306 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. At many stages in the advance of humanity, this conflict between the men who possess more than they have earned and the men who have earned more than they possess is the central condition of progress. In our day it appears as the struggle of freemen to gain and hold the right of self-government as against the special interests, who twist the methods of free government into machinery for defeating the popular will.

      Knowing how the society and politics work in todays society, there was more than likely things that were happening in that day and age that were wrong. The quote is stating that people twist thoughts about free government and use it against other people.

    2. "It was a heroic struggle; and, as is inevitable with all such struggles, it had also a dark and terrible side. Very much was done of good, and much also of evil; and, as was inevitable in such a period of revolution, often the same man did both good and evil." This shows that there is always a dark and terrible side to most politicans and their ways of thinking or what they are doing to people who do not agree.

  2. Mar 2023
    1. Yet not so much but that when into sight A lion came, I was disturbed with fear.

      Dante uses this phrase to describe his fear of the lion. The fact that the lion is "rabid with hunger" further demonstrates how violent it is. John Demaray states that "the growing awareness that the actions of Dante in the narrative are in part a figural re-enactment of Biblical events", these beasts were referenced from the bible and therefore characterizes different types of sin. The lion, she-wolf, and leopard represent barriers that keeps Dante from reaching "Saint Peter's Gate which is the way into heaven.

      Demaray, John G. “The Pilgrim Texts and Dante’s Three Beasts: Inferno, I.” Italica, vol. 46, no. 3, 1969, pp. 233–41. JSTOR, https://doi.org/10.2307/477804. Accessed 11 Mar. 2023.

  3. Feb 2023
    1. debían estarprotagonizados por extranjeros y tratar de cosas con las que no podía identificarme. Puesbien, la situación cambió cuando descubrí los libros africanos.No había muchos disponibles, y no eran tan fáciles de encontrar como los extranjeros.Pero gracias a escritores como Chinua Achebe y Camara Laye, mi percepción de laliteratura cambió. Comprendí que en la literatura también podía existir gente como yo,chicas con la piel de color chocolate cuyo pelo rizado no caía en colas de caballo.Empecé a escribir sobre asuntos que reconocía.5

      texto pdf

    1. Girdled now sit humbly at home, Munching beans, while you card wool and comb. For war from now on is the Women’s affair.

      At this time in the Greek world, women had little to no rights. Men controlled their lives and their only duties and value were to bear and raise children and maintain the household (Column). Here Lysistrata is passing her stereotypical womanly duties onto the Magistrate, declaring that war is the "women's affair" now.

  4. Jan 2023
  5. Dec 2022
  6. Nov 2022
  7. Oct 2022
  8. Sep 2022
    1. In the article, "The New Normative: Queer Politics in The Outs," author John Sherman, a freelance writer from Brooklyn, implores reader's to give credit to show's casually- revolutionary representation of queer characters. Sherman indicates to reader's that this is a rarely great representation for its time (2012) because it gives gay characters a non-stereotypical story line. It allows it's characters to be people who just happen to be gay. In just the pilot episode, it's not hard to see this truth. With the first four queer male characters being introduced, they all have different characteristics, priorities, and dynamics with eachother that don't center around their gayness. This gives a depth to the queer character being represented without relying on the fact that their gay to do so. I think that the positive reaction to this show bodes very well for the style of queer representation being presented and will hopefully inspire more writing and content making of this kind which non-chalently gives a voice gay to story lines in a relatable- human way instead of a stereotypical and tokenising way.

      I believe that Shitt's Creek also does this fairly well. Although I've only seen a couple episodes myself- I saw the character of David as a complete person and story line not defined by his gayness or partner choices although it is an obvious part of his identity.

    1. The song, known as the Black national anthem, was played more than 20 minutes before “The Star-Spangled Banner,” which was written by slaveholder Francis Scott Key and includes lyrics about the capture of escaped slaves who fought for the British during the War of 1812.

      Do you believe that we should countinue with the current national anthem "The Star-Spangled Banner" or should we change it to "Lift Every Voice" ? Is it wrong that we are singing a song written by a slaveholder towards our country ?

  9. Aug 2022
    1. 使用密码解密浏览器发来的握手消息,并验证HASH是否与浏览器发来的一致
    2. 网站地址,加密公钥,以及证书的颁发机构等信息


  10. Jul 2022
  11. Jun 2022
  12. May 2022
  13. Apr 2022
    1. This Playbuzz Privacy Policy (“Policy”) outlines what personal information is collected by Playbuzz Ltd. (“Playbuzz”, “we”, “us” or “our”), how we use such personal information, the choices you have with respect to such personal information, and other important information.

      We keep your personal information personal and private. We will not sell, rent, share, or otherwise disclose your personal information to anyone except as necessary to provide our services or as otherwise described in this Policy.

    1. Humankind’s insatiable demand for electronic devices is creating the world’s fastest-growing waste stream.

      This sentence caught my attention the most because not only was it the opening sentence, but it also outlined the problem that was discussed throughout the rest of the article. As society expands and grows upward electronically, there is more and more e-waste. Since this flow of e-waste is becoming so large, it is being labeled as the world's fastest-growing waste stream. This article then goes on to explain this phenomenon.

      The article I linked below goes over the toxicological implications of e-waste and I think it ties in well to the topics covered in this article. It shows how it can affect the health of humans and to which degree.

  14. Mar 2022
    1. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization

      Egyesült Nemzetek Nevelésügyi, Tudományos és Kulturális Szervezete

    1. wathsapp

      En las instituciones educativas de los sectores más vulnerables donde la falta de acceso a las Tics fue la constante, redes sociales como el Whatsapp terminaron siendo el único medio que permitía un contacto esporádico y una educación remota, la privacidad y la cotidianidad de los docentes se vio alterada por la falta de un derecho a la desconexión, la labor docente se volvió una labor de tiempo completo donde la carencia de recursos primo y la creatividad de los docentes para realizar sus clases permitieron sacar procesos adelante.

