602 Matching Annotations
  1. Apr 2024
    1. byob bring your own bacteria. Many hospital infections are caused by microbes you already had on you, not by a drug resistant superbug.

    1. We quote because we are afraid to-change words, lest there be a change in meaning.

      Quotations are easier to collect than writing things out in one's own words, not only because it requires no work, but we may be afraid of changing the original meaning by changing the original words or by collapsing the context and divorcing the words from their original environment.

      Perhaps some may be afraid that the words sound "right" and they have a sense of understanding of them, but they don't quite have a full grasp of the situation. Of course this may be remedied by the reader or listener not only by putting heard stories into their own words and providing additional concrete illustrative examples of the concepts. These exercises are meant to ensure that one has properly heard/read and understood a concept. Psychologists call this paraphrasing or repetition the "echo effect" (others might say parroting or mirroring) and have found that it can help to build understanding, connection, and likeability between people. Great leaders who do this will be sure to make sure that credit for the original ideas goes to the originator and not to themselves simply because they repeated it, especially in group settings where their words may have more primacy amidst their underlings.

      (I can't find it at the moment, but there's a name/tag for this in my notes? looping?)

      Beyond this, can one place the idea into a more clear language than the original? Add some poetry perhaps? Make the concept into a concrete meme to make it more memorable?

      Journalists like to quote because it gives primacy of voice to the speaker and provides the reader with the sense that they're getting the original from which they might make up their own minds. It also provides a veneer of vérité to their reportage.

      Link this back to Terrence's comedy: https://hypothes.is/a/xe15ZKPGEe6NJkeL77Ji4Q

  2. Mar 2024
    1. 1870: Miscegenation [Statute] Penalty for intermarriage between whites an blacks was labeled a felony, punishable by imprisonment in the penitentiary from one to five years.

      In the context of the 1870 Miscegenation Statute, which penalized interracial marriage between whites and blacks, the penalty would typically apply to both parties involved in the interracial marriage. In such cases, both the white person and the black person would be subject to the penalties outlined in the statute. This kind of law was part of a broader system of racial segregation and discrimination prevalent in the United States during that time period.

  3. Feb 2024
    1. Now, let’s modify the prompt by adding a few examples of how we expect the output to be. Pythonuser_input = "Send a message to Alison to ask if she can pick me up tonight to go to the concert together" prompt=f"""Turn the following message to a virtual assistant into the correct action: Message: Ask my aunt if she can go to the JDRF Walk with me October 6th Action: can you go to the jdrf walk with me october 6th Message: Ask Eliza what should I bring to the wedding tomorrow Action: what should I bring to the wedding tomorrow Message: Send message to supervisor that I am sick and will not be in today Action: I am sick and will not be in today Message: {user_input}""" response = generate_text(prompt, temp=0) print(response) This time, the style of the response is exactly how we want it. Can you pick me up tonight to go to the concert together?
    2. But we can also get the model to generate responses in a certain format. Let’s look at a couple of them: markdown tables
  4. Jan 2024
    1. Instance methods Instances of Models are documents. Documents have many of their own built-in instance methods. We may also define our own custom document instance methods. // define a schema const animalSchema = new Schema({ name: String, type: String }, { // Assign a function to the "methods" object of our animalSchema through schema options. // By following this approach, there is no need to create a separate TS type to define the type of the instance functions. methods: { findSimilarTypes(cb) { return mongoose.model('Animal').find({ type: this.type }, cb); } } }); // Or, assign a function to the "methods" object of our animalSchema animalSchema.methods.findSimilarTypes = function(cb) { return mongoose.model('Animal').find({ type: this.type }, cb); }; Now all of our animal instances have a findSimilarTypes method available to them. const Animal = mongoose.model('Animal', animalSchema); const dog = new Animal({ type: 'dog' }); dog.findSimilarTypes((err, dogs) => { console.log(dogs); // woof }); Overwriting a default mongoose document method may lead to unpredictable results. See this for more details. The example above uses the Schema.methods object directly to save an instance method. You can also use the Schema.method() helper as described here. Do not declare methods using ES6 arrow functions (=>). Arrow functions explicitly prevent binding this, so your method will not have access to the document and the above examples will not work.

      Certainly! Let's break down the provided code snippets:

      1. What is it and why is it used?

      In Mongoose, a schema is a blueprint for defining the structure of documents within a collection. When you define a schema, you can also attach methods to it. These methods become instance methods, meaning they are available on the individual documents (instances) created from that schema.

      Instance methods are useful for encapsulating functionality related to a specific document or model instance. They allow you to define custom behavior that can be executed on a specific document. In the given example, the findSimilarTypes method is added to instances of the Animal model, making it easy to find other animals of the same type.

      2. Syntax:

      Using methods object directly in the schema options:

      javascript const animalSchema = new Schema( { name: String, type: String }, { methods: { findSimilarTypes(cb) { return mongoose.model('Animal').find({ type: this.type }, cb); } } } );

      Using methods object directly in the schema:

      javascript animalSchema.methods.findSimilarTypes = function(cb) { return mongoose.model('Animal').find({ type: this.type }, cb); };

      Using Schema.method() helper:

      javascript animalSchema.method('findSimilarTypes', function(cb) { return mongoose.model('Animal').find({ type: this.type }, cb); });

      3. Explanation in Simple Words with Examples:

      Why it's Used:

      Imagine you have a collection of animals in your database, and you want to find other animals of the same type. Instead of writing the same logic repeatedly, you can define a method that can be called on each animal instance to find similar types. This helps in keeping your code DRY (Don't Repeat Yourself) and makes it easier to maintain.


      ```javascript const mongoose = require('mongoose'); const { Schema } = mongoose;

      // Define a schema with a custom instance method const animalSchema = new Schema({ name: String, type: String });

      // Add a custom instance method to find similar types animalSchema.methods.findSimilarTypes = function(cb) { return mongoose.model('Animal').find({ type: this.type }, cb); };

      // Create the Animal model using the schema const Animal = mongoose.model('Animal', animalSchema);

      // Create an instance of Animal const dog = new Animal({ type: 'dog', name: 'Buddy' });

      // Use the custom method to find similar types dog.findSimilarTypes((err, similarAnimals) => { console.log(similarAnimals); }); ```

      In this example, findSimilarTypes is a custom instance method added to the Animal schema. When you create an instance of the Animal model (e.g., a dog), you can then call findSimilarTypes on that instance to find other animals with the same type. The method uses the this.type property, which refers to the type of the current animal instance. This allows you to easily reuse the logic for finding similar types across different instances of the Animal model.

      Certainly! Let's go through each part and explain it in simple terms: ### 1. `this` in Mongoose: - **What is `this`?** In JavaScript, `this` refers to the current context or object. In Mongoose, particularly within methods and middleware functions, `this` represents the instance (document) the function is currently operating on. - **Why is it used?** `this` is used to access and modify the properties of the current document. For example, in a Mongoose method, `this` allows you to refer to the fields of the specific document the method is called on. ### 2. Example: Let's use the `userSchema.pre("save", ...)`, which is a Mongoose middleware, as an example: ```javascript userSchema.pre("save", async function (next) { if (!this.isModified("password")) { next(); } else { this.password = await bcrypt.hash(this.password, 10); next(); } }); ``` - **Explanation in Simple Words:** - Imagine you have a system where users can sign up and set their password. - Before saving a new user to the database, you want to ensure that the password is securely encrypted (hashed) using a library like `bcrypt`. - The `userSchema.pre("save", ...)` is a special function that runs automatically before saving a user to the database. - In this function: - `this.isModified("password")`: Checks if the password field of the current user has been changed. - If the password is not modified, it means the user is not updating their password, so it just moves on to the next operation (saving the user). - If the password is modified, it means a new password is set or the existing one is changed. In this case, it uses `bcrypt.hash` to encrypt (hash) the password before saving it to the database. - The use of `this` here is crucial because it allows you to refer to the specific user document that's being saved. It ensures that the correct password is hashed for the current user being processed. In summary, `this` in Mongoose is a way to refer to the current document or instance, and it's commonly used to access and modify the properties of that document, especially in middleware functions like the one demonstrated here for password encryption before saving to the database.




