410 Matching Annotations
  1. Apr 2023
    1. 良い3Dコンフォメーションを得るには、ほとんどの場合、まず初めに水素原子を分子に付加すること上手くいきます。

      considering hydrogen is must?

    1. Mills, C. Wright. “On Intellectual Craftsmanship (1952).” Society 17, no. 2 (January 1, 1980): 63–70. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02700062.

      Cross reference published version from 1959, 1980: https://hypothes.is/a/7NmPckD4Ee2-r1NbihZN2A

      Read on 2022-10-01 14:10

      annotation target: urn:x-pdf:0138200b4bfcde2757a137d61cd65cb8

    1. and he thought we ought to take advantage of it.  Then he walked behind the podium and started the day’s lecture.

      This is a very interesting sentence! It's just the end of the paragraph. But it sums up the point: all the actions up to this point were because of this statement. This is something that has to be faced, no matter how bloody, no matter what camp, no matter what opinion, this is what medical students should do.

    2. The amphitheater buzzed.

      "The amphitheater buzzed." The first paragraph has already mentioned quietness, but the word 'buzzed' is used here. It highlights the sharp contrast and expresses the students' fear of cutting a dog's chest.

  2. Mar 2023
    1. So why aren't more people using Nim? I don't know! It's the closest thing to a perfect language that I've used by far.

      Nim sounds as the most ideal language when comparing to Python, Rust, Julia, C#, Swift, C

  3. Feb 2023
      • Title: Faster than expected
      • subtitle: why most climate scientists can’t tell the truth (in public) Author: Jackson Damien

      • This is a good article written from a psychotherapist's perspective,

      • examining the psychology behind why published, mainstream, peer reviewed climate change research is always dangerously lagging behind current research,
      • and recommending what interventions could be be taken to remedy this
      • This your of scientific misinformation coming from scientists themselves
      • gives minimizers and denialists the very ammunition they need to legitimise delay of the urgently needed system change.
      • What climate scientists say In public is far from what they believe in private.
      • For instance, many climate scientists don't believe 1.5 Deg. C target is plausible anymore, but don't say so in public.
      • That reticence is due to fear of violating accepted scientific social norms,
      • being labeled alarmist and risk losing their job.
      • That creates a collective cognitive dissonance that acts as a feedback signal
      • for society to implement change at a dangerously slow pace
      • and to not spend the necessary resources to prepare for the harm already baked in.
      • The result of this choice dissonance is that
      • there is no collective sense of an emergency or a global wartime mobilisation scale of collective behaviour.
      • Our actions are not commensurate to the permanent emergency state we are now in.
      • The appropriate response that is suggested is for the entire climate science community to form a coalition that creates a new kind of peer reviewed publishing and reporting
      • that publicly responds to the current and live knowledge that is being discovered every day.
      • This is done from a planetary and permanent emergency perspective in order to eliminate the dangerous delays that create the wrong human collective behavioural responses.
      • The author suggests 5 different steps that will enable and empower scientists to tell the truth at scale:
          1. Admit that rigid adherence to their academic methods, in this astonishingly rapid context, leads directly to their failure to communicate the truth. For one thing, it is widely held on the scientific community that staying under 1.5 Deg. C is no longer plausible.
          1. Form a unified global coalition. Work with communications and psychology experts to present as accurate and as current information as possible
          1. Coalition takes actions to announce a permcrisis requiring responding to new live information in real time, bot wait every 7 years for the next IPCC report
    1. one finds in Deutsch’s catalogue one implementation of what LorraineDaston would later term ‘mechanical objectivity’, an ideal of removing the scholar’s selffrom the process of research and especially historical and scientific representation (Das-ton and Galison, 2007: 115-90).

      In contrast to the sort of mixing of personal life and professional life suggested by C. Wright Mills' On Intellectual Craftsmanship (1952), a half century earlier Gotthard Deutsch's zettelkasten method showed what Lorraine Datson would term 'mechanical objectivity'. This is an interesting shift in philosophical perspective of note taking practice. It can also be compared and contrasted with a 21st century perspective of "personal" knowledge management.