    2. youtube

      YouTube constituyó una fuente de materiales audiovisuales que muchos maestros implementaron como recurso y forma de divulgación. Por otro lado, la plataforma TEAMS brindada por la SED permitió más opciones de trabajo desde sus funciones, sin embargo, es una plataforma muy pesada para cualquier dispositivo o computador y requiere de una banda ancha de internet lo que hizo fue dificultar el acceso pues meet, zoom ... son más sencillas, amables y menos pesadas. Se obligó a las instituciones a implementar Teams sin tener en cuenta las características y necesidades de la mayoría de los estudiantes de las instituciones públicas.

    3. https://www.javeriana.edu.co/pesquisa/educacion-virtual-realidad-o-ficcion-en-tiempos-de-pandemia/

      Es interesante como Leonor en su Wiki, juega con las imágenes que ilustran de lo que está hablando, recurre a enlaces de artículos relacionados y finaliza con una reflexión sobre la virtualidad y cómo esta aunque se impulsó con la pandemia no es pasajera, sino que al igual que en el caso personal de Leonor los aprendizajes construidos sobre TICS, serán saberes que estarán constantemente enriqueciendo la práctica pedagógica de los maestros. En cuanto a los usos de las Tics que se evidencian en la experiencia personal de Leonor se puede interpretar un uso básico de plataformas y redes sociales, pero al igual interés por explorar otras formas de uso y lo complejo que resultó para los docentes enfrentarnos al uso de las tecnologías sin lamentablemente, contar con una alfabetización apropiada a la altura de la demanda de las problemáticas educativas enfrentadas, lo que a su vez refleja la realidad de nuestro país y la poca alfabetización digital con la que contamos las personas en general y especialmente los maestros.

    4. Es interesante como Leonor en su Wiki, juega con las imágenes que ilustran de lo que está hablando, recurre a enlaces de artículos relacionados y finaliza con una reflexión sobre la virtualidad y cómo esta aunque se impulsó con la pandemia no es pasajera, sino que al Igual que en el caso personal de Leonor los aprendizajes construidos sobre TICS, serán saberes que estarán constantemente enriqueciendo la práctica pedagógica de los maestros. En cuanto a los usos de las Tics que se evidencian en la experiencia personal de Leonor se puede interpretar un uso básico de plataformas y redes sociales, pero al igual interesa por explorar otras formas de uso y lo complejo que resultó para los docentes enfrentarnos al uso de las tecnologías sin lamentablemente, tener la formación para hacerlo.

    1. En somme, les études sur la communication des élèves atteints d’autisme permettent de mettre en évidence l’importance d’un contexte riche en stimulations appropriées (sons et images), mais également une évidente « stabilité » de l’information à décoder, le suivi des émotions des personnages, le rôle de l’imitation dans les apprentissages. Ces résultats encouragent donc l’usage d’outils informatiques adéquats pour améliorer la communication sociale chez les enfants atteints d’autisme.

      L'association de deux sujets qui n'ont pas de corrélation vérifiéé, revient dans la conclusion en contradiction avec la conclusion de l'étude de Ramdoss, S et al.

    2. Nous allons montrer par une courte analyse de quelques études l’impact du travail éducatif informatisé dans l’apprentissage de la communication sociale chez des enfants atteints d’autisme.

      En contradiction avec l'hypothèse :

      Results suggest that CBI should not yet be considered a researched-based approach to teaching communication skills to individuals with ASD. However, CBI does seem a promising practice that warrants future research. Les résultats suggèrent que le CBI ne devrait pas encore être considéré comme un approche fondée sur la recherche pour enseigner les compétences en communication aux personnes ayant Troubles du Spectre Autistique. Cependant, le CBI semble être une pratique prometteuse qui justifie des recherches futures.

    3. Ce programme nommé « I can word it too », disponible en hébreu et arabe, a été spécialement créé pour cette étude. Il reproduit les activités quotidiennes (jouer à des jeux, prendre les repas, faire sa toilette…) et demande à l’enfant ce à quoi il veut jouer, en lui présentant un choix de jeux sur l’écran

      ==>il s’agirait d’une déclinaison sur écran des outils et méthodes de communication améliorée et alternative (CAA), comme le PECS ou le Makaton. déjà existants, IDEOPICTO ou le langage conceptuel SACCADE

    4. L’imitation et l’influence du jeu interactif sont bien mises en évidence dans une étude de Orit Hetzroni et Juman Tannous, de la Faculté des Sciences de l’éducation de l’Université de Haifa (Israël)

      ==>l’échantillon de l’étude est est extrêmement limité, l’étude n’est pas répliqué et elle ne permet pas de retirer de résultats concluants

  15. Feb 2022
    1. Now wave your flagNow wave your flag

      The repetition of these phrase shows how he will leave people passionate about something and encourage them to soar up high like a waving flag

    2. Give me freedom,Give me fire,Give me reason,Take me higher

      The speaker is directing the song towards the theme ‘freedom’ “give me freedom,fire,reason”these metaphors used by the writer is saying that these are what is needed to take things to a higher level as seen in the following phrase,”take me higher”Freedom represents the power of right to act or speak,which shows the intensity the writer wants to take things higher.The word fire also could represent inspiration,which also is a powerful thing to use to take things more bigger.

  16. Jan 2022
  17. Dec 2021
    1. Carthage has been under the spotlight of archae-ological studies for a long time

      I find it interesting that so much light was shed upon Carthage and how the society carried themselves. Wealth was starting to be concerning because Aristotle commented on Carthage: "that such a preoccupation with wealth would lead inevitably to a self-interested oligarchy dominating society."

    1. Note also that testators left cloth as bequests during the epidemic. Apparently they were not as concerned with clothes retaining miasma as were anti-plague ordinances of the government.

