46 Matching Annotations
  1. Dec 2023
  2. Oct 2023
    1. We believe that contact comfort has long served the animal kingdom as a motivating agent for affectional responses. Since at the present time we have no experimental data to substantiate this position, we supply information which must be accepted, if at all, on the basis of face validity

      The authors acknowledge that there is currently insufficient experimental evidence to support their theory that contact comfort acts as a motivator for affectionate reactions. They argue that this view is founded on face validity, which is the idea that it makes sense in light of the information that is now available. Put another way, by presenting their argument as a hypothesis that needs more research, the writers are admitting that they do not yet have sufficient data to back it up.

    2. We were not surprised to discover that contact comfort was an important basic affectional or love variable, but we did not expect it to overshadow so completely the variable of nursing; indeed; indeed, the disparity is so great as to suggest that the primary function of nursing as an affectional variable is that of insuring frequent and intimate body contact of the infant with the mother. Certainly, man cannot live by milk alone. Love is an emotion that does not need to be bottle- or spoon-fed, and we may be sure that there is nothing to be gained by giving lip service to love.

      This paragraph emphasizes how especially important contact comfort is. The author states that milk alone is not enough, referring to the fact that simply nutritional sustenance is not adequate to achieve the best results for development. In sum, this passage is significant in the history of psychology for challenging conventional notions about the primary needs of infants and the nature of love and attachment. It has contributed to a deeper understanding of the critical role of emotional bonding, contact comfort, and affection in child development

    3. We produced a perfectly proportioned, streamlined body stripped of unnecessary bulges and appendices. Redundancy in the surrogate mother's system was avoided by reducing the number of breasts from two to one and placing this unibreast in an upper-thoracic, sagittal position, thus maximizing the natural and known perceptual-motor capabilities of the infant operator. The surrogate was made from a block of wood, covered with sponge rubber, and sheathed in tan cotton terry cloth. A light bulb behind her radiated heat. The result was a mother, soft, warm, and tender, a mother with infinite patience, a mother available twenty-four hours a day, a mother that never scolded her infant and never struck or bit her baby in anger.

      This excerpt explains how a surrogate mother for newborn and infant monkeys is designed. They clarify that the goal of the design was to optimize the infant operator's perceptual-motor abilities. The surrogate mother was constructed from a wooden block coated in terry fabric and sponge rubber. The authors stress that by only having one breast and placing it in an upper-thoracic, sagittal position, redundancy in the surrogate mother's system was avoided. The goal of this design was to give the monkeys a dependable, steady source of comfort and stimulation.

    4. At this point we decided to study the development of affectional responses of neonatal and infant monkeys to an artificial, inanimate mother, and so we built a surrogate mother which we hoped and believed would be a good surrogate mother. In devising this surrogate mother we were dependent neither upon the capriciousness of evolutionary processes nor upon mutations produced by chance radioactive fallout.

      The authors explain how they chose to use an artificial mother as a surrogate in order to investigate how affectionate reactions develop in newborn and young monkeys. The intention was to replace the unpredictable nature of a natural mother's behavior with a predictable and regulated stimulus. The surrogate mother was purposefully created, according to the authors, and did not arise from random mutations or organic evolutionary processes.

    5. We had also discovered during some allied observational studies that a baby monkey raised on a bare wire-mesh cage floor survives with difficulty, if at all, during the first five days of life. If a wire-mesh cone is introduced, the baby does better; and, if the cone is covered with terry cloth, husky, healthy, happy babies evolve. It takes more than a baby and a box to make a normal monkey. We were impressed by the possibility that, above and beyond the bubbling fountain of breast or bottle, contact comfort might be a very important variable in the development of the infant's affection for the mother.

      Though draconic by todays standards, this passage is significant regarding history of psychology because it marked a pivotal moment in understanding the importance of contact comfort and the early environment in the development of affection and attachment. It likely had an important impact on the study of attachment theory and child development, with relevance not only to animal behavior but also to human psychology and caregiving practices.

    6. Three years' experimentation before we started our studies on affection gave us experience with the neonatal monkey. We had separated more than 60 of these animals from their mothers 6 to 12 hours after birth and suckled them on tiny bottles. The infant mortality was only a small fraction of what would have obtained had we let the monkey mothers raise their infants. Our bottle-fed babies were healthier and heavier than monkey-mother-reared infants. We know that we are better monkey mothers than are real monkey mothers thanks to synthetic diets, vitamins, iron extracts, penicillin, chloromycetin, 5% glucose, and constant, tender, loving care.

