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  1. Apr 2024
    1. QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSISPerceived fears and concerns of educatorsSome concerns and fears, which ar

      P 574 to 582 cited in Literacy review as part of OBe failing for teachers and students.

    1. This technology allows app creators to make the tedious learning process hassle-free and entertaining. The importance of play in the educational process also has a scientific rationale; in this research paper, Pho and Dinscore support that brains make new synapses faster through game-based learning.

      importance of play in the educational process has scientific rationale,

    1. 3. Digital storybooks Regarding kids of younger age groups, stories, poems, and music are always in demand. UX professionals combine all these aspects into digital storybooks, creating engaging content for children. These can also be combined with educational platforms, adding value to the learning experience.

      THIS - should I not focus on a digital storybook? Combined with a educational platform

    2. Children's needs are increasingly recognized in the UI/UX design industry. Important sectors – education, gaming, and healthcare – are now seeking designers specializing in creating interactive solutions for children.

      THIS IS DRAGONS DEN GOLD - if I can make a good application I can get more work which I need because I am not rich and want lego.

    3. cognitive skills. Therefore, keeping the designs clean and safe from clutter and distractions is essential. This will help kids get the b

      Which sounds work best for my age group/target audience?

    4. What are some of the best practices for kids’ UX design?
    5. Khan Academy Kids

      This is what Ziggy uses in Australia I think - must check with his parents.

      I loved Toca Boca as well. That was the first example found that I felt was worth it. Use that as my main influence in the proposal if I have not already done so. Was a crazy week.

    6. . Additionally, designers should use attractive colors for children of lower age groups.

      the importance of colours

    7. What are some top UX design principles when designing for kids?Some important UX design principles when designing for kids are as follows. Simplicity and clarity Interactive and engaging elements Age-appropriate content Safety and privacy Consistent feedback and rewards

      There's 5 in this list and there was 4 in the other - I think Safety and Privacy is the one additional but it's also in my proposal because I am concerned about it too.

    8. Human-centered design aims to prioritize the needs of their target audience, in this instance that is children under the age of 10.

    9. When UI/UX designers create solutions and interventions for children, they need to be cognizant of the age group they are working with – and for. It is important to note that the basic principles of human-centered design stay the same. In this case, the designers still need to prioritize the needs of their target audience – children.
    10. The needs of children, when it comes to digital designs, vary from those of adults. However, several UX principles, design patterns, and preferences hold for kids and adults. The overarching goal of any design, i.e., to create valuable and usable solutions for a user, stays the same for all audiences.
    11. What are the unique UX needs of children?Four critical areas must be considered when designing products and services for children. Cognitive abilities Motor skills Attention span Emotional responses

      Oh awesome can I CITE this? It an online Blog okay because this is great.

    12. UI/UX designers
    13. What is child-centric design in UI/UX?Child-centric design in UI/UX focuses on understanding and meeting the needs of children as the target audience. This approach prioritizes the needs of children, treating them as expert users and targeting their specific concerns as they interact with a product or service.

      Child-Centric UX Design

    14. What are some top sectors where designing for kids is essential?The following sectors need UX designs for kids. Educational apps

      UX design for kids is essential.

    1. As Ramadiro worked his way through this period, he reached severaloverarching conclusions about the available materials. He concluded that muchof the available materials had been written in English, and back-translated toisiXhosa, and as such were not based on the linguistic logic of isiXhosa. They didnot take advantage of the home (oral) language resources of children in isiXhosaas the basis to build reading and writing skills. Second, taken together they didnot constitute a balanced reading programme guided by contemporary readingresearch (Pressley, 2006). There was no set of materials that combined a wholereading approach with systematic language skills (phonics, grammar etc.) inBefore... After...

      Much of the available resources have been written in English and then back-translated, which is a problem; I need to find a way to ensure that's not a problem when doing my master's. I will need linguistic experts in each language. Where do I find these unicorns?

    2. The work of research, teacher development andsupport, curriculum, assessment and policy development are not closely alignedto the social and linguistic contexts of our children and their teachers. Children arefailing not because teachers are inherently problematic, but because the work hasnot been done to provide teachers and learners with a good fighting chance at thechalk-face.The results of the work suggest the basis for a new horizon. With a carefullyfield-tested structured toolkit and support, a collective of rural foundationphase classrooms with some of the lowest results in the country in literacy andmathematics are starting to function like more normal schools.

      Silver lining. It's not teachers - we need more toolkits for teachers and learners. My app is PART OF this tool kit, it's one small piece needed, not all applications cover all bases and mine won't either. But this is the gap I need to show in my paper - we need more apps and tools to assist.

    3. here were no longitudinal intervention research programmes combiningresearchers and teachers that had demonstrated in practice how to turn aroundfoundation phase classrooms in poor and rural communities. As summarised byvan der Berg, et al (2016:51), ‘unfortunately there have been almost no successstories, at least in terms of improving reading outcomes verified by a rigorousevaluation’. Moreover, while there was a small but important research communityfocusing on the importance of African languages in South African primaryschooling (prominent and influential is the work of PRAESA in early literacy, ledby Carole Bloch (e.g., 2002; 2000), there are no longitudinal attempts to applybilingual language theory systematically to the entire enterprise of foundationphase classroom teaching.

      Wow - I am going off topic but what's the point of an application when there's so few success stories in sa

    4. educationaldesign research methodology.

