49 Matching Annotations
  1. Oct 2023
    1. virtually every sentence of the critique 00:04:20 presents difficulties attempts have been made to provide commentaries comprehensively illuminating uh comprehensively illuminating each individual section of the work 00:04:33 and some of these run to several volumes without getting near its end and then one commentator com noting what it's like to read the critique of pure reason says it is quote 00:04:46 a disagreeable task because the work is dry obscure opposed to all ordinary notions and long-winded as well who said that 00:04:59 kant
      • for: Kant, quote, quote- Kant, Kant - critique of pure reason - difficult to understand

      • quote: on reading the Critique of Pure Reason

        • a disagreeable task because the work is dry obscure opposed to all ordinary notions and long-winded as well
      • author: Immanuel Kant

      • comment

        • Now I don't feel so bad! :D
    2. can't face this in his own time after the first edition which came out in 1781 it was obvious in no time that both friends and critics 00:02:50 systematically misunderstood what he was trying to convey
      • for: Kant, Kant - misunderstood

      • comment

        • Kant was misunderstood as soon as he published
    3. the human mind will ever 00:00:59 give up metaphysical research is as little to be expected as that we should prefer to give up breathing all together to avoid inhaling impure air there will therefore always be 00:01:13 metaphysics in the world nay everyone especially every man of reflection will have it and for want of a recognized standard will shape it for himself after his own 00:01:24 pattern
      • for: Kant, quote, quote - metaphysics, quote - Kant, critique of pure reason, Dan Robinson, philosophy, quote - metaphysics - ubiquity

      • quote

        • the human mind will ever give up metaphysical research is as little to be expected
        • as that we should prefer to give up breathing all together to avoid inhaling impure air
        • there will therefore always be metaphysics in the world
        • nay everyone especially every man of reflection will have it and for want of a recognized standard will shape it for himself after his own pattern
      • author: Immanuel Kant
    4. even as you set out to ignore metaphysics you're probably engaged in some form of manifest physical speculation
      • for: quote, quote - metaphysics

      • quote

        • even as you set out to ignore metaphysics, you're probably engaged in some form of metaphysical speculation.
      • author: Dan Robinson
      • date: 2011
  2. Sep 2023
    1. in the Middle Ages, and still in the usual meanings of words in English, transcendent and transcendental are almost synonymous. It means beyond, beyond what? Beyond appearances. Beyond experience. Something that explains experience, but it's not directly experienced. But Kant distinguished between the two meanings. 00:08:30 He said, as soon as we posit with the unconditioned, outside of all possible experience, the ideas become transcendent. So this is the usual meaning of transcendent. Kant uses transcendental in a completely different sense. It's not what is beyond appearances. But what is below appearances. And becomes the condition of possibility 00:08:58 of these appearances. It's from where appearances appear. That is the new sense of transcendental by Kant.
      • for: transcendent, transcendental, definition - transcendental, Kant - transcendental, phenomenology
      • definition: transcendental

        • not what is BEYOND appearances (the usual colloquial meaning of transcend) but what is BELOW appearances
        • in other words, it is the condition of possibilities of these appearances, it is from where appearances appear
      • perspective shift: transcendental

        • Until encountering this explanation, I battled with and puzzled over the explanation of the transcendental given by all other authors. I found them overly complex and unintelligible without understanding many other major hidden assumptions
        • In my view, this proves Bilbot's mastery as a an educator on the most profound ideas in philosophy
          • Above all, he has a deep understanding of the salience landscape of his audience, something which almost all other author's and educators miss
      • for: Michel Bilbot, transcendental, transcendental - Kant, awakening, non-dual, nondual, nonduality, non-duality, emptiness, epoche, Maurice Merle-Ponty, perspective shift, perspective shift - transcendental

      • summary

        • Michel Bilbot gives an extremely important talk on two related themes
          • Kant's concept of the idea of transcendental
          • Husserl's concept of epoche / phenomenological reduction
          • comparison of two perspectives of science as
            • panpsychism where atomic theories of materialism are held to be theories of everything
            • Husserl's phenomenology of human experience
        • Bilbot points out the situatedness each individual is born into life with. Even acts such as visually seeing reveal our situatedness as a seer with clues such as perspective that reveals structures of the seer such as vanishing point.
      • adjacency