    1. There are 2 main groups of locations for answering these questions. A single item A bunch of items (lists, boards, roadmaps, widgets)
    1. A reviewer wants to view all comments on an MR in a condensed list, and - for each one - see the context of that comment. Problem: Notes (on the MR) and Discussions (on the Diff) are treated differently, and Discussions necessarily come with Diff context. Diff context with Discussions is difficult to match with actual diffs because rendering diffs isn't designed for non-Changes-tab contexts
    1. [With Zeplin] we started to engage both UX and engineering teams in the same conversations and suddenly that opened our eyes to what was going on, and overall streamlined our build process.

      may need new tag: combining/bringing different audiences together in the same conversation/context/tool

    1. A task is used further down in the workflow. When I think about planning features, they occur before development takes off. The task is used by the developer as they are breaking down the issue into smaller components.

      task context of creating "task": developer as they break down a larger issue/epic into smaller pieces

    2. You can see how the constant jumping between these two tools in the first scenario is super annoying, and also very risky as none of the changes you make in Figma are also automatically being updated in the same GitLab designs.
    3. As a positive example of where this works well: Our VS Code GitLab Workflow extension allows users to not only see comments that were written inside the GitLab UI, but also allows these users to respond to these comments right from the IDE, the tool where they actually have to make these changes.
  5. Dec 2023
  6. inst-fs-iad-prod.inscloudgate.net inst-fs-iad-prod.inscloudgate.net
    1. Thomas A. Bailey

      Who is this? What is Bailey's background?

    2. 1961Little, Brown and Company, Boston • Toronto

      What was going on in 1961 that might have affected this author or this textbook?

    1. It is generally a best practice to request scopes incrementally, at the time access is required, rather than up front. For example, an app that wants to support saving an event to a calendar should not request Google Calendar access until the user presses the "Add to Calendar" button; see Incremental authorization.
  7. Nov 2023
    1. At a later time, when accessing data from Google is required, you call the authorization API to ask for the consent and get access tokens for data access. This separation complies with our recommended incremental authorization best practice, in which the permissions are requested in context.
    1. It does provide an answer. The issue is that the Google form validates that the user has input a valid looking URL. So he needs to input an arbitrary, but valid URL, and then add that to /etc/hosts so his browser will resolve it to the address of his devserver. The question and answer are both fine as is and don't require any critique or clarification.

      The critical comment this was apparently in reply to was apparently deleted

    1. we're young we get formed we behave in particular ways and it works for us and so we get reinforcement 00:10:11 and we continue to use it and it's important to understand that overshoot is not about being bad overshoot is about being context insensitive that we 00:10:25 use behaviors that have been successful and that's important we use them because they work but we use them after the conditions have changed enough that in fact we should be adapting new behaviors
      • for: overshoot - context insensitive

      • key insight: overshoot

        • overshoot is not bad, it is context insensitive. We enact old behaviors that have been deeply conditioned into us for a particular context, but the context has changed, while our behavior has not
    1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Presentism_(historical_analysis)

      relationship with context collapse

      Presentism bias enters biblical and religious studies when, by way of context collapse, readers apply texts written thousands of years ago and applicable to one context to their own current context without any appreciation for the intervening changes. Many modern Christians (especially Protestants) show these patterns. There is an interesting irony here because Protestantism began as the Catholic church was reading too much into the Bible to create practices like indulgences.)

    1. I 01:00:30 think that a proper version of the concept of synchronicity would talk about multiscale patterns so that when you're looking at electrons in the computer you would say isn't it amazing that these electrons went over here and 01:00:42 those went over there but together that's an endgate and by the way that's part of this other calculation like amazing down below all they're doing is following Maxwell's equations but looked at at another level wow they just just 01:00:54 computed the weather in you know in in Chicago so I I I think what you know I it's not about well I was going to say it's not about us and uh and our human tendency to to to to pick out patterns 01:01:07 and things like but actually I I do think it's that too because if synchronicity is is simply how things look at other scales
      • for: adjacency - consciousness - multiscale context

      • adjacency between

        • Michael's example
        • my idea of how consciousness fits into a multiscale system
      • adjacency statement
        • from a Major Evolutionary Transition of Individuality perspective, consciousness might be seen as a high level governance system of a multicellular organism
        • this begs the question: consciousness is fundamentally related to individual cells that compose the body that the consciousness appears to be tethered to
        • question: Is there some way for consciousness to directly access the lower and more primitive MET levels of its own being?
    1. The role of stylistic indicators of temporal andspatial location and orientation—those “pointing words”that linguists refer to as deictics—is essential to thecreation of this general effect.

      Deixis is the use of words and phrases to refer to a specific time, place, or person in context. Usually their semantic meaning is fixed but their denoted meaning varies depending on contextual cues of time and/or place.

      Examples include the do-, ko-, so-, a- progression (dore, kore, sore, are; docchi, kocchi, socchi, acchi, etc.) serve this function of distance from the speaker.

  8. Oct 2023
    1. The reader should keep in mind that, for Alter, the Hebrew Bible is not one seamless book but a haphazard collection of texts.


      Perhaps not "haphazard", but they are definitely written by different authors over a large span of time, often each with their own political point of view. Bruce seems to be playing at the common misconception that the books were written as a cohesive whole supporting only one outcome.

      There is some massive historical contextual collapse going on here, particularly in a broader culture in which multiple gods were the norm. Each author certainly had their own idea of what "God" was when writing.

    2. Alter knows it ain’t Jesus.

      The colloquial use of the word "ain't" here very specifically pegs James Bruce, the author, as writing his argument for an audience of Christians in the Southern part of the United States. It's even more stark as most of his review is of a broadly scholarly nature where the word "ain't" or others of its register would never be used.

      How does the shift in translation really negate room for Jesus? If it was a truism that it stood for Jesus, then couldn't one just as simply re-translate the New Testament to make sure that the space for him is still there? Small shifts in meaning and translation shouldn't undermine the support for Jesus so easily as Bruce suggests, otherwise there are terrible problems with these underpinnings of Christianity.

      If one follows Bruce's general logic, then there's a hell of a religion based on Nostradamus' work we're all going out of our way to ignore.

      What would historical linguistics have to say about this translation?

    1. You listen to their stories, and if you take them seriously, you think nothing could be more dramatic than being a writer. But I am a writer and I don’t believe a word of it.

      Is or how is fabulism tied into the way people don't believe or won't believe the context of other peoples' experience?

      link to https://hypothes.is/a/t_DOjnTbEe6iyP_O1fr4fQ

    1. reductionism can be good okay I would not be here if it weren't for reductionism neither would any of you it's how we build things it's how we learn things 00:19:32 but for so long we've pulled things out of context to study them and not put them back so we have an idea of information that is constantly decontextualized 00:19:46 what happens if you put it back
      • for: reductionism, emptiness, Nora Bateson, complexity, reductionism - Nora Bateson, adjacency, adjacency - reductionism - emptiness
    1. Aunity can be variously stated

      Every book, while holding the same words, will be different based on the context and needs of the individual reader.

  9. Aug 2023
    1. Science must find for every effect a single cause. The historian is rarely faced with the same requirement.Historians have the advantage of being able to live with explanatory ambiguity that would be unacceptable in science.
    2. These revolutions appear invisible in the history of science, Kuhn explained, because each successive generation learns science through the lens of the current paradigm.

      As a result of Kuhn's scientific revolutions perspective, historians of science will need to uncover the frameworks and lenses by which prior generations saw the world to be able to see the world the same way. This will allow them to better piece together histories

      How is this related to the ways that experts don't appreciate their own knowledge when trying to teach newcomers their subjects? What is the word/phrase for this effect?

    3. Thomas Kuhn applied the concept of the paradigm to describe the progress of scientific thought over time. The idea generated interest and discussion across a number of fields in addition to the history of science, eclipsing to some extent Kuhn’s original focus.

      Thomas Kuhn's book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions was directed to scientific thought over time, but he was aware of it potentially being applied, potentially improperly, to other areas. As a result, he narrowed down his definitions and made his assumptions more explicit.

      This sort of misapplication can be seen in Social Darwinism, the uncertainty principle, relativity, and memes.

      It also happened with Claude Shannon's information theory which resulted in his publication of The Bandwagon (IEEE, 1956).

    1. thousands of dead

      The Chernobyl death toll has been and continues to be highly contested by scientists and politicians. As Kate Brown discusses in her book Manual for Survival, the United States and the Soviet Union alike were concerned that studying the long-term effects of continuous exposure to low-dose radiation would result in public scrutiny of nuclear weapons testing and development in general. [1] In 1990, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) sent scientists to Belarus to investigate a growing number of Chernobyl-related health claims, but the relevant records in the Institute of Radiation Medicine in Minsk were stolen, thereby interfering with this research. [1] The IAEA's studies of Chernobyl's effects depended on incomplete data and did not occur over the timespan necessary to generate a comprehensive understanding of the relationship between radiation, mortality rates, and other genetic effects. [1] For a more in-depth analysis of the history and politicization of scientific investigation of the Chernobyl catastrophe, see Manual for Survival.