      Educational design research methodology.

    5. The year was challenging. The most difficult part of the year was the socialenvironment of the school. The relationship between teachers and children wastoo often mediated through corporal punishment. With no cleaning staff, forexample, children spent an inordinate amount of time cleaning, often under thethreat of corporal punishment. Teachers largely avoided their classrooms. Theyoften came late and left early. The Grade 3 class was often the only one still insession after lunch. Breaks took longer than scheduled. Teachers spent longperiods of times sitting in their cars with each other. There were tight cliques, andtensions between these cliques. The day to day talk between teachers was rarelyabout teaching. Some teachers were supportive of the work, others watchedsuspiciously. It became increasingly clear that the challenge of supportingteachers to shift their practice was not limited to expanding teaching practice at anindividual level; without building alternative communities of practice, supportive ofchange and inspired by the challenge of teaching itself, teachers were unlikely toachieve or sustain new patterns of practice over tim

      This is depressing because no matter how well-intentioned my application would be if we don't change teachers' mindsets first. That's the actual problem it seems in most schools. Why do these teachers feel this way? I mean, there must be a reason for this attitude.

    6. class children and their teachers. There are two elements of the critique. Thefirst element focuses on the linguistic resources of children and teachers. Thecritique is that the knowledge project implicitly works from an English speakingnormative social universe and starting points, and does not field test or generateenough research placing African language children and teachers at the centre. Assuch, our ideas about literacy and mathematics do not build upon the languageresources of African language speaking children and teachers. The secondelement focuses on social class and its relation to education. The critique isthat the knowledge project implicitly works from a more middle class schoolingcontext, underestimating the exigencies of the poor and working class, deeplyrooted in historic neglect and the marginalisation of communities and schools

      Research reflecting back to the idea that the mother tongue is critical.

    7. An interesting new extension of this work is Pretorius and Spaull(2016), who undertook the first large scale analysis of oral reading fluency inEnglish. Regardless of the assessment tool, the majority of South African childrenperform extremely poorly in reading, writing and mathematics in the early phasesof primary education (Fleisch, 2008; Spaull, 2013b, 2010; Taylor and Yu, 2009;van der Berg, 2008). Beyond the low results across the system, it is characterisedby a stark bimodal distribution (Fleisch, 2012; van der Berg, 2008; Taylor and Yu,2009; Spaull, 2013a.) The wealthiest quintile of schools is producing some readingresults, while the remaining schools are strikingly non-productive. The wordbimodal is used to suggest that the current system of public education representstwo distinct universes of schools – a small universe serving 20% of the nation’schildren and a vast universe of schools serving the remaining childre
    1. Learners who knew all their letters at the end of grade 1 were on track with their reading by the time they reached grade 4. Learners with very limited letter-sound knowledge at the end of grade 1 were three years behind, only reaching grade 4 reading fluency levels in grade 7.

      CRUX - if I need to keep the UX design clean and simple I must make sure I focus on on the letters. The alphabet game I have in mind is perfect for that. And it would be feasible to translate to the other languages IF I GET EXPERTS in each language to help.

    2. We need to understand what prevents basic reading skills from being acquired in grade 1 and 2 classrooms. A systemic programme to improve what teachers are taught at university is needed. In classrooms, diagnostic assessment of early grade reading skills can also help to detect where children are falling behind.

      My application won't fix this but it's a tool - it's for the teacher and learner but again it won't assist if there aren't deeper incentives to inspire and create a better system - WICKED PROBLEM

    3. Reading comprehension is one of the skills that South Africa needs most. It will be in short supply until basic reading skills are taught correctly.

      no reading skills no comprehension.

    4. Children are struggling to master the most basic reading skills in their home language in the foundation phase (grades 1-3).

      My app addresses this I hope - or assists in some way to address this.

    5. We found that far too many children were entering school with weak oral language skills and were acquiring alphabetic knowledge and fluency far too slowly. This limited their reading comprehension and academic progress through school.
    6. The study’s findings are a global wake-up call to the effects of pandemic disruptions on children’s reading comprehension. In South Africa they are also a transparent met
    7. When decoding is a slow, laboured process this places demands on cognitive processes like working memory. By increasing speed and accuracy in reading, cognitive resources are freed and the child can begin to comprehend what they are rea
    8. A child needs at least two kinds of skills before they can comprehend what they’re reading. These are oral language skills (listening, speaking and knowing how spoken words sound) and decoding skills (knowledge of letter-sound relationships to turn a written word into a spoken word).
    1. MDA, a theory of how game design works. MDA is a theory about the emergent nature of game play. It says when you combine game MECHANICS (shoot something, collect coins, jump over something, open a locked door, etc) the combination becomes DYNAMICS (sidescroller, boss battle, etc) which then is experienced by a player as a type of fun, or AESTHETICS (Fellowship, Challenge, Fantasy etc.

      Mechanics, dynamics and aesthetics

    2. A Unified Theory for Designing Just About Anything
    3. CAMP
    4. mundane design
    5. If you want to understand poetics for interaction design, look at apps. The app store ecosystem and price point has created a cambrian explosion of apps with the same core purpose and wildly different poetics.For example, a word processing app can evoke a variety of feelings depending on choices made in mechanics: feature set, graphic design choices, microinteractions. Both iAWriter and OMWriter discard Microsoft Word’s “all the features for everyone” approach in exchange for a stripped down writing application that creates a very different writing experience.iA Writer “gives you the experience of disappearing into the text and forgetting everything around you.” It makes you feel like Jack Kerouac banging away on his Underwood. By choosing fewer features, they’ve created a poetics of simplicity and focus.
    1. children can talk long before they can read and write. E

      Find research that backs this up.