        • between
          • Kant's transcendental
          • Husserl / Maurice Merle-Ponty / Heidegger's phenomenology and epoche / phenomenological reduction methodology
          • eastern mysticism and philosophical ideas:
            • nonduality - dissolution of the self / other dualism
            • awakening
            • enlightenment
            • emptiness
        • adjacency statement
          • Michel Bilbot establishes the important foundation of one of Kant's major life works on the transcendental, and how Husserl's phenomenology and related process of the phenomenological reduction (epoche) is critical to understanding Husserl and Kant.
          • He then applies it to an analysis and comparison of science seen from two contrasting perspectives, atomic theories of panpsychism vs phenomenology.
          • Bilbot reveals that Husserl was deeply influenced by Buddhist thought
    2. a transcendental is something that is, or not a thing, of course, but it's very well known and it has been well known for a very long time.
      • for: Kant's transcendental - in history, quote, quote - Upanishad, quote - Ernst Cassirer, quote - Michel Henry, quote - Giovanni Gentile, quote Edmund Husserl

      • paraphrase

        • The transcendental cannot be an objective thought but is the condition for any objective thought
        • Brihadaranyaka Upanishad
          • Kant's transcendental is equivalent to the Braham
            • it is never seen but is a seer
            • it is never heard but is a hearer
            • it is never thought but is the thinker
            • it is never known but is the knower
            • it is the source of things and the source of knowledge
        • Ernst Cassirer
          • Consciousness is a goal to which knowledge turns its back
        • Michel Henry Consciousness cannot be shown, for it is the power to show.
        • Giovanni Gentile
        • Edmund Husserl
          • transcendental turn
            • the world is a sense for the transcendental ego
            • the transcendental ego is presupposed by the senses
    3. what can you say about the transcendental? Can you speak of it? Can you use words to describe it? Can you characterize the condition of possibility of it? 00:09:24 And Kant says no. This, namely, the transcendental, cannot be further analyzed or answered because it is of such condition that we are in need for all our answers and for all our thinking about objects. So, the transcendental itself cannot be an objective thought. It is a condition for any objective thought.
      • for: nondual, nonduality, ground of existence, transcendental, Kant - transcendental, non-duality, non-dual, quote, quote - Michel Bitbol, quote - nonduality, quote - transcendental

      • quote

        • What can you say about the transcendental?
        • Can you speak of it?
        • Can you use words to describe it?
        • Can you characterize the condition of possibility of it?
        • And Kant says no.
        • This, namely, the transcendental, cannot be further analyzed or answered because it is of such condition that we are in need for all our answers and for all our thinking about objects.
        • So, the transcendental itself cannot be an object of thought.
      • author: Michel Bitbol
      • comment
        • Michel Bitbol explains Kant's definition of transcendental that makes sense to me for the first time!
        • It is really quite similiar to the defintion of the nondual.
  3. Jul 2022
    1. Wenn es Fälle gibt, in denen ein Mensch kein Selbstzweck ist, dannkönnte es sein, dass es auch Fälle gibt, in denen Bildung kein Selbstzweckist.



    1. the task of biology consists in expanding in two directions the results of cancer investigations by considering the part played by our body and especially by our sense organs 00:04:47 and central nervous system you can see the basic parameters of what we now call cognitive science are coming into being here and by studying the relation of other subjects to objects 00:04:59 it's the subject that kant wants to take seriously that notion is still very undefined and notice here the term animal other subjects so the 00:05:10 animal is a subject here he's trying to take a stance that is not that doesn't traffic in human exceptionalism that takes the embodied being seriously and for him that means something that's 00:05:23 straightforwardly an animal a dog a cat a scientist a limpet and he's going to consider them all with much the same theoretical vocabulary he's pitching in here in 1926

      Uexkull expands Kant's agenda and takes it in the direction of the body, and especially the animal body as playing a major role in knowing about the world. He downplays human exceptionalism by referring to the animal body, not the human body.