      As the graphic below illustrates, estimates of Chernobyl-related deaths vary widely, due to the logistical and political barriers that have interfered with reliable scientific investigation of Chernobyl's health effects. Without studies focused on the impact of low-level radiation exposures, it is difficult to determine the degree to which radiation from Chernobyl can be held responsible for cancer rates, birth defects, and other epidemiological implications.

      Chernobyl Death Estimates

      Sources: [1] Brown, Kate. Manual for Survival: A Chernobyl Guide to the Future. W. W. Norton and Company, 2019.

      Image Credit: "Estimated number of deaths from the Chernobyl nuclear disaster, OWID." The image has not been modified in any way and falls under fair use.

  10. Jul 2023
    1. Sweden

      This line references the early detection of the Chernobyl catastrophe in Sweden. A worker at Forsmark Nuclear Power Plant in Sweden recognized that his shoes were flagged for excessively high levels of radiation. [1] After analyzing the radioactive materials and wind patterns, the Forsmark plant employees determined that the radiation came from the Chernobyl region. [1] As Swedish nuclear scientists had previously detected radiation spread from the Soviet Union's nuclear tests in the Arctic, they were equipped to locate the source of the Chernobyl radiation and alert the global community. [2] When Swedish officials asked Soviet authorities whether an accident had happened, it was initially denied until the Swedish diplomats threatened to notify the International Atomic Energy Authority. [3] According to scientific research conducted in Sweden after the disaster, the country received about 5% of the fallout from Chernobyl, which has contributed to environmental contamination and increased medical risk within the country. [4]


      [1] "Forsmark: How Sweden Alerted the World About the Danger of the Chernobyl Disaster." News: European Parliament, 15 May 2014, https://www.europarl.europa.eu/news/en/headlines/society/20140514STO47018/forsmark-how-sweden-alerted-the-world-about-the-danger-of-chernobyl-disaster.

      [2] Browne, Malcom W. "Swedes Solve a Radioactive Puzzle." The New York Times, 13 May 1986, https://www.nytimes.com/1986/05/13/science/swedes-solve-a-radioactive-puzzle.html.

      [3] "25 Years After Chernobyl, How Sweden Found Out." Radio Sweden, 31 May 2019, https://sverigesradio.se/sida/artikel.aspx?programid=2054&artikel=4468603.

      [4] Alinaghizadeh, Hassan et al. “Cancer Incidence in Northern Sweden Before and After the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident.” Radiation and Environmental Biophysics vol. 53, no. 3, 2014: pp. 495-504.

    2. Gorbachev speaks:

      This verse references Gorbachev's significantly delayed speech on television about the Chernobyl nuclear disaster, which took place on May 15, 1986. In this speech, he specifically thanked Dr. Robert Gale for his willingness to treat the victims of Chernobyl. [1] At the same time, he also condemned the United States' instrumentalization of the Chernobyl catastrophe as part of an "anti-Soviet campaign." [1] In doing so, Gorbachev drew attention to the United States' legacy of mishandling nuclear incidents within their own territory, such as the partial meltdown at Three Mile Island. [1]


      [1] "Excerpts from Gorbachev's Speech on Chernobyl Accident." The New York Times, 15 May 1986, https://www.nytimes.com/1986/05/15/world/excerpts-from-gorbachev-s-speech-on-chernobyl-accident.html.

    3. He who extinguished the reactor

      Firefighters received the highest doses of radiation from the Chernobyl accident. As Serhii Plokhy notes in Chernobyl: The History of a Nuclear Catastrophe, thirty of the sickest firefighters were evacuated from Pripyat and sent to Moscow Hospital No. 6, where they were treated by Dr. Angelina Guskova. [1] Dr. Guskova had extensive experience treating victims of previous radiation-related incidents. Despite the efforts of Guskova's team to assist these patients, 29 firefighters died of acute radiation exposure in the immediate aftermath of the disaster. [2] Additional firefighters and first responders died in the months and years following Chernobyl of radiation-related causes. [3] For more contextual information about the medical response to Chernobyl, click here.


      [1] Plokhy, Serhii. Chernobyl: The History of a Nuclear Catastrophe. Basic Books, 2018.

      [2] Ritchie, Hannah. "What was the Death Toll from Chernobyl and Fukushima?" Our World in Data, 24 July 2017, https://ourworldindata.org/what-was-the-death-toll-from-chernobyl-and-fukushima.

      [3] Lanese, Nicoletta. "The Real Chernobyl: A&A With a Radiation Exposure Expert." UCSF, 16 July 2019, https://www.ucsf.edu/news/2019/07/414976/real-chernobyl-qa-radiation-exposure-expert.

    4. parsec

      The word parsec is composed of the words parallax and arcsecond. Parsec is a unit used in astronomy to measure extraordinarily large spaces between astronomical objects outside of our Solar System. While the full explanation of this mathematical concept is beyond the scope of this project, a detailed description can be found in the source below. [1]


      [1] Bender, Stephanie. "What is a Parsec?" Universe Today, 14 November 2013, https://www.universetoday.com/32872/parsec/.

    5. sarcophagus

      Immediately after Chernobyl, workers from across the Soviet Union subjected themselves to serious radiation risk to construct a concrete "sarcophagus" around the Chernobyl reactor #4. [1] However, due to the hastiness of the construction and the materials used, the containment structure started to leak. As a result, at the 1997 G-7 Summit, the European Commission and Ukraine created a plan for the New Safe Confinement structure. This structure covers the previously constructed sarcophagus and is expected to remain intact for up to 100 years. [2]

      New Safe Containment Structure


      [1] Petryna, Adriana. “Sarcophagus: Chernobyl in Historical Light.” Cultural Anthropology, vol. 10, no. 2, 1995, pp. 196–220.

      [2] "Background on Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident." NRC Library, United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 15 August 2018, https://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/fact-sheets/chernobyl-bg.html#sarco.

      Image Credit:

      "The New Sarcophagus" by kdanecki is licensed by CC BY 2.0. The image has not been modified in any way and falls under fair use.

    6. Theophanes the Greek.

      Theophanes the Greek is known for being one of the most influential and talented icon painters in Russia. In Russian Orthodox tradition, iconography is an art form that dates back to the year 988 AD, when Prince Vladimir introduced Christianity to Kiev and to the Rus' territory. [1] Theophanes the Greek came to Novgorod and Moscow from Constantinople in the 14th century, where he quickly began to excel as an icon painter and as an illuminator of manuscripts. [1] In Russia, he mentored the great icon painter Andrei Rublev and created some of Russia's most well-known icons, such as Our Lady of the Don, which is included below and is currently featured in the Tretyakov Gallery. [2]

      As art critic Simon Morley writes, "Nearly all icons are not only anonymously painted but also based on pre-existing prototypes, which in their turn are copies of the archetype – the subject itself." [3]That is to say, icon painters must follow a strict set of rules that guide both the design and painting process and the selection of scenes that will be depicted. The individual artist is expecte to learn from and emulate the work created by others.

      To the faithful, icons are sacred because they represent a spiritual "window" to the divine. [4] Therefore, it is very important that icons highlight the eyes of the religious figures that they depict, in order to allow the worshippers to see through these portals and communicate their prayers. It is common practice to physically interact with the icons by kissing them, touching them, and lighting candles in front of them as a form of veneration. [5]

      Under Stalin, many icons were destroyed and icon-painting was outlawed as a profession to support the official policy of atheism. The Yaroslavl Restoration Committee endeavored to save as many of these icons as possible by taking them out of churches and storing them independently, many of which were returned to churches after the fall of the Soviet Union. [6]


      [1] Sevcenko, Ihor. "The Christianization of Kievan Rus'." The Polish Review, vol. 5, no. 4, 1960, pp. 29-35.

      [2] Gorbatova, Anastasia. "Theophanes the Greek, Russia's First Great Master of Religious Art," Russia Beyond, 7 January 2015, Link.

      [3] Morley, Simon. "So Real They Scratched Out Their Eyes," The Independent, 12 November 2000, https://www.independent.co.uk/incoming/so-real-they-scratched-out-their-eyes-625288.html.

      [4] "About Icons and Iconography." Museum of Russian Icons, https://www.museumofrussianicons.org/about-icons/.

      [5] Espinola, Vera Beaver-Bricken. “Russian Icons: Spiritual and Material Aspects.” Journal of the American Institute for Conservation, vol. 31, no. 1, 1992, pp. 17–22.

      [6] "Destruction of Icons." The Museum of Russian Art, https://tmora.org/currentexhibitions/online-exhibitions/transcendent-art-icons-from-yaroslavl-russia/introduction-yaroslavl-city-of-the-bear/destruction-of-icons/.