      This passage demonstrates the historical evolution of psychological research methods and particularly in the study of attachment and affection. It reflects a time when experiments involving the separation of infant animals from their mothers were conducted to investigate the impact of different nurturing conditions, showing the importance of care, nutrition, and attachment on early development.

    7. Oddly enough, one of the few psychologists who took a position counter to modern psychological dogma was John B. Watson, who believed that love was an innate emotion elicited by cutaneous stimulation of the erogenous zones. But experimental psychologists, with their peculiar propensity to discover facts that are not true, brushed this theory aside by demonstrating that the human neonate had no differentiable emotions, and they established a fundamental psychological law that prophets are without honor in their own profession.

      Here the author highlights the actions of John B Watson, contrasting the typical ideas or approach of the time with a more rationalistic view that love is in fact an innate emotion humans are born with as opposed to an empiricists view that it must be learned through experience.

    8. The apparent repression of love by modem psychologists stands in sharp contrast with the attitude taken by many famous and normal people. The word "love" has the highest reference frequency of any word cited in Bartlett's book of Familiar Quotations. It would appear that this emotion has long had a vast interest and fascination for human beings, regardless of the attitude taken by psychologists; but the quotations cited, even by famous and normal people, have a mundane redundancy. These authors and authorities have stolen love from the child and infant and made it the exclusive property of the adolescent and adult.

      This section has the author note how despite the presence of love being recognized on a wide scale in everything from literature to notorious people, its complexity and origin have not been explored on anything more than a surface level

    9. Love is a wondrous state, deep, tender, and rewarding. Because of its intimate and personal nature it is regarded by some as an improper topic for experimental research. But, whatever our personal feelings may be, our assigned mission as psychologists is to analyze all facets of human and animal behavior into their component variables. So far as love or affection is concerned, psychologists have failed in this mission. The little we know about love does not transcend simple observation, and the little we write about it has been written better by poets and novelists. But of greater concern is the fact that psychologists tend to give progressively less attention to a motive which pervades our entire lives. Psychologists, at least psychologists who write textbooks, not only show no interest in the origin and development of love or affection, but they seem to be unaware of its very existence.

      This passage highlights the historical reluctance of psychology/psychologists to engage with the emotional and subjective aspects of human nature such as love, and suggests that the discipline has fallen short in fully addressing the complexities of this human phenomenon. It serves as a reminder of the evolving nature of psychology and the ongoing efforts to incorporate a more holistic understanding of human behavior, including the study of emotions and relationships between people.

  3. Aug 2023
    1. Einer neuen NASA-Studie zufolge wird die 2°-Schwelle bei den globalen Durchschnittstemperaturen in den 2040er Jahren überschritten werden – auch bei einem Sinken des Ausstoßes der Treibhausgase. Den Modellierungen zufolge werden im Mittelmeerraum und im Amazonasbecken die Niederschläge weiter abnehmen. In Nordamerika ist mit 27, in Ostafrika mit 32 und in der Sahelzone mit 44 zusätzlichen Hitzestress-Tagen (hohe Temperatur + hohe Luftfeuchtigkeit) zu rechnen. https://www.derstandard.de/story/3000000183104/zwei-grad-schwelle-duerfte-frueher-erreicht-werden-als-angenommen

  4. May 2023
    1. Thank you for your interest in our Corporate program.  We offer bulk discounts on product for organizations that are looking to incorporate 3x5 Life into their company culture or would like to utilize our product as a way to stay 'top of mind' with their customers.  We offer a co-branded solution to add your personal touch to the cards.

      Much like its predecessors (Park Sherman Co.) 3x5 Life offers co-branded products to corporations.

      Did Memindex do this sort of co-branding? I feel like I've seen something to indicate it.

    1. The Analog system has a thin metal divider that separates two sections in the base. The broad suggestion is to use this space as storage and the divider for separating the blank stock of cards from used cards. One could also separate the next/someday cards from the today cards (new and finished).

      The divider serves as a tabbed divider in many systems, but here there are only a total of three slots for differentiation: one slot for one card with today's list, and two other spaces for other cards that the user can determine their uses for. This definitely makes the system incredibly simple and minimal.

      It's only slightly different from the old common Park Sherman Co. desk note pad systems which sometimes had a universal calendar and one tray space for notes.

  5. Apr 2023
    1. Peaches.LA was created by Natalie Tenerelli and Dan Cox to help get some of the best peaches in the world into the hands of everyone outside the LA Farmers Markets and top chefs.


      Tenerelli Orchards sells these at the Victory Park Farmers' Market in the summer.

      Recommended by Gabi Grace. Ask for bruised stock for significant discount.