    2. we need to understand what the tradition is that he is feeding from and how what his orientation is he is 00:01:21 taking his own work to be an extension of the work of immanuel kant now if you have not noticed anything in the history of philosophy of mind please 00:01:33 notice descartes and kant those are the two principal landmarks so many others but kant had died at the very start of the 19th century kant was working within a 00:01:46 physical framework that was newtonian in which space and time are simply blocks containers within which things unfold mechanistically that was the metaphysics available to 00:02:00 kant was asking with that metaphysics how do we come to know anything now he had the cogito of descartes very much on his mind but also the the empiricists 00:02:14 concerns with the role of the senses following the tradition of hume and kant attempted to resolve this by noting that there were some things that could not be learned from the world that had 00:02:27 to be in place before any knowledge of the world can happen at all he called these the synthetic a prioris those things that well nothing forces the manas but we can't begin to make 00:02:38 sense of the notion of knowledge without prior notions of time and space and causality this is a difficult position to occupy and can't argumentation was developed in very many ways and gave rise to very many 00:02:53 different kinds of science thereafter for the thing in itself this shell is not knowable rather i encountered a phenomenon of the shell the phenomenon of the shell 00:03:11 through mediated through the senses and the body and i can never thus get to the shell itself this is of course the paradox underlying all representational theories 00:03:22 of perception which is that they seem to leave you estranged from the world and not in contact with the world all knowledge seem to be mediated through the sensors so it need you need 00:03:34 to bootstrap knowledge with these synthetic api ras for accounts this is immanuel kant dies at the start of the 19th century and then about 00:03:45 1870 something like scientific psychology starts to emerge and there's a wide variety of approaches they're drawing among other things from kant but they're not following one 00:03:58 unified agenda funux comes in here and he sees himself as taking kant seriously and he's going to develop in his context in the 1920s and 1930s 00:04:10 the notion of a synthetic a priori changes now instead of the physicalist model of time and space and as containers that we have with kant the body is the ultimate synthetic a 00:04:22 priori for von neux cool epistemology or how a being comes to know the world will only be ever understood through careful attention to the structures of and processes of the body

      Uexkull's work, and formulation of the Umwelt must be contextualized in his predecessor Kant's ontological framing to be understood.

      Based on the Newtonian mechanistic view of the world, Kant postulated that there must be some knowledge that must be known about the world prior to a (human) being being born into the world and called this synthetic apriori knowledge.....namely time, space and causality, the things that a Newtonian, mechanistic worldview assumes at the outset.

      Since any object of the world can only be known through the 5 senses, we are estranged from reality, and there must be some knowledge we must have prior to sensing the world that helps us make sense of it.

  4. Jun 2022
    1. Sendungen mit explizitem Gegenwartsbezug auszustrahlen, um so dieAktualität der Philosophie zu demonstrieren

      zum Glück ist das recht einfach, da eine große Zahl philosophischer Themen ständig aktuell oder wiederkehrend aktuell sind - z.B. Pflichtüberlegungen im Rahmen der Coronamaßnahmen und Kant

  5. May 2022
    1. In a word thatKleist borrows from Kant: a “midwifery of thought.”45
      1. Immanuel Kant, Metaphysik der Sitten, Zweiter Teil, II. Ethische Methodenlehre, 1st Section, §50: “He is the midwife of his thoughts,” on the teacher-student relationship.
    1. Die einzigwahrhafte Kraft gegen das Prinzip von Auschwitz wäre Autonomie, wennich den Kantischen Ausdruck verwenden darf; die Kraft zur Reflexion,zur Selbstbestimmung, zum Nicht-Mitmachen.



  6. Apr 2022
    1. Was ist Aufklärung?

      Falls unbekannt, unbedingt hier nachlesen!



    1. Der Film zeigt eindringlich, wie Mux sich immerweiter von dem Ideal des Aufklärers entfernt und den kategorischen Imperativ soumdeutet, dass er schließlich davon überzeugt ist, die Gesetzgebung habe sichseinen Vorstellungen anzupassen

      individueller Vernunftzugang ungleich Willkür

  7. Mar 2022
    1. algorithmen zitat

      Algorithmizität spätestens(!) hier kommen techno-soziale Akteure ins Spiel - u.a. auch im #twlz wichtig(?)