    1. The long-term consequences of Russia’s war are less clear. But experts are concerned it may also lock in more future fossil fuel dependence as places like Europe search for replacements for Russian fuel.
      • Russian war may increase usage of fuels
      • this could make reaching the 1.5 Deg C target more difficult
    2. Most of them are, in general, moving in the right direction. They just aren’t aggressive enough yet to be consistent with the kind of transformative social change required to achieve the 1.5 C target.
      • climate change actions
      • Most of the climate actions are moving in the right direction.
      • but they just aren’t aggressive enough yet to achieve the 1.5 C target.
      • right direction, wrong speed
  4. Jan 2023
    1. 备受瞩目的C罗则不在其中,因为依照此前披露的秘密协议原件显示,上面只有帕拉蒂奇的签名,C罗并未签字。齐利亚尼辣评:“为数不多的几位没有签署2019-20和2020-21赛季虚假减薪协议的人之一。他不会有被禁赛的风险。简而言之,他有最聪明的、或者说是最不蠢的经纪人。(回看当初)他们把他带到了尤文,他则将她拖进了谷底。”虽然已经与门德斯关系破裂,但葡萄牙经纪大鳄的谨慎,则帮助C罗躲过一劫。


    1. 1.5 degrees Celsius is the safe boundary this aligns with the intergovernmental panel on climate change with one difference we emphasize that this is a physical limit push it beyond that point 00:05:23 and we risk permanent damage on societies and the world economy

      !- first boundary : 1.5 deg C is a physical boundary - we cannot it it we want to retain a planet safe for human civilization - “ If the world breaches 1.5C, we are likely to trigger at least five tipping points, including the irreversible melting of the Greenland ice sheet and loss of the world’s tropical coral reef systems. This will be devastating for future generations. It will literally change the world, and yet every month we use 1% of the remaining carbon budget for 1.5ºC.” From earth commission website: https://earthcommission.org/news/earth-commission-news/pioneering-science-reveals-set-of-earth-system-boundaries-that-can-secure-a-safe-and-just-planet-for-all/

    2. within the next decade we are at risk of pushing ourselves outside of the safe 00:10:15 boundary of 1.5 degrees Celsius

      !- 1.5 deg C boundary : at risk of exceeding in the next decade

    1. I used vim and make for my universal IDE.

      vim and make serve well as universal IDE for most programming languages (maybe apart from C#?)

  5. Dec 2022
    1. When writing history, there are rules to be followed and evidence to be respected. But no two histories will be the same, whereas the essence of scientific experiments is that they can be endlessly replicated.

      A subtle difference here between the (hard) sciences and the humanities. Every human will bring to bear a differently nuanced perspective.

    1. so let's take the headline budgets and let's adjust them to today November 00:13:16 2022. so these are the the two probabilities that we're using um that's the budget that we have left for two degrees Centigrade that's the budget we've got for 1.5 and these are the years you have 00:13:29 so you know 1.5 nine and a half years of current emissions if the current emissions stayed static we'd have nine and a half years oh a bit worrying um that's about half a percent a bit 00:13:43 under half a percent every month for two degrees centigrade and one percent so every month we're using one percent of the 50 50 chance of 1.5 degrees Centigrade which is not anyway a safe 00:13:54 threshold every month one percent of the budget

      !- key takeaway : time remaining to decarbonize to 1.5 Deg C limit - 9.5 years remaining referenced to Nov 2022 - consuming roughly 1% of remaining 380 Gigaton budget every month, or about 11 % every year.

  6. Nov 2022
  7. Oct 2022
    1. In his essay ‘On Intellectual Craftsmanship’, appended to his The Sociological Imagination (1959), C. Wright Mills reassuringly remarks that ‘the way in which these categories change, some being dropped and others being added, is an index of your intellectual progress ... As you rearrange a filing system, you often find that you are, as it were, loosening your imagination.’

      One's notes are an index of their intellectual progress. In sorting through and re-arranging them one "loosens their imagination".

    2. another long forgotten manual for students, History and Historical Research (1928) by C.G. Crump of the Public Record Office: ‘Never make a note for future use in such a form ... that even you yourself will not know what it means, when you come across it some months later.’
    1. There is a difference between various modes of note taking and their ultimate outcomes. Some is done for learning about an area and absorbing it into one's own source of general knowledge. Others are done to collect and generate new sorts of knowledge. But some may be done for raw data collection and analysis. Beatrice Webb called this "scientific note taking".

      Historian Jacques Goutor talks about research preparation for this sort of data collecting and analysis though he doesn't give it a particular name. He recommends reading papers in related areas to prepare for the sort of data acquisition one may likely require so that one can plan out some of one's needs in advance. This will allow the researcher, especially in areas like history or sociology, the ability to preplan some of the sorts of data and notes they'll need to take from their historical sources or subjects in order to carry out their planned goals. (p8)

      C. Wright Mills mentions (On Intellectual Craftsmanship, 1952) similar research planning whereby he writes out potential longer research methods even when he is not able to spend the time, effort, energy, or other (financial) resources to carry out such plans. He felt that just the thought experiments and exercise of doing such unfulfilled research often bore fruit in his other sociological endeavors.