    2. ater lessons are multilingual and focus at the same time on reading for meaning and learning a target language. For most learners, the target language is English. Learners listen to sentences in one language and must reproduce a translation textually. The app currently incl
    3. In such an environment, where it’s not easy to acquire literacy, the innovative and creative use of technology offers new ways of tackling this strategic challenge. This is what our Ngiyaqonda! project aims to do. “Ngiyaqonda” is an isiZulu word which means “I understand”.
    4. In the earlier lessons, the application focuses on the task of decoding. This is a mental process and an essential component of reading in which sequences of letters must be associated with their corresponding sounds to form words. At this stage, lessons are monolingual.

      This application is for older learners and I am targeting younger learners.

    5. We are fortunate to be collaborating with a school and team of educators who have embraced innovation as an aid to improving their learners’ outcomes. The results of the study are expected towards the end of 2023 and will inform subsequent studies in 2024. Preliminary results indicate that both the teachers and the learners are benefiting from using the app in the classroom. The teachers say they appreciate its multimodal aspect, which allows the children to learn independently; the children are excited to use it during their reading lessons.

      I need to make contact and ask how it's going because I don't know if the study has been ended and if the subsequent studies have been published. Ask Bianca.

    6. curriculum-based vocabulary
    7. resource-scarce language

      This app seems to focus on Grade 3 isiZulu and then english.

    8. The initial focus is on the learner’s home language (it’s currently being piloted with grade 3 isiZulu-speaking learners at a school in Soweto, Johannesburg). English is introduced gradually as a target language. The language and speech technology has been developed to provide linguistic accuracy and is grounded in teaching principles.

      This application is for Grade 3 and up. It doesn't solve the problem I identified which is by Grade 2 most learners can't read for meaning. Stepping in early is key so there is still viability for an application like mine.

    9. During the first three years of their education, South African children receive schooling in one of the 11 written official languages. Generally, this means being taught in their home language.

      Check how many official languages we have now, 11, 12 or 13?

    10. But in South Africa, 8 out of 10 children cannot read for meaning by the end of their third school year.

      Confirms my other research.

    1. The Mzanzi kids multilingual language learning App was created for children between the ages of 2-6 years in South Africa. It was designed to stimulate visual, speech and language literacy skills at an early age by understanding basic everyday concepts and highlighting the correct pronunciation of speech in six (6) different languages; English, Afrikaans, IsiXhosa, IsiZulu, Sepedi and Setswana. The integration of images and phonetics provides a good foundation for children to learn and speak in their mother tongue or home language with confidence and fluency, but most importantly comprehend and appreciate the diversity of languages used by South Africans. This multilingual App provides a good introduction before entering a schooling environment, and offers a non-threatening, playful and fun way of learning languages using innovative technology.

      This is an app for multilingual language learning. Mine will focus on the mother tongue.

      I tried it out for a bit and found the audio very repetitive, which could be problematic. Minecraft had such good audio - C14 or C11? It is fantastically immersive, and the popularity of the game and audio is irrefutable if you look at longevity (games come and go often, and very few manage to stick and have a continuous impact, Minecraft is a good example of an exception to this, alongside other well adjusted and designed games.

      I had fun learning the clicks in isiXhoso - something I want to practice, but the audio became too much as i hit the image repeatedly.

      There's room for more resources. This application does not speak to all children, and no one application ever will, hence the need for many across a broad range of cultures and diversities.

    1. Tried it with Sepedi and English and yho, your Sepedi 👎. How will kids learn if you don't pronounce words correctly? Get someone who knows and can pronounce/speak the languages fluently

      Don't rush languages, it really infuriates people if you do that.

    2. I hate that I cant select language and fix it at that. Instead my child is expected to answer a multiple choice question each time before the language of choice opens. Which he cant, he's 4! Please fix this. Content also very limited.

      reviews overall are in the 'meh' section. I don't want this to happen. But the application responds and is attempting to assist.

    1. Reviews Learning Tools Resources Login

      Two links are broken here - Reviews and Help and Support and that makes me so suspicious because those are such important links. Also the free stuff is a headache to download I am so tired of creating accounts just do download a free image and I hate giving out my data.

    1. Let the adventures begin, download today!

      I think there is plenty of room for applications that cater for different tastes and cultures and this wouldn't speak to me as a kid and it might not speak to other kids. My research shows we need a lot more resources, there is a lot of room for more applications

    1. Youtube Kids is an example of how the product designed for kids differs from the one targeting adults. It’s much easier to navigate thanks to bigger buttons and fewer content boxes on the page. Plus the security settings on the platform make sure that younger users are safe and have access to appropriate content. Those all are parts of a thought-through design interface for children.

      Just an observation here but I remember my godchild using You tube kids whilst they stayed here and we had to double check because it wasn't all good content, you tube is kind of notorious with their bad content checks and algorithms. Elsa Gate Scandal comes to mind.