      I did not know what the word miasma meant, after searching it up I learned that it was a "highly unpleasant or unhealthy smell". I wanted to learn more about what personal hygiene was like and how it changed during the time of the plague. I learned that it was a very unsanitary time and this helped to spread the plague. The doctors were unsure where the plague could spread from some, the community continued on with their everyday routine in little sense of where the disease came from which made the plague spread more.

    1. violencia de género

      «Todo acto de violencia sexista que tiene como resultado posible o real un daño físico, sexual o psíquico, incluidas las amenazas, la coerción o la privación arbitraria de libertad, ya sea que ocurra en la vida pública o en la privada».

    2. de un impuesto que se retira de la posición femenina, cuyo ícono es el cuerpo de la mujer, bajo la forma del miedo femenino, de la obediencia femenina, del servicio femenino y de la seducción que el poder ejerce sobre la subjetividad femenina

      El ejercicio de la violencia de género podrá sustentarse en una esquematizacion regida y perversa de los roles de genero, culturalmente asimilados. Fuerza, poder y dominio aparecen como valores propios de la identidad masculina en nuestra cultura. Estos "valores" fundamentan estructuras de desigualdad, y un medio para alcanzarlos y defenderlos es la agresion. Como contrapartida, la identidad femenina ha sido elaborada con los atributos de debilidad, controlabilidad y necesidad de proteccion. Estos valores son transmitidos como pautas de comportamiento deseable y se insertan en los patrones de masculinidad y feminidad asociados al ciclo de la violencia. Pagina 4 y 5.

    3. paraestatal
      1. adj. Dicho de una institución, de un organismo o de un centro: Que, por delegación del Estado, coopera a los fines de este sin formar parte de la Administración pública.
    4. Esa “formación” del hombre, que lo conduce a una estructura de la personalidad de tipo psicopático

      No existe un perfil único de maltratador. Tampoco se trata de hombres agresivos ni de psicópatas. Nuestro estudio pone en cuestión los estereotipos relacionados hasta ahora con la conducta y los rasgos del maltratador, como puede ser el consumo de sustancias tóxicas y de alcohol, la vivencia de experiencias traumáticas en la edad infantil o los problemas psíquicos. En este último aspecto, los datos del patrón de personalidad de un grupo de maltratadores basados en el inventario clínico multiaxial Millon-II señalan a la compulsividad como rasgo más destacado de estas personas; no obstante, el percentil no supera el grado de normalidad, por lo que se descarta la posibilidad de una psicopatología.

  18. Nov 2021
  19. Oct 2021
    1. Let's Encrypt + Ghost

      Self-Hosting on DigitalOcean means setting up Let’s Encrypt to configure SSL.

      ghost setup ssl
  20. Sep 2021
    1. The point of DoH is to bypass any other DNS or censorship further down the line.If you want to use DoH AND your hosts file then you need to use DoH as your OS's DNS so it is after the hosts file.


    1. saxophone

      a metal musical instrument that you play by blowing into it and pressing keys to produce different notes

    2. dotted

      a small, round mark or spot:

    3. snapped

      If something long and thin snaps, it breaks making a short, loud sound, and if you snap it, you break it, making a short, loud sound:

    4. confidence

      a feeling of being certain of your ability to do things well:

    5. swirled

      to move around and around quickly, or to make something do this:

    1. polythetic definitions have the appeal of avoiding essentialism, Which is regarded by most scholars of religion as a pitfall and a danger

      I am confused on how it is regarded because wouldn't a word like religion be expected to have more than one definition since religion is not one thing to everyone. Even the basic definitions of religion are unique in their own ways.

    2. paradigmatic

      typical answer to something

    3. elucidatory

      give a clarifying expression

    4. Pragmatic

      to deal with something in a practical non-theoretical way.

    5. elucidation.

      another word for clarification

  21. Aug 2021

      The title of the article immediately made me think of the world we are living in now. For example it is becoming more and more evident that the country has mixed opinions on the vaccine. The government, state agencies and other public entities are requiring proof of a vaccine to even enter the premises. Some companies are offering incentives across the country to incentivize the vaccine by offering free products and discounts. To an extent from a medical perspective you want everyone as healthy as possible, but from a freedom perspective it is on the verge of violating an individual's freedom of choice through forced compliance.

  22. May 2021
    1. 3No one, when tempted, shouldsay, “I am being tempted by God”; for God cannot betempted by evil and he himself tempts noone. 14But one is tempted by one's own desire, beinglured and enticed by it; 15then, when thatdesire has conceived, it gives birth to sin, and thatsin, when it is fully grown, gives birth todeath. 16Do not be deceived, my beloved.17Every generous act of giving, with every perfectgift, is from above, coming down from theFather of lights, with whom there is no variationor shadow due to change.18In fulfillment of hisown purpose he gave us birth by the word of truth,so that we would become a kind of first fruitsof his creatures.
      • James did not want anyone to think that God sends trials to break down or destroy our faith; therefore, he will come back to this point in James 1:13-18. -James knew that most people have an evil tendency to blame God when they find themselves in trials. Yet by His very nature, God is unable to either be tempted (in the sense we are tempted, as James will explain), nor does He Himself tempt anyone.
    1. Computing professionals are on the front lines of almost every aspect of the modern world. They’re involved in the response when hackers steal the personal information of hundreds of thousands of people from a large corporation. Their work can protect—or jeopardize—critical infrastructure like electrical grids and transportation lines. And the algorithms they write may determine who gets a job, who is approved for a bank loan or who gets released on bail.

      Up until this point, I have no idea that there is a code of ethics for computing professionals. I simply think that problems are presented and we try to solve it by creating algorithms. However, the thought of these algorithms being able to determine if a certain individual can get a job or approved for a bank loan have never crossed my mind. This new understanding will bring a new awareness to what kind of job I'm taking in the future and it will also help me determine what path I want to take in my career.