  6. Dec 2022
  7. www.janeausten.pludhlab.org www.janeausten.pludhlab.org
    1. it is always incomprehensible to a man that a woman should ever refuse an offer of marriage. A man always imagines a woman to be ready for any body who asks her

      See Emma's arguement to Harriet in chapter 7 "A woman is not to marry a man merely because she is asked, or because he is attached to her." Also Fanny in Mansfield Park to Edmund "I think it ought not to be set down as certain that a man must be acceptable to every woman he may happen to like himself" (chapter 35)

  8. www.janeausten.pludhlab.org www.janeausten.pludhlab.org
    1. I thought him very plain at first, but I do not think him so plain now

      This echoes in Mansfield Park "when they first saw him he was absolutely plain, black and plain; but still he was the gentleman, with a pleasing address. The second meeting proved him not so very plain: he was plain, to be sure, but then he had so much countenance, and his teeth were so good, and he was so well made, that one soon forgot he was plain; and after a third interview, after dining in company with him at the Parsonage, he was no longer allowed to be called so by anybody" (chapter 5)

  9. Aug 2022
  10. www.janeausten.pludhlab.org www.janeausten.pludhlab.org
    1. To do the best for himself

      This sounds very much like Miss Crawford in Mansfield Park (far too many instances to quote)

    2. we women never mean to have anybody. It is a thing of course among us, that every man is refused, till he offers

      See also Emma "A woman may not marry a man merely because she is asked, or because he is attached to her" (chapter 7) and Mansfield Park "I think it ought not to be set down as certain that a man must be acceptable to every woman he may happen to like himself" (Chapter 35)

  11. www.janeausten.pludhlab.org www.janeausten.pludhlab.org
    1. I think it rather unnecessary in you to be advising me

      This reminds me of Tom Bertram, the elder brother, responding to concern from his younger brother about the proposed amateur theatricals at Mansfield Park. "Manage your own concerns, Edmund, and I’ll take care of the rest of the family" (MP chapter 13). It feels very much like "I'm the older sibling, I know what I'm doing"

    2. autumnal months in the country

      Another link to Fanny Price who also enjoys seeing the seasons pass in the country

  12. www.janeausten.pludhlab.org www.janeausten.pludhlab.org
    1. youth-killing dependence

      You could compare Anne's predicted fate with that of Mrs Price in Mansfield Park. She married "to disoblige her family ... a lieutenant of marines, without education, fortune, or connexions" (Chapter 1 MP) and became "worn and faded, so comfortless, so slatternly, so shabby" (Chapter 42 MP). Perhaps Lady Russell was right to be concerned.

  13. www.janeausten.pludhlab.org www.janeausten.pludhlab.org
    1. But the usual fate of Anne attended her, in having something very opposite from her inclination fixed on

      A similar sentiment is expressed by Fanny Price in Mansfield Park: "her wishes were overthrown ... she was so totally unused to have her pleasure consulted, or to have anything take place at all in the way she could desire" (chapter 28 MP)

  14. www.janeausten.pludhlab.org www.janeausten.pludhlab.org
    1. youthful infatuation

      Potential parallels to Mr Bennet's feelings for Mrs Bennett in Pride and Prejudice. Mr Bennet had been "captivated by youth and beauty, and that appearance of good-humour which youth and beauty generally give, [and] had married a woman whose weak understanding and illiberal mind had very early in their marriage put an end to all real affection for her." (P&P Chapter 42) Perhaps this also parallels Sir Thomas Bertram's feelings for Lady Bertram in Mansfield Park. It's never stated that Sir Thomas regrets his match but she "captivated" him (chapter 1 MP) and became a "woman who spent her days in sitting, nicely dressed, on a sofa, doing some long piece of needlework, of little use and no beauty, thinking more of her pug than her children" (chapter 2 MP). It seems more fitting somehow that it was the men making choices led my their hormones more than the women (though you must consider Lydia Bennet). Austen points out constantly how women had few choices in life and marriage, they had to make good ones as they would be trapped, they did not have the same freedoms as men.

  15. Apr 2022
    1. 一个神奇的服务: Numberbarn ( https://www.numberbarn.com/number-parking ).

      如果离开美国/加拿大,还想要保留号码(毕竟有很多网站都需要2factor验证了)。每月$2,把号码转到他们的服务,可以接收短信和电话。 作为参考,朋友离开美国时把号码转到了Google Fi,一个月20美金(包含10GB data),但如果只是作备用手机号,接收各种服务的短信,也不需要手机流量。所以有点点浪费。 https://m.cmx.im/@bluegrass/108078708274311448

  16. Jan 2021
    1. (5) contain any article requested by petition signed by at least five percent of the voters and filed with the Village Clerk at least 40 days prior to the day of the meeting. (Added 1999, No. M-11 (Adj. Sess.), § 2, eff. May 9, 2000.)

