28 Matching Annotations
  1. Dec 2022
    1. Protestant Paranoia: The American Protective Association Oath

      In 1887, Henry F. Bowers founded the nativist American Protective Association (APA) in Clinton, Iowa. Bowers was a Mason, and he drew from its fraternal ritual—elaborate regalia, initiation ceremonies, and a secret oath—in organizing the APA. He also drew many Masons, an organization that barred Catholics. The organization quickly acquired an anti-union cast. Among other things, the APA claimed that the Catholic leader of the Knights, Terence V. Powderly, was part of a larger conspiracy against American institutions. Even so, the APA successfully recruited significant numbers of disaffected trade unionists in an era of economic hard times and the collapse of the Knights of Labor. This secret oath taken by members of the American Protective Association in the 1890s revealed the depth of Protestant distrust and fear of Catholics holding public office.

      I do most solemnly promise and swear that I will always, to the utmost of my ability, labor, plead and wage a continuous warfare against ignorance and fanaticism; that I will use my utmost power to strike the shackles and chains of blind obedience to the Roman Catholic church from the hampered and bound consciences of a priest-ridden and church-oppressed people; that I will never allow any one, a member of the Roman Catholic church, to become a member of this order, I knowing him to be such; that I will use my influence to promote the interest of all Protestants everywhere in the world that I may be; that I will not employ a Roman Catholic in any capacity if I can procure the services of a Protestant.

      I furthermore promise and swear that I will not aid in building or maintaining, by my resources, any Roman Catholic church or institution of their sect or creed whatsoever, but will do all in my power to retard and break down the power of the Pope, in this country or any other; that I will not enter into any controversy with a Roman Catholic upon the subject of this order, nor will I enter into any agreement with a Roman Catholic to strike or create a disturbance whereby the Catholic employes may undermine and substitute their Protestant co-workers; that in all grievances I will seek only Protestants and counsel with them to the exclusion of all Roman Catholics, and will not make known to them anything of any nature matured at such conferences.

      I furthermore promise and swear that I will not countenance the nomination, in any caucus or convention, of a Roman Catholic for any office in the gift of the American people, and that I will not vote for, or counsel others to vote for, any Roman Catholic, but will vote only for a Protestant, so far as may lie in my power. Should there be two Roman Catholics on opposite tickets, I will erase the name on the ticket I vote; that I will at all times endeavor to place the political positions of this government in the hands of Protestants, to the entire exclusion of the Roman Catholic church, of the members thereof, and the mandate of the Pope.

      To all of which I do most solemnly promise and swear, so help me God. Amen.

      Source: "The Secret Oath of the American Protective Association, October 31, 1893," in Michael Williams, The Shadow of the Pope (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., 1932), 103–104. Reprinted in John Tracy Ellis, ed., Documents of American Catholic History (Milwaukee: The Bruce Publishing Company, 1956), 500–501.

    1. nalyze the content of 69,907 headlines pro-duced by four major global media corporations duringa minimum of eight consecutive months in 2014. In or-der to discover strategies that could be used to attractclicks, we extracted features from the text of the newsheadlines related to the sentiment polarity of the head-line. We discovered that the sentiment of the headline isstrongly related to the popularity of the news and alsowith the dynamics of the posted comments on that par-ticular news
    1. Q-associated influencers strategically center the U.S. military in their narratives. This appearance of analliance with the military enhances their credibility and attracts followers, including veterans. Thesuggestion of an alliance also creates a cadre of committed adherents.
    1. . Furthermore, our results add to the growing body of literature documenting—at least at this historical moment—the link between extreme right-wing ideology and misinformation8,14,24 (although, of course, factors other than ideology are also associated with misinformation sharing, such as polarization25 and inattention17,37).

      Misinformation exposure and extreme right-wing ideology appear associated in this report. Others find that it is partisanship that predicts susceptibility.

    2. We found that users who followed elites who made more false or inaccurate statements themselves shared news from lower-quality news outlets (as judged by both fact-checkers and politically-balanced crowds of laypeople), used more toxic language, and expressed more moral outrage.

      Elite mis and disinformation sharers have a negative effect on followers.

    3. Estimated ideological extremity is associated with higher elite misinformation-exposure scores for estimated conservatives more so than estimated liberals.

      Political ideology is estimated using accounts followed10. b Political ideology is estimated using domains shared30 (Red: conservative, blue: liberal). Source data are provided as a Source Data file.

      Estimated ideological extremity is associated with higher language toxicity and moral outrage scores for estimated conservatives more so than estimated liberals.

      The relationship between estimated political ideology and (a) language toxicity and (b) expressions of moral outrage. Extreme values are winsorized by 95% quantile for visualization purposes. Source data are provided as a Source Data file.

    1. Our study of QAnon messages found a highprevalence of linguistic identity fusion indicators along with external threat narratives, violence-condoninggroup norms as well as demonizing, dehumanizing, and derogatory vocabulary applied to the out-group, espe-cially when compared to the non-violent control group. The aim of this piece of research is twofold: (i.) It seeksto evaluate the national security threat posed by the QAnon movement, and (ii.) it aims to provide a test of anovel linguistic toolkit aimed at helping to assess the risk of violence in online communication channels.
    1. The psychology of hate: Moral concerns differentiate hate from dislike

      The effect of hate versus dislike on morality judgments (a) and moral emotions (b) in Study 2. Hated objects were rated as significantly more tied to core moral beliefs and moral emotions than disliked attitude objects.

      The effect of hate versus dislike on ratings of (a) negativity, (b) morality and (c) attitude strength in Study 3. Hated objects were rated as significantly more negative and were more associated with attitude strength than disliked objects but received similar ratings in negativity and attitude strength as extremely disliked objects. Hated objects were rated as more related to morality than extremely disliked attitude objects and disliked attitude objects.