    1. The command nix-shell will build the dependencies of the specified derivation, but not the derivation itself. It will then start an interactive shell in which all environment variables defined by the derivation path have been set to their corresponding values, and the script $stdenv/setup has been sourced. This is useful for reproducing the environment of a derivation for development.

      QUESTION: What exactly does nix-shell execute from the Nix expression (i.e., shell.nix, default.nix, etc.)?

      ANSWER: Based on my current understanding, the answer is everything. It calls $stdenv/setup (see annotation below) to set up the most basic environment variables (TODO: expand on this), and "injects" the most common tools (e.g., gcc, sed) into it.

      It also defines the phases (TODO: verify this) and builder functions, such as genericBuilder. For example, the default builder is just two lines:

      source $stdenv/setup

      TODO: pkgs/stdenv/generic/builder.sh is a mystery though.

      QUESTION: Once dropping into nix-shell, how do I know what phases to execute by looking at a default.nix? (E.g., [..]freeswitch/default.nix)

      ANSWER: As far as I can tell, one can override the phases in their Nix build expression (to build the derivation, see at the bottom), but they won't get executed as only the $stdenv/setup (see above) will get sourced, and no builders are called that, in return, invoke the phases (again, see above).

      So if one is using nix-shell

      • to create/hack on a package, the person has to manually invoke the builder or phases (TODO: still fuzzy on this subject)

      • to set up an environment, then one doesn't even have to worry about builders/phases because we just use nix-shell to clear the environment and to inject tools that we need for a given task

      QUESTION: When dropping into nix-shell, is this Nix expression (i.e., freeswitch/default.nix) executed? Or just parts of it?

      ANSWER: As stated above, all of the input Nix expression is evaluated, but no builders and build phases are called; although, nothing prevents one to override the phases, in case they are creating/hacking on a package.


      The command nix-shell will build the dependencies of the specified derivation, but not the derivation itself.

      What is the "derivation" here exactly? I know that it is a build expression, but does that mean the default.nix (or other Nix expression) nix-shell is invoked with?

      <sup>This statement also seems like a contradiction with how `nix-shell` works (i.e., if one issues `nix-shell -p curl`, then `curl` will be available in that sub-shell), but `-p` acts like a shortcut to as if `curl` had been listed in `buildInputs` so this is not the case.</sup>

      ANSWER: I have the feeling my confusion comes from the fact that the term "derivation" is used ambiguously in the manuals, sometimes to mean multiple things (see list below).

      TODO: Substantiate this claim, and make sure that it not coming from my misunderstanding certain topics.

      • Nix build expression (such as default.nix) whose output is going to become the store derivation itself (see last item at the bottom about the Nix manual's glossary definition)

      • store derivation.

      Had multiple cracks at unambiguously define what a derivation is, and here's a list of these:

      QUESTION: What is the difference between nix-shell -p and nix-shell invoked with a Nix expression of mkShell (or other that achieves the similar effect)?

      QUESTION: nix-shell does not create a sub-shell, so what does it do? (clarification: so nix-shell indeed does it; I confused it with nix shell)

  23. Apr 2021
    1. a high level of motivation derived from thosearound them/other respected colleagues (FrancoSantos 2014 in Thomas2014)/ athletes

      fully agree with this statement as motivated people motivate others and allow for a great team working ethic with everyone pulling in the same direction

    1. En muchas de las ocasiones los seres humanos estamos sujetos a las actividades que otros hacen para guiarnos o quizá imitar comportamientos. Es por ello que existen una cantidad e prohibiciones de copiado para evitar la repetición de contenidos..

    1. La desinhibición a los actos violentos y su diafanada presencia a lo largo de la historia del ser humano, se han visto incitadas y provocadas durante nuestra época por el sistema social con el cual hemos sido instruidos. Cabe denotar que la autora hace énfasis en la violencia de género, parafraseando conceptualizaciones de la ideología feminista nos explica: la postura social de la masculinidad y la feminidad, sus interrelaciones afectadas por la corrosión del comportamiento sustentándolo con una explicación psicoanalítica y la afectación que las organizaciones y el ser humano efectúan sobre el ser humano.. Al final de texto Rita hace un comunicado dirigido a los hombres, induce la idea de ser participes en la solución del problema social puesto que no somos ajenos a él. De esta forma este texto es dirigido para toda persona que deseé informarse sobre uno de los problemas sociales más importantes de nuestra historia, pues Desde el 2009 las muertes violentas de mujeres —y de hombres— se dispararon de manera significativa; sólo en 2010 y 2011 los homicidios femeninos casi se duplicaron. Esta tendencia sólo se revirtió en 2014 y 2015, en el 2016 y hasta el momento la cifra continúa con alzas. Los registros también evidencian una creciente tendencia de las muertes violentas de mujeres. Aún con el confinamiento estricto que paralizó gran parte de las actividades y la movilidad el total de asesinatos de mujeres creció 0.6% en comparación con el mismo periodo del 2019. Como último quiero remarcar lo que dijo la autora "Los hombres deben entrar en las luchas contra el patriarcado, pero que no deben hacerlo por nosotras y para protegernos del sufrimiento que la violencia de género nos inflige, sino por ellos mismos, para liberarse del mandato de la masculinidad."