    2. here are badges for progress, statistics that keep users motivated, and also a clear menu that helps to navigate the application easily.
    3. friendly digital helper is a good idea in digital products for children. Designing a virtual helper, cool and cute character that will help children to navigate through the product, can make the user experience smoother and more interactive.
    4. children can't distinguish advertising and promotions from real content so be careful.

    5. Save Create a Product Children Will Love Pew Research Center reports that the majority of kids in the US actively use digital devices, and many of them have smartphones or tablets of their own. The number of young users tends to increase over time. And design for this interesting (and somewhat challenging) audience is a responsible mission.UX design for kids is not as simple as to just have a few clowns looking funny and some music playing while they use the product. First of all, you must know what difference in terms of demands lies between children and adults.As a design agency we understand the importance of UX specifics when targeting a particular audience, especially a younger one. In this article, we would like to provide insights on what you need to pay attention to when designing a kid-friendly interface. Main niches where design for children is applicable To better understand where a solid design for kids is especially important, take a look at statistics on what content children most interacted with in 2021. Image credit: Statista As we can see, software products and video content are among the most popular. We can name three main niches where child-friendly design is especially needed. EntertainmentEntertainment is the main reason why children use digital products, so it’s no wonder that gaming apps, entertaining platforms and websites make the biggest niche. When designing an entertaining product for children, keep in mind that kids develop an addiction easier, so you need to be ethical in your design decisions.Online learningIt is hard to get children engaged in learning and keep them interested in whatever they study. However, if done right, it can be a very positive experience. Students can appreciate learning something new or improving on what they already know. You can use this insight as a base for online educational platforms for children. For example, include design elements that show progress and achievements.Fintech for childrenYes, children nowadays use fintech products along with adults. The days of cash are behind and the demand for mobile banking and other fintech products for children is growing. Pay extra attention to the safety and usability of such complex products and don’t forget to include and design educational components to increase your teenage users’ financial literacy.  Image credit: Anastasia on Dribble What differs children from adults?  Children are a new, unique, and more demanding audience. Stating the obvious, there are many differences between them and adults. And these differences matter for design. Physical  difference is the first thing to take into account when designing for kids. Children’s motor skills (especially at a young age) are different from those of other age groups. Younger kids’ motoricts change their user behavior. For example, at early age children typically type slowly or have limited control of the mouse. This is something designers have to pay attention to when creating UI for children. Cognitive difference is an even bigger matter to consider if you want to create a great user interface for kids. That’s why it makes sense to dive a bit into the theory of cognitive development. Children’s mental abilities are quite different. Depending on the age, they may lose focus or get bored quickly and in general, are less patient than grown-ups.
    6. Physical  difference is the first thing to take into account when designing for kids. Children’s motor skills (especially at a young age) are different from those of other age groups. Younger kids’ motoricts change their user behavior. For example, at early age children typically type slowly or have limited control of the mouse. This is something designers have to pay attention to when creating UI for children.
    7. You can use this insight as a base for online educational platforms for children. For example, include design elements that show progress and achievements.
    8. UX design for kids
    1. HOW TO IMPROVE TO MOTHER TONGUE LEARNING Begin literacy teaching in mother tongueA curriculum, rooted in the child’s known language, cultureand environment, with appropriate and locally-developedreading and curriculum materials, is crucial for earlylearning success. Using the home language in the early stagesof schooling in multilingual contexts supports child-centricpolicies. It starts with what is familiar and builds in newknowledge. It creates a smooth transition between home andschool; it stimulates interest and ensures greaterparticipation and engagement. This prepares children for theacquisition of literacy and encourages fluency andconfidence in both the mother tongue and, later, in otherlanguages, where this is necessary. Ensure availability of mother-tongue materialsChildren need to be engaged in and excited about readingand learning and this can only be done if the materials areones which they will understand and enjoy. In mostdeveloping countries, the only reading material children seeare school textbooks, which are often in very short supply.Other materials to support learning are hardly everavailable. Without access to good materials, children struggleto become literate and learn. In most low- and middle-income countries, the majority of primary schools have nolibrary, and books are luxuries which families cannot afford.For children from minority language communities, thesituation is even more dismal. Textbooks are rarely availablein local languages. Provide early childhood education in mother tongueLiteracy development starts early in life, and the homeenvironment is an important factor in children’s learningachievement. It helps build the knowledge and skills childrenneed for learning to read. Where parents and the communityare supporting literacy development, results show a markedimprovement. The earlier children are exposed to stories thebetter their reading is: reading for only 15 minutes a day canexpose children to one million written words in a year,thereby helping them to develop a rich vocabulary. Childrenwith access to materials at home are more likely to developfluency in reading
    1. The success of the different multimedia tools that have been used on the various target groups and subjects can be attributed to the technologies and components embedded as shown in Tables 4 and ​and5.5. In most cases where text, audio, video, graphics and animations were the components of choice, significant improvements in teaching and learning are used, as reported in the studies reviewed (Blevins, 2018; Huang et al., 2017; Zhang, 2012).
    2. tangible object in cognitive apprenticeship instruction stimulates more meta-cognitive behaviour.

      FOR LATER - for rmasters side I should have kids be able to PRINT OUT something that they can colour in and cut out and shape out of paper (Like Cube E Craft) so that there can be a 3D element that comes from the application!

