common understanding of it. Appropriateness of task for group work Each study group works as a team of consultants to carry out an environmental scan and needs analysis of a particular educational or training provider (develop a case study) in preparation for a second task (done individually). This type of task is easier and a much more rich experience when performed by a group as opposed to an individual. Meaning-making/relevance The group assignment is an opportunity to apply principles and knowledge gained in the course to the analysis of a real life situation, often from a student’s work context. Further, in the last week of the course, the group projects are exchanged and peer reviewed (by the groups), making full use of the learning potential of the project. Motivation for participation embedded in course design Individual success is dependent upon group success. The group product (comprehensive case study) is needed by individual learners in order to complete their final assignment, that is, to design a learner support system for their group’s case study. Readiness of learners for group work The group project takes place during the final third of the course after students demonstrate that they have sufficient mastery of the subject matter to reflect on how to apply their knowledge in particular contexts, including their own work settings (as demonstrated in the conference discussions), and they have had the opportunity to develop a sense of community and hone their collaborative learning skills. Timing of group formation Although the group project is not undertaken until the third section of the course, the study groups are formed during the second unit. This allows time for a sense of collaboration and interdependence to develop among the members before the task is assigned. During the period before the task, group members discuss their shared interests and possible scenarios for the case study. Respect for the autonomy of learners Study group participation is mandatory but learners have the freedom to form their own groups based on shared interests. Instructors provide guidelines for group formation and open a space in the virtual classroom for this purpose. The choice of educational or training context for the case study is the decision of each group, and groups often have lively discussions and do significant research before consensus is reached, resulting in high ownership of the project. Monitoring and feedback The study group conferences and chats are monitored closely by instructors who provide respectful and timely feedback on process and direction when necessary to prevent groups from getting stalled or going off course. Instructors also provide feedback on draft versions of the case studies, and they provide time for revisions before presentation of the final project. Sufficient time for the task

      Most of the third and last unit of the course (approximately four weeks) is devoted to the study group project to provide sufficient time for the process and to accommodate varying work schedules and time zone differences of these adult learners.

    51. strategies employed in the course to both communicate the value of collaborative learning and to increase motivation to participate in the study groups

    52. it was revealed that in general students participated more in study groups than in the larger main conferences. So-called “witness learners” (Beaudoin, 2003), those who never appear in module conference discussions, almost always actively participate in study group activities even when the group work is not graded.

    53. He notes that while it is not realistic to expect community in many online courses, it should be possible in graduate level programs with high learner-learner contact.

    54. Siemens (2002) notes that learner-learner interactions in an e-learning course can be viewed as a four stage continuum:

      Communication People ‘talking,’ discussing Collaboration People sharing ideas and working together (occasionally sharing resources) in a loose environment Cooperation People doing things together, but each with his or her own purpose Community People striving for a common purpose

    55. Based on experience from this course and a model from another course in the same program where group work has never been graded, the authors propose alternative methods to encourage learners to experience the value of collaborative learning by creating study group experiences that are motivating and rewarding.

    56. One proposed method of ensuring learner participation in online collaboration is to demonstrate the value of group learning by assessing (defined here as assignment of a grade) both the product and process of group work (Swan, Shen, & Hiltz, 2006).

    57. Engagement, defined as “student-faculty interaction, peer-to-peer collaboration and active learning...” (Chen, Gonyea, & Kuh, 2008, para. 2), has been positively related to the quality of the learning experience.

    58. Good to have an alternative to the "assessment generates engagement" perspective. Will this be an ungrading argument?

    59. Can be discursive yes, but what other ways can collaborative learning manifest?

  2. Mar 2022
    1. Critical approaches are essential. I believe we must support faculty and students by working broadly and collaboratively in three key areas: developing digital literacies and digital capabilities;10 specifically supporting individuals in navigating tensions between privacy and openness; and, most critically, reflecting on the role of higher education and the roles of and relationships between educators and students in an increasingly open and networked society.

      The three key areas of work need to be incorporated into OERs via OEPs. OEPs, then, are pursued by staff and students alike (akin to a negotiated or co-created curriculum). A negotiated or co-created curriculum will work well at certain levels (senior undergraduate, postgraduate, faculty), perhaps less well at entry level? Nevertheless, a focus on learning-to-learn for staff and students at all levels would allow all to move towards a negotiated or co-created curriculum. The major caveat is that professionally accredited degrees will have to carefully scaffold negotiated or co-created curriculae so that they comply with the professionally accreditation requirements.