    1. In "On Intellectual Craftsmanship" (1952), C. Wright Mills talks about his methods for note taking, thinking, and analysis in what he calls "sociological imagination". This is a sociologists' framing of their own research and analysis practice and thus bears a sociological related name. While he talks more about the thinking, outlining, and writing process rather than the mechanical portion of how he takes notes or what he uses, he's extending significantly on the ideas and methods that Sönke Ahrens describes in How to Take Smart Notes (2017), though obviously he's doing it 65 years earlier. It would seem obvious that the specific methods (using either files, note cards, notebooks, etc.) were a bit more commonplace for his time and context, so he spent more of his time on the finer and tougher portions of the note making and thinking processes which are often the more difficult parts once one is past the "easy" mechanics.

      While Mills doesn't delineate the steps or materials of his method of note taking the way Beatrice Webb, Langlois & Seignobos, Johannes Erich Heyde, Antonin Sertillanges, or many others have done before or Umberto Eco, Robert Greene/Ryan Holiday, Sönke Ahrens, or Dan Allosso since, he does focus more on the softer portions of his thinking methods and their desired outcomes and provides personal examples of how it works and what his expected outcomes are. Much like Niklas Luhmann describes in Kommunikation mit Zettelkästen (VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, 1981), Mills is focusing on the thinking processes and outcomes, but in a more accessible way and with some additional depth.

      Because the paper is rather short, but specific in its ideas and methods, those who finish the broad strokes of Ahrens' book and methods and find themselves somewhat confused will more than profit from the discussion here in Mills. Those looking for a stronger "crash course" might find that the first seven chapters of Allosso along with this discussion in Mills is a straighter and shorter path.

      While Mills doesn't delineate his specific method in terms of physical tools, he does broadly refer to "files" which can be thought of as a zettelkasten (slip box) or card index traditions. Scant evidence in the piece indicates that he's talking about physical file folders and sheets of paper rather than slips or index cards, but this is generally irrelevant to the broader process of thinking or writing. Once can easily replace the instances of the English word "file" with the German concept of zettelkasten and not be confused.

      One will note that this paper was written as a manuscript in April 1952 and was later distributed for classroom use in 1955, meaning that some of these methods were being distributed from professor to students. The piece was later revised and included as an appendix to Mill's text The Sociological Imagination which was first published in 1959.

      Because there aren't specifics about Mills' note structure indicated here, we can't determine if his system was like that of Niklas Luhmann, but given the historical record one could suppose that it was closer to the commonplace tradition using slips or sheets. One thing becomes more clear however that between the popularity of Webb's work and this (which was reprinted in 2000 with a 40th anniversary edition), these methods were widespread in the mid-twentieth century and specifically in the field of sociology.

      Above and beyond most of these sorts of treatises on note taking method, Mills does spend more time on the thinking portions of the practice and delineates eleven different practices that one can focus on as they actively read/think and take notes as well as afterwards for creating content or writing.

      My full notes on the article can be found at https://jonudell.info/h/facet/?user=chrisaldrich&max=100&exactTagSearch=true&expanded=true&addQuoteContext=true&url=urn%3Ax-pdf%3A0138200b4bfcde2757a137d61cd65cb8

    2. Thinking is a simultaneous struggle for conceptualorder and empirical comprehensiveness. You must notclose it up too soon---or you will fail to see all that youshould; you cannot leave it open forever----or you yourselfwill burst. It is this dilemma that makes reflection, onthose rare occasions when it is more or less successful, themost passionate endeavor of which a man is capable
    3. Thinking is a simultaneous struggle for conceptualorder and empirical comprehensiveness.
    4. ( 1) The rearranging of the file, as I have already said, isone way. One simply dumps out heretofore disconnectedfolders, mixing up their contents, and then re-sorts themmany times. How often and how extensively one does thiswill of course vary with different problems and the devel-opment of their solutions. But in general the mechanics ofit are as simple as that.

      The first part of "sociological imagination" for Mills is what I term combinatorial creativity. In his instance, at varying intervals he dumps out disconnected ideas, files and resorts them to find interesting potential solutions.

    5. I do not like to do empirical work if I can possibly avoidit. It m e a n s a great deal of trouble if one has no staff; if onedoes e m p l o y a staff, then the staff is often more troublethan the work itself. Moreover, they leave as soon as theyhave b e e n trained and made useful.


    6. Mosca backs up histhesis with this assertion: It's the power of organization thatenables the minority always to rule. There are organizedminorities and they run things and men. There are unorganizedmajorities and they are run.