    3. Huang et al. (2017) explored the use of multimedia-based teaching materials that include three view diagrams (3D) and tangible 3D materials to teach 3D modelling course. This was aimed at determining the influence of multimedia technology in meta-cognitive behaviour of students.
    4. Nevertheless, despite the impact of multimedia tools on the improvement of teaching and learning activities, it could be counterproductive if the computer-based tools are not properly designed or the instructional materials are not well composed.

      Quality is very important

    5. Certainly, multimedia technology brings about improvement in teaching and learning, however, there are a number of limitations in this technology for educational purposes. Some of these limitations include unfriendly programming or user interface, limited resources, lack of required knowledge and skill, limited time and high cost of maintenance among others (Al-Ajmi and Aljazzaf, 2020; Putra, 2018).

      Limitations of multimedia learning.

    6. The importance of multimedia technologies and applications in education as a teaching or learning tool cannot be over emphasized. This has been confirmed in several studies that have investigated the impact of multimedia technology to the education system. Milovanovi et al. (2013) demonstrated the importance of using multimedia tools in Mathematics classes and found that the multimedia tool greatly enhances students' learning. Several works exist that show that multimedia enhances students' learning (Aloraini, 2012; Al-Hariri and Al-Hattami, 2017; Barzegar et al., 2012; Chen and Xia 2012; Dalacosta et al., 2009; Jian-hua & Hong, 2012; Janda, 1992; Keengwe et al., 2008b; Kingsley and Boone, 2008; Shah and Khan, 2015; Taradi et al., 2005; Zin et al., 2013).
    7. It has been demonstrated, by research on using multimedia for learning, that there are more positive results observed in learners who combine picture and words than those who use words only (Chen and Liu, 2008; Mayer, 2008). As stated in Eady and Lockyer (2013), different pedagogy methods were implemented by the use of digital resources.

      How do I take all this data and formulate my own story. Maybe a forensics board would help tell the story better for me because it's so big yet the same names keep popping up

    8. So, in this study, the taxonomy and component synthesis of some widely cited multimedia applications are provided.
    9. However, when used in the classroom or for educational purposes, the design quality and sophistication of multimedia application must be high enough to combine the different elements of the cognitive processes so as to achieve the best mimicking of the teacher. There are different types of multimedia applications available in the market today. T
    10. symbols, images, pictures, audio, video, and animations usually with the aid of technology for the purpose of enhancing understanding or memorization (Guan et al., 2018). It

      Guan et al, 2018 - did I ever get that paper? Must check

    1. Adults do not perceive accessibility of reading materials in appropriate languages as a primary barrier to reading with children. Only 5% of adults who do not read with children said it wasbecause they did not have materials in the right languages (most said it was a lack of time). On the other hand, 79% of adults also report that they would read more with children if theycould access more materials in their preferred languages. This suggests that adults who are strongly motivated to read with children will do so, irrespective of materials access, but thatincreasing accessibility to reading materials in the right languages may increase the quality and amount of reading.71Figure 49

      Language barriers for home language vs second.

    2. The digital revolution is transforming not only how we communicate (faster,at much larger volumes, to a large extent through text rather than voice),but how we read more broadly.Digital and online materials can be produced faster, versioned (e.g. intodifferent languages), and distributed more cheaply than print materials.Materials can also be shared (rather than read by one person at a time),interacted with (through annotations, comments, reviews, interactivediscussions, embedded dictionaries, etc.), archived and searched moreeasily. Furthermore, much of what we read today in digital formats is writtenby other ‘normal people’ like ourselves (social media posts, messages, blogs,etc.) rather than professional authors mediated by a commercial publishingindustry. All of these factors ‘democratise’ reading and open up access.On the other hand, there are concerns about the quality of digital reading -both in terms of the quality of the content being read and the quality of thereading experience itself, i.e. the depth with which the reader engages withwhat they are reading. Various studies have shown that digital reading bystudents is not as good for learning as reading the same content on paper(Lang 2021).Since Covid-19, debates about the spread of digital materials for teaching andlearning in the schooling system have also accelerated. The NRS cannot commenton school-based reading pedagogy or materials, but similar questions are oftenposed about the wider reading ecosystem. When the project consulted stakeholdersabout key questions they wanted answered, concerns about digital reading, readingon smart phones and possible trade-offs between social media use and book readingwere prominent. So was curiosity about how digital reading is reshaping readingculture generally, and what opportunities it might provide.In response to these questions, the NRS included questions about social media use,digital device use for reading, and adult perceptions about digital reading by theirchildren.One of the NRS’ innovations is to include ‘reading for communication’ as a ‘readingpurpose’ and therefore to include the reading of (mostly) digital messages as a formof reading. As reported in Chapter 2, when analysed in relation to other forms ofreading, such as reading for information and reading for enjoyment, reading tocommunicate appears to augment rather than replaces these forms of reading.
    3. Free online materials: 21% of adults with children are awareof free online books or stories or mobile story apps. The mostwell known online initiative is Nal'ibali, which is also the most used(13% of adults with children are aware and 4% have used it atleast once), followed by the National Education Collaboration Trust(NECT) (7% aware and 3% used at least once)
    4. More than three quarters of South Africans with children in theirhousehold say they would read more if they had more access tomaterials that are free, based on interesting topics, based on stories orinformation that is relatable to them, or available in their preferred languag
    5. apitalise on the opportunities that digital reading offers for free reading material distribution. It is however not areplacement for making print reading materials accessibleDBE, NLSA, Civil society, Department ofSports, Arts and Culture, NECT, Nal’ibali,Publishing and reading materialsdistribution industry2 Support digital reading by• Recognising that all forms of reading can co-exist• Encouraging the linkages between reading types• Rolling out public wifi, reducing the cost of data, and zero-rating websites with educational and readingmaterials• Shifting the narrative about people not reading due to social media and digital devices and recognising thatreading to communicate (digitally) can co-exist with and reinforce other forms of reading, such as readinglonger texts in printNLSA, Civil society, Department of Sports,Arts and Culture, NECT, Nal’ibali3 The majority of South Africans read to communicate via social media and WhatsApp. Use these existingcommunication channels to make reading attractive and share information about where to access other readingmaterialsNLSA, Civil society, Department of Sports,Arts and Culture, NECT, Nal’ibali
    1. An exception is a recent study showing that children’s listening comprehension was uniquely related to text reading fluency after accounting for list reading fluency for first graders. However, this unique relation appears to depend on children’s developmental level of word reading proficiency such that listening comprehension was uniquely related to text reading fluency only for skilled word readers but not for average word readers in first grade (Kim et al., 2011). Thus, a certain level of word reading proficiency might be needed for listening comprehension to play a role in text reading fluency. These results lend support to the verbal efficiency theory (Perfetti, 1985, Perfetti, 1992), which posits that children’s word reading proficiency influences the consolidation of fluency component skills. For readers with slow and nonautomatic word reading, word reading will constrain meaning construction processes in text reading fluency and reading comprehension. For children with skilled word reading, cognitive resources are available for meaning construction (i.e., comprehension), thereby allowing listening comprehension to be related to text reading fluency (Kim et al., 2011).

