291 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
  2. Jan 2024
  3. Dec 2023
  4. Aug 2023
    1. Technological change is an accelerant and acts on the social ills like pouring gasoline on a fire
      • for: quote, quote - Stowe Boyd, quote - progress trap, quote - unintended consequences, unintended consequences, progress trap, cultural evolution, technology - futures, futures - technology, progress trap
      • quote:
        • Technological change is an accelerant and acts on the social ills like pouring gasoline on a fire
      • author: Sowe Boyd
        • consulting futurist on technological evolution and the future of work
      • paraphrase
        • In an uncontrolled hyper-capitalist society,
          • the explosion in technologies over the past 30 years has only
            • widened inequality,
            • concentrated wealth and
            • led to greater social division.
          • And it is speeding up with the rise of artificial intelligence,
            • which like globalization has destabilized Western industrial economies while admittedly pulling hundreds of millions elsewhere out of poverty.
        • And the boiling exhaust of this set of forces is pushing the planet into a climate catastrophe. -The world is as unready for hundreds of millions of climate refugees as it was for the plague.
        • However, some variant of social media will likely form the context for the rise of a global movement to stop the madness
          • which I call the Human Spring
        • which will be more like
          • Occupy or
          • the Yellow Vests
        • than traditional politics.
        • I anticipate a grassroots movement
          • characterized by
            • general strikes,
            • political action,
            • protest and
            • widespread disruption of the economy
          • that will confront the economic and political system of the West.
        • Lead by the young, ultimately this will lead to large-scale political reforms, such as
          • universal health care,
          • direct democracy,
          • a new set of rights for individuals and
          • a large set of checks on the power of
            • corporations and
            • political parties.
        • For example,
          • eliminating corporate contributions to political campaigns,
          • countering monopolies and
          • effectively accounting for economic externalities, like carbon.
    1. 完整的 @Configuration 与 "精简的" @Bean 模式?

      完整模式与精简模式

  5. Jul 2023
    1. 简单的 value 属性之外,还接受命名的(named)属性

      @Qualifier 可以定义 注解+属性名

  6. May 2023
  7. www.repository.govardhanacademy.com www.repository.govardhanacademy.com
    1. 5HANTANU M ARKED SATYAM T'/ AND HAD TWO SO N S-THE ELDER WAS KILLEDIN BATTLE •WHEN SHANTANU D(ED,BHEE5HMA S E T THE YOUNGER SO N ,WCHfTRAWRYA ON THE THRONE AN D RULED THE KINGDOM FO R HIM -

      Within the following pieces of this story, Bheeshma values women, and their right to make their own choices. It is fascinating that Amba does what she wants, then turns around and tries to marry Bheeshma after she went her own way. Bheeshma declining her is his own inalienable right and she decides it is not fair. This flip in gender roles of the woman trying to take away a man's power is quite the spectacle.

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    2. B U T ~DEVAVRATA M S TOO IN TE LLIG EN T TO BE TAKEN IN B Y THESE WORDS-

      Shantanu is not honest with Gangeya his son. He thought he wasn't aware enough to know that he was enthralled with another woman. Gangeya, showing in this story that he is selfless and wants only to make his father's wishes to come true, does so in striking a deal with Satyavati's father.

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    3. U S T THEN HE SAW A BEAUTIFULG/RL APPROACH/M G.K/NG SHAttTANU WAS OVERCOME B YA IDES/RE TO MAKE SATYAVAT/ H/5OWM AMD TAKE HER TO H/S PALACE • f SHALL GO AMDA S K HER FATHER„ FO R H ER HAND

      Shantanu is quite bold in his wants. The women portrayed in this tale are immediately depicted as physically appealing, beautiful, and smelling divine. They are not described to have any other values which is another piece that perpetuates toxic masculinity and the writer's who have these biases built into their minds.

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    4. SHANTANU WAS D/SM AYED. H E R ETU R N ED TO H fS PALACE, H fSTH O U G H TS FULL O F SATYAVAT/ •A t h a s t w a p u r h e p a s s e d h /s d a y s , l o s t /n h ls l o n g /m g s . o n e d a y -

      Shantanu once again doesn't know what he truly wants. He has mixed desires in wanting women while also not wanting to give away the lineage and royalty of his own son. The interaction between Shantanu and Satyavati's father is another example of the gender role that the women are not in the discussion, only the men and stating what they desire. Satyavati's father wants an in to royalty and he is pushing hard to make that deal with the King.

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    5. AT SUCH MOMENTS,, HE TOOK LONG WALKS3ALONE, ALONG THE BANKS OFT H E YAM UNA

      It's almost as if he knew he would find a woman or someone who could fill the gaping hole he felt in his life. Like he was searching along the banks hoping to stumble upon another woman, which points back to his desire which comes across as only wanting women to physically satisfy him. This feeds into the gender roles of men seeming like they only want women for sex and is prevelant in Shantanu's life.

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    6. TAKE HIMHOME ANDM AKE HIMYOUR HEIR-HE IS AMI6HTV ARCHERAND HAS LEARNTALL THERE ISTO KNOWABOUT THEDUTIES OF AKINS.

      "Gangeya knew who Shantanu was", this shows that his mother told him of his father Shantanu and must have shown him who he was so that he could recognize him in person. The title "Devavrata" is signifying of the future when he will take a terrible oath of celibacy.

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    7. THEN ONE DAW AS SHANTANU CAME ONCE AGAIN TO THE BANKS OFTHE GANGES, HUNTING DEER -

      This piece is interesting because it ties back to the first time Shantanu and his wife met when he was out hunting by the river. What significance do these corellations have? Is Shantanu somehow drawn by a higher diety to keep making life choices when out hunting?

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    8. SUDDENLY A BEAUTIFUL MAIDEN APPEARED IN FRONT O F H IM .AND VOU MUSTNEVER SPEAK ANUNKIND WORD TOME. THE MOMENTYOUPO EfTWER,

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      The fact that he, "Fell in love with the maiden, at first sight" is signatory and should be noted because throughout the rest of the story King Shantanu continually falls in love with women barely knowing anything about them and doing so naively and almost in a blind like blundering manner.

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    9. S T O P ! WHO ARE YOU pO WICKED WOMAN, HOWV CAN VOU MURDER jVOUR OWN /VW CHILDREN?

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      If he had endured the killings of his children up to this point, why stop her now? His morals are verry off putting and disturbing due to his already lack of respect for women. And in turn it ruined the agreement of his whole marriage. When later he chases another woman in the same manner. King Shantanu cannot make up what he truly wants.

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    10. AND VOU MUSTNEVER SPEAK ANUNKIND WORD TOME. THE MOMENTYOUPO EfTWER,( s h a l lLEAVE YOUFOREVER.50 BE IT!

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      From a gender role view and assumptions from me being made about this king, he seems to only be following what his body wants from women and not caring what they inherently can have value in besides giving bodily pleasures. I feel sorry for the women in this storyline that he "falls in love" with, if one would even say this childlike king is actually being in love with them.

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    1. The friendship made, which both had sought: How Báli and Sugríva fought.

      Underscored here is the dynamics of male camaraderie and conflict in the Ramayana. It references the story of Báli and Sugríva, two monkey brothers who initially fought against each other but later reconciled and formed a strong alliance. The portrayal of their friendship highlights the idea of brotherhood and loyalty among male characters, adding another layer to the construction of the hero within the cultural context of the epic.

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    2. The fair Videhan  1b lady's rape.