    2. At the micro level, individuals make decisions about their digital identities

      "It's a lot of work for one tweet." - great wee summary of the cognitive load involved here!

    3. macro (global level), meso (community/network level), micro (individual level), and nano (interaction level).

      We can use this to map out our levels of OEP?

    4. open practice is always personal

      Yes, but it's also always - simultaneously - social. If it were not social, it would not be open.

    5. The people calling for open are often in positions of privilege, or have reaped the benefits of being open early on — when the platform wasn't as easily used for abuse, and when we were privileged to create the kinds of networks that included others like us."8

      This assumes that the 'platform' is digital; it does not have to be. The 'platform' is a site, which can be physical, digital or bleed, etc. A platform doesn't have to = network either. A lot of 'platforms' are univocal or non-discursive.

    6. Students and faculty who are already marginalized, structurally or otherwise, can feel pressured to take on open scholarship and may be disadvantaged by it

      True, but I'm not sure that the pressure is there in formal higher education to take on OEPs or create OERs (the opposite is true - LMS are closed on the whole). The disadvantages can arise when students and faculty do not teach/comprehend open licensing in ways that are advantageous.

    7. Thus it is imperative to move beyond open-versus-closed dichotomies and even beyond unified conceptions of openness. Openness requires a critical approach.

      We could say 'metacongnitive' or 'reflective (practitioner)' instead of 'critical' here (given the need for metacongnition in open practice more generally.

    8. OER embody the notion of knowledge as a public good: take it, use it, remix it, and share as you wish.

      i.e. the 5 Rs

    9. practices that skirt the institutional structures and roles by which formal learning has been organized for generations.

      This would make it a para-academic practice. See: http://hammeronpress.net/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/PHA_Final.pdf

    10. if we wish to be keepers not only of openness but also of hope, equality, and justice.1

      I'm not sure that OEPs are 'keepers of [...] hope, equality, and justice.' This feels overdetermined. OEPs cannot shoulder this level of responsibility for political transformation alone - it has to be part of an organised political platform that is committed to 'hope, equality, and justice' that seeks office (Government). For example, my OEP is subsidised by the Scottish Rate of Income Tax (which I also pay). Without that, it would not be possible for me to pursue an OEP the way I do currently. So the office of the Scottish Government is vital to 'hope, equality, and justice' in my case at least.

    11. "open" is variously used to describe resources (the artefacts themselves as well as access to and usage of them)

      Open artefacts - as OERs and as outcomes of OEPs.

    12. open

      "open" is variously used to describe resources (the artefacts themselves as well as access to and usage of them)

      e.g. Open artefacts - as OERs and as outcomes of OEPs.

    13. "resources, tools and practices that employ a framework of open sharing to improve educational access and effectiveness worldwide."3

      framework of open sharing

      • resources
      • tools
      • practices

      to improve educational access worldwide

    14. "resources, tools and practices that employ a framework of open sharing to improve educational access and effectiveness worldwide."3

      Q. What could constitute a:

      • sharable open resource
      • sharable open tool
      • sharable open practice

      Q. Does the sharable open framework have to improve educational access worldwide? (e.g. Is the global imperative limiting in terms of open localised autonomy (TAZ)?)

    15. open practices sit somewhat uneasily and unevenly within higher education.

      Yes, this is true. However, open practices are not = higher education. Open practices can exist in formal and informal learning contexts. Open practices are also not = OEPs. You can, for example, have an open art practice, or an open medical practice, etc.

    16. How can we minimize the cost of textbooks? How can we help students to build, own, and manage their digital content? How might we support and empower learners in making informed choices about their digital identities and digital engagement? How might we build knowledge as a collective endeavor? And, how can we broaden access to education, particularly in ways that do not reinforce existing inequalities?

      Unpack the motivations here and list them - we can then see which (if any) are motivating factors for us and add other?

    17. How can we minimize the cost of textbooks?

      How can we minimize the cost of textbooks? = e.g. Motivation

    18. The use of open practices by learners and educators is complex, personal, and contextual; it is also continually negotiated.