      I need to look at whether stories or lists are better for my age group. Or both?

    2. reading prosody is an important aspect of reading fluency
    3. Numerous studies have shown strong correlations between oral reading fluency and reading comprehension

      (e.g., Fuchs et al., 2001, Kim et al., 2010, Kim et al., 2011, National Institute of Child Health, 2000, Ridel, 2007, Roehrig et al., 2008) - studies that have shown correlations between oral reading fluency and reading comprehension.

    4. prosody

      In linguistics, prosody is the study of elements of speech that are not individual phonetic segments but which are properties of syllables and larger units of speech, including linguistic functions such as intonation, stress, and rhythm. Such elements are known as suprasegmentals.

    5. text reading fluency (oral reading fluency and silent reading fluency)

      Text reading fluency which is both oral reading fluency and silent reading fluency

    6. text reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension in Grade 2, but not in Grade 1, after accounting for list reading fluency and listening comprehension.

      Text reading fluency related to reading comprehension in Grade 2

    7. reading fluency

      reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension in Grade 1, but not in Grade 2,

    1. Conclusion In recent years, educational tablets and software have transformed education in South Africa. If you are looking to homeschool your child and know how children can learn effectively at home, an educational tablet is your best option. There are also offline educational tablets available in South Africa that can immensely help young kids learn better.So just grab an educational tablet for your child and get going!

      Is this the tablet Bianca mentioned? It sounds great but an entire tablet? I want to reach consumers on already owned devices. Edit no it's the one who expanded - they just launched english lit en are still launching afrikaans this year.

      Variety is the spice of life. I don't think there is room for only one application, personally I wouldn't have enjoyed those graphics as a child, not all children like the same things and learn the same way, so to address that we would need many different applications carering to different tastes.

    2. The students learn and understand at their own pace and engage in all aspects of language learning, including grammar, vocabulary, etc. the software contains over 1000 passages along with exercises in both English and Afrikaans. This software was developed to assist the education imparted through tablets and software in Africa. The teachers can add content and improve the student’s reading, comprehension, and visual memory capacity with this software.

      Agin only egnlish and afrikaans

    1. which is the national curriculum,emphasises the importance of student proficiency in at least two languages and being ableto communicate in others. The language-specific curricula follows an additive approach tomultilingualism, namely, all students learn a language on a “home language” level (which formost would be their home language) and at least one additional offi cial language, and becomecompetent in their additional language on a second-language level, while the home languageis maintained and developed.

      Why home language is important to learn first

    1. Should Kids Use Apps at All?

      Reasons kids should use apps and what apps and parents must consider

    2. Engaging Visuals: Bright, colorful, and appealing visuals are essential to capture a child’s attention and stimulate their creativity.

      This is especially important for me, the Applications that have been offered so far by no fee schools locally are not engaging, the visuals looks very outdated, the colours are very dull.

    3. Mobile and tablet apps have become an indispensable part of growing up. As a parent myself, I’ve witnessed firsthand the incredible impact these apps can have on early childhood development.

      For a user profile this could be very useful.

    1. Specifically, children classified as typically engaged made greater gains in expressive language and phonological awareness when they attended preschool classrooms where the teacher displayed high quality interactions with her students. This is in contrast to children classified as positively engaged who made similar gains in phonological awareness regardless of the quality of classroom level teacher-child interactions and who made greater gains in expressive language when attending preschool classrooms with lower quality teacher-child interactions. Together, these results indicate that children’s level of individual engagement appears to matter less in classrooms characterized by high quality teacher-child interactions. This emphasizes the importance of what the teacher can bring to the classroom—if teachers interact with the children in their classroom in ways that are emotionally, organizationally, and instructionally responsive, children in that classroom may have more equitable gains in language and literacy skills regardless of their individual patterns of classroom engagement.