      This leads to significant event in the narrative, namely the abduction of Sitá by the demon king Rávan. The mention of her rape emphasizes the vulnerability and victimization of women within the epic. It reflects the power dynamics between genders and underscores the importance of rescuing Sitá, which becomes a central motivation for Ráma's heroic journey.

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    3. How Janak's child he wooed and won, Aud broke the bow that bent to none.

      This quote signifies the significance of gender roles and the portrayal of the hero in the context of marriage and masculinity. Ráma's ability to successfully complete the challenge of breaking a bow that no one else could illustrates his exceptional strength and heroism. It reinforces the traditional notion of masculinity associated with physical prowess and serves as a validation of Ráma's worthiness as a suitor for Janak's daughter, Sitá.

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    4. He sate, in reverent attitude On holy grass,  2 the points all bent Together toward the orient

      Deeply reflected is the sense of reverence and piety exhibited by the hermit during his meditation. The mention of the hermit sitting on holy grass and facing the east highlights the sacredness associated with the act of storytelling. It symbolizes the spiritual connection between the storyteller and the divine, suggesting that the narrative being conveyed holds great significance within the cultural context.

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    1. The tuneful lines thy lips rehearsed Spontaneous from thy bosom burst, Then come, O best of seers, relate The life of Ráma good and great

      Brahmá recognizes Válmíki's poetic talent and urges him to narrate the life story of Rama, emphasizing his virtuous and heroic qualities. The quote illustrates Brahmá's belief in Válmíki's ability to eloquently capture Rama's deeds in his epic.

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    2. The heavenly Father smiled in glee, And said, 'O best of hermits', see, A verse, unconscious thou hast made; No longer be the task delayed.

      Signified here is the approval and encouragement Válmíki receives from Brahmá for the verse he spontaneously composed. It indicates that his heartfelt lamentation over the curlew's fate holds poetic value and inspires him to proceed with his epic composition.

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    3. Woe to the fowler's impious hand That did the deed that folly planned; That could to needless death devote The curlew of the tuneful throat!'

      This quote reflects Válmíki's condemnation of the fowler's act of killing the male curlew. It expresses his disapproval and sorrow for the unnecessary loss of life and highlights his empathetic perspective, almost fatherly.

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    4. The hermit saw the slaughtered bird, And all his heart with ruth was stirred. The fowler's impious deed distressed His gentle sympathetic breast

      Here is portrayed Válmíki's compassionate and empathetic nature, which is not specific to gender roles but showcases a universal human quality. It emphasizes his sensitivity towards the suffering of creatures and sets the stage for the subsequent events.

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    5. And bring my zone of bark, I pray. Here will I bathe: the rill has not, To lave the limbs a fairer spot.

      This highlights the traditional gender roles prevalent in ancient Indian society, where Válmíki, as a sage, is portrayed as the authoritative figure instructing his disciple, Bharadvája, to assist him in his daily activities.