    1. Concrete Mixing Plant

      As a company, we are sensitive to using advanced building technologies effectively for all our building and construction projects. As a matter of fact, the most important factor underlying the quality and safety standards that our company has achieved in all its projects so far is that we use building technologies effectively. We always follow technological developments that will help us achieve much better standards in construction applications. For this, we use the most innovative concrete mixing plant technology to realize the concrete applications without exception at the highest quality. We have been working with Elkon for many years to meet this need that has arisen in line with the intensive work of our company. As well as the high-quality standards of the company's concrete mixing plant products, we can ensure a high compatibility in our work with service offerings focused on projects. For this reason, we are working with Elkon firm on the need for a concrete mixing plant for each project that our company will start to realize. In addition to volume capacity options, mixers have a very rich model variety by means of technical functions. In this way, we can supply concrete plants, which are suitable for our needs created by the concrete application capacity in our project, from the company. With its superior technology and high-quality durability, we do not encounter any problems in our applications on concrete, which is the most common thing we use in our project sites. The serious problems that technical problems may cause in terms of construction projects are at everyone's discretion. Our company will continue to work in harmony with the company for all construction and building projects in the future, as it has enabled us to encounter these problems today. We would like to thank them for their quality responses to our requests up to now.

    1. A circular electronics system - one in which resources are not extracted, used and wasted, but re-used in countless ways - creates decent, sustainable jobs and retains more value in the industry.

      This sentence caught my eye because it seems like an obvious solution to reduce the amount of e-waste and materials used to create new products. It is upsetting to see that many people resort to being wasteful and using up the world's resources at such a quick rate before thinking about reusing and remodeling what we have already created.

  24. Mar 2021
  25. Feb 2021
    1. A Nix expression describes everything that goes into a package build action (a “derivation”)

      Come up with an ultimate definition for what a "derivation" is.

      So round up all the places where it is mentioned across Nix* manuals, and check out these:

      From Nix Pills section 6.1. The derivation function (see annotation):

      A derivation from a Nix language view point is simply a set, with some attributes. Therefore you can pass the derivation around with variables like anything else.

      So there is clearly an ambiguity between what derivations are perceived to be and what is stated in the Eelco Dolstra's PhD thesis. Or maybe I'm having issues with reading comprehension again...

    2. For each output declared in outputs, the corresponding environment variable is set to point to the intended path in the Nix store for that output. Each output path is a concatenation of the cryptographic hash of all build inputs, the name attribute and the output name. (The output name is omitted if it’s out.)

      QUESTION: So when I see $out in a builder script, it refers to the default output path because the output attribute in the Nix expression has never been explicitly set, right?

    3. A derivation causes that derivation to be built prior to the present derivation; its default output path is put in the environment variable.

      That is, if an input attribute is a reference to a derivation in the Nix store, then

      1. that derivation is built first (after a binary substitute is not found, I presume), and
      2. the path to the built package (for a better word) is handed to the shell build script.
    4. derivationA description of a build action. The result of a derivation is a store object. Derivations are typically specified in Nix expressions using the derivation primitive. These are translated into low-level store derivations (implicitly by nix-env and nix-build, or explicitly by nix-instantiate).

      Organically related to the annotation regarding my nix-shell confusion.

      The dissection of this definition to show why I find it lacking:

      A description of a build action.

      The first (couple) time(s) I read the manuals, this description popped up in many places, and I identified it with Nix expression every time, thinking that a derivation is a synonym for Nix expression.

      Maybe it is, because it clearly tries to disambiguate between store derivations and derivation in the last sentence.

      The result of a derivation is a store object.

      Is this store object the same as a store derivation?

      Derivations are typically specified in Nix expressions using the `derivation primitive. These are translated into low-level store derivations (implicitly by nix-env and nix-build, or explicitly by nix-instantiate).

      QUESTION: So, the part of the Nix build expression (such as default.nix) where the derivation primitive is called (explicitly or implicitly, as in mkDerivation) is the derivation, that will be ultimately be translated into store derivations?

      ANSWER: Start at section 15.4 Derivation.

      QUESTION: Also, why is typically used here? Can one define derivations outside of Nix expressions?

      ANSWER(?): One could I guess, because store derivations are ATerms (see annotation at the top), and the Nix expression language is just a tool to translate parameterized build actions into concrete terms to build a software package. The store derivations could be achieved using different means; e.g., the way Guix uses Guile scheme to get the same result))

      I believe, that originally, derivation was simply a synonym to store derivation. Maybe it still is, and I'm just having difficulties with reading comprehension but I think the following would be less misleading (to me and apart from re-writing the very first sentence):

      Derivations are typically the result of Nix expressions calling the derivation primitive explicitly, or implicitly usingmkDerivation`. These are translated into low-level store derivations (implicitly by nix-env and nix-build, or explicitly by nix-instantiate).

    5. $stdenv/setup

      QUESTION: Does this refer to pkgs/stdenv/generic/setup.sh? According to 6.5 Phases in the Nixpkgs manual?

      ANSWER: I'm pretty sure it does. It sets up the environment (not sure how yet; I see the env vars, but not the basic commands - sed, awk, etc. - that are listed below) and defines a bunch of functions (such as genericBuilder) but it doesn't call these functions!

    6. The function mkDerivation in the Nixpkgs standard environment is a wrapper around derivation that adds a default value for system and always uses Bash as the builder, to which the supplied builder is passed as a command-line argument. See the Nixpkgs manual for details.

      "Documented" in the Nixpkgs manual under 6.1 Using stdenv.

      Used the double-quotes above because I don't consider it well documted. Will give it a try too; worst case scenario is that I'll fail as well.

    7. C.12. Release 1.6 (2013-09-10)In addition to the usual bug fixes, this release has several new features:The command nix-build --run-env has been renamed to nix-shell.
    8. See annotations with the build-phases tag.

      Why are the build phases not enumerated in the Nix manual? If the instructions on how to create a derivation (and thus, a package) then why not go all in instead of spreading out information in different manuals, making the subject harder to grasp?...

      (By the way, it is documented in the Nixpkgs manual under 6.5 Phases; not sure why it is not called build phases when every page refers to them like that.)

    9. Chapter 14. A Simple Nix Expression

      This such a stupid move to go through a derivation example before introducing the language.

    10. Add the package to the file pkgs/top-level/all-packages.nix. The Nix expression written in the first step is a function; it requires other packages in order to build it. In this step you put it all together, i.e., you call the function with the right arguments to build the actual package.