      Open practices are, indeed, continually negotiated. This is another way of looking at openness - that doing things in the open leave them in a contingent state. i.e. openness as the opposite of 'closure'. Perhaps then what we need is to create structures for teaching and learning that enable this kind of contingency - the ability to review and re-negotiate what we are doing and how we are doing it? This is a form of metacognitive learning on a personal and organisational level. Each teacher/learner needs to be able to observe the system they are in and negotiate how to change it as they proceed. In my own OEP, I do this, this way:

      "Nonaka’s and Takeuchi’s practical adaptation of ‘Nishida philosophy’ – their SECI model of organisational knowledge creation – proposes everything is implaced within a “ba” (field). Such Ba can be physical or conceptual. We can think of the basho as a shifting context (such as being a student in a University) or set of moving constraints (like the rules of a game). Either way, what we do / what we are is something implaced within a larger field.

      When it comes to learning, a key thing here is to think less not only about how and where we implace ourselves, but equally about what sort of field we are generating. Ba/sho is akin to a habitat; habits develop in relation to specific habitats. If we want to change our habits, we need to also change our habitat. In ‘Nishida philosophy’ subject and object are one, people and environment correlate." Source: Neil Mulholland Build-A-Basho | Thursday 23rd September 2021

    19. developing network as well as digital literacies,

      Perhaps 'platform' is more apt than network here? Platforms include meatspaces and digital spaces.

    20. Teaching and pedagogical interactions typically occur in higher education in one or more of the spaces illustrated in figure 1: physical spaces; bounded online spaces; and open online spaces.

      Not really. Teaching can/does take place in unbounded physical spaces (commons, fieldwork, etc.) It can also bleed online and meatspace (augmentation).

  3. Mar 2021
    1. By way of example, this can take the shape of written word or a video or short, audio file or any other digital medium or practic

      Yes, good. It's important to invite 'proposals' since this leaves things open. It means that contributors don't have to have their contribution completed in order to say they are interested (that will mean you get no takers). Rather you need to invite ideas and proposals and see if you are able to host/support them properly. This way you can be realistic about what you are able to actually support and you can start to work with the proposers to help them realise their proposal.

    2. Open Call

      cut this

    3. Cooperation

      Partnered with

    4. and a brief, 300-word (max) explainer of what you have submitted, along with a short, 200-word (max) artist bio.

      Please keep your proposal brief (300 word max) and include images if relevant. If you have a website, please provide the URL.

    5. or submission


    6. submission


    7. works


    8. with the presentation taking place throughout April.

      The platform will be launched in the latter half of April and will remain online thereafter.

    9. Submissions for the R-Lab Open Call open on 9th March 2021 and close on 28th March 2021,

      The call is now open. Proposals for R-Lab should be submitted by 28th March 2021 (23:00 CET).

    10. centred around care and respect for your experience and your art.

      caring for and respecting your contribution.

    11. Our space will be safe

      Our online platform will be a safe space,

    12. partnered

      change to


    13. online space


    14. which is closely associated with the

      supported by The University of Edinburgh

    15. platformed

      ^ hosted

    16. Chinese and European art and creative practitioners (curators, artists, organisations) or those who have been based in China or Europe

      change to:

      Artists, curators, and art organisations based in China or Europe....

    17. The R-Lab Open Call is an invitation to Chinese and European art practitioners or those based in China and Europe to share with us their experiences, stories and/or artworks which document how they have pivoted – in one way or another – to cope with the pandemic period (2020 - March 2021).
      • change to

      The R-Lab Open Call is an invitation to artists based in China and Europe to openly share their experiences of how they have pivoted their working practices – in one way or another –during the pandemic (March 2020-March 2021).

    18. However, we want to hear your ideas and proposals!

      We are open to supporting as wide a range of media as possible. We want to hear your ideas and proposals!

    19. this

      change to

      your contribution can take the form of a written narrative, a video, an audio recording...

    20. This will then be presented as a networked collection on our safe, online platform in April 2021.

      We will curate and present the most vibrant responses as part of our online platform, launching in the latter half of April 2021.

    21. The R-Lab is an organisation associated with the University of Edinburgh.

      (What does R-Lab stand for - what's the 'R'? and why is it a 'laboratory')?

      For clarity, change this to

      R-Lab is a contemporary art organisation led by postgraduate students in Edinburgh College of Art, The University of Edinburgh.

    22. The R-Lab

      Not 'the R-Lab' just


    23. We believe that within the context of ‘de-territorialisation’ - a ‘Pivot’ in its own right - the pandemic gives us different visions and possibilities for cultural exchanges and fusions that can have long-lasting impacts post-pandemic.