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    1. CANTO I: NÁRAD.  4b ********* OM.  5b    To sainted Nárad, prince of those Whose lore in words of wisdom flows. Whose constant care and chief delight Were Scripture and ascetic rite, The good Válmíki, first and best p. 2 Of hermit saints, these words addressed: 1 'In all this world, I pray thee, who Is virtuous, heroic, true? Firm in his vows, of grateful mind, To every creature good and kind? Bounteous, and holy, just, and wise, Alone most fair to all men's eyes? Devoid of envy, firm, and sage, Whose tranquil soul ne'er yields to rage? Whom, when his warrior wrath is high, Do Gods embattled fear and fly? Whose noble might and gentle skill The triple world can guard from ill? Who is the best of princes, he Who loves his people's good to see? The store of bliss, the living mine Where brightest joys and virtues shine? Queen Fortune's  2 best and dearest friend, Whose steps her choicest gifts attend? Who may with Sun and Moon compare, With Indra,  3 Vishnu,  4 Fire, and Air? Grant, Saint divine,  5 the boon I ask, For thee, I ween, an easy task, To whom the power is given to know If such a man breathe here below.' Then Nárad, clear before whose eye The present, past, and future lie,  1b Made ready answer: 'Hermit, where Are graces found so high and rare? Yet listen, and my tongue shall tell In whom alone these virtues dwell. From old Ikshváku's  2b line he came, Known to the world by Ráma's name: With soul subdued, a chief of might, In Scripture versed, in glory bright, His steps in virtue's paths are bent, Obedient, pure, and eloquent. In each emprise he wins success, And dying foes his power confess. Tall and broad-shouldered, strong of limb, Fortune has set her mark on him. Graced with a conch-shell's triple line, His threat displays the auspicious sign. 3b p. 3 High destiny is clear impressed On massive jaw and ample chest, His mighty shafts he truly aims, And foemen in the battle tames. Deep in the muscle, scarcely shown, Embedded lies his collar-bone. His lordly steps are firm and free, His strong arms reach below his knee; 1 All fairest graces join to deck His head, his brow, his stately neck, And limbs in fair proportion set: The manliest form e'er fashioned yet. Graced with each high imperial mark, His skin is soft and lustrous dark. Large are his eyes that sweetly shine With majesty almost divine. His plighted word he ne'er forgets; On erring sense a watch he sets. By nature wise, his teacher's skill Has trained him to subdue his will. Good, resolute and pure, and strong, He guards mankind from scathe and wrong, And lends his aid, and ne'er in vain, The cause of justice to maintain. Well has he studied o'er and o'er The Vedas 2 and their kindred lore. Well skilled is he the bow to draw, 1b Well trained in arts and versed in law; High-souled and meet for happy fate, Most tender and compassionate; The noblest of all lordly givers, Whom good men follow, as the rivers Follow the King of Floods, the sea: So liberal, so just is he. The joy of Queen Kaus'alyá's 2b heart, In every virtue he has part: Firm as Himálaya's 3b snowy steep, Unfathomed like the mighty deep: The peer of Vishnu's power and might, And lovely as the Lord of Night; 4b Patient as Earth, but, roused to ire, Fierce as the world-destroying fire; In bounty like the Lord of Gold, 5b And Justice self ia human mould. With him, his best and eldest son, By all his princely virtues won King Das'aratha 6b willed to share His kingdom as the Regent Heir. But when Kaikeyí, youngest queen, With eyes of envious hate had seen The solemn pomp and regal state Prepared the prince to consecrate, She bade the hapless king bestow Two gifts he promised long ago, That Ráma to the woods should flee, And that her child the heir should be. By chains of duty firmly tied, Thw wretched king perforce complied. p. 4 Ráma, to please Kaikeyí went Obedient forth to banishment. Then Lakshman's truth was nobly shown, Then were his love and courage known, When for his brother's sake he dared All perils, and his exile shared. And Sítá, Ráma's darling wife, Loved even as he loved his life, Whom happy marks combined to bless, A miracle of loveliness, Of Janak's royal lineage sprung, Most excellent of women, clung To her dear lord, like Rohiní Rejoicing with the Moon to be.  1 The King and people, sad of mood, The hero's car awhile pursued. But when Prince Ráma lighted down At S'riugavera's pleasant town, Where Gangá's holy waters flow, He bade his driver turn and go. Guha, Nishádas' king, he met, And on the farther bank was set. Then on from wood to wood they strayed, O'er many a stream, through constant shade, As Bharadvája bade them, till They came to Chitrakúta's hill. And Ráma there, with Lakshman's aid, A pleasant little cottage made, And spent his days with Sítá, dressed In coat of bark and deerskin vest.  1b And Chitrakuta grew to be As bright with those illustrious three An Meru's  2b sacred peaks that shine With glory, when the Gods recline Beneath them: Siva's  3b self between The Lord of Gold and Beauty's Queen. The aged king for Rama pined, And for the skies the earth resigned, Bharat, his son, refused to reign, Though urged by all the twice-born  4b train. Forth to the woods he fared to meet Hia brother, fell before his feet, And cried, 'Thy claim all men allow: O come, our lord and king be thou.' But Rama nobly chose to be Observant of his sire's decree. He placed his sandals  5b in his hand A pledge that he would rule the land: And bade his brother turn again. Then Bharat. finding prayer was vain, The sandals took and went away; Nor in Ayodhyá would he stay. But turned to Nandigráma, where He ruled the realm with watchful care, Still longing eagerly to learn Tidings of Ráma's safe return. Then lest the people should repeat Their visit to his calm retreat, Away from Chitrakúta's hill Fared Ráma ever onward till p. 5 Beneath the shady trees he stood Of Dandaká's primeval wood, Virádha, giant fiend, he slew, And then Agastya's friendship knew. Counselled by him he gained the sword And bow of Indra, heavenly lord: A pair of quivers too, that bore Of arrows an exhaustless store. While there he dwelt in greenwood shade The trembling hermits sought his aid, And bade him with his sword and bow Destroy the fiends who worked them woe: To come like Indra strong and brave, A guardian God to help and save. And Ráma's falchion left its trace Deep cut on Súrpanakhá's face: A hideous giantess who came Burning for him with lawless flame. Their sister's cries the giants heard. And vengeance in each bosom stirred: The monster of the triple head. And Dúshan to the contest sped. But they and myriad fiends beside Beneath the might of Ráma died. When Rávan, dreaded warrior, knew The slaughter of his giant crew: Rávan, the king, whose name of fear Earth, hell, and heaven all shook to hear: He bade the fiend Márícha aid The vengeful plot his fury laid. In vain the wise Márícha tried To turn him from his course aside: Not Rávan's self, he said, might hope With Ráma and his strength to cope. Impelled by fate and blind with rage He came to Ráma's hermitage. There, by Márícha's magic art, He wiled the princely youths apart, The vulture 1 slew, and bore away The wife of Ráma as his prey. The son of Raghu 2 came and found Jatáyu slain upon the ground. He rushed within his leafy cot; He sought his wife, but found her not. Then, then the hero's senses failed; In mad despair he wept and wailed, Upon the pile that bird he laid, And still in quest of Sitá strayed. A hideous giant then he saw, Kabandha named, a shape of awe. The monstrous fiend he smote and slew, And in the flame the body threw; When straight from out the funeral flame In lovely form Kabandha came, And bade him seek in his distress A wise and holy hermitess. By counsel of this saintly dame To Pampá's pleasant flood he came, And there the steadfast friendship won Of Hanumán the Wind-God's son. Counselled by him he told his grief To great Sugríva, Vánar chief, Who, knowing all the tale, before The sacred flame alliance swore. Sugríva to his new-found friend Told his own story to the end: His hate of Báli for the wrong And insult he had borne so long. And Ráma lent a willing ear And promised to allay his fear. Sugríva warned him of the might Of Báli, matchless in the fight, And, credence for his tale to gain, Showed the huge fiend 1b by Báli slain. The prostrate corpse of mountain size Seemed nothing in the hero's eyes; He lightly kicked it, as it lay, And cast it twenty leagues 2b away. To prove his might his arrows through Seven palms in line, uninjured, flew. He cleft a mighty hill apart, And down to hell he hurled his dart, Then high Sugríva's spirit rose, Assured of conquest o'er his foes. With his new champion by his side To vast Kishkindhá's cave he hied. Then, summoned by his awful shout, King Báli came in fury out, First comforted his trembling wife, Then sought Sugríva in the strife. One shaft from Ráma's deadly bow The monarch in the dust laid low. Then Ráma bade Sugríva reign In place of royal Báli slain. Then speedy envoys hurried forth Eastward and westward, south and north, Commanded by the grateful king Tidings of Ráma's spouse to bring. Then by Sampáti's counsel led, Brave Hanumán, who mocked at dread, Sprang at one wild tremendous leap Two hundred leagues across the deep. To Lanká's 3b town he urged his way, Where Rávan held his royal sway. p. 6 There pensive 'neath As'oka  1 boughs He found poor Sitá, Ráma's spouse. He gave the hapless girl a ring, A token from her lord and king. A pledge from her fair hand he bore; Then battered down the garden door. Five captains of the host be slew, Seven sons of councillors o'erthrew; Crushed youthful Aksha on the field, Then to his captors chose to yield. Soon from their bonds his limbs were free, But honouring the high decree Which Brahmá had pronounced of yore,  2 He calmly all their insults bore. The town he burnt with hostile flame, And spoke again with Ráma's dame, Then swiftly back to Ráma flew With tidings of the interview.    Then with Sugríva for his guide, Came Ráma to the ocean side. He smote the sea with shafts as bright As sunbeams in their summer height, And quick appeared the Rivers' King  3 Obedient to the summoning. A bridge was thrown by Nala o'er The narrow sea from shore to shore.  4 They crossed to Lanká's golden town, Where Ráma's hand smote Rávan down. Vibhishan there was left to reign Over his brother's wide domain. To meet her husband Sitá came; But Ráma, stung with ire and shame, With bitter words his wife addressed Before the crowd that round her pressed. But Sitá, touched with noble ire, Gave her fair body to the fire. Then straight the God of Wind appeared, And words from heaven her honour cleared. And Ráma clasped his wife again, Uninjured, pure from spot and stain, Obedient to the Lord of Fire And the high mandate of his sire. Led by the Lord who rules the sky, The Gods and heavenly saints drew nigh, And honoured him with worthy meed, Rejoicing in each glorious deed. His task achieved, his foe removed, He triumphed, by the Gods approved, By grace of Heaven he raised to life The chieftains slain in mortal strife; Then in the magic chariot through The clouds to Nandigráma flew. Met by his faithful brothers there, He loosed his votive coil of hair: Thence fair Ayodhyá's town he gained, And o'er his father's kingdom reigned. Disease or famine ne'er oppressed His happy people, richly blest With all the joys of ample wealth, Of sweet content and perfect health. No widow mourned her well-loved mate, No sire his son's untimely fate. They feared not storm or robber's hand; No fire or flood laid waste the land: The Golden Age  1b had come again To bless the days of Ráma's reign.    From him, the great and glorious king, Shall many a princely scion spring. And he shall rule, beloved by men, Ten thousand years and hundreds ten, 2b And when his life on earth is past To Brahmá's world shall go at last.'    Whoe'er this noble poem reads That tells the tale of Ráma's deeds, Good as the Scriptures, he shall be From every sin and blemish free. Whoever reads the saving strain, With all his kin the heavens shall gain. Bráhmans who read shall gather hence The highest praise for eloquence. The warrior, o'er the laud shall reign, The merchant, luck in trade obtain; And S'údras listening  3b ne'er shall fail To reap advantage from the tale.  4b

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      Valmiki starts by asking Narada about the identity of a virtuous and heroic individual, someone who embodies qualities such as gratitude, righteousness, and protection of the people. Narada responds by describing the characteristics of Rama, the hero of the Ramayana. He praises Rama's physical appearance, his virtues, skills, and his commitment to justice and righteousness. Rama is depicted as the epitome of a hero, with divine-like qualities that make him comparable to gods such as Indra and Vishnu.

      In analyzing the gender aspect of the text, we can observe the traditional gender roles and definitions prevalent in the culture from which the text originates. The passage portrays Rama as the ideal hero, upholding the patriarchal norms of the society. He is described as a strong and powerful warrior, with physical attributes that emphasize his masculinity. Rama's qualities are praised, and he is depicted as the protector and savior of mankind.