      Image Credit:

      Theophanes the Greek. Our Lady of the Don. Image in the public domain in the United States. Wikimedia Commons, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Feofan_Donskaja.jpg.

    7. Von Mekk

      Countess Nadezhda von Mekk was one of the most important patrons of the famous composer Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky. She was the widow of Karl von Mekk, who created over 14000 kilometers of railroads throughout the Russian Empire. [1]

      Nadezhda Von Mekk

      She fully funded Tchaikovsky's work for years, and they frequently exchanged deeply personal letters about art, music, and their personal lives. [1] Tchaikovsky dedicated his Fourth Symphony to her, among other works. [1] While they communicated extensively, they agreed to never meet in person. Their correspondence ended without explanation in 1890, at which point Nadezhda falsely told Tchaikovsky that she was bankrupt. There is no agreement among scholars regarding the circumstances surrounding the end of their relationship. [1]


      [1] Tommasini, Anthony. "Critic's Notebook: The Patroness Who Made Tchaikovsky Tchaikovsky." The New York Times, 2 September 1998, https://www.nytimes.com/1998/09/02/arts/critic-s-notebook-the-patroness-who-made-tchaikovsky-tchaikovsky.html.

      Image Credit:

      Music Division, The New York Public Library. "Nadezhda Filaretovna von Meck." The New York Public Library Digital Collections, http://digitalcollections.nypl.org/items/510d47e0-beb5-a3d9-e040-e00a18064a99.

      Image in the public domain.

    8. Doctor Gale

      Doctor Gale refers to the American doctor Robert Gale, who is well-known for his controversial bone marrow transplants that he performed on the most severely irradiated victims of the Chernobyl catastrophe. Doctor Gale flew to Moscow shortly after the reactor exploded. He was publicly recognized by Gorbachev for his efforts to help mitigate the health effects of the disaster. [1] That being said, Soviet doctors with extensive experience with treating radiation sickness, such as Dr. Angelina Guskova, criticized Gale for carrying out ineffective bone marrow transplants. [1]

      Prior to his involvement in Chernobyl, Gale was investigated by the government for bypassing standard protocols and treating patients with unapproved drugs without approval. [2] At Chernobyl, he used an experimental drug on his bone marrow transplant patients that was not approved for testing. He used this drug as well at a radiation accident in Brazil, where he practiced medicine on a tourist visa without having been invited by the Brazilian authorities. [2]

      As historian Serhii Plokhy writes in Chernobyl: The History of a Nuclear Catastrophe, "Gale was a messenger of hope in a world divided by Cold War rivalries, which meant that Soviet and American governments alike presented his actions as heroic. [1] Due to his political importance as a symbol of humanitarian goodwill, he was protected from serious repercussions for his alleged actions.


      [1] Plokhy, Serhii. Chernobyl: The History of a Nuclear Catastrophe. Basic Books, 2018.

      [2] Roark, Anne C. "Chernobyl 'Hero': Dr Gale – Medical Maverick." Los Angeles Times, 5 May 1988, https://www.latimes.com/archives/la-xpm-1988-05-05-mn-3615-story.html.

    9. the robot could not         shut down the troubles,

      After the explosion at Chernobyl, the Soviet government officials tried to use robots to assist with the most dangerous aspects of the radiation cleanup. [1] However, almost all of the robots could not withstand the high radiation levels on the roof of the reactor. [1] As such, thousands of conscripted soldiers and workers from all over the Soviet Union had to clear the radioactive material off of the roof of the reactor with little protective gear. [1] The image below features the Monument to Those Who Saved the World in Ukraine, which is dedicated to the firefighters and liquidators who responded to Chernobyl.


      [1] Anderson, Christopher. "Soviet Official Admits that Robots Couldn't Handle Chernobyl Cleanup." The Scientist, 19 January 1990, https://www.the-scientist.com/news/soviet-official-admits-that-robots-couldnt-handle-chernobyl-cleanup-61583.

      Image Credit:

      "Memorial to Those Who Saved the World" by Jorge Franganillo is licensed under CC BY-2.0. The image has not been modified in any way and falls under fair use.

    10. no longer have the forest nor the heavens.

      Kostenko represents Chernobyl not only as an environmental catastrophe, but also as the cause of total alienation from spirituality and heaven. It is possible to read this poem as engaging with one well-known reading of Chernobyl, which interprets the disaster as an inevitable apocalyptic moment predicted in the Book of Revelation:

      Then the third angel sounded: And a great star fell from heaven, burning like a torch, and it fell on a third of the rivers and on the springs of water. The name of the star is Wormwood. A third of the waters became wormwood, and many men died from the water, because it was made bitter. [1]

      In Ukrainian, the world "Chernobyl" is derived from two separate roots that combine to mean "black plant." The word "Chernobyl" refers to a specific species of Artemisia, which is a type of weed. [2] In English, Artemisia is translated as "wormwood," which has led many people to link the Chernobyl catastrophe to the "wormwood" mentioned in the Book of Revelation. However, as Michael Palij and William Fletcher note, "The coincidence is not quite so striking in the Ukrainian translation of the Bible, for there the name of the star is Polyn, the genus wormwood, rather than chornobyl', a species of wormwood." [2] Although the etymological relationship between Chernobyl and the Bible does not align perfectly, the religious reading of Chernobyl continues to resonate.



      [1] The Bible. King James Version. Christian Art Publishers, 2012.

      [2] Palij, Michael & William C. Fletcher. "Chornobyl: An Etymology." Ukrainian Quarterly, vol. 42 Spring-Summer 1986, p. 22-24.

      Image Credit:

      "Redstem Wormwood" by Moxxie is licensed by CC BY-SA 3.0. The image has not been modified in any way and falls under fair use.

    1. When Hermann Hesse referredto the present as "the Age of the Digest," he did not intendto say anything complimentary.
    2. we regard this disappearance as an aberration, and notas an indication of progress.

      disappearance [of education] as an...

      there's also disappearance of context of what has gone before

  11. Jun 2023
    1. 22:30 Differing environments/context matters. So before giving tricks, hacks, etc. realise that you function within a different environment.

      Historicity is a historical sibling to this: periods have different environments, and thus don't apply 1 on 1.

      But we can still learn from other other people & periods?

  12. May 2023
    1. empirical study

      This paper originated as a report on a study

    2. he hypothesis ofthe study was that differences exist in perceived motivation needs be-tween younger and older workers.

      Hypothesis/aim of the original study

    1. Get some of the lowest ad prices while protecting your brand with a system backed by Verity and Grapeshot. Rest easy that your ads will only show up where you’d like them to.

      Is there a word or phrase in the advertising space which covers the filtering out of websites and networks which have objectionable material one doesn't want their content running against?

      Contextual intelligence seems to be one...

      Apparently the platforms Verity and Grapeshot (from Oracle) protect against this.

  13. Apr 2023
    1. 1881: Railroads [Statute] Railroad companies required to furnish separate cars for colored passengers who pay first-class rates. Cars to be kept in good repair, and subject to the same rules governing other first-class cars for preventing smoking and obscene language. Penalty: If companies fail to enforce the law required to pay a forfeit of $100, half to be paid to the person suing, the other half to be paid to the state’s school fund.

      Railroads/Transportation was a big thing as I am noticing a lot of laws were becoming effective in this time frame. Although the Jim Crow Laws were to promote segregation, this law at least ensured that colored people are recieving the services at the rate they are paying. They were able to sue companies if they were treated otherwise. The cars of the trains were to be in good condition and could not be different than the cars and services for white people.

    2. The State of Tennessee enacted 20 Jim Crow laws between 1866 and 1955

      Jim Crow Laws were set into place for years 1866-1955 in the state of Tennesee. These Jim Crow Laws were laws that outlawed miscegenation, transportaion and public accomodation of black people and white people. The 1869 Law stated that no person can be excluded from recieving an education from tne University of Tennesee due to race but mandated that black people receive the same education in a separate faciliity. These Jim Crow Laws in Tennesee would last until 1955.

    1. TheSyntopicon invites the reader to make on the set whatever demands arisefrom his own problems and interests. It is constructed to enable the reader,nomatter what the stages of his reading in other ways, to find that part of theGreat Conversation in which any topic that interests him is being discussed.

      While the Syntopicon ultimately appears in book form, one must recall that it started life as a paper slip-based card index (Life v24, issue 4, 1948). This index can be queried in some of the ways one might have queried a library card catalog or more specifically the way in which Niklas Luhmann indicated that he queried his zettelkasten (Luhmann,1981). Unlike a library card catalog, The Syntopicon would not only provide a variety of entry places within the Western canon to begin their search for answers, but would provide specific page numbers and passages rather than references to entire books.