      Engagement is key - whether it's a teacher or an application children learn better when engaged with the content. Do I need to Cite more than one study because there are a few names I see referenced in articles but is it good to keep referring back to the same CITES as others?

    1. The current study extends findings from previous research by testing how childhood reading problems in the face of normal general cognitive ability are associated with later cognitive function and decline, whereas previous research has primarily focused on general cognitive ability in childhood.

      So if you can't read in early childhood does it affect cognitive ability in later life or not?

    2. little research has investigated the long-term association of childhood reading with cognitive ageing, and how any such association operates across a longer period over the life course.

      Little research has been done with long term effects of cognitive ageing vs literacy.

    3. cognitive functioning

      Cognitive functioning

    4. Evidence shows that reading problems in childhood can be associated with negative outcomes in adulthood, including lower income, poorer self-esteem and higher rates of psychiatric problems

      Evidence of reading problems in early childhood - lower income, poorer self-esteem, higher rates of psychiatric problems.

    5. Reading problems in childhood were associated with poorer cognitive function in early old age, and associations were partly mediated by education.

      Results of not being able to read - poorer cognitive functions in early old age, partly mediated - ie Bettie was fine.

  2. Mar 2024
    1. 1. If a creative artefact is the basis of the contribution to knowledge, the research ispractice-based.2. If the research leads primarily to new understandings about practice, it is practice-led
    1. ext in the home: Learners need to be given age-appropriate texts to take home to optimise exposureto text out of school and enhance the possibilities for reading with caregivers, siblings and neighbours

      Another mention of text needed in home

    2. Books in the home: There are two sites of acquisition for learning to read: the school and the home.Most learners are exposed to very little text in the home and few opportunities to engage with books,especially story books, outside of school hours. The responsibility for developing reading thus falls whollyto the teacher. Learners require more exposure to text and more opportunities to practice reading thanwhat is made available during school hours.

      WE NEED BOOKS that can be shared more easily - that's me!

    1. Higher-order learning as stipulated in the curriculum will be possible when adequate resourcesare available in the classroom that broaden the thinking of the learner and develop their graspof the language and their ability to convey their thinking in writing. Language (in the home andin the classroom) and contextual factors (in the home and at school) in education have aninteractive effect on learner development of higher-order cognition for reading achievement(McLeod Palane, in press). The more learners are exposed to good resources, the more they willhave an opportunity to develop their literacy, as well as their language competence. Accordingto Vygotsky (1978) the socio-cultural context and access to mediation in, for example, the formof text develops learners’ higher-order thinking, which includes metacognitive processes andcritical thinking, and are recognised as 21st century skills.LANGUAGES (CENSUS 2011)English10%IsiXhosa16%IsiZulu24%Sepedi9%Other2% Afrikaans14%Sesotho8%Setswana8%Siswati3%Tshivenda2%Xitsonga2%IsiNdebele2%


    1. Curriculum 2005 (C2005) with its implementation in 1998 was regarded as the master plan to eradicate the inequalities of the apartheid education system. In 2000, C2005 was revised and is now referred to as the National Curriculum Statement (NCS) (Jansen, 1998; Manganyi, 2001; Harley & Wedekind 2004; Vambe, 2005). The NCS is an outcomes-based, integrated knowledge system based on a learner-centred pedagogy that has to improve the quality of education for all in South Africa (SA) (Jansen, 1998; Botha, 2002; Fiske & Ladd, 2004; Todd & Mason, 2005). However, the potential for Outcomes-based Education (OBE) to enhance learning in all South African schools, given the historical and situational constraints, is limited. Numerous schools in SA have been unsuccessful in implementing the concept of outcomes to drive the educational programmes and state resources have not been sufficient to bring all schools up to the standard that was enjoyed by former Model C schools prior to 1994 (Whitaker & Whitaker, 1995; Mathieson, 2001; Todd & Mason, 2005; Vambe, 2005). The main factors that hinder policy implementation in South African schools are the lack of management capacity and the scarcity of resources (Jansen, 1999; Botha, 2002; Fiske & Ladd, 2004; Prinsloo, 2007). Educational transformation not only brought about C2005 and OBE, but also a new Learning Area called Life Orientation (LO) in the General Education and Training (GET) Band (Grades R-9) and a new subject in the Further Education and Training (FET) Band (Grades 10-12). This new Learning Area/Subject is to equip learners with the skills, knowledge, attitudes and values (SKAV) to face life's challenges in an informed, confident and responsible way (DoE, 1997; Jansen, 1998; Bot
    1. Support effective teaching methodsSuccessful teaching of early literacy skills is dependent notonly on the provision of suitable materials, but also on theway these skills are introduced and taught. Rote learning andmemorization, with a textbook focus, will likely result in achild’s reading fluency and comprehension remaininglimited. Teachers need to use engaging instructionalstrategies, where children are active in the learning process.Such strategies only become feasible when childrenunderstand the language of instruction and can therefore beinteractively engaged. Train and deploy mother tongue teachersMother-tongue education requires teachers whom share thelanguage and culture of the children. It also requires thatteachers are trained in the same language they are to teachin. Some teachers may not be truly proficient in the languageof instruction, and may struggle with teaching in a‘dominant’ language they are not fluent in themselves orthey may come from a minority language group and havebeen excluded from the learning process due to a lack oftraining materials in their language. Sometimes a lack ofunderstanding can cascade down the generations where ateacher, who never fully understood their own teacher, isattempting to teach a child who barely understands thelanguage.CONCLUSIONSMany children from corner to corner the developing worldare learning very little in school, a truth that can beconnected to teaching that is in a linguistic they do notcompletely understand. It is a practice that leads toinadequate or non-existent learning and acquisition ofknowledge and skills, alienating experiences, and high drop-out and repetition rates. To develop the quality of education,language policies need to take account of mother-tonguelearning. Models of education which ignore the mothertongue in the early years can be unproductive, ineffectiveand have a negative effect on children’s learning. Mother-tongue teaching at least in early years can enable teachers toteach, and learners to learn further effectively. For too long,mother-tongue education has been mostly unnoticed bypolicy makers. While there are encouraging signs that thepolicy pendulum is beginning to swing towards a greaterunderstanding of the importance of mother-tongue learning,there is still a long way to go. More governments aredeveloping policies and programmes that take account ofmother tongue in the early stages of learning, but there isstill a need to express better policies, make sure betterpreparation for the introduction of second languages andensure adequate resources are set aside. The GlobalCampaign for Education believes that evidence proposes thatthere is assured areas which should be prioritized in policydevelopment, to confirm more responsive and well nuancedpolicy development in the field of mother tongue learning
    1. Studies have shown that children who are exposed to reading prior to preschool tend to develop larger vocabularies and are more likely to succeed during their formal education. If a child is not proficient in reading by 3rd grade, they are at a higher risk for not graduating from high school.