  8. May 2021
    1. Filed on a card under the key word cogitare, Blumenberg quotes Kant: “Thinking is conversation with oneself… Listening inside.”
    2. In his “On the gradual fabrication of thoughts while speaking,” Kleist was in turn musing on Immanuel Kant’s metaphor of the teacher as the midwife at the birth of the student’s thought. When stuck in developing a thought, Kleist recommends, find an acquaintance to talk at. No responses are required. The mere presence of the silent interlocutor, and even more so the imminent threat of losing their attention during lengthy stretches of boredom or incoherence will trigger, or so Kleist claims, the “fabrication of my idea in reason’s workshop.”

      This sounds a lot like a broader case than rubber duck debugging, which is obviously not a "new" thing.

  9. Jan 2021
    1. he soul: the first condition of all mental properties

      emergent complexity

    2. Something that is unconditioned does not depend on anything else. It is a first ground or first “principle”: something that explains why other things are the way they are, but is not itself in need of explanation. A “first explainer” (cf. the idea of an unmoved mover).This is what metaphysicsistraditionally concerned with

      First principles as pure reason. Metaphysics is concerened with finding these first explainers. It explains why other things are the way they are.

    3. We can gloss this as ‘independent of experience’, ‘non-empirical’

      The Pure use of reason is it unconditioned reason/conclusion?

    4. Understanding vs. reasonUnderstanding is the capacity for unity of appearances by means of rules.Reason is the capacity for unity of the rules of the understanding under principles

      Undersatnding: Knowling that things are similaer:

      Reason: Knowing how things are related, as expressed in inferrences



  10. May 2020
  11. Jan 2020
    1. Or global warming. I can’t see or touch it. What I can see and touch are these raindrops, this snow, that sunburn patch on the back of my neck. I can touch the weather. But I can’t touch climate. So someone can declare: “See! It snowed in Boise, Idaho, this week. That means there’s no global warming!” We can’t directly see global warming, because it’s not only really widespread and really really long-lasting (100,000 years); it’s also super high-dimensional. It’s not just 3-D. It’s an incredibly complex entity that you have to map in what they call a high-dimensional- phase space: a space that plots all the states of a system. In so doing, we are only following the strictures of modern science, laid down by David Hume and underwritten by Immanuel Kant. Science can’t directly point to causes and effects: That would be metaphysical, equivalent to religious dogma. It can only see correlations in data. This is because, argues Kant, there is a gap between what a thing is and how it appears (its “phenomena”) that can’t be reduced, no matter how hard we try. We can’t locate this gap anywhere on or inside a thing. It’s a transcendental gap. Hyperobjects force us to confront this truth of modern science and philosophy.

      A short, and very cogent argument here.

  12. Dec 2019
    1. wonderful and sublime

      The sublime is a notion in aesthetic and literary theory of striking grandeur of thought and emotion. The most important English work on the sublime is Edmund Burke's Philosophical Inquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful and Immanuel Kant's Critique of Judgement, which influenced nineteenth-century English thought.

  13. Nov 2019
    1. contrecœur à prononcer le nom de Kant

      Encore Kant – qui revient si souvent, c’en est gênant.

    2. dans mon impatience j’universalisais mon cas particulier

      Mélange de Kant et d’existentialisme.

      (On retrouve l’universalisme de Kant, avec son dogmatisme : ne pas se poser trop de questions et s’en remettre aux principes généraux).

    3. Cependant, si elle échouait à m’expliquer l’univers et moi-même, je ne savais plus trop que demander à la philosophie

      Lisez Critique de la raison pure de Kant, et vous ne trouverez aucune réponse (c’est le punch très décevant du canon).

    4. Sa perfection excluait sa réalité.

      <mark>KANT : l’existence n’est pas un prédicat réel</mark> (exister n’ajoute ni n’enlève rien au concept – l’existence ou non des licornes ne change rien à la définition d’une licorne – in your face, Descartes).

      L’existence n’est donc pas une qualité (on peut l’exclure de la définition de l’être parfait, Dieu).

    5. J’avais imaginé que la loi morale tenait de lui sa nécessité : mais elle s’était si profondément gravée en moi qu’elle demeura intacte après [Page 183]sa suppression. Loin que ma mère dût son autorité à un pouvoir surnaturel, c’est mon respect qui donnait un caractère sacré à ses décrets.


    6. dogmatisme

      Le dogmatisme peut être associé à la religion, ou à Kant, son principal représentant en philosophie.