      In addition to this rant, step 3. should be more generic, instead of tying it to Nixpkgs; at least, either show how to build your own Nix expression repo, or don't add this step, but it is not at all necessary to write a derivation. There is a Nixpkgs manual for a reason.

    11. $ nix-env -i firefox --substituters ssh://alice@avalon This works similar to the binary cache substituter that Nix usually uses, only using SSH instead of HTTP

      So a substitute is a built binary for a given derivation, and a substituter is a server (or binary cache) that serves pre-built binaries, right?

      Update: in the next line it says that "it will fall back to using the binary cache substituter", so I guess that answers it.

    12. substitute

      this is another key topic. Also:

      • substitute vs. substituter => this (I think)

      See annotations with the substitute tag

    13. When you ask Nix to install a package, it will first try to get it in pre-compiled form from a binary cache. By default, Nix will use the binary cache https://cache.nixos.org; it contains binaries for most packages in Nixpkgs. Only if no binary is available in the binary cache, Nix will build the package from source. So if nix-env -i subversion results in Nix building stuff from source, then either the package is not built for your platform by the Nixpkgs build servers, or your version of Nixpkgs is too old or too new.

      binary caches tie in with substitutes somehow; get to the bottom of it. See annotations with the substitute tag.

      Maybe this?

    14. closure

      Another gem: who knows what a "closure" is.

      [This highlight] (a couple lines below) implicitly explains it though:

      The command nix-copy-closure copies a Nix store path along with all its dependencies to or from another machine via the SSH protocol. It doesn’t copy store paths that are already present on the target machine.

      or this, also just a couple lines below:

      the closure of a store path (that is, the path and all its dependencies)

    15. the closure of a store path (that is, the path and all its dependencies)
    16. The command nix-copy-closure copies a Nix store path along with all its dependencies to or from another machine via the SSH protocol. It doesn’t copy store paths that are already present on the target machine. For example, the following command copies Firefox with all its dependencies:
    17. subscribes you to a channel that always contains that latest version of the Nix Packages collection.

      That is a misleading statement. The latest version is where the master branch points, isn't it?

      So a channel points to a Nixpkgs commit (on a branch named after the channel) where all packages inside are deemed stable, and all packages are built to have available binary substitutes by a (hydra) build farm.

    18. A Nix channel is just a URL that points to a place that contains a set of Nix expressions and a manifest.
    19. garbage collector roots

      Definitely avoid this, when a term is used but only introduced formally way later. (There is also a reference to "garbage collector roots" almost at the beginning as well.)

    20. $ nix-env --switch-profile /nix/var/nix/profiles/my-profile $ nix-env --switch-profile /nix/var/nix/profiles/default These commands switch to the my-profile and default profile, respectively. If the profile doesn’t exist, it will be created automatically.

      learn more about profiles; creating new profiles was new info

    21. Chapter 10. ProfilesProfiles and user environments are Nix’s mechanism for implementing the ability to allow different users to have different configurations, and to do atomic upgrades and rollbacks.
    22. user environment
    23. In Nix, different users can have different “views” on the set of installed applications. That is, there might be lots of applications present on the system (possibly in many different versions), but users can have a specific selection of those active — where “active” just means that it appears in a directory in the user’s PATH. Such a view on the set of installed applications is called a user environment, which is just a directory tree consisting of symlinks to the files of the active applications.
    24. nix-env -qas

      ... and it takes AGES to complete

    25. 4.3.1. Change the Nix store path prefix

      There is a lot of place in this manual (and probably in the others as well) where the prefix is referred to (usually with italics, such as "prefix/store"), so in the book

      • this should be linked to this section (or the one in the book), and

      • establish a clear and well-communicated notation to convey this

    26. At the same time, it is not possible for one user to inject a Trojan horse into a package that might be used by another user.
    27. Chapter 6. SecurityNix has two basic security models. First, it can be used in “single-user mode”, which is similar to what most other package management tools do: there is a single user (typically root) who performs all package management operations. All other users can then use the installed packages, but they cannot perform package management operations themselves.Alternatively, you can configure Nix in “multi-user mode”. In this model, all users can perform package management operations — for instance, every user can install software without requiring root privileges. Nix ensures that this is secure. For instance, it’s not possible for one user to overwrite a package used by another user with a Trojan horse.

      Would have been nice to link these to the install chapter where single- and multi-user modes were mentioned.

      How would this look in a topic-based documentation? I would think that his chapter would be listed in the pre-requisites, and it could be used to buld different reading paths (or assemblies in DocBook, I believe) such as practical, depth-first (if there are people like me who want to understand everything first), etc.

    28. reentrancy
    29. You can uninstall Nix simply by running: $ rm -rf /nix
    30. $ mkdir /nix $ chown alice /nix

      Traditionally, when a command should be invoked with sudo, it is either included in the example, or the shell indicator is # instead of $.

    31. To explicitly select a single-user installation on your system:

      It should be noted in this section also that since nix 2.1.0, single user install is the default.

    32. nix-shell '<nixpkgs>' -A pan

      What is happening here exactly?

      nix-shell's syntax synopsis always bugged because it looks like this

      nix-shell [--arg name value] [--argstr name value] [{--attr | -A} attrPath] [--command cmd] [--run cmd] [--exclude regexp] [--pure] [--keep name] {{--packages | -p} packages...  | [path]}

      and the canonical example is nix-shell '<nixpkgs>' -A pan; what tripped me up is that path is usually the first in examples, and I thought that the position of arguments are strict. As it turns out, nix-shell -A pan '<nixpkgs> is just as valid.

      Side note<br> Apparently there is no standard for man pages. See 1, 2.

      '<nixpkgs>' path is the one specified in the NIX_PATH environment variable, and -A pan looks up the pan attribute in pkgs/top-level/all-packages.nix in the Nixpkgs repo.