      The text also portrays Sita, Rama's wife, as a devoted and obedient wife. She is described as Rama's "darling wife" who clings to him and follows him even in exile. Sita's role is primarily that of a supportive and loyal wife, whose virtue and purity are highlighted. However, it is important to note that in later parts of the Ramayana, Sita's agency and strength are further explored, challenging traditional gender roles.

      In terms of linguistic value, the text is composed in a poetic and descriptive manner, employing vivid imagery and metaphors to depict the qualities of the hero and his spouse. The language used is rich and evocative, contributing to the aesthetic appeal of the work.

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    1. Bhishma is one of the central characters of the Mahabharata. Bhishma was born as Devevrata and is the grand sire of the heros and villans of the epic mahabharata. Once the eight Vasus visited Vashishta's ashram with their wives, one of the wives took a fancy to Nandini and asked her husband Prabhasa, to steal it from Vashishta. Prabhasa the vasu,stole it with the help of the others, and was cursed by Vashishta to be born in the world of men. The seven Vasus who assist in stealing Nandini have their curse softened to be liberated from their human birth as soon as they are born, but Prabhasa, due to his being instrumental in the theft, is cursed to endure a longer life on the earth, though the curse is softened so that he becomes one of the most illustrious men of his times.The youngest brother is born as Bhishma the youngest son of Shantanu by his first wife Ganga (the holy River), The other 7, were born as the older siblings of Bhishma, who were drowned by their mother Ganga as soon as they were born, thus fulfilling the softened curse on them.Shantanu was the 12th king of a line starting from Dushyanta and Bharata, though the vansh (family or progeny) is said to have started with Bharata the great.Bhishma learnt political science from Brihaspati, the guru of the Devas, Vedas and Vedangas from rishi Vasishta, and archery from Parashurama, also known as Bhargava, thus becoming an exceptionally skilled administrator, as well as an undefeatable warrior. His banner in battle was a golden palm tree.He was known as 'Bhishma Pitamaha' (i.e., Bhishma, the grandfather or grandsire) among the Pandavas and the Kauravas. Bhishma is considered to be one of the greatest examples of a dutibound officer.'Bhishma' means 'He of the terrible oath', referring to his vow of life-long celibacy. Devavrata became known as Bhishma because he took the bhishan pratigya — the vow of life-long celibacy and of service to whoever sat on the throne of his father (the throne of Hastinapur). This was because when his father Shantanu wanted to marry a fisherwoman Satyavati, her father refused, on the grounds that his daughter's children would never be rulers as Shantanu already had a son (Devavrata). This made Shantanu despondent. To placate Satyavati's father, Devavrata promised that he would never stake a claim to the throne, implying that the child born to Shantanu and Satyavati would become the ruler after Shantanu. At this, Satyavati's father retorted that even if Devavrata gave up his claim to the throne, his (Devavrata's) children would still claim the throne. At this, Devavrata, to make his father happy, took the terrible vow, thus sacrificing his 'crown-prince' title and denying himself the pleasures of intercourse. This gave him immediate recognition among the gods and his father granted him the boon of Ichha Mrityu (control over his own death — he could choose the time of his death, but not, as may be suggested, one of immortality).Bhishma was a great archer and a warrior of peerless valour and courage. In the process of finding a bride for the young king Vichitravirya (son of Shantanu and Satyavati) for whom he was the regent, Bhishma challenged the assemblage of suitors at the swayamvar of princesses Amba, Ambika and Ambalika of Kashi (Varanasi) and defeated all of them. Unknown to Bhishma, Salwa, the ruler of Saubala was in love with Amba (the eldest princess) who reciprocated his feelings. On the way to Hastinapura with the princesses, Bhishma was confronted by Salwa who challenged him to a battle for the hand of Amba in marriage. After a hard fight, Salwa was vanquished and admitted defeat. Upon reaching Hastinapur Amba confided in Bhishma that she wished to wed Salwa and no other. When Bhishma sent her back to Salwa, the vanquished ruler turned her down in humiliation of losing the combat. Upon being turned down by Vichitravirya too, as a maiden who had loved another man, Amba was incensed at Bhishma, whose interference she perceived as the root cause of her troubles.Amba took refuge with Parasurama, the guru of bhisma. Parasurama ordered Bhishma to marry Amba. Bhishma politely refused saying that he is ready to leave his life at the command of the teacher but not the promise that he had made. Upon the refusal Parasurama called him for a fight at Kurukshetra.At the battlegrounds, while Bhishma was on a chariot, he saw his guru on the ground. He requested Parasurama to be equal to him by taking a chariot and Kavacham (armor). Parasurama blessed Bhishma with the power of divine vision and asked him to look again. When Bhishma looked at his guru with the divine eye-sight, he saw the Earth as Parasurama's chariot, the four Vedas as the horses, the Upanishads as the reins, Vayu as the sarathy (Charioteer) and the Vedic goddesses Gayatri, Savitri & Saraswati as the armor.Bhishma got down from the chariot and sought the blessings of Parasurama to adhere to his dharma. Parasurama told him that if he would not have behaved in this manner Parasurama would have cursed him. Parasurama advised him to fight to protect his dharma of bramacharya and Prasurama would fight to protect his duty towards the word given to Amba.They fought for 23 days without any result. Parasurama is a chiranjeev or immortal whereas Bhishma had the boon of death at his wish. On the 22nd night, Bhishma prayed to his ancestors to help him to bring the war to an end. His anscestors gave him a weapon which was not known to Parasurama . They told him that it would put Parasurama to sleep in the battlefield. A person who sleeps in the battlefield is considered to be dead as per Vedas. They advised Bhishma to call back the weapon at the end of day after sunset so that Parasurama will come back to his sense and that shall bring the end to war.On the 23rd day, when Bhishma took the weapon given by his pitru's, a divine voice spoke to him asking not to use the weapon and insult his guru Parasurama and it told Parasurama that he cannot win over Bhishma in the war. But Parasurama said that he cannot go back from the war when Bhishma is still standing against him in the battlefield. Bhishma in respect of his teacher walked away from the combat and allowed a graceful exit for Parasurama.Parasurama told amba that he could not win over Bhishma and gave her the boon of "mahakal shiva". Amba did penance to please Shiva. Shiva gave the boon that she will be instrumental for the death of Bhishma. Amba would be born as a princess in the house of king Drupada, and as a consequence of another boon would be transformed into Shikhandi (a male) and be the root cause of Bhishma's death.He is the one who witnessed the Mahābhārata completely from the beginning since the rule of the Shantanu.In the great battle at Kurukshetra, Bhishma, bound by his oath to serve the ruler of Hastinapura, fought very reluctantly on the side of the Kauravas; nevertheless, he gave it his best effort. At one stage, his impeccable military prowess, combined with Arjuna's disinclination to fight him, almost made Lord Krishna break His vow of not actually fighting in the war. Krishna charged at Bhishma to kill him with a chariot wheel and was welcomed with folded hands by the grandsire. Then Arjuna pleaded with Krishna to stop and reminded him of the vow.Bhishma was finally grievously wounded on the tenth day of the battle by Arjuna, who hid behind another warrior Shikhandi, and rained arrows on the grandsire. Bhishma knew that Shikhandi was born a woman and to strike a woman he deemed unworthy of the chivalrous. Thus, the warrior did not resist but merely remarked to Dushasana, "These are Arjuna's arrows, they cannot be Shikhandi's because they tear my flesh as a crab's young ones tear their mother's body." Of all of Duryodhana's commander-in-chiefs, Bhishma had held off the inevitable defeat the longest. He was the supreme commander of the Kaurava forces for ten days compared to Drona's five, Karna's two and Salya on the final day. Bhishma fell, his entire body resting on a pincushion of Arjuna's arrows. After that Drona become the Commander-in-Chief of Kaurav army. After his demise Karna replaced him. Soon after this, Karna, who in the face of Bhishma's criticism had sworn his vow to keep out of the Kurukshetra till the withdrawal of Bhishma, approached the grandsire to seek his blessings. Bhishma reveals to Karna that he always knew the truth of the latter's parentage and implored him to persuade Duryodhana (at this point he also told Karna that he had not allowed to fight him under his command as he did not want the real brothers to fight with each other) to end the carnage that had already resulted in such great slaughter. Upon Karna's refusal and insistence to remain true to Duryodhana, he nevertheless received the grandsire's blessing. He lay on the 'bed of arrows' till the end of the battle, and chose to die only after learning that the Pandavas had won, as he was now assured that the throne of Hastinapura was in safe hands. In his last days before he ascended to heaven, he recited to Yudhisthira the famous hymn to Vishnu, the Vishnu sahasranama. Bhishma also admitted he had been wrong to fight for Duryodhana even though he was the king's employee since one's only allegiance is towards righteousness.