      Hyde Park

      Initiatives requires 5%

    2. (c) An ordinance adopted by the Board in the manner set forth shall be subject to its repeal by a Village meeting if a petition signed by not less than 10 percent of the voters is filed with the Village Clerk on or before the effective date of the ordinance. The Clerk shall warn a Village meeting to be held within 45 days of the filing, to consider the question of repeal of the ordinance. Until the vote and question of repeal is held, the ordinance shall not become effective. If a majority of the votes cast shall be in favor of repealing the ordinance, the same shall be repealed and no further action shall be taken. If a majority of the votes cast shall be opposed to repeal, the ordinance shall become effective as of 12:01 a.m. on the day following such a vote.

      Hyde Park

      Repeal referendum requires 10%

  17. Oct 2020
    1. By the way, just to get back to notational bias for a sec, the term “dark pattern” is problematic for reasons that should be clear if you think about it for a minute or two so let’s collectively start working on better language for that. Mmmmkay?

      Subtle reference to Mr. Mackey from the television show South Park here:

      <div>from Imgflip Meme Generator</div>



  18. Sep 2020
    1. Tetzcotzingo insists that the land it-self is the art: works are tied in extri-cably to their sites and materialize organically from it; boundaries between the works and their settings are not clearly marked; dividing lines be-tween the sculpted, the built, and the planted environments (that is, the lines between nature and art, nature and culture)

      Contextualize: Thinking of the land itself as art but also as a thing to sculpt, I think really shows a part of the Aztec culture's want to conquest land. They utilized as much of the land using terraces , water ways, and earthworks to create a culture that majorly influenced by the landscapes around it. everything the land has to offer. On a smaller scale a place that did this was Renaissance park. The designers for that sight decided to not just get rid of the contaminated soil but corralled it into these large mounds that would become a source of recreation, art, and ecological importance.

  19. Aug 2020
  20. Jul 2020
  21. May 2020
    1. The northern end of the park has typically seen less affluent neighbors and significantly less attention, but Central Park Conservancy is about to change that. Earlier this fall, the non-profit group announced a $150 million renovation that would improve the parkland, add a new boardwalk along the man-made lake known as Harlem Meer, and build a new recreation facility to replace the Lasker pool and skating rink, both of which date back to the 1960’s. (Side note: The Trump Organization has the concession to run the skating rink through 2021, by which time there may be someone else in the White House.) Construction is set to begin in 2021, and completion is estimated for 2024.
  22. Dec 2018
    1. captivate

      The Miss Beauforts seem similar to Miss Crawford in Mansfield Park and Miss Isabella Thorpe in Northanger Abbey who were preoccupied with making an advantageous marriage by "capturing" or "captivating" a wealthy man.

    2. Her seduction

      Reminiscent of Henry Crawford's desire to make Fanny Price fall in love with him in Mansfield Park.

    3. Women are the only correspondents to be depended on

      A common theme across Austen novels is that women tend to be more meticulous about writing letters than men. In Mansfield Park, for instance, Mary Crawford laments the fact that her brother Henry writes very short letters, if at all. Similarly, in Sense and Sensibility there is frequent correspondence between Marianne, Eleanor, and their mother. It is relevant that Austen herself frequently wrote letters to her sister Cassandra. Here is a sample of their correspondence: http://www.bl.uk/learning/timeline/item126754.html

    4. .
        This chapter establishes familiar character dynamics that might elucidate the trajectory of the personas Austen presents in this unfinished text. The chapter begins with the introduction of Miss Esther Denham and Sir Edward Denham, a scheming sibling pair reminiscent of Mansfield Park’s The Crawfords and Northanger Abbey’s The Thorpes. Austen explicitly establishes the bald aim of the two to obtain wealth and status from advantageous matrimony, a characteristic that similarly mirrors the Crawfords and Thorpes. Sir Edward, in particular, resembles Austen’s past villainous men; throughout the Austen canon, coxcomb-esque behaviors are the cardinal sins of bachelors. Indeed, Willoughby, Wickham, Henry Crawford, Mr. Elton, Thorpe, and Mr. Elliot all receive biting characterizations by Austen, and thus, given the fates of these men in their respective novels, we can predict that Sir Edward is not the male love interest of this story. 
       Sir Edward’s dynamic with, and apparent longing for the affection of, Clara Brereton, additionally reverberate into the Austen canon in a meaningful way. Other Austen works present relationships between gentried men and pseudo-adopted young women; notably, Emma features Jane Fairfax and Frank Churchill’s secret engagement and Mansfield Park depict Henry Crawford’s arguably predatory pursuit of Fanny Price. These relationship both demonstrate wealth and class incongruities as interpersonal complications. Further, these dynamics are also characterized by the ignorance of other characters to the details of the relationship. Therefore, we cannot know from this unfinished account of Charlotte’s observations if Clara Brereton is a Fanny Price or a Jane Fairfax; we cannot fully know if the behaviors and dispassion Charlotte Heywood witnesses are evidence of a painful resistance to unwanted advances or red herrings to disguise an intimacy. Since speculation is the nature of this activity, however, it is notable that in both Mansfield Park and Emma, outside perceptions of the aforementioned relationships were incorrect. Therefore, paradoxically, Charlotte’s perception of Clara’s distaste for Sir Edward might in fact evince a returned affection and eventual marriage between the two. 
    5. poor cousin living with her