      We hope that exchanging Chinese and European visions of post-pandemic possibilities can have a long-lasting impact.

    24. Simultaneously, we value the communication and fusion of cultures from different geographical places, with a view to mixing Chinese and European cultural experiences during the pandemic in order to reflect the cultural make-up of our organisation.

      Reflecting the membership of our R-Lab, we seek to reflect upon Chinese and European cultural experiences during the pandemic.

    25. We aim to find new directions and potentials for Contemporary Art by researching and engaging with the Art World‘s changes and pivots during the pandemic.

      Change to:

      We seek to explore how different artworlds have adapted and survived during the pandemic.

    26. Our mission is to think of the pandemic as a multitude of ‘Pivots’ which could enact societal and artistic change post-pandemic.

      Change to:

      We aim to collect and present a multitude of ‘pivots’ that might enact societal and artistic change post-pandemic.

  4. Feb 2021
    1. Portfolio You must submit a portfolio as part of your application. You won't be able to submit your portfolio immediately, but you'll receive an email prompt within a few days of submitting your application that will explain how to upload your portfolio.

      This needs to be removed completely since we no longer require a portfolio

    2. Portfolio You must submit a portfolio as part of your application. You won't be able to submit your portfolio immediately, but you'll receive an email prompt within a few days of submitting your application that will explain how to upload your portfolio.

      This section needs to be removed entirely

    3. You must submit a portfolio as part of your application. Your application and portfolio should demonstrate: evidence of practical and theoretical knowledge of, and experimentation with, a variety of formal, aesthetic and conceptual approaches to the production and distribution of contemporary art evidence of practical or theoretical work that addresses key thematic areas in contemporary art and theoretical discourse evidence of collaborative working practices, either in a capacity as an artist or working curatorially evidence of independent working practices, as an artist or curator If you do not meet the academic entry requirements, we may still consider your application on the basis of your portfolio and/or relevant professional experience.

      Should be reworded as so:

      If you do not meet the academic entry requirements, we may still consider your application on the basis of your relevant professional experience.

      Your application should demonstrate:

      good evidence of practical and theoretical knowledge of, and experimentation with, a variety of formal, aesthetic and conceptual approaches to the production and distribution of contemporary art

      good evidence of practical or theoretical work that addresses key thematic areas in contemporary art and theoretical discourse

      some evidence of collaborative working practices, either in a capacity as an artist or working curatorially

      some evidence of independent working practices, as an artist, writer, scholar or curator

    4. interview via Skype

      post-offer interview via Skype, Zoom or MS Teams.

  5. parsejournal.com parsejournal.com
    1. ntra-action with the world rather than in the head of the autonomous subject, and as a sensuous and sensory practice in which mind and body are indistinguishable.
    2. Their modes of operating present an image of how thinking takes shape in and through material and embodied practice
    3. ost-humanist perspective that foregrounds the apparatuses within which possibilities for action and judgement take shape, and confront visitors with the complex ways in which they are part of these systems and networks. How to be a responsible node in an Actor-Network?
    4. potential of mise en scène for exploring thinking as something that happens in the world and in a situation of entanglement with the world
    5. he pop-up store plays with the ways in which companies of all kinds use ethical responsibility and sustainability as part of their branding of consumer goods.
    6. our ways of seeing, making sense and understanding are implicated within the real-life apparatuses that we are part of
    7. the creative process itself can be considered a thinking through material practice. These material compositions do not set the stage for the appearance of actors, but are themselves performers. If human performers are part of the creation, they appear as one type of material among others.
    8. short prose texts that aim to evoke mental images as a result of how they engage their readers.
    9. Knowles, however, does not make this point by means of an argument expressed in language, like Barad does, but by means of a material discursive formation
    10. To what extend does that what is perceived as human agency actually emerge from what is afforded by the ecologies in which humans operate?

      key question here so far

    11. agency as distributed
    12. technology can no longer be understood as a set of tools used by humans, and instead has become an ecology in which humans participate
    13. spectators enact their engagement
    14. non-representationalist understanding of thinking as proposed by Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari in their What is Philosophy? (1994). Point of connection is the notion of mise en scène
    15. contemporary performances and installations as examples of thinking understood as a distributed practice
    1. science was a sort of wayfaring

      wayfaring, wanderjahre

    2. the field rather than the laboratory
    3. Research as correspondence, in this sense, is not just what we do but what we undergo. It is a form of experience.
    4. Research, then, becomes a practice of correspondence.[7] It is through corresponding with things that we care for them
    5. methodological arms race,

      See: Weaver, J. A. and N. Snaza (2017). "Against Methodocentrism in Educational Research." Educational Philosophy and Theory 49(11): 1055-1065.