      In a democracy, is it not just rule by majority, but rule by the most organized that ends up dominating the society?

      Perhaps C. Wright Mills' work on the elite has some answers?

      The Republican party's use of organization to create gerrymandering is a clear example of using extreme organization to create minority rule. Cross reference: Slay the Dragon in which this issue is laid out with the mention of using a tiny amount of money to careful gerrymander maps to provide outsized influences and then top-down outlines to imprint broad ideas from a central location onto smaller individual constituencies (state and local).

    7. The reason theytreasure their smallest experiences is because, in thecourse of a lifetime, a modem man has so very littlepersonal experience, and yet experience is so important asa source of good intellectual work.

      The antecedent for "they" here is "accomplished thinkers".

    8. And yet that is not " r e a l l y " how the project arose.What really happened is that the idea and the plan cameout o f my files; for all projects with me begin and end withthem, and books are simply organized releases from thecontinuous work that goes into them.

      Surely by "files" he means his written notes and ideas which he has filed away?

      Thus articles and books are agglomerations of ideas within notes (or perhaps one's retained memory, as best as that might be done) which are then broken off from them and released to a wider readership.

    9. Method and theory are like thelanguage of the country you live in: it is nothing to bragabout that you can speak it, but it is a disgrace, as well asan inconvenience, if you cannot.
    10. In this essay I am going to try candidly to report how Ibecame interested in a topic I happen now to be studying,and how I am going about studying it. I know that in doingthis I run the risk of failing in modesty and perhaps even ofclaiming some peculiar virtue for my own personal habits.1 intend no such claims. 1 know also that it may be said:"WelL, that's the way you work; but it's not of much use tom e . " To this the reply seems quite clear; it is: " W o n d e r -ful. Tell me how you w o r k . "

      We could use more of this in the current tools for thought space. Given neurodiversity, having a smorgasbord of options from which to choose from and then to be able to pick and choose or experiment on what works for you in particular seems to be the best route forward.

    11. E veryone seriously concerned with teaching complainsthat most students do not know how to do indepen-dent work. They do not know how to read, they do notknow how to take notes, they do not know how to set up aproblem nor how to research it. In short, they do not knowhow to work intellectually.
  8. Sep 2022
    1. sociologist C. WrightMills

      Note takers reading this may appreciate that Mills had a note taking system:

      https://hypothes.is/a/Wbm09giuEe2-tH8vp1LziA<br /> https://hypothes.is/a/_7SQkPdFEeunDX9htFmQ8w

      This particular note and my notice of it is an interesting case of faint recognition and combinatorial creativity at play. I vaguely recognized Mills' name but was able to quickly find it within my reading notes to discover I'd run across him and his intellectual practice before.

    2. Or, take the case of unemployment as described by sociologist C. WrightMills:When, in a city of 100,000, only one man is unemployed, that is his per-sonal trouble, and for its relief we properly look to the character of theman, his skills, and his immediate opportunities. But when in a nation of50 million employees, 15 million men are unemployed, that is an issue, and

      we may not hope to find its solution within the range of opportunities open to any one individual. The very structure of opportunities has collapsed. Both the correct statement of the problem and the range of possible solutions require us to consider the economic and political institutions of the society, and not merely the personal situation and character of a scatter of individuals.16

      1. C. Wright Mills, The Sociological Imagination (New York: Oxford University Press, 1959), p. 9.

      I love this quote and it's interesting food for thought.

      Framing problems from the perspectives of a single individual versus a majority of people can be a powerful tool.

      The idea of the "welfare queen" was possibly too powerful because it singled out an imaginary individual rather than focusing on millions of people with a variety of backgrounds and diversity. Compare this with the fundraisers for impoverished children in Sally Stuther's Christian Children's Fund (aka ChildFund) which, while they show thousands of people in trouble, quite often focus on one individual child. This helps to personalize the plea and the charity actually assigned each donor a particular child they were helping out.

      How might this set up be used in reverse to change the perspective and opinions of those who think the "welfare queen" is a real thing instead of a problematic trope?

  9. shn.livejournal.com shn.livejournal.com
    1. олег собрал большое войскои воевать идет за мира николай не хочет мираи не явился на войну(с)
    1. Kang v. Canada (Citizenship and Immigration), 2022 FC 1296 (CanLII), <https://canlii.ca/t/jrzb8>

      H&C with past misrepresentation must consider context of past misrepresentation

    1. vscode 找不到c函数实现

      可以通过设置 browse.path 来避免这种情况

      // c_cpp_properties.json "browse.path": [ ${workspaceFolder} ]

  10. Aug 2022
    1. Each of those slices plays a role in influencing the thoughts and behavior of the individuals, and in turn, each person plays a small part in influencing the giants they’re a part of.