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      The text highlights the traditional gender expectations placed on Bhishma, depicting him as a paragon of masculinity. He is described as "an exceptionally skilled administrator" and "an undefeatable warrior". These exemplify the societal expectations of men as strong, knowledgeable, and powerful figures.

      The story introduces the concept of Bhishma's vow of celibacy, known as the "bhishan pratigya," which becomes a defining characteristic of his identity. This vow, driven by devotion and duty towards his father and the throne, showcases the sacrifice of personal desires for the sake of societal and familial obligations. The text states, "Devavrata promised that he would never stake a claim to the throne," implying the relinquishment of personal aspirations. This vow embodies the traditional gender roles that expect men to prioritize duty and suppress personal desires.

      Furthermore, the narrative walks into the challenges faced by women, exemplified through the character of Amba. Amba's desires and choices are undermined by male figures such as Bhishma and Parasurama. Her pursuit of love and autonomy is hindered by societal norms and the interference of powerful male figures. The text states, "Upon being turned down by Vichitravirya too, as a maiden who had loved another man, Amba was incensed at Bhishma". This quote highlights the limited action and struggles faced by women within the patriarchal framework.

      There is an emphasis on the importance of considering the linguistic value of the text. The interpretation, translation, and editing of the Mahabharata can be influenced by the biases and patriarchal mindset of the translators, editors, or scribes involved. It is crucial to critically analyze the text, recognizing the potential manipulations and biases that might have shaped its content.

      In conclusion, Bhishma from the Mahabharta underlines the patriarchal nature of the narrative, the suppression of women's effect, and the construction of the hero figure within the cultural and social context.

      Note: This annotation is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0) license. This means that others are free to share and adapt this work for non-commercial purposes as long as they attribute the original author and use the same CC license for their derivative works.

    1. The play is set in Troezen, a coastal town in the north-eastern Peloponnese. Theseus, the king of Athens, is serving a year's voluntary exile after having murdered a local king and his sons. His illegitimate son is Hippolytus, whose birth is the result of Theseus's rape of the Amazon Hippolyta. Hippolytus has been trained since childhood by the king of Troezen, Pittheus. At the opening of the play Aphrodite, Goddess of love, explains that Hippolytus has sworn chastity and refuses to revere her. Instead, he honours the Goddess of the hunt, Artemis. This has led her to initiate a plan of vengeance on Hippolytus. When Hippolytus went to Athens two years previously Aphrodite inspired Phaedra, Hippolytus' stepmother, to fall in love with him. Hippolytus appears with his followers and shows reverence to a statue of Artemis, a chaste goddess. A servant warns him about slighting Aphrodite, but Hippolytus refuses to listen. The chorus, consisting of young married women of Troezen, enters and describes how Theseus's wife, Phaedra has not eaten or slept in three days. Phaedra, sickly, appears with her nurse. After an agonizing discussion, Phaedra finally confesses why she is ill: she loves Hippolytus. The nurse and the chorus are shocked. Phaedra explains that she must starve herself and die with her honour intact and to save Theseus from shame. However, the nurse quickly retracts her initial response and tells Phaedra that she has a magical charm to cure her. However, in an aside she reveals different plans. The nurse, after making Hippolytus swear not to tell anyone, informs Hippolytus of Phaedra's desire and suggests that Hippolytus consider yielding to her. He reacts with a furious tirade and threatens to tell his father, Theseus, everything as soon as he arrives. Phaedra realizes disaster has fallen. After making the chorus swear secrecy, she goes inside and hangs herself. Theseus returns and discovers his wife's dead body. Because the chorus is sworn to secrecy, they cannot tell Theseus why she killed herself. Theseus discovers a letter on Phaedra's body, which falsely asserts that she was raped by Hippolytus. Enraged, Theseus curses his son either to death or at least exile. To execute the curse, Theseus calls upon his father, the god Poseidon, who has promised to grant his son three wishes. Hippolytus enters and protests his innocence but cannot tell the truth because of the binding oath that he swore. Taking Phaedra's letter as proof, Hippolytus proudly defends his innocence, saying that he has never looked at any women with sexual desire. Theseus does not believe his son and still exiles him. As Hippolytus is departing he swears that if he lying then Zeus should strike him down on the spot. The chorus sings a lament for Hippolytus. A messenger enters and describes a gruesome scene to Theseus; as Hippolytus got in his chariot to leave the kingdom, a bull roared out of the sea, frightening his horses, which dashed his chariot among the rocks, dragging Hippolytus behind. Hippolytus seems to be dying. The messenger protests Hippolytus' innocence, but Theseus refuses to believe him. Theseus is glad that Hippolytus is suffering and about to die. But then the goddess, Artemis, appears and rages at Theseus for killing his own son; she brutally tells him the truth and that Aphrodite was behind all their suffering due to her feeling disrespected due to Hippolytus's pride in his chastity: there was no rape, Phaedra had lied, his son was innocent. Theseus is painfully devastated by this revelation. Hippolytus is carried in physically battered and barely clinging to life. In the last moments of the play, Hippolytus forgives his father, kind words are exchanged between father and son, and then Hippolytus dies. Theseus is then left living to dwell on the fact that he killed his beloved son.

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      Title: Gender Roles and Tragic Consequences in Hippolytus

      The play "Hippolytus" by Euripides explores the complex dynamics of gender roles and the tragic consequences that arise from societal expectations and the manipulation of divine powers. The story revolves around the conflict between Aphrodite, the goddess of love, and Hippolytus, a devoted follower of Artemis, the goddess of the hunt. By examining key quotes and significant events, we can delve into the portrayal of gender roles and the repercussions they have on the characters within the play.

      At the beginning of the play, Aphrodite expresses her frustration with Hippolytus's refusal to revere her and his unwavering devotion to Artemis (2, 1-3). This sets the stage for Aphrodite's plan of vengeance, highlighting the power dynamics between male and female deities and the consequences of defying traditional gender expectations. The conflict between the two goddesses serves as a backdrop for the subsequent events that unfold.