      The Syntopicon invites the reader to make on the set whatever demands arise from his own problems and interests. It is constructed to enable the reader, no matter what the stages of his reading in other ways, to find that part of the Great Conversation in which any topic that interests him is being discussed. (p. 85)

      While the search space for the Syntopicon wasn't as large as the corpus covered by larger search engines of the 21st century, the work that went into making it and the depth and focus of the sources make it a much more valuable search tool from a humanistic perspective. This work and value can also be seen in a personal zettelkasten. Some of the value appears in the form of having previously built a store of contextualized knowledge, particularly in cases where some ideas have been forgotten or not easily called to mind, which serves as a context ratchet upon which to continue exploring and building.

    1. were almost wholly conducted by women;

      Fredrick Douglas observed that the convention was ran by mostly women. He says depsite the different opinions and view points, these women maintained good decorum. He says their proceedings were marked by ability and dignity. At this convention, he would see these women read grievances and other documents setting forth the rights for women.

    2. On July 19-20, 1848, 68 women and 32 men attended the First Women’s Rights Convention which was held in the upstate New York town of Seneca Falls

      When- July 19-20th, 1848 Who- 100 people (32males/68females) Fredrick Douglas attended and wrote his impressions about the convention in a newspaper. Article named, The North Star What- Very first womens rights conventions. Article : The North Star Where- NewYork, Seneca Falls.

    1. Fredrick Douglas was one of one hundred people who attended the very first womens rights conevention. Located in New York, Seneca Falls. Frederick Douglas is the author of the article, The North Star. Dated July 28th, 1848. Article is about

  14. Mar 2023
    1. Mentioned this to someone who moved to Bushwick and kept saying "I wish more of Brooklyn was like this" with a rebuttal saying "this is why the people who made it attractive to you aren't here anymore" and got the "it's not my problem" shit. https://twitter.com/hollley/status/1641149981678530560. I think that's where being a "transplant" into a different place becomes violent - your presence IMMEDIATELY disrupts the environments you're in (and because of that, you have an obligation to minimize it as much as possible).
    1. Die schiere Menge sprengt die Möglichkeiten der Buchpublikation, die komplexe, vieldimensionale Struktur einer vernetzten Informationsbasis ist im Druck nicht nachzubilden, und schließlich fügt sich die Dynamik eines stetig wachsenden und auch stetig zu korrigierenden Materials nicht in den starren Rhythmus der Buchproduktion, in der jede erweiterte und korrigierte Neuauflage mit unübersehbarem Aufwand verbunden ist. Eine Buchpublikation könnte stets nur die Momentaufnahme einer solchen Datenbank, reduziert auf eine bestimmte Perspektive, bieten. Auch das kann hin und wieder sehr nützlich sein, aber dadurch wird das Problem der Publikation des Gesamtmaterials nicht gelöst.

      link to https://hypothes.is/a/U95jEs0eEe20EUesAtKcuA

      Is this phenomenon of "complex narratives" related to misinformation spread within the larger and more complex social network/online network? At small, local scales, people know how to handle data and information which is locally contextualized for them. On larger internet-scale communication social platforms this sort of contextualization breaks down.

      For a lack of a better word for this, let's temporarily refer to it as "complex narratives" to get a handle on it.

    2. Dass das ägyptische Wort p.t (sprich: pet) "Himmel" bedeutet, lernt jeder Ägyptologiestudent im ersten Semester. Die Belegsammlung im Archiv des Wörterbuches umfaßt ca. 6.000 Belegzettel. In der Ordnung dieses Materials erfährt man nun, dass der ägyptische Himmel Tore und Wege hat, Gewässer und Ufer, Seiten, Stützen und Kapellen. Damit wird greifbar, dass der Ägypter bei dem Wort "Himmel" an etwas vollkommen anderes dachte als der moderne westliche Mensch, an einen mythischen Raum nämlich, in dem Götter und Totengeister weilen. In der lexikographischen Auswertung eines so umfassenden Materials geht es also um weit mehr als darum, die Grundbedeutung eines banalen Wortes zu ermitteln. Hier entfaltet sich ein Ausschnitt des ägyptischen Weltbildes in seinem Reichtum und in seiner Fremdheit; und naturgemäß sind es gerade die häufigen Wörter, die Schlüsselbegriffe der pharaonischen Kultur bezeichnen. Das verbreitete Mißverständnis, das Häufige sei uninteressant, stellt die Dinge also gerade auf den Kopf.

      Google translation:

      Every Egyptology student learns in their first semester that the Egyptian word pt (pronounced pet) means "heaven". The collection of documents in the dictionary archive comprises around 6,000 document slips. In the order of this material one learns that the Egyptian heaven has gates and ways, waters and banks, sides, pillars and chapels. This makes it tangible that the Egyptians had something completely different in mind when they heard the word "heaven" than modern Westerners do, namely a mythical space in which gods and spirits of the dead dwell.

      This is a fantastic example of context creation for a dead language as well as for creating proper historical context.

    3. Die Auswertung solcher Materialmengen erwies sich als prekär, und im Falle der häufigsten Wörter, z.B. mancher Präpositionen (allein das Wort m "in" ist über 60.000 Mal belegt) oder elementarer Verben mußte man vor den Schwierigkeiten kapitulieren und das Material aussondern.

      The preposition m "in" appears more than 60,000 times in the corpus, a fact which becomes a bit overwhelming to analyze.

    4. Auch das grammatische Verhalten eines Wortes nach Flexion und Rektion ist der Sammlung vollständig zu entnehmen. Und schließlich und vor allen Dingen lag hier der Schlüssel zur Bestimmung der Wortbedeutungen. Statt jeweils ad hoc durch Konjekturen einzelne Textstellen spekulativ zu deuten (das Raten, von dem Erman endlich wegkommen wollte), erlaubte es der Vergleich der verschiedenen Zusammenhänge, in denen ein Wort vorkam, seine Bedeutung durch systematische Eingrenzug zu fixieren oder doch wenigstens anzunähern. Auch in dieser Hinsicht hat sich das Zettelarchiv im Sinne seines Erstellungszwecks hervorragend bewährt.

      The benefit of creating such a massive key word in context index for the Wörterbuch der ägyptischen Sprache meant that instead of using an ad hoc translation method (guessing based on limited non-cultural context) for a language, which was passingly familiar, but not their mother tongue, Adolph Erman and others could consult a multitude of contexts for individual words and their various forms to provide more global context for better translations.

      Other dictionaries like the Oxford English Dictionary attempt to help do this as well as provide the semantic shift of words over time because the examples used in creating the dictionary include historical examples from various contexts.

    5. Dem Konzept nach ist dies ein key word in context (KWIC) Index, ein Typus von Indices, wie sie heute immer noch als Grundoperation der Textdatenverarbeitung erzeugt werden.

      The method used for indexing the Wörterbuch der ägyptischen Sprache and the Thesaurus Linguae Latinae is now generally known as a key word in context (KWIC) index.

    1. Instructive quotations: Who doesn’t love a great quote? And quotations can work very well in a media environment that privileges brevity and catchiness. On the surface, the words of a past leader might seem explanatory for a topical news story, but dig a little deeper into the quote’s original setting, and the particularities—who said it, when, and for what purpose—might make the saying less apt.

      Often instructive quotations aren't appropriate for the current situation because they have been stripped of their original context which doesn't apply to the new situation in which it is being used.

  15. Feb 2023
    1. Part 1: What Do We Need? Denote as a Zettelkasten, 2023. https://share.tube/w/mu7fMr5RWMqetcZRXutSGF.

      It starts and ends with Denote, but has an excellent overview of the folgezettel debate (or should one use Luhmann-esque identifiers within their digital zettelkasten system?)

      Some of the tension within the folgezettel debate comes down to those who might prefer more refined evergreen (reusable) notes in many contexts, or those who have potentially shorter notes that fit within a train of thought (folgezettel) which helps to add some of the added context.

      The difference is putting in additional up-front work to more heavily decontextualize excerpts and make them reusable in more contexts, which has an uncertain future payoff versus doing a bit less contextualization as the note will speak to it's neighbors as a means of providing some of this context. With respect to reusing a note in a written work, one is likely to remove their notes and their neighbors to provide this context when needed for writing.

      (apparently I didn't save this note when I watched it prior to number 2, blech....)

    1. Aesopian language is a means of communication with the intent to convey a concealed meaning to informed members of a conspiracy or underground movement, whilst simultaneously maintaining the guise of an innocent meaning to outsiders.