      How do we. Under start this?

    1. In the text of what follows the writer has profited much fromsuggestions by two friends on whom it seemed possible to impose ,Professors A. C. McLaughlin, University of Chicago, and A. C.Krey, University of Minnesota. They are not chargeable, however ,- eit

      Dow's methods were profited by advice from historians Andrew C. Mclaughlin and August C. Krey.





    1. James 11.Hanford, Malcolm McLeod, and E d g a r C. Knowlton, TheNelaon handbook of English, New York, 1931.

      I can't help but wonder about a possible familial connection between Edgard C. Knowlton (1921 - 2016) and Charles Knowlton (1800 - 1850). Grandson perhaps?


      cc: @danallosso



    1. Heteronormativity operates the ‘regime of the normal’, throughwhich heterosexuality is privileged and dominates as the natural, obligatory and normal basisof all social relations and in which sexualities are valued and devalued (Adams 2002)

      Can be used for a definition

    2. ‘queered’: a ‘radical process of disruption’(Ruffolo 2009, p.3) which seeks to destabilise the heterosexual/ homosexual binary andchallenge heteronormativity




  11. Jul 2022
    1. Conflicts between national identity and sexual orientation played a factor for some, suchas Zelda, who explained that while she wanted to participate in GSA, she feared that she might beseen by other students from her home country

      Conflict mention

    2. promote safe sex, stating “they areknown for giving free condoms and free kind of like sex ed and training for LGBT.”

      Student wellness services

    3. onlineresources are resources that are publicly available on the internet and accessed through a computer orsmart phone;

      Online resources that are not provided by HEIs

    4. need to avoid engaging in any activities in the United Statesthat could out them and lead to individuals in their home country learning about their sexual orienta-tion due to being required to return to their home country upon graduation.

      Visa policy mention

    5. Additional call for participant announcements were emailed to internationalcenter directors at all public institutions in the state of Texas and through the national research emaillistserv with the Consortium of Higher Education LGBT Resource Professionals.

      Other potential recruitment methods

    6. The research team shared a weekly call for participants through their institution’sannouncement listserv.

      Potential recruitment method

    7. discussing some of the current policies within the United States that may hinder protectionof members of the LGBTQIA community,

      Should mention in relevance to research - may not necessarily focus on visa policies but policies nonetheless

    8. examine the experiences of international LGB studentsand the resources they utilize on campuses to ease their transition to college.

      Foci: during abroad experience, potentially with additions of motivations to go abroad

    9. Garvey, Taylor, & Rankin, 2015).

      Someone to cite from for definition



    1. It has beenfound that “female [international] students are more likely than their male counterpartsto experience discrimination (even within the international student community), phys-ical abuse, sexual harassment and social exclusion during their stay in Australia”

      Reason to pay attention to role of gender in past students' time abroad

      Add to additional significance to research

    2. incorporate vulnerabilities associated with international student status.These vulnerabilities include being in a foreign environment, often without adequatehost country language and cultural skills, being separated from family and friends, andfrequently having inadequate financial resources

      Move to "issues" for student section - being in a foreign environment, without adequate host country language skills and cultural skills, separation from family and friends, inadequate financial resources, not having the knowledge and comfortableness to navigate legal systems ---> more vulnerable to violence

    3. Poststructuralist approaches insist that different categorizations are pervasivelyinterrelated without the possibility of separate analysis

      Take note - one of traditions identified in another paper

    4. True(2010) described “gender-based violence” as violence directed against a womanbecause of her gender or as forms of violence in which women are overrepresented asvictims.

      Another defintion

    5. “gendered violence.” Morley used the term “gendered vio-lence” to incorporate crime and sexual exploitation and harassment.

      Potential definition of gendered violence to use

    6. Being safe from crime and violence is important to international students

      Safety important - something to pay attention to during interviews and coding

    7. education and support programs

      Practitioner focused

    8. We argue that intersecting inequalities relating togender, race, and class are often compounded by the status of “international student.”

      I feel that the term "international student" has the possibility of only situating national origin as the only facet of int'l student's identity -- at the expense of their other identities and how those identities interact with new external environments (race, class, gender, sexuality, disability, etc.)