      When Phaedra, Hippolytus's stepmother, falls in love with him due to Aphrodite's influence, it highlights the vulnerability of women in a patriarchal society and their susceptibility to the manipulation of divine powers (2, 6-7). Phaedra's unrequited love for Hippolytus becomes a catalyst for the tragic events that follow, illustrating the destructive consequences of crossing societal boundaries and challenging established gender roles.

      Throughout the play, Phaedra grapples with her forbidden desires and the notion of preserving her honor (5, 19-22). Her internal struggle reflects the societal pressures placed on women to adhere to strict moral codes and maintain their virtuous reputation. Phaedra's ultimate decision to starve herself and die to protect Theseus from shame illustrates the extreme lengths she is willing to go to uphold the expectations of female purity and chastity.

      The nurse, a secondary character, plays a significant role in circulating gender norms and contributing to the tragic outcome. Initially, she appears to be supportive of Phaedra's plight and offers a magical charm to cure her (4, 15-17). However, in an aside, the nurse reveals her ulterior motive, suggesting that Phaedra should yield to her desires (4, 16-18). This manipulation demonstrates the complexities of gender dynamics and the potential for women to contribute to the perpetuation of the patriarchal norms.

      Hippolytus, on the other hand, vehemently rejects Phaedra's advances and fiercely defends his chastity and loyalty to Artemis (5, 17-19). His refusal to yield to Aphrodite's power highlights his unwavering commitment to his chosen deity and his defiance of traditional gender expectations. Hippolytus's unwavering adherence to his principles ultimately leads to his tragic downfall.

      The false accusation of rape leveled against Hippolytus exposes the destructive potential of gender-based assumptions and societal biases. Theseus, Phaedra's husband and Hippolytus's father, believes the fabricated story and condemns his son to exile or death (6, 21-26). Theseus's inability to question the validity of the accusation reflects the deeply ingrained prejudices and expectations placed on women and men within the society.

      The tragic climax of the play occurs when Artemis reveals the truth to Theseus, exposing Aphrodite's manipulations and Phaedra's deception (9, 31-33). This revelation highlights the devastating consequences that arise from the manipulation of gender roles and the abuse of power by divine entities. The final reconciliation between Hippolytus and Theseus serves as a poignant moment, emphasizing the tragedy of a father's realization that he has killed his own son due to his blind adherence to societal expectations.

      In conclusion, "Hippolytus" delves into the complexities of gender roles and the tragic outcomes that arise from the manipulation of societal expectations and divine powers. The play highlights the vulnerability of women, the defiance of male protagonists, and the destructive consequences of rigid gender norms. By examining key quotes and pivotal events, we gain a deeper understanding of the portrayal of gender roles in the play and the profound impact they have on the characters' lives.

    1. IV To him the stateliest[1] spake in answer; the warriors’ leader his word-hoard unlocked:— 260“We are by kin of the clan of Geats, and Hygelac’s own hearth-fellows we. To folk afar was my father known, noble atheling, Ecgtheow named. Full of winters, he fared away 265agéd from earth; he is honored still through width of the world by wise men all. To thy lord and liege in loyal mood we hasten hither, to Healfdene’s son, people-protector: be pleased to advise us! 270To that mighty-one come we on mickle errand, to the lord of the Danes; nor deem I right that aught be hidden. We hear—thou knowest if sooth it is—the saying of men, that amid the Scyldings a scathing monster, 275dark ill-doer, in dusky nights shows terrific his rage unmatched, hatred and murder. To Hrothgar I in greatness of soul would succor bring, so the Wise-and-Brave[2] may worst his foes.— 280 if ever the end of ills is fated, of cruel contest, if cure shall follow, and the boiling care-waves[3] cooler grow; else ever afterward anguish-days he shall suffer in sorrow while stands in place 285 high on its hill that house unpeered!” Astride his steed, the strand-ward answered, clansman unquailing: ”The keen-souled thane must be skilled to sever and sunder duly words and works, if he well intends. 290 I gather, this band is graciously bent to the Scyldings’ master. March, then, bearing weapons and weeds the way I show you. I will bid my men your boat meanwhile to guard for fear lest foemen come,— 295 your new-tarred ship by shore of ocean faithfully watching till once again it waft o’er the waters those well-loved thanes, —winding-neck’d wood,—to Weders’ bounds, heroes such as the hest of fate 300shall succor and save from the shock of war.”[4] They bent them to march,—the boat lay still, fettered by cable and fast at anchor, broad-bosomed ship.—Then shone the boars[5] over the cheek-guard; chased with gold, 305 keen and gleaming, guard it kept o’er the man of war, as marched along heroes in haste, till the hall they saw, broad of gable and bright with gold: that was the fairest, ’mid folk of earth, 310 of houses ’neath heaven, where Hrothgar lived, and the gleam of it lightened o’er lands afar. The sturdy shieldsman showed that bright burg-of-the-boldest; bade them go straightway thither; his steed then turned, 315 hardy hero, and hailed them thus:— “ ’Tis time that I fare from you. Father Almighty in grace and mercy guard you well, safe in your seekings. Seaward I go, ’gainst hostile warriors hold my watch.”

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      Title: Gender Roles and Heroic Constructs in Beowulf: Chapter IV

      Chapter IV of Beowulf continues to explore gender roles and the construction of heroism within the narrative. In this section, Beowulf and his companions arrive at Heorot, Hrothgar's hall, and engage in a conversation with the watchman stationed there. Examining this interaction sheds light on societal expectations, cultural norms, and the role of heroes within the Beowulf tale.

      Beowulf's introduction to the watchman emphasizes his noble lineage and his kinship with the Geats. By highlighting his father, Ecgtheow, as a renowned noble atheling, the text establishes Beowulf's credentials and strengthens his heroic image (lV. 260-265). This portrayal reflects the importance of ancestry and heritage in defining one's heroic stature. In Beowulf's case, his noble lineage contributes to his status as a worthy protector and champion.

      The watchman's response to Beowulf's arrival further reveals the hierarchical nature of heroism and societal expectations. The watchman acknowledges the need for a skilled warrior to demonstrate prowess in both words and deeds, underscoring the importance of verbal and physical prowess in establishing one's heroism (ll. 287-291). The ability to eloquently articulate one's intentions and demonstrate martial skill are essential attributes for a hero in this epic.

      The symbolic value of the ship and the imagery associated with it contribute to the overall heroic narrative. The ship, described as "new-tarred" and faithfully guarded by Beowulf's men, represents their connection to their homeland and their role as protectors of their people (ll. 295-296). The gleaming boars on the cheek-guards of the warriors' helmets further reinforce the heroic imagery, representing their strength, courage, and ferocity in battle (ll. 304-305).

      The cultural significance of Heorot, Hrothgar's hall, is emphasized through vivid descriptions. The hall is described as the "fairest 'mid folk of earth" and its gleam reaches lands afar (ll. 309-311). This portrayal highlights Heorot's central role as a gathering place, a symbol of power and civilization, and a testament to Hrothgar's kingship. The magnificence of Heorot contributes to the grandeur of the narrative and enhances the heroic setting in which the characters operate.

      To conclude, Chapter IV of Beowulf highlights Beowulf's noble lineage and his embodiment of heroic attributes. The interaction with the watchman reinforces the societal expectations placed on heroes, both in their words and actions. The symbolism associated with the ship and Heorot contributes to the heroic narrative and emphasizes the grandeur of the setting.