      Parents often use variations of double entendre to communicate between each other with out children understanding while present.

      It's also likely that Indigenous elders may use this sort of communication with uninitiated members nearby.

  16. Jan 2023
    1. Semantic change   Change in a word's meaning over time or other dimensions. Klein measures semantic change for a given word by tracking: 1) the words that appear alongside it (i.e., the word's context), and 2) the year in which the word was published. This approach assumes that semantics, or meaning, of a word can be inferred from the context in which that word appears.
    1. when the train was stopped, and the rioters cameaboard

      Cultural context



    1. 个人学习可能取决于他人行为的主张突出了将学习环境视为一个涉及多个互动参与者的系统的重要性
    1. All that remained was the small matter of actually writing the chapter. I don’t do this in Obsidian: I think it would be asking for trouble to mix notes and their end-products in the same place.

      I've not seen this explicitly laid out as advice before though in most contexts people's note taking spaces have historically been divorced from their writing spaces for publication because slips and notes are usually kept physically separate from the working spaces or finished parts, but Richard Carter specifically separates the digital spaces in which he takes his notes and then uses them for creating end products. While he could both take notes in Obsidian, his tool of choice for notes, as well as write his finished pieces there, he actively changes contexts to use a different digital app to compose his notes into final pieces.

      What affordances does this context shift provide? <br /> - blank slate may encourage reworking and expansion of original notes - is there a blank slate effect and what would it entail? - potentially moves the piece into a longer format space or tool which provides additional writing, formatting or other affordances (which? there don't seem to be any in this case aside from a potential "distraction free mode" which may tend to force one to focus only on the piece at hand rather than the thousands of other pieces (notes) hiding within the app)

      What affordances does this remove?<br /> - He's forced to repeat himself (cut & paste / DRY violation)

      Is it easier or harder (from a time/effort perspective) to provide citations with such a workflow? Carter does indicate that for him:

      Having links to original sources in my outline makes the compilation of references for the chapter far easier than it used to be.

    1. Another problem arises from the very nature of documentary material astexts not written for posterity. When reading Geniza letters, one is often in theposition of an uninvited guest at a social event, that is, someone who is unfa-miliar with the private codes and customs shared by the inner circle. Writersoften do not bother to explain themselves in a complete manner when they

      know that the recipient is already familiar with the subject. 17

      17 Indeed, writers often used this shared understanding to stress the relationship they had with the recipients.

  17. Dec 2022
    1. The Gish gallop /ˈɡɪʃ ˈɡæləp/ is a rhetorical technique in which a person in a debate attempts to overwhelm their opponent by providing an excessive number of arguments with no regard for the accuracy or strength of those arguments. In essence, it is prioritizing quantity of one's arguments at the expense of quality of said arguments. The term was coined in 1994 by anthropologist Eugenie Scott, who named it after American creationist Duane Gish and argued that Gish used the technique frequently when challenging the scientific fact of evolution.[1][2] It is similar to another debating method called spreading, in which one person speaks extremely fast in an attempt to cause their opponent to fail to respond to all the arguments that have been raised.

      I'd always known this was a thing, but didn't have a word for it.

  18. Nov 2022
    1. a more nuanced view of context.

      Almost every new technology goes through a moral panic phase where the unknown is used to spawn potential backlashes against it. Generally these disappear with time and familiarity with the technology.

      Bicycles cause insanity, for example...

      Why does medicine and vaccines not follow more of this pattern? Is it lack of science literacy in general which prevents it from becoming familiar for some?

    1. Systematic skimming, in other words,anticipates the comprehension of a book's structure.

      also includes opening oneself up to open questions one might either ask themselves or those which the author proposes.

    2. You will be surprised to find out howmuch time you will save, pleased to see how much more youwill grasp, and relieved to discover how much easier it all canbe than you supposed.

      The authors don't cover it, but the skimming portion of inspectional reading helps one to build some of the context which the author is attempting to relay. Preloading some of this context will decrease one's mental burden when more deeply and actively attempting to consume a text.

    1. One of the big lies notetakers tell themselves is, “I will remember why I liked this quote/story/fact/etc.”

      Take notes for your most imperfect, forgetful future self. You're assuredly not only not going to remember either the thing you are taking notes for in the first place, but you're highly unlikely to remember why you thought it was interesting or intriguing or that clever thing you initially thought of at the same time.

      Capture all of this quickly in the moment, particularly the interesting links to other things in your repository of notes. These ideas will be incredibly difficult, if not impossible, for one to remember.

  19. Oct 2022
    1. Hethus followed, over a wider range of data than any one man couldhope to use fully, the advice that he sometimes gave in reviews,that a historian should work fully through the background material.

      Frederic L. Paxson frequently advised that a historian should work fully through the background material.

    1. It is only too easy to misapply excerpted passages by taking them out of their original context. Ideally, I should have followed the technique, recommended as long ago as 1615 by the learned Jesuit Francesco Sacchini, of always making two sets of notes, one to be sliced up and filed, the other to be kept in its original form.

      Francesco Sacchini advised in 1615 that one should make two sets of notes: one to be cut up and filed, and the other kept in it's original form so as to keep the full context of the original author's context.

      This is broadly one of the values of note taking in Hypothes.is. One can take broader excerpts of an authors' works as well as maintain links for fuller context to reconsult, but still have the shorter excerpts as well as one's own notes.

    1. here are several ways I havefound useful to invite the sociological imagination:

      C. Wright Mills delineates a rough definition of "sociological imagination" which could be thought of as a framework within tools for thought: 1. Combinatorial creativity<br /> 2. Diffuse thinking, flâneur<br /> 3. Changing perspective (how would x see this?) Writing dialogues is a useful method to accomplish this. (He doesn't state it, but acting as a devil's advocate is a useful technique here as well.)<br /> 4. Collecting and lay out all the multiple viewpoints and arguments on a topic. (This might presume the method of devil's advocate I mentioned above 😀)<br /> 5. Play and exploration with words and terms<br /> 6. Watching levels of generality and breaking things down into smaller constituent parts or building blocks. (This also might benefit of abstracting ideas from one space to another.)<br /> 7. Categorization or casting ideas into types 8. Cross-tabulating and creation of charts, tables, and diagrams or other visualizations 9. Comparative cases and examples - finding examples of an idea in other contexts and time settings for comparison and contrast 10. Extreme types and opposites (or polar types) - coming up with the most extreme examples of comparative cases or opposites of one's idea. (cross reference: Compass Points https://hypothes.is/a/Di4hzvftEeyY9EOsxaOg7w and thinking routines). This includes creating dimensions of study on an object - what axes define it? What indices can one find data or statistics on? 11. Create historical depth - examples may be limited in number, so what might exist in the historical record to provide depth.

  20. Sep 2022
    1. “I think it’s such a fascinating story,” Martin said. He also appreciated collecting in an area where there wasn’t a huge amount of established scholarship. “It’s fun to have something to study, to try to understand, to apply your critical eye to without any outside pressure,” he added. “There’s not a lot of promotion about [these] artists. You just have to find it out yourself.”

      Reading and studying it all without any regard to the Indigenous culture. Steve Martin is using Western perspectives to attempt to understand non-Western art which has a different basis.

    1. For the great enemy of the truth is very often not the lie–deliberate,contrived, and dishonest–but the myth–persistent, persuasive, and unrealistic.Too often we hold fast to the clichés of our forebears. We subject all facts toa prefabricated set of interpretations. We enjoy the comfort of opinionwithout the discomfort of thought.Former U.S. President John F. Kennedy, Commencement Address at YaleUniversity, June 11, 1962.
    1. https://danmackinlay.name/about.html

      Dan MacKinlay provides indicators of his uncertainty, usefulness, "roughness", and "novelty" about things he writes about on his website to give readers some additional context about what he's writing about.

    1. I think that’s the biggest thing that I take from this: any text should at least hint at the rich tapestry of things it is resulting from, if not directly discuss it or link to it. A tapestry not just made from other texts, but other actions taken (things created, data collected, tools made or adapted), and people (whose thoughts you build on, whose behaviour you observe and adopt, who you interact with outside of the given text). Whether it’s been GPT-3 generated or not, that holds.

      Useful and likely human written texts show the richness of the context it results from, by showing and linking. Not just to/with 1) other texts, but also 2) other actions (things created, data gathering, experiments, tools adapted) and 3) people (that provided input, you look at, interact with outside the text). Even if such things were generated following up those leads should show its inauthenticity.