    1. So what can we make of politicians who continue to argue that ‘1.5°C is still alive’? Are they misinformed or are they simply lying?I believe many are in denial about the types of solutions the climate crisis demands. Rather than do the – admittedly – very difficult political work of eking out our supplies of fossil fuels while accelerating a just transition to post-carbon societies, politicians are going all out on technological salvation. This is a new form of climate denial, which involves imagining large-scale carbon dioxide removal that will clean up the carbon pollution that we continue to pump into the atmosphere. While it may seem much safer to stick to the script and say that it is still physically possible to limit warming to no more than 1.5°C, while pointing out that the scale of change demands much more political will, I believe that this can no longer be a credible response to the climate crisis.We have warmed the climate by 1.2°C since pre-industrial periods. If emissions stay flat at current levels, then in around nine years the carbon budget for 1.5°C will be exhausted. And, of course, emissions are not flat – they are surging. 2021 saw the second-largest annual increase ever recorded, driven by the rebound in economic activity after Coronavirus lockdowns. We did not ‘build back better’.The clock has been stuck at five minutes to midnight for decades. Alarms have been continuing to sound. There are only so many times you can hit the snooze button.

      Going all out on technological salvation is a form of climate denialism.

      We are at 1.2 Deg C and emissions have climbed after rebounding after Covid. If they flatline for the next nine years, we will hit 1.5 Deg C.

    2. We Need to Stop Pretending we can Limit Global Warming to 1.5°C

      Title: We Need to Stop Pretending we can Limit Global Warming to 1.5°C Author: James Dyke Date: 6 July 2022

    1. constrained by citizenship andmigration policies that directly or indirectly place sexual minorities at a disadvantage

      Policy focus

    2. trajectories of their migration andthe factors that propelled their decision to change destinations globally.

      Focus - where men moved and why



    1. perceived public stigmais a critical and stable correlate of internalized homophobia.

      Perceived public stigma is tied to internalized homophobia

    2. nstead of internalizing par-ents’ negative response, children who endorse high reciprocalfilial piety are more likely to protect their sexual orientationfrom being stigmatized.

      Reciprocal filial piety "protects" children from internalized homophobia to some extent - children don't feel forced and obligated to meet all of their parent's expectations, especially when it conflicts with their personal happiness

    3. being a sexual minority mem-ber in many Asian countries is viewed as a violation ofheteronormative values and a betrayal of filial piety

      Being LGBTQ+ is a betrayal of filial piety - children expected to continue the family line

      Children from authoritarian filial piety families may express more remorse at not being able to meet their parent's expectations and blame their gender/sexual identity as the reason why

    4. Confucian culture plays a more im-portant role in Chinese people’s worldview

      This is separated from religion

    5. social learning theory

      Could be useful to add...how int'l LGBTQ+ students learn/absorb social/environmental (society, family, school) perceptions about their identity?

    6. distal stressors, which refer toobjective stressors (e.g., prejudiced events) independent ofone’s sexual identity, and proximal personal processes, whichrefer to subjective experiences connected with one’s sexualidentity, such as the expectation of rejection, concealment ofsexual identity, and internalized homophobia

      Add terms to glossary

    7. investigate the variables that could amplify ormitigate the impact of social homophobia on internalized ho-mophobia.

      i.e. filial piety

    8. hatred of personal sexual identity

      Could use this as a definition for internalized _phobia

    9. social homophobia

      Could use for glossary

    10. perceived public stigma and authoritarianfilial piety had comparable and positive association with internalized homophobia.

      Public stigma and authoritarian (not reciprocal) filial piety was associated with higher likelihood of internalized homophobia



  12. Jun 2022
    1. high school students realized their sex-ual orientation or gender identity and came out to others earlier than allthe other three groups of students within various educational levels—thatis, vocational students, college/university students, and graduate students.

      High school students more likely to come out than undergraduate, graduate, and vocational students

    2. male students’ initial awarenesswas earlier than females’, at an average of 14.9 vs. 15.4, but female studentscame out earlier than male at an average of 17.5 vs. 18.2.

      Males more likely to be aware of identity early on, but females more likely to come out earlier

    3. Bronfenbrenner’s social-ecological framework suggests, the immediate envi-ronments in which growing adolescents live are crucial to understandinghealthy development for that individual

      Looks at environment and impact on development of individual

    4. most LGBTQ students felt comfortable abouttheir sexual orientation and had come out to someone; how-ever, the majority remained closeted with their siblings,parents, or teachers.

      Students are comfortable with their identities, don't come out to relatives (parents, siblings) and authority figures (teachers) - friends, most likely



    1. ar-right parties and movements differentiatebetween LGBTQ people who abide by Serbian norms by keepingtheir sexual and gender identities private and those who publiclyexpress their identities and seek reforms to advance their rights andequality

      Seeking reforms to advance LGBTQ+ rights and equality makes you a bad LBGTQ+ person

    2. This theme contrasts “bad” LGBTQ rights activistswith “good” LGBTQ people who conform to social standards bykeeping their sexual and gender identities private

      i.e. Only considered good when they stay in the closet

    3. unite the LGBTQ rights movement with foreign threats to Kosovo’sstatus.