      THIS IS THE LINK for reading in early ages.

    1. (1)Ability to turn abstract concepts into concrete contents(2)Ability to presents large volumes of information within a limited time with less effort(3)Ability to stimulates students' interest in learning(4)Provides teacher with the ability to know students position in learning.

      There's so much research! I think I might be getting lost in the sea... Where is North?

    1. Super basic

      Most reviews don't seem positive and this is not a free app an dthey have a lot of complaints about the quality

    1. Duolingo ABC

      It wasn't very interactive

    2. 3. Importance of feedback For a positive user experience, feedback plays a significant role. If the users get appropriate and quick feedback from a physical or digital design, they can gain interest, leading to a good user experience. The importance of immediate feedback gets even more pronounced in the case of kids when their attention span is less than that of adults.

      Feedback and how important it is.

    3. There is a need to think about the element that the user sees, the first impression, and the long-term goals of all such designs.

      This is key for me too, it's about quality visuals, which I find lacking in a lot of kids content personally.

    4. What are some critical UX preferences for kids?Some necessary UX preferences for kids are as follows. Need for intuitive design Desire for engaging content Importance of feedback

      I am still trying to figure out my feedback system...

    5. We also list some best practices and design principles to ensure better quality designs for children of different ages.

      The ages thing I needed

    6. 2. Desire for engaging content Engagement is another fundamental design principle and one of the most critical needs of users from any age group. In a usability test, users' engagement and satisfaction levels often go hand in hand. Therefore, when designing for the audience of any target age group, engagement should be considered.

      I need to find a CITE to prve Engagement is a fundamental design principle because it aligns with my intro in my proposal incredibly well.

    7. child-centric design

      Who came up with this term?

    1. These sentences function as the language content of the speech-enabled mobile application. The application uses synthetic voice technology (also known as text-to-speech) to read aloud the automatically generated sentences in either isiZulu or English.

      I want to make animated stories with a little bit of fun interactive elements this is very different.

    2. The problem is partly caused by the fact that South Africa is, in many respects, a resource-scarce country, especially as it concerns indigenous languages. Even a language such as isiZulu, with 15 million home language speakers, has a dearth of language education resources. The situation is even worse for smaller languages, such as isiNdebele, with just over 1 million home language speakers.

      This application feels like it's marketed for older learners, and it mentions we are recourse scarce, so another application is not a bad thing the more the better.

    1. Quality Over Quantity: Not all apps are created equal. Parents should carefully select apps that are age-appropriate, educational, and safe. Reviews and recommendations from trusted sources can help in making informed choices.

      How do I get parents to selct my app?

    2. Screen Time: Excessive screen time can have negative consequences on a child’s physical and mental well-being. It’s crucial to set reasonable limits on the amount of time a child spends with apps and ensure a healthy balance with other activities.

      This just justifies what I initially thought, it should be timed, there needs to be time limits on my app.

    3. Language Development: Apps featuring interactive stories and language-learning activities can enhance a child’s vocabulary and language skills. For example, apps like “Endless Reader” introduce new words in the context of engaging stories, making language acquisition an enjoyable experience.
      • Go look at Endless Reader
    4. Privacy and Data Protection: Protecting children’s sensitive information is paramount. Apps should comply with regulations like COPPA (Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act) to ensure data privacy.

      I need to check if this is the same for South Africa or if we have another system or any system?

    5. Designing apps for children requires a unique approach when compared to apps aimed at adults or teenagers:

      All four the points are important to remember when designing my application. Simple and Intuitive Interface, Engaging Visuals, Age-Appropriate Content, Mini,al Ads and In-App Purchases (I want none, no adverts, no pop-ups).

    6. Educational Apps: These apps are designed to teach kids fundamental skills, such as reading, math, and problem-solving, in an engaging and interactive manner.

      My application is an educational app for reading.