    6. both words share the same etymological root (from the Latin, curar
    7. Heraclitus, to step twice into the running waters of the same river. In short, nothing is ever new, since nothing ever repeats.
    8. research is a process not of iteration but of itineration.[2] It carries on, as life does, not closing in on solutions but ever opening to new horizons.

      itineration not iteration

    9. “Explore” is a word that both scientists and artists often use.

      Explore / exploration

    10. when artists speak of research, they are for the most part implicitly comparing their practice to the explorations of hillwalkers

      Artists-as-hillwalkers; Scientists-as-mountaineers

    11. How could it be, I wondered as I listened to his speech, that while the hillwalkers and artists could keep on exploring, without end, the mountaineer was convinced that it was all over?

      The walker vs the mountaineer

  6. Nov 2020
    1. Ending

      More gastro is - dessert, or 'after dinner'.

    2. Contact our Artists

      Change to

      Contact us

    3. Encountering Problems?

      Change to


    4. Open Learning Project created by MA students of The Edinburgh College of Art (ECA)

      Change to

      Open Learning Project created by Masters of Contemporary Art students at Edinburgh College of Art

    5. leave comments?

      Please comment

    6. Have technical problems?

      Having technical problems?

    7. The Contents

      Change to


      move left so that it's the first thing on the menu; first thing you see

    8. Encountering Problems?

      Change this to


    1. Audience Guide

      This is akin to a table d'hôte; i.e. a set menu that you follow for the best results. Why not call it table d'hôte?

      You could also call booking something more gastro like 'Reservations'?

    2. -Have technical problems with our web page? –Want to contact our Artists and find more details of their works? –How to add comments?

      I'd cut this, and just have a link that takes you to the troubleshooting page

    3. What is this Fair about?

      Change to

      What is this project?

    4. Therefore, this task may require you to one of them before or after the Fair.

      Therefore, this task may require you to do one of them before or after the Fair.

    5. Thurseday


    6. How to have a best experience of the Fair ?

      Change to

      How to experience our project

    7. The Contents

      Change this to


    1. Menu!

      Is 'Menu' the title of the project? If so, that's not clear yet.

      You need to make that clear in the way you present the title and the info that follows (it should all be in a cafe/restaurant menu format).

      The thing about a menu in the gastronomic sense is that it sometimes offers choice, but always within specific limits/a framework (e.g. it might offer several courses - anything from 1-16 is normal in Europe - or it might just feature dim sum/hors d'oeuvres to graze or snack on). Some menus do not offer a choice at all: table d'hôte.See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Full_course_dinner The 'order anything you want' is a specific structure (a la carte? a buffet?); figure out what it is called and call it that.

  7. Sep 2020
    1. open education need not, strictly speaking, be electronic in form

      No, it need not be.

    2. unnecessary and arbitrary barriers

      This is an interesting idea. How do we identify when a barrier is arbitrary/unnecessary and when it's valid? Most 'masters' will hold that what others think is arbitrary/unnecessary is nothing of the kind. The 'masters' deftly wield their expertise to hold back accusations of the arbitrary/unnecessary.

    3. it is now regarded as necessary to social and personal development

      Why? Where has this idea developed and where/how has it become a necessity?

    4. revolutionary moments in human history

      another protestant rebellion

    5. this paradigm shift

      It it is para-academic, then it's not a paradigm shift, it's a parallel development, or a parasite.

    6. The abundance model represents an emerging paradigm shift from knowledge that is owned and controlled by knowledge elites to knowledge that is accessible to anyone.

      Guttenberg 4.0, 5.0, 6.0.... ad infinatum. The knowledge is accessible, but accessing it still requires a degree of info literacy and an ability to determine what to do with the 'info'.

    7. work alongside

      i.e. they are para-academic

    8. open education should not only be a personal meaning-making experience but also a social one. As such, the open education model moves away from the knowledge scarcity model and toward a knowledge abundance model (McGrath, 2008; Batson, Paharia, and Kumar, 2008).

      Okay, so the abundance model we find in peer production (e.g. P2P Foundation) is here too.