      Tying LGBTQ+ community to already negatively perceived groups -- individuals suffer because of national politics, nationalism, and nationalist myths

    4. Inductive codes werecreated throughout the analysis for text that did not match the deductivecodes.

      Reminder: refresh on inductive vs. deductive reasoning and inductive vs. deductive codes

    5. ymbolicboundaries are conceptual forms of intergroup differentiation basedon norms, values, and beliefs (Lamont et al., 2015). Moral boundariesrefer to claimed or attributed intergroup differences in virtues

      Words to add to glossary: symbolic and moral boundaries

    6. RWA, which is characterized by socialconformity, adherence to traditions, and the attribution of threats topeople seen as social deviants

      Shares traits with collectivism

    7. Threat perception is a predictor of support for human rights.

      Reminder: Add term threat perception to glossary draft, make note of connections to threat perception, social identity theory (and name authors), and conflict/human rights

    8. ocial identity theory, which posits that people seek positivedistinctiveness for their social groups (Tajfel & Turner, 1986).

      Theory to think about when thinking about domestic and local contexts for int'l LGBTQ+ students - LGBTQ+ perceived to cause negative distinctiveness for social groups - therefore considered a threat to the social group

    9. realistic threats to the existence, power,and well-being of the ingroup

      Types of perceived threats to in-groups

    10. These groups portray the movement as a Westerncultural threat, stressing the need to defend their country from aWestern conspiracy to “destroy” Serbia

      LGBTQ+ community positioned as an outgroup and outside/external threat, Western cultural imperialism..is this also a view in historically colonized countries as well?



    1. The duty of care extends to ensuring that all necessary steps have beentaken to ensure the health, safety and wellbeing of employees and students and forthe latter this includes providing pastoral care.

      Ethics framework

    2. using open social networks ledto concerns, with McPhail and Fisher reporting one research participant speaking of agay colleague being discouraged from joining an LGBTQ+ Facebook support network,for ‘fear that career progression may be impeded

      Conflict between identity and career prospects

    3. GBTQ+ travellers used ‘closed’ social media networks, availableonly following approval by an administrator, in a positive matter to aid ‘acculturation’

      May want to consider role of technology and social media in LGBTQ+ int'l student experiences while abroad and after returning home

    4. barriers to international academic mobility warrant close examination. The literatureon this point remains heteronormative in nature – often omitting the challenges facingLGBTQ+ travellers, discussed below

      Barriers to international academic mobility do not include LGBTQ+ students



    1. First, intersectionality rejects the postpositivist assumptions of an additiveapproach to social inequality, in which oppression is measured by addingtogether the effects of identifying with more than one marginalized group

      Postpositivist approach implies the separation of identities rather than looking at them holistically when combined

    2. used to deconstruct or “work the ruins” of everydaycircumstances in social life. Whereas scholars use the critical tradition toilluminate inequitable conditions, the poststructural tradition deconstructsthese inequities, often at the level of discourse (a term that refers to howlanguage and social practices regulate power and knowledge).

      Differences between poststructuralist and critical:

      Critical - highlighting inequitable conditions -- just identification?

      Poststructural - discusses those inequities, identifies implications of discussion findings

    3. Critical Trans Politics

      Look into what this is

    4. knowledge is coconstructed by socialactors, including participants and researchers

      Knowledge created by information from both researchers and participants, information gained through experience

    5. dichotomous,independent variable.

      Issue with approach - can lead to upholding binaries and implies an underlying assumption that biology is the deciding factor in sexual and gender identity (common form of thought in the West/U.S.)

    6. although observationis a subjective process, researchers should strive for neutrality and comeas close to objectivity as possible

      Ways to approach conducting research and communicating findings

    7. https://www.apa.org/pi/lgbt/resources/sexuality-definitions.pdf).

      Additional source to look at for terms - APA

    8. (a) gender cannot be understood in isolation from other so-cial identities; (b) gender is inextricable from sexism, genderism, and theirintersections with other social structural conditions; and (c) gender isa socially constructed, interactive process.

      Pay attention to (c) specifically -not sure what it means



    1. ack of LGBTQ+ people of colour being represented within theLGBTQ+ community and in media.