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    1. III Thus seethed[1] unceasing the son of Healfdene 190with the woe of these days; not wisest men assuaged his sorrow; too sore the anguish, loathly and long, that lay on his folk, most baneful of burdens and bales of the night. This heard in his home Hygelac’s thane, 195great among Geats, of Grendel’s doings. He was the mightiest man of valor in that same day of this our life, stalwart and stately. A stout wave-walker he bade make ready.[2] Yon battle-king, said he, 200far o’er the swan-road he fain would seek, the noble monarch who needed men! The prince’s journey by prudent folk was little blamed, though they loved him dear; they whetted the hero, and hailed good omens.[3] 205And now the bold one from bands of Geats comrades chose, the keenest of warriors e’er he could find; with fourteen men[4] the sea-wood[5] he sought, and, sailor[6] proved, led them on to the land’s confines. 210⁠Time had now flown;[7] afloat was the ship, boat under bluff. On board they climbed, warriors ready; waves were churning sea with sand; the sailors bore on the breast of the bark their bright array, 215their mail and weapons: the men pushed off, on its willing way, the well-braced craft. Then moved o’er the waters by might of the wind that bark like a bird with breast of foam, till in season due, on the second day, 220the curved prow such course had run that sailors now could see the land, sea-cliffs shining, steep high hills, headlands broad. Their haven was found, their journey ended. Up then quickly 225the Weders’[8] clansmen climbed ashore, anchored their sea-wood, with armor clashing and gear of battle: God they thanked for passing in peace o’er the paths of the sea. ⁠Now saw from the cliff a Scylding clansman, 230a warden[9] that watched the water-side, how they bore o’er the gangway glittering shields, war-gear in readiness; wonder seized him to know what manner of men they were. Straight to the strand his steed he rode, 235Hrothgar’s henchman; with hand of might he shook his spear,[10] and spake in parley. “Who are ye, then, ye arméd men, mailéd folk, that yon mighty vessel have urged thus over the ocean ways, 240here o’er the waters? A warden I, sentinel set o’er the sea-march here, lest any foe to the folk of Danes with harrying fleet should harm the land. No aliens ever at ease thus bore them, 245linden-wielders:[11] yet word-of-leave clearly ye lack from clansmen here, my folk’s agreement.—A greater ne’er saw I of warriors in world than is one of you,— yon hero in harness! No henchman he 250worthied by weapons, if witness his features, his peerless presence! I pray you, though, tell your folk and home, lest hence ye fare suspect to wander your way as spies in Danish land. Now, dwellers afar, 255ocean-travellers, take from me simple advice: the sooner the better I hear of the country whence ye came.”

      CC Licensing: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0)

      Title: Gender Roles and Heroic Constructs in Beowulf: Chapter III

      Beowulf's valor and his reputation as the "mightiest man of valor" highlight the significance placed on masculine strength and courage in defining the hero (llI 196). The portrayal of Beowulf as a "stout wave-walker" and his readiness to embark on a perilous journey reflect the expectations of heroic masculinity. These descriptions emphasize physical attributes and reinforce the notion that heroism is closely tied to male prowess and to their worth as a person.

      The text also subtly implies a supportive and trusting relationship between Beowulf and his community. The phrase "though they loved him dear" suggests that his decision to undertake the quest receives little criticism or opposition (III, 203). This acceptance aligns with the cultural expectation that heroes, particularly male heroes, are duty-bound to undertake perilous missions to protect and aid their communities. It reinforces the idea that heroism is not only about individual strength but also about the support and recognition of the larger social group.

      The linguistic value of the text is preserved through its evocative descriptions and poetic devices. The use of alliteration, such as "mighty vessel," "sea with sand," and "well-braced craft," creates a rhythmic and vivid reading experience (llI 212-216). This poetic quality enhances the narrative and contributes to the oral tradition of the poem, allowing the audience to engage with the story on multiple levels.

      Note: This annotation is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0) license. This means that others are free to share and adapt this work for non-commercial purposes as long as they attribute the original author and use the same CC license for their derivative works.

    1. II 115Went he forth to find at fall of night that haughty house, and heed wherever the Ring-Danes, outrevelled, to rest had gone. Found within it the atheling band asleep after feasting and fearless of sorrow, 120of human hardship. Unhallowed wight, grim and greedy, he grasped betimes, wrathful, reckless, from resting-places, thirty[1] of the thanes, and thence he rushed fain of his fell spoil, faring homeward, 125laden with slaughter, his lair to seek. Then at the dawning, as day was breaking, the might of Grendel to men was known; then after wassail was wail uplifted, loud moan in the morn. The mighty chief, 130atheling excellent, unblithe sat, labored in woe for the loss of his thanes, when once had been traced the trail of the fiend, spirit accurst: too cruel that sorrow, too long, too loathsome.[2] Not late the respite; 135with night returning, anew began ruthless murder; he recked no whit, firm in his guilt, of the feud and crime. They were easy to find who elsewhere sought in room remote their rest at night, 140bed in the bowers,[3] when that bale was shown, was seen in sooth, with surest token,— the hall-thane’s[4] hate. Such held themselves far and fast who the fiend outran! Thus ruled unrighteous and raged his fill 145one against all; until empty stood that lordly building, and long it bode so. Twelve years’ tide the trouble he bore, sovran of Scyldings, sorrows in plenty, boundless cares. There came unhidden 150tidings true to the tribes of men, in sorrowful songs,[5] how ceaselessly Grendel harassed Hrothgar, what hate he bore him, what murder and massacre, many a year, feud unfading,—refused consent 155to deal with any of Daneland’s earls, make pact of peace, or compound for gold: still less did the wise men ween to get great fee for the feud from his fiendish hands.[6] But the evil one ambushed old and young, 160death-shadow dark, and dogged them still, lured, and lurked in the livelong night of misty moorlands: men may say not where the haunts of these Hell-Runes[7] be. Such heaping of horrors the hater of men, 165lonely roamer, wrought unceasing, harassings heavy. O’er Heorot he lorded, gold-bright hall, in gloomy nights; and ne’er could the prince[8] approach his throne, —’twas judgment of God,—or have joy in his hall. 170Sore was the sorrow to Scyldings’-friend, heart-rending misery. Many nobles sat assembled, and searched out counsel how it were best for bold-hearted men against harassing terror to try their hand. 175Whiles they vowed in their heathen fanes altar-offerings, asked with words[9] that the slayer-of-souls[10] would succor give them for the pain of their people. Their practice this, their heathen hope; ’twas Hell they thought of 180in mood of their mind. Almighty they knew not, Doomsman of Deeds[11] and dreadful Lord, nor Heaven’s-Helmet heeded they ever, Wielder-of-Wonder.—Woe for that man who in harm and hatred hales his soul 185to fiery embraces;—nor favor nor change awaits he ever. But well for him that after death-day may draw to his Lord, and friendship find in the Father’s arms!

      CC Licensing: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0)

      Title: Gender Roles and Heroic Constructs in Beowulf: Chapter II

      In chapter 2 the exploration of gender roles and the construction of the hero within the text continues.

      The opening lines reveal the aftermath of Grendel's ruthless attacks on the Ring-Danes. The phrase "that haughty house" refers to Heorot, the magnificent mead-hall. The contrast between the evil Grendel and the unsuspecting, slumbering atheling band, predominantly consisting of men, highlights the vulnerability of the male heroes in the face of a monstrous threat. This portrayal challenges traditional gender expectations, where men are typically depicted as protectors and warriors.

      As the poem progresses, it becomes evident that Grendel's reign of terror specifically targets male warriors, emphasizing the disruption of gender roles and the erosion of male heroism. The repetition of terms such as "than," "atheling," and "thanes" underscores the predominantly male victims of Grendel's attacks, while women remain largely absent from the narrative. This absence suggests a limited role for women in the heroic context of the poem, reinforcing traditional gender roles that associate heroism primarily with men.

