409 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. Die Konzentration der drei wichtigsten Treibhausgase CO<sub>2</sub>, Methan und NO<sub>2</sub> hat 2023 neue Rekordwerte erreicht. Die Daten der amerikanischen NOAA zeigen, dass sich der Anstieg im Durchschnitt der letzten Jahre nicht verlangsamt hat, auch wenn er in manchen Vorjahren noch steiler verlief. Die CO<sub>2</sub>-Konzentation liegt 50% höher als in der vorindustriellen Zeit und entspricht der vor 4 Millionen Jahren. Die Atmosphäre enthält 160% mehr Methan als vor der Industrialisierung. Außer dem Verbrennen von Kohle, Öl und Gas ist die industrielle Landwirtschaft Hauptursache der Treibhausgas-Konzentration. https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2024/apr/06/record-highs-heat-trapping-gases-climate-crisis

      Bericht: https://research.noaa.gov/2024/04/05/no-sign-of-greenhouse-gases-increases-slowing-in-2023/

  2. Apr 2024
  3. Mar 2024
    1. A nice and easy way to report results of an ANOVA in R is with the report() function from the {report} package:
    1. Die weltwetterorganisation WMO fast in ihrem Bericht über 2023 die Daten verschiedener Services zusammen und kommt zu dramatischen Aussagen über die Entwicklung der Temperatur auf der Erdoberfläche insbesondere insgesamt und besonders an der Oberfläche der Meere. Gleichzeitig ergibt eine Studie der BU Wien dass die Prognosen vieler, darunter großer starken über die Entwicklung der Emissionen deutlich zu optimistisch sind. https://www.derstandard.de/story/3000000212370/weltwetterorganisation-zeichnet-duesteres-bild-vom-klima-des-letzten-jahres

    1. Die Gewinne von Shell sind 2023 auf 28 Milliarden Dollar gesunken; 2022 hatten sie 40 Milliarden Dollar betragen. Trotzdem war 2022 eines der erforlgreichsten Jahre der Firmengeschichte; die Dividenden sollen erhöht werden. Greenpeace reagierte mit einer satirischen Party, bei der die Verbrennung der Zukunft gefeiert wird. U.a. mit Projekten in Brasilien und im Golf von Mexiko setzt Shell die fossile Expansion fort. https://www.theguardian.com/business/2024/feb/01/shell-to-raise-dividends-again-despite-30-fall-in-annual-profits

    1. Die Europäische Umweltagentur hat ihren ersten Klimarisiko-Bericht veröffentlicht. Von 36 Risiken erfordern 21 sofortiges Handeln, acht mit besonderer Dringlichkeit. Insgesamt sei Europa bei weitem nicht ausreichend auf die Risiken der globalen Erhitzung vorbereitet, die in Südeuropa am bedrohlichsten seien. Europa ist der von der Erhitzung am stärksten betroffene Kontinent. https://www.derstandard.de/story/3000000211032/eu-muss-sich-auf-katastrophale-folgen-des-klimawandels-vorbereiten

      Bericht: https://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/european-climate-risk-assessment

  4. Feb 2024
    1. Die Selbstverpflichtungen der Regierungen zur Dekarbonisierung reichen bei weitem nicht aus. Ein Bericht, der von den Vereinten Nationen als Grundlage für die kommende COP28 publiziert wurde, ergibt, dass 2030 etwa 20 bis 23 Gigatonnen mehr CO<sub>2</sub> emittiert werden sollen, als mit dem 1,5 °-Ziel verträglich wäre. Zum ersten Mal wird in einem offiziellen UN-Dokument das Ende der Nutzung fossiler Brennstoffe gefordert. https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2023/sep/08/un-report-calls-for-phasing-out-of-fossil-fuels-as-paris-climate-goals-being-missed

      Bericht: https://unfccc.int/sites/default/files/resource/EMBARGOED_DRAFT_Sythesis-report-of-the-technical-dialogue-of-the-first-global-stocktake.pdf

      Bericht: https://unfccc.int/documents/631600

    1. Der CO<sub>2</sub>-Gehalt der Atmosphäre wird 2024 weiter steigen, so dass die vom IPCC erarbeiteten Pfade, um das 1,5°-Ziel einzuhalten, nicht mehr eingehalten werden können. Das ergibt sich aus einer Studie des britischen Met Office, die sich auf die Daten des Mauna Loa-Observatoriums in Hawai stützt. (Die obere Grenze der Unsicherheitsbereiche dieser Pfade ist erreicht, selbst wenn der El-Niño-Einfluss abgezogen wird. Ein Einhalten der Pfade würde ein sofortiges Absinken des CO<sub>2</sub>-Gehalts erfordern.) https://www.liberation.fr/environnement/climat-les-concentrations-de-co2-cette-annee-menacent-la-limite-de-15c-daugmentation-globale-des-temperatures-20240119_6JIALPQDBNADFGNHS4MVDXR5QA/?redirected=1

      Animation: https://youtu.be/RYPDvTWDi0E?si=wWEUnypFxQO8M9D7

      Bericht: https://www.metoffice.gov.uk/research/climate/seasonal-to-decadal/long-range/forecasts/co2-forecast-for-2024