    33. since packages aren’t overwritten, the old versions are still there after an upgrade. This means that you can roll back to the old version:

      Wouldn't hurt to tell folks that this is a convenience layer, and one could also just use the old package from the /nix/store, even though that path would be long and obscure; one could use symlinks of course.

      Or, onc could just use nix-shell -p that specifies a specific version (that's already in the store), but, of course, it's not that simple...


    1. A derivation from a Nix language view point is simply a set, with some attributes. Therefore you can pass the derivation around with variables like anything else.
    2. the single repository technique. The natural implementation in Nix is to create a top-level Nix expression, and one expression for each package. The top-level expression imports and combines all expressions in a giant attribute set with name -> package pairs. But isn't that heavy? It isn't, because Nix is a lazy language, it evaluates only what's needed! And that's why nixpkgs is able to maintain such a big software repository in a giant attribute set.

      This is the gist of how Nixpkgs works (and how it is organized).

    3. 17.3. Fixed point

      QUESTION: What is a fixed-point of a function?

      ANSWER: See this video) at least, and the Fixed-point (mathematics)) wikipedia article:

      In mathematics, a fixed point (sometimes shortened to fixpoint, also known as an invariant point) of a function is an element of the function's domain that is mapped to itself by the function. That is to say, c is a fixed point of the function f if f(c) = c. This means

      f(f(...f(c)...)) = f n(c) = c

      an important terminating consideration when recursively computing f. A set of fixed points is sometimes called a fixed set.

      For example, if f is defined on the real numbers by f(x)=x^{2}-3x+4,}, then 2 is a fixed point of f, because f(2) = 2.

      There is also the wiki article fixed-point combinator that actually plays a role here, but read through the articles in this order.

      Then dissect the Stackoverflow thread What is a Y combinator?, and pay attention to the comments! For example:

      According to Mike Vanier's description, your definition for Y is actually not a combinator because it's recursive. Under "Eliminating (most) explicit recursion (lazy version)" he has the lazy scheme equivalent of your C# code but explains in point 2: "It is not a combinator, because the Y in the body of the definition is a free variable which is only bound once the definition is complete..." I think the cool thing about Y-combinators is that they produce recursion by evaluating the fixed-point of a function. In this way, they don't need explicit recursion. – GrantJ Jul 18 '11 at 0:02


      Other resources in no particular order:

      QUESTION: How the hell did they come up with the idea of using this with Nix and package management? (..and who? I remember a video saved somewhere, but maybe that was about overlays)

      QUESTION: ... and how does it work in this context?

      ANSWER: Well, not an answer yet, but this may be something in the right direction:


    4. there's no ldconfig cache either. So where does bash find libc?

      QUESTION: What is ldconfig cache?

      QUESTION: What is libc and why does Bash need it?

    5. Derivations/packages are stored in the Nix store as follows: /nix/store/hash-name, where the hash uniquely identifies the derivation (this isn't quite true, it's a little more complex), and the name is the name of the derivation.

      QUESTION: So the Nix store houses derivations and not the built packages?

      QUESTION: Are the hashes in the Nix store not unique?

    6. In Nix there is the notion of a derivation rather than a package. The difference can be subtle at the beginning, so I will often use the words interchangeably.

      Doesn't really say anything but thought it important to highlight this first mention of derivations in the Nix Pills.

    7. From an administrator's point of view: you can use containers. The typical solution nowadays is to create a container per service, especially when different versions are needed. That somewhat solves the problem, but at a different level and with other drawbacks. For example, needing orchestration tools, setting up a shared cache of packages, and new machines to monitor rather than simple services.

      This is a very good pointer; I guess it refers to systemd services when it mentions "simple services".

    1. Specifying a name and a src is the absolute minimum Nix requires.

      Didn't they mean what mkDerivation requires?

      I have been jumping around in this manual, so not sure about what arguments does derivation require.

    2. For convenience, you can also use pname and version attributes and mkDerivation will automatically set name to "${pname}-${version}" by default.

      The error messages are not helpful when one messes up the input attribute set ofmkDerivation (i.e., either name, or pname and version attributes have to be present); see Nixpkgs issue #113520.

    3. 6.1. Using stdenv
    4. fetchpatch works very similarly to fetchurl with the same arguments expected. It expects patch files as a source and and performs normalization on them before computing the checksum. For example it will remove comments or other unstable parts that are sometimes added by version control systems and can change over time.
    5. 19.3. Submitting security fixes Security fixes are submitted in the same way as other changes and thus the same guidelines apply. If the security fix comes in the form of a patch and a CVE is available, then the name of the patch should be the CVE identifier, so e.g. CVE-2019-13636.patch in the case of a patch that is included in the Nixpkgs tree. If a patch is fetched the name needs to be set as well, e.g.: (fetchpatch { name = "CVE-2019-11068.patch"; url = "https://gitlab.gnome.org/GNOME/libxslt/commit/e03553605b45c88f0b4b2980adfbbb8f6fca2fd6.patch"; sha256 = "0pkpb4837km15zgg6h57bncp66d5lwrlvkr73h0lanywq7zrwhj8"; }) If a security fix applies to both master and a stable release then, similar to regular changes, they are preferably delivered via master first and cherry-picked to the release branch. Critical security fixes may by-pass the staging branches and be delivered directly to release branches such as master and release-*.
    6. 18.6. Patches Patches available online should be retrieved using fetchpatch. patches = [ (fetchpatch { name = "fix-check-for-using-shared-freetype-lib.patch"; url = "http://git.ghostscript.com/?p=ghostpdl.git;a=patch;h=8f5d285"; sha256 = "1f0k043rng7f0rfl9hhb89qzvvksqmkrikmm38p61yfx51l325xr"; }) ];

      ... and from Chapter 11:

      fetchpatch works very similarly to fetchurl with the same arguments expected. It expects patch files as a source and and performs normalization on them before computing the checksum. For example it will remove comments or other unstable parts that are sometimes added by version control systems and can change over time.