      I predict that this character will be relevant to the marriage plot. The idea of a young person in this kind of circumstance reminds us of the Crawfords or Catherine Moreland. Single individuals living with relatives have, in other Austen novels, been very relevant in the marriage plots.

    6. Links to common words/themes throughout the annotations

  23. Jul 2017
  24. May 2017
    1. While Heidegger is commonly understood as offering a sustained critique of technology, it is less understood that he also offers concrete, affirmative proposals for dealing productively with the challenges technology sets forth. If he complains that "[n]ature becomes a gigantic gasoline station,"
  25. Mar 2017
    1. Sachs Harbour

      Sachs Harbour, located on Banks Island, is a small settlement in northern Canada visited by Berger during the Inquiry. The map below shows the location of Sachs Harbour and gives a sense of the breadth of the north Berger travelled. According to the Canadian census, only 112 people lived in the settlement in 2011. The vast majority of residents speak english today, though some report english and non-official language, probably a local indigenous language (Census). Permanent indigenous residents of the island are permitted subsistence hunting and trapping of wild animals to preserve their way of life (Parks Canada). Evidence of pre-Dorset inhabitation of the island has been uncovered and dated to 1500 BCE. Eastern Arctic Dorset, Thule, and Inuvialuit all have left physical traces on the island. European explorers came in the 1850s in an unsuccessful search for the northwest passage (Parks Canada).

      Sachs Harbour is the administrative site of Aulavik national park (Parks Canada). The park covers ~4600 square miles (12,000 square kilometers) and is home to a wide variety of land animals as well as the Thompsen river. Over 68,000 muskox make their home on Banks island, the highest concentration of muskoxen in the world with a significant portion living in the park itself. The Thompsen river is the northernmost navigable waterway and home to a wide variety of freshwater fish and related aquatic organisms. An isolated wilderness park, the land and organisms that live there are set aside to conserve "pristine arctic environment" (Parks Canada).


      1. Canada, Statistics. "Sachs Harbour, Northwest Territories (Code 6101041) And Northwest Territories (Code 61) (Table)". Statistics Canada. N.p., 2012. Web. 9 Mar. 2017.

      2. "Parks Canada - Aulavik National Park - Aulavik National Park Of Canada". 2013. Pc.Gc.Ca. http://www.pc.gc.ca/eng/pn-np/nt/aulavik/index.aspx.

    1. To this extent, the scientist must reject and resist in ways that mean the end of"autonomy," or ifhe ac-cepts, he risks becoming the friend of fiends.

      Obviously, Burke is writing this in anticipation of Jurassic Park, which is pretty much entirely about this section. There's a pair of paleontologists whose dig financing is contingent on them legitimizing a theme park. There's the capitalist who claims to just want to tell a story while cutting corners on safety equipment. Jeff Golblum's in it. Hell, the fact that it's an industrial disaster movie dressed up with "Man treading in God's domain" just makes it all the more apt.

  26. Feb 2016
    1. He expects that the logging project near Quimby’s land will likely generate about $755,250 at the state’s average sale price, $50.35 per cord of wood. The land has about 1,500 harvestable acres that contain about 30 cords of wood per acre, or 45,000 cords, but only about a third of that will be cut because the land is environmentally sensitive, Denico said. The Bureau of Parks and Lands expects to generate about $6.6 million in revenue this year selling about 130,000 cords of wood from its lots, Denico said. Last year, the bureau generated about $7 million harvesting about 139,000 cords of wood. The Legislature allows the cutting of about 160,000 cords of wood on state land annually, although the LePage administration has sought to increase that amount.
  27. Jan 2016