    2. No proof of work (to borrow a term) other than that the words have been written is conveyed by the text. No world behind the text, of which the text is a resulting expression. No examples that suggest or proof the author tried things out, looked things up. Compare that to the actual posting

      A text is a result of work, next to itself being work to write it. A text that does not show any of the work that led to writing a text is suspect. Does a text reflect an exploration that it annotates? Does it show social connections, include data points, external examples, artefacts created alongside the text (e.g. lists), references to the wider context/system of what the text discusses, experimental actions.

    1. Therefore, since women will eventually be forced to demand Congressional action in order toequalize the rights of men and women, why not take such action now and thus shorten and ease theprocess?

      She explains how if the rights of men and women will be equal at some point due to specific demands, why can't they fight for equal rights now?

  21. Aug 2022
    1. The History of Our Country and the Theory of Our Government. Ours is a nation born of revolution; ofrebellion against a system of government so securely entrenched in the customs and traditions ofhuman society that in 1776 it seemed impregnable. From the beginning of things nations had beenruled by kings and for kings, while the people served and paid the cost. The American Revolutionistsboldly proclaimed there heresies:

      In this paragraph, context is seen throughout it. The author speaks about how the nation was born, by revolution. Fought about the mistreatment of people under the king's rule.

    1. from primarysources rather than from secondary works. Always give, inn footnote, the exact citation of volume and page of the au-thority quoted. Verify quotations carefully in every detail.A quotation should never be wrenched from its context insuch a way a5 to d o violence or injustice to the views of itswriter.
    2. The bibliography should be placed nextafter the ta&e of contents, because the instructor alwayswishes to examine it before reading the text of the essay.

      Surprising! particularly since they traditionally come at the end.

      Though for teaching purposes, I can definitely see a professor wanting it up front. I also frequently skim through bibliographies before starting reading works now, though I didn't do this in the past. Reading a bibliography first is an excellent way to establish common context with an author however.

    3. Perspectiae and continuity. Correct perspective is es-sential t o sound critical malysis and interpretation. Thehistorical writer must always keep the time element clearlyin mind, and must recognize that an estimate of any histori-cal ersonage or event is determined in no small measureby t1e time or the conditions under which the person livedor the event occurred
    1. The real issue with "learning in public" is them emphasis placed on "being an expert," which is *everywhere*. It's a capitalist mindset, convincing people that even as beginners they should consider themselves "experts" bc this is how you get exposure aka how u scale.

      The public online commons, by means of context collapse, allows people to present themselves as experts within an area without actually being experts.

      Some of these "experts" or "gurus" primarily have expertise in communication or promoting themselves or a small piece of a topic about which they know a little more than the average public.

    1. If you're using JavaScript for writing to a HTML Attribute, look at the .setAttribute and [attribute] methods which will automatically HTML Attribute Encode. Those are Safe Sinks as long as the attribute name is hardcoded and innocuous, like id or class.
    2. If you're using JavaScript for writing to HTML, look at the .textContent attribute as it is a Safe Sink and will automatically HTML Entity Encode.
    1. Come back and read these particular texts, but these look interesting with respect to my work on orality, early "religion", secrecy, and information spread:<br /> - Ancient practices removed from their lineage lose their meaning - In spiritual practice, secrecy can be helpful but is not always necessary


    1. But commission member Kondratiuk, a heraldic expert who served as a military historian for the National Guard and US Army for more than four decades, said such objections are “a misreading of the heraldry.”“That’s the arm of God protecting the Commonwealth,” he said, referring to the upraised sword. “That symbol has been used in European heraldry for hundreds of years.”He added that the Native figure’s downward-facing arrow indicates “peaceful intent.”“The Native American on there is an homage to the Native Americans,” Kondratiuk said, adding he “voted with the pack” to see what recommendations the commission would produce. As for the motto: “That’s an allusion to the monarch,” he continued. “The Founding Fathers would have been very familiar with that.”

      Example of how older traditions have passed from memory and are now re-read (mis-read) in new contexts.

  22. Jul 2022
    1. The effortinvolved in writing a note in their own words, whichinstructional designers like to call a “desirable difficulty”helps shift the idea from short-term to long-termmemory (this is the same reason many note-makers areshifting back to hand-writing on cards rather thandepending on automated apps)

      The work of writing things down or transforming them into pictures, diagrams, song, art, other creates a context shift in the material which requires greater engagement within the brain and may help to improve understanding.

      Compare/contrast the ideas of context shifting with desirable difficulty.

      Note that this use of "context shifting" (within the pedagogy space) is dramatically different to that used by people like Cal Newport and others (within the productivity space).

    2. It’s probably useful to know, however, thatwhen we are hyper-focused and looking for that needleof data, we may be missing something else that might bevaluable in the haystack. That’s not necessarily a problem— we’re usually not planning to burn the haystack afterwe find the needle. We can always return to see whatelse the author might have had to say about other topics.Some of them might be adjacent to the needle topic,others could take us in entirely different directions.

      Sometimes, though more rarely, the balance of a text may dramatically shift the ideas and context in which a particular idea is embedded.

    3. We read different texts for different reasons, regardlessof the subject.

      A useful analogy here might be the idea of having a conversation with a text. Much the way you'd have dramatically different conversations with your family versus your friends, your teachers, or a stranger in line at the store, you'll approach each particular in a different way based on the various contexts in which both they exist and the contexts which you bring to them.

    4. “blank slates”
    5. . I thinkit’s often an issue for people when they first become note-makers: an anxiety about getting the “right” stuff out ofa book, or even “all the stuff”. I don’t think this iscompletely possible, and I think it’s increasingly lesspossible, the better the book.

      In the 1400s-1600s it was a common desire to excerpt all the value of books and attempts were made, though ultimately futile. This seems to be a commonly occurring desire.

      Often having a simple synopsis and notes isn't as useful as it may not spark the same sort of creativity and juxtaposition of ideas a particular reader might have had with their own context.

      Some have said that "content is king". I've previously thought that "context is king". Perhaps content and context end up ruling as joint monarchs.

    1. Ein grofer Teil der Regestenarbeit wird neuerdings demForscher durch besondere Regestenwerke abgenommen, nament-lich auf dem Gebiet der mittelalterlichen Urkunden. Daf diesebevorzugt werden, hat zwei Griinde: erstens sind die Urkundenfur die Geschichte des Mittelalters gewissermafen als festesGerippe von besonderer Wichtigkeit; zweitens sind sie so ver.streut in ihren Fund- und Druckorten, da8 die Zusammen-stellung derselben, wie sie ftir jede Arbeit von neuem erforder-lich wire, immer von neuem die langwierigsten und mtthsamstenVorarbeiten n&tig machen wiirde. Es ist daher von griéStemNutzen, da8 diese Vorarbeiten ein fir allemal gemacht und demeinzelnen Forscher erspart werden.

      Ein großer Teil der Regestenarbeit wird neuerdings dem Forscher durch besondere Regestenwerke abgenommen, namentlich auf dem Gebiet der mittelalterlichen Urkunden. Daß diese bevorzugt werden, hat zwei Gründe: erstens sind die Urkunden fur die Geschichte des Mittelalters gewissermafen als festes Gerippe von besonderer Wichtigkeit; zweitens sind sie so verstreut in ihren Fund- und Druckorten, daß die Zusammenstellung derselben, wie sie ftir jede Arbeit von neuem erforderlich wire, immer von neuem die langwierigsten und mtthsamsten Vorarbeiten nötig machen würde. Es ist daher von größtem Nutzen, daß diese Vorarbeiten ein fir allemal gemacht und dem einzelnen Forscher erspart werden.

      Google translation:

      A large part of the regesta work has recently been relieved of the researcher by special regesta works, especially in the field of medieval documents. There are two reasons why these are preferred: first, the documents are of particular importance for the history of the Middle Ages as a solid skeleton; Secondly, they are so scattered in the places where they were found and printed that the compilation of them, as would be necessary for each new work, would again and again necessitate the most lengthy and laborious preparatory work. It is therefore of the greatest benefit that this preparatory work should be done once and for all and that the individual researcher be spared.

      While the contexts are mixed here between note taking and historical method, there is some useful advice here that while taking notes, one should do as much work upfront during the research phase of reading and writing, so that when it comes to the end of putting the final work together and editing, the writer can be spared the effort of reloading large amounts of data and context to create the final output.

    1. At the same time, like Harold, I’ve realised that it is important to do things, to keep blogging and writing in this space. Not because of its sheer brilliance, but because most of it will be crap, and brilliance will only occur once in a while. You need to produce lots of stuff to increase the likelihood of hitting on something worthwile. Of course that very much feeds the imposter cycle, but it’s the only way. Getting back into a more intensive blogging habit 18 months ago, has helped me explore more and better. Because most of what I blog here isn’t very meaningful, but needs to be gotten out of the way, or helps build towards, scaffolding towards something with more meaning.

