32 Matching Annotations
  1. Oct 2022
    1. McMaster's Stephen Girard(1918), he said, was a "series of anecdotes . . . without connection"and with little interpretation or analysis." In Rhodes's last twovolumes the facts rarely appeared "to have meaning or to be partsof a coherent structure." " "No simple theme, like that whichdominated his great work, is apparent here. Mr. Rhodes has notseen any constructive unity in the years he covers. Instead of mak-ing a synthesis that would of itself lead the reader to a clearerunderstanding of American history . . . , he has developed his topicsparagraph by paragraph, with often abrupt transition from themeto theme." 26 His failure in the final product followed,

      Paxson would have considered it a failure in note taking to have only compiled but not to have synthesized one's accumulated knowledge.

      Why take notes if one is not going to use them to some end, whether that be personally in one's life, or to extend and expand the depth and breadth of human knowledge by analyzing and synthesizing the ideas to create something new for others' benefit?

  2. Sep 2022
    1. The idea that analysis must precede synthesis is old, of course. Galileo Galilei and René Descartes already thought it was necessary to distinguish between an analytic and a synthetic step in dealing with any problem.

      Langlois/Seignobos talk about this in their text Introduction aux études historiques (1879) as well, focusing especially on the analysis portion to have a solid base of historical information from which to build and create a synthesis.

  3. Jul 2022
    1. if if one looks around and on the web and elsewhere there are numerous uh kind of experiments going on in in a 00:40:13 variety of things in the and new forms of representative democracy new forms of decision making new forms of economies in the sense of 00:40:26 you know local digital currencies and things like that i think all of those you know all of those are are excellent um you know a resource to draw from 00:40:43 uh of the the task is then is to take these ideas these ideas that are springing up all over and put integrate them in a way that is functional you know 00:40:57 can serve a community initially maybe the community is small just a few thousand but the idea is that it would that it would grow over time exponentially grow to who knows you know hundreds of thousands millions i don't know 00:41:09 so how can you take all those ideas and actually make them work sometimes i i liken it to you know that you might tinker in the garage with a with an airplane you know you might 00:41:21 build a two-seater in the garage and that's totally cool you know you can you know that maybe what the wright brothers did or something that's fantastic but i'm really interested in building a jumbo jet that takes you know 500 00:41:33 passengers at a time in an hour and a half to from new york to london or whatever and doesn't fall in the ocean you know like so how do you do that how do you how do you build a integrated system that is safe that is 00:41:47 resilient that is that it that has metrics that you can monitor progress that has good anticipation so you know where the you know that where you're going tomorrow you know where this 00:42:00 where is this going you know what's going to happen tomorrow and sort of what's going to happen to me you know that's that's part of the question so uh so the so i think the challenge is to take all these ideas that are 00:42:11 that are popping up all over which some really great ideas and then to integrate them into uh into a coherent hole that that spans every one of the i think maybe is it six 00:42:23 systems that i talk about so that so that they're not designed in silos we're not just building the new economic system we're not just building a new educational system we're building this we're building a 00:42:36 a cognitive architecture that includes all of those

      John describes the synthesis he imagines, which includes a system to curate all the existing ideas emerging everywhere into a coherent whole, to scale the ones that promise to the areas that can really benefit from them.

  4. Jan 2022
    1. It’s a lot more work to give people an interesting puzzle to solve, support them with high expectations all the way through them doing something genuinely compelling and interesting with the synthesis (and they know when you’re just BSing them), and hold them to high standards while also modeling the appropriate behaviors yourself. It’s almost impossible with class sizes upwards of 40 and class periods of 40 minutes and most of the system isn’t actually optimized for achieving that anyway
  5. Aug 2021
    1. Samuel Haven (1806–1881)

      Librarian of the American Antiquarian Society

      Built up wealth of reading to create the synthesis The Archaeology of the United States (Smithsonian Institution, 1856) which is considered foundation of modern American archaeology.

      Note his rigorous approach.

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    Annotators

    1. One way is to work in intense, focused bursts. When the ideas stop flowing and diminishing returns set in, do something which is conducive to mind-wandering. Exercise, walk, read, or listen to music.

      When mental fatigue sets it do something "boring" to let your mind rest and wander. Avoid escapism.

    2. When our minds are free to wander, we shift into a diffuse mode of thinking. This is sometimes referred to as our natural mode of thinking, or the daydream mode; it’s when we form connections and subconsciously mull over problems.

      Boredom is an important driver of ideas. Being disengaged from everything else leaves time to stay one-on-one with your thoughts.

  6. Jun 2021
    1. I feel like I may have just stumbled on a back alley book club on design.

      It's digital books+Hypothes.is+Fight Club...

      The rules of Back Alley Book Club:

      1. We don't talk about Back Alley Book Club.
      2. We don't talk about Back Alley Book Club.

      ...

      1. If this is your first night at Back Alley Book Club, you have to annotate.

  7. Mar 2021
    1. Furthermore, web annotation also affords curation, creating a static but unstable record of this emergent and dynamic performance, accenting via hypertext particular ideas and moments from a malleable document.

      One of the pieces missing from Hypothes.is is the curateable notebook which more easily allows one to create new content from one's annotations.

      Search is certain there, but being able to move the pieces about and re-synthesize them into new emergent pieces is the second necessary step.

  8. Jan 2021
    1. The courses span a suite of synthesis methods, including systematic review and systematic mapping, stakeholder engagement in evidence synthesis, and evidence synthesis technology.
  9. Nov 2020
    1. Single-strand binding proteins

      These bind to single-stranded regions of the DNA and during DNA replication they bind to newly formed DNA strands. They help keep the DNA strands in place as a framework for new DNA synthesis.