      Results

      Consistent with our three laboratory studies, this analysis of real-world hate groups lent further support to the morality hypothesis. The language of hate groups was different, in the moral domain, from that of complain forums. These results reflect real, uncensored language used by groups and individuals known to espouse hate or dislike, and often known to take significant actions in support of these attitudes. Importantly, the expressions of these groups and individuals are less likely to involve their own lay theories about hate or dislike—but rather their public positions on these issues. There are, admittedly, several differences between hate websites and complaint forums and these data should be treated as preliminary. But taken together with the carefully controlled lab experiments, this overall pattern of findings suggests that morality helps differentiate expressions of hate from expressions of dislike.

  2. Oct 2022
  3. heathercoxrichardson.substack.com heathercoxrichardson.substack.com
    1. The real danger of this widening schism…lies in this creating the conditions for a future that looks more like present-day Russia or Iran.

      Or like The Handmaid's Tale.... SF accurately predicts the future yet again.

  4. Dec 2021
  5. Jun 2021
  6. May 2021
  7. Oct 2020
  8. Sep 2020
  9. Jun 2020
  10. May 2020
    1. The high number of extremist groups was concerning, the presentation says. Worse was Facebook’s realization that its algorithms were responsible for their growth. The 2016 presentation states that “64% of all extremist group joins are due to our recommendation tools” and that most of the activity came from the platform’s “Groups You Should Join” and “Discover” algorithms: “Our recommendation systems grow the problem.”
  11. Jul 2017
    1. Multnomah County Republican Party Approves far-right militia groups Oath Keepers and Three Percenters as Private Security -- "where such volunteers are certified to provide private security service by the Oregon Department of Public Safety Standards and Training."

  12. Apr 2017
  13. Jan 2016
    1. David Fry came all the way from Ohio to the Malheur Wildlife Refuge in Oregon to see the militia standoff for himself. He liked what he saw. Fry – who has gone by the name of 'DefendYourBase' online, is a video gamer who once posted "Pray4ISIS" on his social media account and has called on the terrorist group to "nuke Israel."
    1. Ammon Bundy's anti-federalism is rooted in religious extremism. He is a fundamentalist Mormon.

      This other article is about separate men, but gives some insight into that kind of mindset. It includes a statement from the Church of Latter Day Saints that "strongly condemns" the Bundys' actions.

    1. If anything is clear-cut about Indians in the Constitution, it is that relations with Indian nations are a federal responsibility. Carrying out that responsibility in Oregon, President U.S. Grant established the Malheur Indian Reservation for the Northern Paiute in 1872. It is no coincidence that the historical reservation shares a name with the Malheur National Wildlife Refuge, site of the current armed standoff.

      White settlement nibbled at the Maiheur Indian Reservation until the Bannock War in 1878, which ended with surrendered Paiutes and Bannocks on the reservation being removed, officially to the Yakama Reservation in Washington Territory. Unofficially, Paiutes had scattered all over the Western States that comprised their aboriginal lands. The Burns Paiute Reservation is the remains of the Malheur Reservation and the Maiheur Wildlife Refuge is an alternative use for the federal land, for those who believe the federal government exists.

      I haven't looked into this. Is Malheur Wildlife Refuge or any of the other disputed federal land part of an Indian reservation?

    1. In 2014, there was a confrontation between the federal government and supporters of Cliven Bundy over the use of federal land near his Nevada ranch. They briefly seized his cattle, then gave them back to avoid violence.

      Dwight Hammond Jr. and his son Steve were convicted of federal arson charges for fires they set on federal land in 2001 and 2006. The judge sentenced them to a few months in jail, which they served. The US attorney appealed the sentences, and they were extended to five years, which was supposed to be the mandatory minimum. (This sounds like double jeopardy to me.)

      The ranchers marched in protest. Then Saturday night, "dozens" of them, led by Cliven's son Ammon Bundy, seized a building at the Malheur Wildlife Refuge near the Hammond ranch in southeast Oregon. They are demanding the release of the Hammonds, and that the government cede the land to local control.

      A lot of people on Twitter are asking why this isn't being called terrorism. (Funny hashtags: #YallQaeda #Yeehawdi #VanillaISIS) No one has been hurt yet, but they are certainly creating great risk of violence, and they have said that they are willing to die.

      The Hammonds' hometown of Burns, OR has been tense for a while. The sheriff has received death threats. The residents are not happy about armed men showing up in their town to protest.

  14. Nov 2015
    1. And I also read this call to action by a (seemingly of French origin Muslim convert?) journalist who calls for Muslims to react after such violent attacks. To lead the fight against what we Muslims consider a hijacking of the message of Islam rather than distance ourselves from it. Because yeah – my natural reaction every time is “they don’t represent me. I don’t need to defend this because it doesn’t represent me”.  But in reality, for people who don’t know me or people like me, the violent ones speak louder than me.
  15. Aug 2015
    1. There are two broad narratives about politics that can be glimpsed between the lines here. Both are, in the argot of the day, problematic.

      The two paragraphs that follow are spot on. Nerds think government doesn't do anything right and they see government as this monolith thing apart from themselves rather than something they can and should work to affect, rather than circumvent.

      One thing I got out of reading Graeber's "Democracy Project" was the idea that it is not rational people that inhabit the middle of the political spectrum. Most people are more radical than the media makes it seem. The media reinforces the narrative that if you hold strong political opinions you are a radical. Your neighbors think you're crazy. You should probably just follow the herd, more.

      While there are definitely fundamentalists at the political extremes, there are also great thinkers.