    9. unfettered, anytime, anywhere access to educational resources

      How does an CoP emerge if everyone just accesses a resource async? How does the CoP form around the resource?

    10. A key distinction between traditional and open education is that traditional higher education institutions provide services (e.g., accredited degrees, extensive instructional and support staff, research output) that some open education services may not, nor necessarily intend to.

      +Services vs. content-only Clusters of services = experience economy

    11. Lawrence Lessig, Hal Abelson, and Eric Eldred received funding to establish a new non-profit called Creative Commons

      CC Creative Commons

    12. Concerning respect, it puts the responsibility primarily on the service provider to define the policies and rules to cultivate an environment of mutual respect

      This is a conventional linear, top-down model of governace. The court of the university establishes these rules of conduct. But what if the 'service provider' is P2P? Who establishes the rules for a peer network? What governs moderation?

    13. “4 R” framework, which includes the rights to reuse, revise, redistribute, and remix

      4 R Framework

    14. licensed in such a way that users can both modify and retain the resource in perpetuity

      Adapt the source.

    15. it is designed for the agency of students and teachers and affords them increased control of content and technology

      Another important distinction - OERs are concerned with empowering both students and teachers (horiztonalisation).

    16. Design for access Design for agency Design for ownership Design for participation Design for experience

      These are important markers of what makes something an OER by design/practice rather than just in principle.

    17. Students are free to select those courses and other educational resources that they believe will be most beneficial to them (i.e., it is a voluntary system to satisfy the learning needs of the students).

      Yes, but students often ask for advice on what's most beneficial to them. In OL, where do they get that diagnostic advice if they seek it?

    18. Subject-matter experts (i.e., professors, scholars, teachers, educators) create the content.

      Why can't the 'content' be peer generated? P2P generated content can still be a valid research-based learning resource surely?

    19. asynchronous form of learning and communication

      Async is essential when working across large time zones. How can it be leveraged to make time-shifting an advantage over sync? e.g. Imagine a relay of learning orbiting the world from East to West. The East works on an OER and passes it on to the West before sleeping>The West works on an OER and passes it on to the East before sleeping>verbatim....

    20. allow more people to overcome physical and geographical barriers and constraints.

      What are the limits here?

      Verso: what can we learn from profitably that is constrained by geographic and physical barriers?

    21. spatial, temporal, and process

      Is the source also open? Can we openly access the research that generates an OER?

  8. Aug 2020
  9. www.e-flux.com www.e-flux.com
    1. the Academy project (2006) at the Van Abbemuseum in Eindhoven

      This is now cannonical in this sub-field. A.C.A.D.E.M.Y is a catalogue that doubles as a primer; a primer-catalogue tends to establish an archive that surpasses the event. A good primer-catalogue seals a place in art history.

    2. is being said.

      The problem with the kind of formats mentioned here is that they were always dialogual. There were few formats that focused on tacit knowlege, or making. Talking was never banned but making was frequently absent.

      What Rogoff writes from this point on, takes the dialogual for granted. What about the non-verbal? Art includes talking, but it's also a lot more than talking.

    3. By not being subject to the twin authorities of governing institutions or authoritative academic knowledge

      ??? Documenta is an authority, a governing global art institution, and one that aims to produce authoritative artistic and scholarly knowledge. Lacking self-awareness here!

    4. representational strategies

      Rugoff points out that this sort of work is representational. It isn't an educational process or institution in its own right, rather it looks and feels like one. Rugoff doesn't suggest why artists should be driven to such an aesthetic. Why do they want to reproduce the kind of study-space they are likely to have occupied earlier in their life? Is such work an opportunity to recreate an increasingly hazy environment in ways that idealise it? Perhaps it's a way to improve on something that was less than perfect (following some of Rogoff's earlier suggestions)?

    5. the ability to formulate one’s own questions

      Education certainly is concerned with how we learn to formulate very good questions as well as how we might learn to answer them.

    6. endless demands that are foisted on both culture and education to be accessible

      This needs qualification. Culture and education are very different in term of how they might answer to any 'demands'. Making education accessible is, on the whole, progressive. Education is not openly or easily accessible. We need to widen participation in education rather than close it off. Accessibility in culture can mean something similar, but it can also mean (as Rogoff seems to have it) 'dumbing-down. But even this is problematic - not all culture is 'complex' the way Rogoff wants it. It doesn't have to be complex to be valued/valuable.