      Many people treat their blogging practice as an experimental thought space. They try out new ideas, explore a small space, attempt to come to understanding, connect new ideas to their existing ideas.

      Ton Zylstra coins/uses the phrase "metablogging" to think about his blogging practice as an evolving thought space.

      How can we better distill down these sorts of longer ideas and use them to create more collisions between ideas to create new an innovative ideas? What forms might this take?

      The personal zettelkasten is a more concentrated form of this and blogging is certainly within the space as are the somewhat more nascent digital gardens. What would some intermediary "idea crucible" between these forms look like in public that has a simple but compelling interface. How much storytelling and contextualization is needed or not needed to make such points?

      Is there a better space for progressive summarization here so that an idea can be more fully laid out and explored? Then once the actual structure is built, the scaffolding can be pulled down and only the idea remains.

      Reminiscences of scaffolding can be helpful for creating context.

      Consider the pyramids of Giza and the need to reverse engineer how they were built. Once the scaffolding has been taken down and history forgets the methods, it's not always obvious what the original context for objects were, how they were made, what they were used for. Progressive summarization may potentially fall prey to these effects as well.

      How might we create a "contextual medium" which is more permanently attached to ideas or objects to help prevent context collapse?

      How would this be applied in reverse to better understand sites like Stonehenge or the hundreds of other stone circles, wood circles, and standing stones we see throughout history.

  23. Local file Local file
    1. 'I don't think it's anything—I mean, I don't think it was ever put to anyuse. That's what I like about it. It's a little chunk of history that they'veforgotten to alter. It's a message from a hundred years ago, if one knew howto read it.'

      Walter and Julia are examining a glass paperweight in George Orwell's 1984 without having context of what it is or for what it was used.

      This is the same sort of context collapse caused by distance in time and memory that archaeologists face when examining found objects.

      How does one pull out the meaning from such distant objects in an exegetical way? How can we more reliably rebuild or recreate lost contexts?

      Link to: - Stonehenge is a mnemonic device - mnemonic devices in archaeological contexts (Neolithic carved stone balls

      Some forms of orality-based methods and practices can be viewed as a method of "reading" physical objects.

      Ideograms are an evolution on the spectrum from orality to literacy.

      It seems odd to be pulling these sorts of insight out my prior experiences and reading while reading something so wholly "other". But isn't this just what "myths" in oral cultures actually accomplish? We link particular ideas to pieces of story, song, art, and dance so that they may be remembered. In this case Orwell's glass paperweight has now become a sort of "talking rock" for me. Certainly it isn't done in any sort of sense that Orwell would have expected, presumed, or even intended.

  24. Jun 2022
    1. send off your draft or beta orproposal for feedback. Share this Intermediate Packet with a friend,family member, colleague, or collaborator; tell them that it’s still awork-in-process and ask them to send you their thoughts on it. Thenext time you sit down to work on it again, you’ll have their input andsuggestions to add to the mix of material you’re working with.

      A major benefit of working in public is that it invites immediate feedback (hopefully positive, constructive criticism) from anyone who might be reading it including pre-built audiences, whether this is through social media or in a classroom setting utilizing discussion or social annotation methods.

      This feedback along the way may help to further find flaws in arguments, additional examples of patterns, or links to ideas one may not have considered by themselves.

      Sadly, depending on your reader's context and understanding of your work, there are the attendant dangers of context collapse which may provide or elicit the wrong sorts of feedback, not to mention general abuse.

    2. • Write down ideas for next steps: At the end of a worksession, write down what you think the next steps could be forthe next one.• Write down the current status: This could include your currentbiggest challenge, most important open question, or futureroadblocks you expect.• Write down any details you have in mind that are likely tobe forgotten once you step away: Such as details about thecharacters in your story, the pitfalls of the event you’re planning,or the subtle considerations of the product you’re designing.• Write out your intention for the next work session: Set anintention for what you plan on tackling next, the problem youintend to solve, or a certain milestone you want to reach.

      A lot of this is geared toward the work of re-contextualizing one's work and projects.

      Why do all this extra work instead of frontloading it? Here again is an example of more work in comparison to zettelkasten...

    1. The major issue with much of the data that can be downloaded from web portals or through APIs is that they come without context or metadata. If you are lucky you might get a paragraph about where the data are from or a data dictionary that describes what each column in a particular spreadsheet means. But more often than not, you get something that looks like figure 6.3.

      I think that the reason behind data's lack of context is the reluctance in making extra column for data's description and the inconsiderate and misleading vision that those in technologies hold when they put forth that data should be clean and concise.

      I encountered the insufficient provision of data multiple times and I found it extremely inconvenient when trying to use downloaded online reports and attached them to my work experiences as a way to illustrate the efficient changes in driving audiences for a social media platform (Facebook). I used to help run an facebook page for a student organization. After being done with the role, I went to the "Insights" section of Facebook, hoping to download the report of increases in Page Likes, Visits, and Interactions during the period that I was an admin of the page. It took me several glitches to download the report (because it was a year-long term). When the pdf file was ready to be viewed, I was surprised, because they did not mention the years I was working, the name of the student organization, and other categorizations that should have been highlighted. Apparently, it's not hard to include the years or even the name because they were included in the filter when I wanted to extract certain part of the report and because it was the source where they took the data from, respectively. This laziness in showing competent data for analysis was desperate, and I had to add extra analysis to it. Even after I finished with the "extra work", I started to question to validity of the report I was downloading. Would it be trustworthy anymore, because without my clarification, no analysis could be made even by a person involved in data science field. Even if they could, it would take them a while to collect other external information before making clear of the data presented to them.

      Understanding and constantly being bothered by this ongoing problem gives me justification to call for a more thorough data translation and presentation process. More questions should be raised and answered regarding what might a user wonder about this dataset when encountering it.

    1. The first is: always take notes inyour own words-I mean, of course, facts an1 ideas garneredfrom elsewhere, not statements to be quoted verbatim. The titleof a book, an important phrase or remark, you will copy as theystand. But everything else you reword, for two reasons: in thateffort the fact or idea passes through your mind, instead of goingfrom the page to your eye and thence to your note while you remainin a trance. Again, by rewording you mix something of yourthought with the acquired datum, and the admixture is the be-ginning of your own thought-and-writing about the whole topic.Naturally you take care not to distort. But you will find that notestaken under this safeguard are much closer to you than meretranscripts from other books; they are warm and speak to youlike old friends, becau se by your act of thought they have be-come pieces of your mind.

      Barzun analogies notes as "old friends". He, like many others, encourages note takers to put ideas into their own words.

    1. Conclusion There are decades of history and a broad cast of characters behind the web requests you know and love—as well as the ones that you might have never heard of. Information first traveled across the internet in 1969, followed by a lot of research in the ’70s, then private networks in the ’80s, then public networks in the ’90s. We got CORBA in 1991, followed by SOAP in 1999, followed by REST around 2003. GraphQL reimagined SOAP, but with JSON, around 2015. This all sounds like a history class fact sheet, but it’s valuable context for building our own web apps.
  25. May 2022
    1. The last element in his file system was an index, from which hewould refer to one or two notes that would serve as a kind of entrypoint into a line of thought or topic.

      Indices are certainly an old construct. One of the oldest structured examples in the note taking space is that of John Locke who detailed it in Méthode nouvelle de dresser des recueils (1685), later translated into English as A New Method of Organizing Common Place Books (1706).

      Previously commonplace books had been structured with headwords done alphabetically. This meant starting with a preconceived structure and leaving blank or empty space ahead of time without prior knowledge of what would fill it or how long that might take. By turning that system on its head, one could fill a notebook from front to back with a specific index of the headwords at the end. Then one didn't need to do the same amount of pre-planning or gymnastics over time with respect to where to put their notes.

      This idea combined with that of Konrad Gessner's design for being able to re-arrange slips of paper (which later became index cards based on an idea by Carl Linnaeus), gives us an awful lot of freedom and flexibility in almost any note taking system.

      Building blocks of the note taking system

      • atomic ideas
      • written on (re-arrangeable) slips, cards, or hypertext spaces
      • cross linked with each other
      • cross linked with an index
      • cross linked with references

      are there others? should they be broken up differently?

      Godfathers of Notetaking

      • Aristotle, Cicero (commonplaces)
      • Seneca the Younger (collecting and reusing)
      • Raymond Llull (combinatorial rearrangements)
      • Konrad Gessner (storage for re-arrangeable slips)
      • John Locke (indices)
      • Carl Linnaeus (index cards)