  14. Feb 2019
    1. Of the Standard of Taste"

      Didn't Kant give an essay the same title??

    2. David Hume

      Not really related to this course, but I took a philosophy class last semester and there was a few classes where we talked about everyone's other favorite philosopher, Kant, pretty much blamed Hume for the death of metaphysics.

  15. Jan 2019
    1. tivity is not restricted to bound individuals, but is rather aco-operative trans-species e

      I'm reminded here of Kant's subjective universality--something that comes from within us but is also present in all of us. Yet, it is not a metaphysical or objective force.

    2. Kantianism

      We just read Kant in literary theory--and Lauren Terbrock-Elmestad just told me that this class and that class would intersect nicely.


  16. Aug 2018
    1. Contrary to what many have criticised as anexcessively idealistic Kant in the (in)famous exampleof the Categorical Imperative requiring us to tell thetruth even to those obviously bent on harm, Myskjapoints out that in Kant’s later work, a more realisticunderstanding of human nature and thereby, a morenuanced understanding of the role of deceptionemerges. Briefly, deception may take place for lessthan ideal reasons – but as deception allows us tohide our more negative characteristics while none-theless developing more virtuous character, it canhelp us become better persons. This role of deceptionfits wonderfully well with what is otherwise oftenregarded as a highly morally problematic dimensionof online communication – precisely that we can therehide our real selves.
    2. In particular, Myskjapoints out that the largelydisembodiedcharacter ofmost online communication thereby cuts us off fromimportant, perhaps crucial channels of non-verbalcommunication that may be essential to trust-building.
    3. Kant’s basicthoughts on autonomy and the public domain arehighly relevant to challenges concerning modernsociety, particularly to communication in the publicsphere. Trust is but one important topic being dis-cussed here; openness another. Thus, our aim has notonly been to demonstrate how Kant can be produc-tively applied to new technology; in addition, it hasbeen to show how the basic philosophical queriesraised within this context can be fruitfully illuminatedwithin Kant’s conceptual frames.
    1. This leads Kant to what he calls ‘moralgeography,’ which looks at the customs and characters ofdifferent peoples and some outdated and discreditedviews of race. K
    2. Hume had denied that they were,whereas Kant thinks they are. For Kant, they are com-binations of concepts and particulars, of reason and ex-perience. While the Empiricists suggest all our knowledgemust conform to experience, Kant says all experience mustconform to knowledge

      Superación de la disputa entre empirismo y racionalismo

  17. Feb 2018
    1. First, in terms of science, it now appears that his metaphysics has withstood the test of time. While traditional scholars largely dismiss his holistic ontology prior to the Critique, innovations in the environmental and physical sciences have validated Kant's claims as realistic insights in the workings of nature. His evolutionary theory of the universe is now seen as “the essence of modern models” in cosmology (Coles 2001: 240), and his natural philosophy is seen as the last milestone of western philosophy prior to its “comedown” to skepticism (Hawking 2003, 166). In light of climate change, it stands to reason that Kant's grasp on biospherical dynamics and sustainable policies may well spur a philosophical return to Kant in the near future.
  18. Mar 2017
    1. Ultimately, there is nothing (no knowledge, that is) beyond this "text" of language.

      Hm. Thinking about the word "ineffable" here (a word meaning: "something that cannot be expressed or described in words") and how Derrida would react to the fact that the word "ineffable" is a comprehensible concept that has an effable definition...

      Which leads me to thinking about Kant's explanation of "the sublime" here as well...

  19. Feb 2017
  20. Jul 2016
    1. . Sensual objects exist for real objects, namely, me, or some other perceiver. So I’ve got the caricature of the table and the caricature of the chair, those caricatures have no relation to each other. They have relation only for me, because my experience unifies both of them. So the real is always the bridge for the two sensuals; the sensual is always the bridge for the two reals. And that’s what we try to analyse in Object-Oriented Philosophy

      Cole's problem is that this is Kant.

  21. Nov 2015
  22. Sep 2015
    1. Even compassion, the concern we feel for another being’s welfare, has been treated with downright derision. Kant saw it as a weak and misguided sentiment: “Such benevolence is called soft-heartedness and should not occur at all among human beings,” he said of compassion. Many question whether true compassion exists at all—or whether it is inherently motivated by self-interest.