    7. Could they become an instrument of liberation, as in the Inverted Research Tool (Edgar Schmitz and Liam Gillick)?

      This could be interesting. Rogoff doesn't tell us what it actually is. We can follow it up, but why not get into more here? A case study can go a long way to making something vague much more interesting and engaging.

    8. What are legitimate questions, and under what conditions are they produced?

      And there were also legitimate questions about who produces questions about the legitimacy of questions, and questions about how we understand the conditions under which questions we choose to question. 💤💤💤💤💤

    9. can never be understood as being enabled simply by a set of skills or opportunities, it must be dependent on a will and a drive.

      The will/drive conclusion here doesn't logically follow on from the oversimplification thesis (vis a vis skills/opps). We could just as easily say that acting is enabled by skills/opps/will/drive combined. Rogoff hasn't demonstrated that they are mutually exclusive.

    10. privatization of academies that result from the Bologna reforms

      Bologna was not concerned with privitising academies. This is something that national governments have pursued. In Europe, the only government that has pursued this is the English one (not Scotland). Across the EU, Higher Education remains free (or close to free) at the point of access. Rogoff was based in Goldsmiths, London when writing this in 2008. The privitisation experience then and there was wholly out of kilter with the rest of Europe.

    11. their reach could be wider, that they might provide sites for doing so much more than they ever thought they could.

      Who is 'we' refering to here? Surely any institution worth its salt is always trying to extend their reach and do more? This is why institutions form and continue to exist (remit/mission). This seems to be off-point though. Education as it's framed here is a practice, not an institution (although education can be hosted by institutions).

    12. vital principles

      This is confusing - Rogoff is calling the 'academy' a 'space' at the start of this sentence, and then a set of 'vital principles'. Which is it? A space or a set of vital principles? They aren't the same thing. So which is it?

    13. the “linguistic turn” in the 1970s

      The linguistic turn was a reading strategy in most disciplines for sure. In art, however, it was somewhat more literal. Analytical Conceptualism, for example, became focused on the language games of analytical philosophy. Semiotics very directly informed Photoconceptualism. So, while I think this is true of the linguistic turn generally, it's not taking it's impact on art into consideration.

    14. is actually descriptive of the drives

      Rogoff is suggesting that a there are desires manifest in art/the artworld that are driving art in a particular direction. Rogoff's not sure if calling it a 'turn' in a broad (umbrella) fashion is very helpful. Perhaps it's missing something? Does it really capture desire?

    15. turn

      Turn is in "scare quotes". This places it in parenthesis - Rogoff isn't taking it as read at all. She's wary of identifying a paradigm shift here. Academia and art are full of 'turns'; this term is loaded. The cultural turn, the material turn, the sensual turn, the nonmodern turn, the culinary turn, the linguistic turn, the historical turn.....etc. In some ways, such 'turns' are intellectual fashions that travel between academia and art. In other senses, 'turns' describe cultural phenomena that already exist but that are becoming increasingly visible or influential. Curating in particular tends to cannibalise academia - so there's an affinity here.

    16. perceived

      Rogoff is careful to qualify this 'percieved'. Rogoff's not jumping to side with this perception, but simply noting that it's a way of seeing.

    17. Or, did we privilege the coming-together of people in space and trust that formats and substances would emerge from these?


    18. But did we put any value on what was actually being said?

      Was there always value in what was being said?

    19. artists, scientists, philosophers, critics, economists, architects, planners

      important professionals, like us

    20. and so on

      i.e. nobody else.

    21. Yet on the other hand, it has led all too easily into the emergence of a mode of “pedagogical aesthetics” in which a table in the middle of the room

      Yes, this was, and remains, a meme.

    22. In education, when we challenge an idea, we suggest that there is room for imagining another way of thinking. By doing so in a way that does not overcome the original idea, we don’t expend energy forming opposition, but reserve it for imagining alternatives


    23. a discussion

      A discussion? Not exactly charged with urgency - what about action?

    24. “the crisis in education.”

      Crisis criticism generates the crisis to then offer a cure. Doctors and Patients.

    25. Emergency is always reactive to a set of state imperatives that produce an endless chain of crises, mostly of our own making.

      Yes. It's also the well established routine of disaster capitalism.

    26. might instead encompass fallibility

      Repeating the 'fail again, fail better' mantra. This is already gospel in art academies.

    27. never be able to bring to successful fruition

      This is likely because education is underfunded!