      The linguistic value this chapter is shown through its descriptive language and imagery. The use of alliteration, rhythm, and vivid metaphors contributes to the poem's aesthetic appeal and oral performance. The repetition of sounds and words, such as "ruthless murder" and "lured and lurked," adds emphasis and evokes a sense of foreboding, heightening the emotional impact of the narrative.

      It's significant to also note that the translator/editor/scribe of the time had, at least partially, their opinion in the text. And the socio-cultural context on the representation of gender roles in the text. The dominance of a patriarchal mindset during the translation, gathering, and manipulation of the text might have influenced the portrayal of gender dynamics, potentially perpetuating or reinforcing gender biases prevalent at the time.

      Comparatively, analyzing the representation of gender roles in multiple versions of Beowulf would provide a deeper understanding of the variations and nuances present in different translations and editions. It is essential to examine the translator's choices, the cultural and historical context in which the translation was produced, and the potential influence of contemporary gender politics on the interpretation and presentation of the text. Gender roles can be a complicated and complex topic, especially when it is in context of older societies and we don't know their expectations and norms fully as we know our own.

      Note: This annotation is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0) license. This means that others are free to share and adapt this work for non-commercial purposes as long as they attribute the original author and use the same CC license for their derivative works.

    1. CC Licensing: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0)

      Title: Gender Roles and Heroic Constructs in Beowulf: Chapter I Analysis

      Chapter 1 of Beowulf introduces the context and sets the stage for the exploration of gender roles and the construction of the hero within the text. The societal dynamics and gender expectations prevalent in the culture of the Scyldings, as depicted in the poem, provide valuable insights into the representation of gender in early English literature.

      In the opening lines, Beowulf, the beloved leader of the Scyldings, is portrayed as a revered figure who has ruled with fame since his father's passing. This initial portrayal aligns with traditional heroic constructs that associate male leadership and power. The mention of Healfdene, the heir who awakens, highlights the succession of power within the patriarchal structure of the society.

      Further, the introduction of Hrothgar and his descendants showcases a lineage of influential men, emphasizing the continuation of male dominance. The absence of significant female characters, except for the mention of an unnamed queen, points to the limited role women play within the narrative, reinforcing traditional gender roles of the time.

      The construction of Heorot, the magnificent mead-hall, serves as a symbol of Hrothgar's power and prosperity. It becomes a central gathering place where male warriors partake in revelry and boast of their exploits. The emphasis on male camaraderie and the absence of women within this space reinforces the notion of male heroism and the exclusion of women from the heroic narrative.

      However, it is essential to consider the influence of the time period and the potential biases of the translator/editor/scribe on the representation of gender roles in the text. The societal norms and patriarchal mindset prevalent during the translation or transcription of Beowulf may have influenced the portrayal of gender dynamics, leading to a limited perspective on the roles and contributions of women.

      Additionally, the linguistic value of the work can be observed in the poetic techniques employed, such as alliteration and rhythmic patterns, that contribute to the oral tradition of the poem. These linguistic devices enhance the aesthetic and performative aspects of the text, capturing the attention and imagination of the audience.

      In conclusion, this section of Beowulf presents an initial glimpse into the gender politics and the construct of the hero within the culture depicted in the poem. The emphasis on male leadership, the exclusion of women from prominent roles, and the construction of Heorot as a male-dominated space reflect the prevailing gender roles of the time. However, it is crucial to critically analyze the text's linguistic value and consider the potential influence of the translator/editor/scribe and the socio-cultural context on the portrayal of gender dynamics in Beowulf.

      Note: This annotation is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0) license. This means that others are free to share and adapt this work for non-commercial purposes as long as they attribute the original author and use the same CC license for their derivative works.

  8. Feb 2023
    1. That key, according to Malesic is, “A simple willingness to learn.” While I agree with the general sentiment of Malesic’s point, there is an implication that students, perhaps in general, are not willing to learn, and I don’t believe this to be true. Students, in my experience, very much want to learn, but the structure of schooling is often aligned against learning.

      this statement backs up what i said previously. if students were taught differently i think that it would make a huge difference and whether they use an AI to write or doing it on their own.

    2. It’s why I continue to believe this technology is an opportunity for reinvention, precisely because it is a threat to the status quo.

      I agree, i think that this does affect student learning and the fact that you can ask an AI system to do something that students are having trouble doing it is something that is questioned because where is it going wrong. its not the fact that their is an AI system but that students don't know the process of writing a good paper

    1. ChatGPT came out strong and punched me right in the face, selecting the very two poets that were top-of-mind for me:

      The problem is the amount of time it takes to research something and understand it for students is relatively longer but students can understand an AI would already know the information and be able to write you up a paper on the "very two poets" in less than 5 minutes

    1. Unlike Google, ChatGPT doesn’t crawl the web for information on current events, and itsknowledge is restricted to things it learned before 2021,

      you will always be able to tell the difference between human work and a AI because a human can touch on a topic and move on to the next. The AI goes in depth talking about one subject and even adds a little to much detail in places rather than keep it simple. i think that the machine knowing all is giving all its knowledge of anything before 2021 on it as to just answering the question that's asked of it.

    2. Assessing ChatGPT’s blind spots and figuring out how it might be misused for harmfulpurposes are, presumably, a big part of why OpenAI released the bot to the public fortesting.

      I feel is it normal to wonder how far humans will take AI and its ability. Not only that, but how dangerous can AI become if we do not take the proper precautions? But I'm not worried about world domination, but the spread of misinformation which is notorious for causing horrible events to happen, loss of jobs which has created the worst times in history, and loss of creativity which is a path undefined because we have never reached this level of technology. All of it is terrifying to think about and makes me wonder if we will place caps on where AI can be, how it can be used, and who can use it as it develops.

    3. But ChatGPT feels different. Smarter. Weirder. More flexible. It can write jokes (some ofwhich are actually funny), working computer code and college-level essays. It can alsoguess at medical diagnoses, create text-based Harry Potter games and explain scientificconcepts at multiple levels of difficulty

      I remember seeing funny posts on how horrible previous forms of AI chats were which never truly gave the right answer or fully grasped all that was said to them, creating funny or confusing answers to things. However, ChatGBT is oddly and unnervingly more advanced than those other AI systems. It has a writing style, it can create detailed answers, and it fully understands what it is being asked. It is completely different from what has come out before.

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  9. Jan 2023
    1. Don't you notice that the power of seeing and what's seen dohave such a need?"

      I find this certain sentence within this section of the reading to be actually a bit confusing to myself. The question that is being posed here is just something I don't quite understand. When the question of "don't you notice that the power of seeing and what's seen do have such a need?" is being asked, what exactly is the difference between the power of seeing and what's seen? I understand it is a very philosophical question I suppose, but what does the question and the difference between the two mean?

    1. The obvious event is the so-called ‘bonne saison’, a French zooarchaeological term for the time at the end of winter when rivers unfreeze, the snow melts, and the landscape begins to green. This of course varies by several weeks from the south to the north of Europe, but corresponds approximately to late spring. We hypothesize that spring, therefore, with its obvious signals of the end of winter and corresponding faunal migrations to breeding grounds, would have provided an obvious, if regionally differing, point of origin for the lunar calendar.
  10. Dec 2022
    1. 经认证,在spring boot的版本号为1.5.0的时候 添加spring-boot-starter-reids就找不到jar包了,也就是这个jar包直接被废弃了。所以千万要注意的是:如果你的spring boot的版本号在1.5.0以后的,添加redis的jar包就必须是spring-boot-starter-data-redis。。。。