      ... and also adding highlight of 19.3. Submitting security fixes

      because these are the only places I've seen fetchpatch mentioned.

      From the wild in freeswitch/default.nix in Nixpkgs:

      stdenv.mkDerivation rec {
        pname = "freeswitch";
        version = "1.10.5";
        src = fetchFromGitHub {
          owner = "signalwire";
          repo = pname;
          rev = "v${version}";
          sha256 = "18dhyb19k28dcm1i8mhqvvgm2phsrmrwyjmfn79glk8pdlalvcha";
        patches = [
          # https://github.com/signalwire/freeswitch/pull/812 fix mod_spandsp, mod_gsmopen build, drop when updating from 1.10.5
          (fetchpatch {
            url = "https://github.com/signalwire/freeswitch/commit/51fba83ed3ed2d9753d8e6b13e13001aca50b493.patch";
            sha256 = "0h2bmifsyyasxjka3pczbmqym1chvz91fmb589njrdbwpkjyvqh3";
        postPatch = ''
          patchShebangs     libs/libvpx/build/make/rtcd.pl
          substituteInPlace libs/libvpx/build/make/configure.sh \
            --replace AS=\''${AS} AS=yasm
          # Disable advertisement banners
          for f in src/include/cc.h libs/esl/src/include/cc.h; do
              echo 'const char *cc = "";'
              echo 'const char *cc_s = "";'
            } > $f
    7. 6.5. Phases

      Not sure why this isn't called build phases... See also.

    1. https://desinformemonos.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/el-traspatio-4.jpg

      Entre 2008 y 2013, en el terreno llamado Arroyo El Navajo, ubicado a 94 kilómetros de la frontera con Estados Unidos, se encontraron los fragmentos de huesos de al menos 24 mujeres que fueron secuestradas en Ciudad Juárez durante el periodo en el que la zona estuvo militarizada por el despliegue de agentes federales y soldados, como parte del “Operativo Conjunto Chihuahua

    1. nix-channel --list #<output> nixpkgs https://nixos.org/channels/nixpkgs-unstable The command returns a name for each channel (e.g., nixpkgs) and an URL. Note When running nix-env with the parameter -A, one can select the channel to get the package from. Such a command looks like nix-env -iA channelname.packagename.

      Instead of #<output> it should have said channel-name instead at the top nix-channel example to keep it consistent.

    2. However, using channels is not fully reproducible, as a channel may evolve to incorporate updates.

      TODO: Find other sources about this topic. I remember this mentioned already (and it makes) sense, but need to learn more.

      TODO: What is a better alternative? An own repo? Flakes? Can cachix help?

      It says right below that pinning can help but keep looking.

      When package reproducibility become a major concern, as it is the case in this tutorial, it is preferable to refer to a pinned version of the nixpkgs repository instead — i.e, a specific commit of the repository or an immutable archived tarball. The ability to pin the version of nixpkgs is powerful, it will ensure that a package is always constructed from the same Nix source. As we go deeper in the tutorial we avoid using channels in favor of pinned environments.

    3. However, it makes the “Making the package available to the user” more complex. Nix heavily relies on environment variables to make this possible

      And symlinks

    1. example: get an environment which is used to build irssi (also see nix-shell) $ nix-build $NIXPKGS --run-env -A irssi example: get a persistent environment which is used to build irssi $ nix-build $NIXPKGS --run-env -A irssi --add-root

      nix-build <path> --run-env has been superseded by nix-shell. From Nix manual section C.12. Release 1.6 (2013-09-10):

      The command nix-build --run-env has been renamed to nix-shell.

    2. git clone --depth=1 https://github.com/nixos/nixpkgs

      i should remember this to only get last commit, which basically means to only care about the data, and discard commit history.

  26. Jan 2021
  27. Dec 2020
    1. No obstante, aunque desconocemos qué partícula constituye la materia oscura, ésto no significa que no entendamos cómo se comporta.

      El comprender el comportamiento de la materia oscura es un gran aporte a la ciencia

    2. A finales de la década de los 70 y comienzos de la década de los 80 del siglo XX, la necesidad de materia oscura no bariónica para explicar la formación de estructuras cosmológicas, junto con una muestra cada vez mayor de curvas de rotación de galaxias que mostraban un comportamiento plano, consolidaban la hipótesis de la existencia de materia oscura en el Universo.

    3. Casi 100 años después de que se empezara a hablar de materia oscura, la realidad es que no sabemos lo que es, pero afortunadamente sabemos qué no es.

      A pesar de todas las investigaciones, nos falta mucho por aprender y descubrir.

  28. Nov 2020
    1. EBF was much more potent than Pax5 in inducing B celldevelopment, as its expression in MPPs yielded at least 100-foldmore B lineage progeny than did expression of Pax5 (Fig. 3band data not shown). These data suggest that promotion of B cellgeneration from MPPs by EBF is not mediated solely throughactivation of Pax5 expression.

      EBF expression represses and restricts alternative lineage genes, also help promote B cell independently of Pax 5.

  29. Oct 2020
    1. However, I do feel that the way that he speaks is particu-larly African American. Th is refers more to his rhetoric, intona-tion, and style. However, his speech or the extent to which he plays up his Black manner of speaking varies depending on his setting.

      what is a "black manner" of speaking? is the same as the statement above it that he speaks African American? does this imply the language or just a form of speaking like he can communicate and he knows what African Americans want?

      The website below explains that speaking African American is a unique vocabulary with different accents and grammar

  30. Sep 2020
    1. Metadatos Dublin Core

      dc.Title:From Data to Information: Introducing Information Science


      Ver el video con atención Distinguir claramente entre dato, información y conocimiento Pregunta ¿En qué nivel queda la literatura?