      In the higher ed space, could be improved by LGBTQ+ student involvement in leadership roles and in academia-esque roles (ex. in research)



    1. Amala expressed that being a part of the LGBTQA program at the university madeher want to bring change and be more visible about her identity to allow other internationalstudents to see that it is okay to be open and that there are programs and resources for them.

      Students in leadership positions and relationship to visibility

    2. involvement with programs at the university provided heropportunities to develop friendships with people who were supportive and accepting of heridentity.

      Developing social network

    3. visible with his identity at the university

      Student involvement and ties to visibility of their identity?

    4. My teacher thought I was gay or something so he had told my parents.

      Possibility of educators disclosing identities of students without consent? Something tied to educational policy in that country? Or cultural influence? Where to capture something like this in the research?

    5. Triangulation is a method used in qualitative studies to contribute to validation andverification throughout the qualitative analysis

      Will validifying and verifying research results be a part of the research process?

    6. The analysis of this study was conducted in accordance with the principles of IPA(Smith et al., 2009).

      Standard practice to describe data analysis process

    7. Atlas.ti version

      Qualitative data analysis software

    8. snowball and purposive sampling technique.

      Recruitment techniques

    9. (Beaty, 1999; Cass, 1979; Coleman, 1982; Harperet al., 2004; Kahn, 1991; Kuper, Coleman, & Mustanski, 2013; Troiden, 1989).

      May help to look into these theories for research

    10. a coming out model

      There are theories and models specific to the LGBTQ+ community

    11. When discussingidentity and its influence on the coming out experience, it is important to recognize theinfluences of culture, social constructs, and social roles on identity.

      Wonder if these factors should be made into interview questions?

    12. rural community

      May be a factor to think about in perceptions and experiences of LGBTQ+ int'l students

    13. significant factor in their decisions to reveal their identity.

      May be something to pay attention to in research

    14. institutional support programs,policies, practices, and resources provided in U.S. higher education for LGBTQinternational students.

      Might also be something to look for in research project during interviews - role of institutional support programs, policies, and resources in experiences abroad

    15. or example, undergraduate students were 45%less likely to come out to family compared to 70% of graduate students

      Undergraduate students less likely to be out to their families than graduate students, why? More reliant upon familial support? May be important to capture this demographic information in research interview participants

    16. changes in self-identification and labeling as the students change what words andterms they use to define their sexualities; changes in self-acceptance as their opinions onsexuality and their own homosexual identities shift; changes in self-understanding as theyadjust the degree to which they are open to expressing their sexuality in a reexamination oftheir own identities; and changes in their perceptions of their own potential professionaland romantic future as queer individuals

      Thinking about identity development as something to ask about in the research?

    17. marriage due to cultural and religious norms to be substantially important based on thesignificance of procreation to assist with family status and the economic growth withinthese communities

      Reasons why LGBTQ+ discrimination may be worse in African and Middle Eastern countries

    18. cultural values regarding sexual orientation, access to healthcare, discrimination and coping

      Additional issues of concern for LGBTQ+ int'l students that int'l students may not be as concerned about

    19. Journey to Community; Journey to aDestination of Diversity; Journey to Visibility; and Journey to Interiority

      How participants found/felt: community, diversity, visibility, and inferiority

    20. four major themes that emerged from the study that captured thecoming out experiences of the participants

      Thematic analysis?

    21. theoretical framework focused on identity was also utilized to develop a betterunderstanding of the participants’ coming out experiences and identity development.

      Take note -- see how author uses theoretical framework in their research

    22. interpretative phenomenological analytic approach

      Potential research methodology to use in research project

    23. limited research that addresses the coming outexperiences or identities of these students while they are studying in the U.S.

      Focus of paper and scope of research on focus of paper

    24. there is little to no research focused on international LGBTQ students’experiences in the U.S.

      Scope of research field



    1. A selective improvement technique for fastening Neuro-Dynamic Programming in Water Resources NetworkManagementDaniele de Rigo, Politecnico di Milano, ItalyAndrea Castelletti, Politecnico di Milano, ItalyAndrea Emilio Rizzoli, IDSIA, SwitzerlandRodolfo Soncini-Sessa, Politecnico di Milano, ItalyEnrico Weber, Politecnico di Milano, Italy

      Cite as:

      de Rigo, D., Castelletti, A., Rizzoli, A.E., Soncini-Sessa, R., Weber, E., 2005. A selective improvement technique for fastening neuro-dynamic programming in water resources network management. In: Źıtek, P. (Ed.), Proceedings of the 16th IFAC World Congress, IFAC-PapersOnLine. International Federation of Automatic Control (IFAC), pp. 7-12. https://purl.org/INRMM-MiD/c-10793225