    1. The basic intuition is described well by the Shipman & Marshall paper: users enter information in a mostly informal fashion, and then formalize only later in the task when appropriate formalisms become clear and also (more) immediately useful.

      Incremental formalism

      Users enter information in an informal fashion. They only formalize later when the appropriate formalism becomes clear and/or immediately useful.

    2. It’s important to notice something about these examples of synthesis representations: they go quite a bit further than simply grouping or associating things (though that is an important start). They have some kind of formal semantic structure (otherwise known as formality) that specifies what entities exist, and what kinds of relations exist between the entities. This formal structure isn’t just for show: it’s what enables the kind of synthesis that really powers significant knowledge work! Formal structures unlock powerful forms of reasoning like conceptual combination, analogy, and causal reasoning.

      Formalisms enable synthesis to happen.

    3. I understand synthesis to be fundamentally about creating a new whole out of components (Strike & Posner, 1983).

      A definition for synthesis.

  10. Oct 2020
    1. messenger RNA (mRNA)

      This is a single strand on an RNA molecule that leaves the the nucleus of a cell in order to relocate to the cytoplasm. This is where the mRNA can help create the protein for the cell in a process known as protein synthesis. The mRNA takes in information passed into it by DNA and decode it for the ribosomes to make more protein for the cell to live on.

  11. Sep 2020
    1. Hennessy, E. A., Acabchuk, R., Arnold, P. A., Dunn, A. G., Foo, Y. Z., Johnson, B. T., Geange, S. R., Haddaway, N. R., Nakagawa, S., Mapanga, W., Mengersen, K., Page, M. J., Sánchez-Tójar, A., Welch, V., & McGuinness, L. A. (2020). Ensuring Prevention Science Research is Synthesis-Ready for Immediate and Lasting Scientific Impact [Preprint]. MetaArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31222/osf.io/ptg9j

    1. Bringing the Author to Terms — In analytical reading, you must identify the keywords and how they are used by the author. This is fairly straightforward. The process becomes more complicated now as each author has probably used different terms and concepts to frame their argument. Now the onus is on you to establish the terms. Rather than using the author’s language, you must use your own. In short, this is an exercise in translation and synthesis

      [[translation and synthesis]] - understanding the authors in your own words, and being able to summarize their points without just copy-pasting. To be able to do this well, you really need to understand the authors ideas.

  12. Jun 2020
  13. May 2020
  14. Apr 2020
  15. Dec 2019
    1. Like a centaur, the hybrid would have the strength of each of its components: the processing power of a large logic circuit and the intuition of a human brain’s wetware. The result: human-machine teams, even when they didn’t include the best grandmasters or most powerful computers, consistently beat teams composed solely of human grandmasters or superfast machines.

      This is what is most needed: the spark of intuition coupled with the indefatigably pursuit of its implications. We handle the former and computers the latter.

  16. Mar 2019
    1. This is Bloom's taxonomy of cognitive objectives. I selected this page because it explains both the old and new versions of the taxonomy. When writing instructional objectives for adult learning and training, one should identify the level of learning in Blooms that is needed. This is not the most attractive presentation but it is one of the more thorough ones. rating 4/5

  17. Feb 2019
  18. Sep 2017
    1. ynthesizing qualitative research enables reviewers to ask questions that inform the development of, or the implementation of, interventions. For example, in the context of intervention evaluation, they can help define relevant and important questions, help determine appropriate outcome measures by looking at “subjective” outcomes, look in detail at issues concerning implementation or the acceptability or appropriateness of an intervention, identify and explore unintended consequences, contribute to service delivery and policy development by describing pro-cesses and contexts, and inform and illuminate quantitative studies, for example, by contributing to the design of struc-tured instruments, assessing the fairness of comparisons in experimental studies, or unpacking variation within aggre-gated data (Davies, Nutley, & Smith, 2000).

      Summary of purposes of QES

    2. This article demonstrates the value of one relatively new approach, that of framework synthesis (Carroll, Booth, & Cooper, 2011; Thomas, Harden, & Newman, 2012). The distinguishing characteristic of this method is that it allows preexisting understanding (in the form of themes or categories) to be included in the analysis alongside (and combined with) con-cepts that emerge from the studies themselves (Dixon-Woods, 2011). This makes it particularly suitable for studies where a relevant related conceptual framework already exists, or where the findings from primary studies need to be explored in the light of perspectives of various stakeholders (e.g., practitioners, parents) in a structured and explicit way

      Justification and rationale for framework synthesis

    1. It is useful if interventions, and their evaluations, draw explicitly on existing social science theories, so that findings can add to the development of theory. However, evaluators should avoid selecting ‘off-the-shelf’ theories without considering how they apply to the context in which the intervention is delivered. Additionally, there is a risk of focusing narrowly on inappropriate theories from a single discipline; for example, some critics have highlighted a tendency for over-reliance upon individual-level theorising when the aim is to achieve community, organisational or population-level change (Hawe et al., 2009).

      Potential limitations of framework approach to synthesis

  19. Jan 2017
    1. The “can you hear me” con is actually a variation on earlier scams aimed at getting the victim to say the word “yes” in a phone conversation. That affirmative response is recorded by the fraudster and used to authorize unwanted charges on a phone or utility bill or on a purloined credit card.
  20. Dec 2016
    1. synthesis mapping,

      Synthesis mapping is concept/mind mapping 2.0. For subjects like biology, the ability to show connections between scale levels is an important skill for students to develop. Using this approach in teaching may help students understand the concept of emergent properties better.