  5. Jan 2024
    1. Die obersten 2000 m der Ozeane haben 2023 15 Zettajoule Wärme mehr absorbiert als 2022. Die Erwärmung dieser Schichten verringert den Austausch mit den kälteren unteren Schichten und belastet die marinen Ökosysteme dadurch zusätzlich. Bisher sind keine Zeichen für eine Beschleunigung der Zunahme des Wärmehinhalts im Verhältnis zu den Vorjahren zu erkennen. Die Oberflächentemperatur der Ozeane lag im ersten Halbjahr 0,1°, im zweiten Halbjahr aber für die Wissenschaft überraschende 0,3 Grad über der des Jahres 2022. Schwere Zyklone, darunter der längste bisher beobachtete überhaupt, trafen vor allem besonders vulnerable Gebiete.

      https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2024/jan/11/ocean-warming-temperatures-2023-extreme-weather-data

      Study: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00376-024-3378-5

      Report: https://www.globalwater.online/#content

    1. Im Interview der Repubblica (hier auf Englisch) fordert Johan Rockström eine Konkretisierung der Ergebnisse der COP28 und eine Reform der UN-Klimakonferenzen. Er hebt die Ergebnisse des Global Tipping Points Report hervor und weist darauf hin, dass wir die Konsequenzen der kaum noch zu Überschreitung des 1,5°-Ziels über mehrere Jahrzehnte nicht kennen.

      https://www.greenandblue.it/2023/12/31/news/johan_rockstrom_earth4all_scenarios-421790005/

  6. Dec 2023
    1. 2023 Production Gap Report: Die USA, Russland und Saudi-Arabien planen wie die Mehrheit der 20 am meisten fossile Brennstoffe produzierenden Staaten, 2030 mehr Öl zu fördern als je zuvor. Indien will die Kohleproduktion bis 2030 verdoppeln, Kanada die Öl- und Gasförderung in 25 Jahren um 25% steigern. Brasilien will in 10 Jahren die Ölproduktion um 2/3, die Gasproduktion um 100% steigern. China, Deutschland, Großbritannien und Norwegen wollen die Produktion reduzieren. https://www.nytimes.com/2023/11/09/climate/coming-soon-more-oil-gas-and-coal.html

    1. Laut Oxfam haben die reichen Länder 2020 nur 21-24,5 Milliarden Dollar tatsächliche Klimahilfen an den globalen Süden bezahlt. Ausgehend von ihrem Climate Finance Shadow Report 2023 kritisiert die NGO die Behauptung, es seien 2022 erstmals die vereinbarten 100 Milliarden zur Verfügung gestelt worden. https://taz.de/Faule-Klima-Entschaedigungen/!5973353/

  7. Nov 2023
    1. excessive expectations and reliance on CCUS
      • for: quote - Carbon Capture expectations - unfeasible

      • quote

        • If oil and natural gas consumption were to evolve as projected under today’s policy settings, this would require an inconceivable 32 billion tonnes of carbon captured for utilisation or storage by 2050,
          • including 23 billion tonnes via direct air capture to limit the temperature rise to 1.5 °C.
        • The necessary carbon capture technologies would require 26 000 terawatt hours of electricity generation to operate in 2050,
          • which is more than global electricity demand in 2022.
        • And it would require over USD 3.5 trillion in annual investments all the way from today through to mid-century, which is an amount equal to the entire industry’s annual average revenue in recent years.
      • for: IEA 2023 report - exec summary - Fossil Fuel industry, IEA 2023 report - exec summary - Oil and Gas industry

      • summary

        • this is the IEA summary of the position of the Oil and Gas industry and what they must do in order to transition to a net zero world by 2050 and avert 1.5 Deg C global mean temperature.
        • it contains a lot of useful information and statistics
    1. Wenn die Länder sich an ihre aktuellen Planungen halten, werden die Emissionen bis 2030 im Verhältnis zu 2010 um 9% wachsen. Für das 1,5°-Ziel müssten sie um fast 50% fallen. Der Global stocktake report der UN zeigt vor der COP28, dass die meisten Nationen bei weiten nicht genug Schritte zur Reduktion der Emissionen unternehmen. Zu ähnlichen Ergebnissen war der Bericht "State of Climate Action 2023" gekommen. https://www.nytimes.com/2023/11/14/climate/united-nations-ndc-report-card.html

      Bericht: https://unfccc.int/documents/632334

    1. Hitzebedingte Todesfälle bei über 65-Jährigen haben seit den 90ern um 85% zugenommen. Senior:innen sind – wie kleine Kinder – zweimal soviel Hitzewellen-Tagen ausgesetzt wie 1986-2005. Extreme Hitze führte 2022 zu Produktivitätsverlusten von ca. 863 Milliarden USD. Alle Indikatoren für öffentliche Gesundheit haben sich in den letzten 9 Jahren verschlechtert. – Die NYT stellt den 2023 Report des Lancet Countdown ausführlich dar. https://www.nytimes.com/2023/11/14/climate/climate-change-health-effects-lancet.html

      Mehr zum Rreport: https://hypothes.is/search?q=tag%3A%222023%20report%20of%20the%20Lancet%20Countdown%20on%20health%20and%20climate%20change%22

    1. Ausführliche Berichte thematisieren die großen Hindernisse, die in Frankreich für die just transition zu einem nachhaltigen Leben bestehen. Die Klimakrise wird in allen Schichten als Bedrohung wahrgenommen, aber in den ärmeren Gruppen sieht man viel weniger Handlungsmöglichkeiten. https://www.liberation.fr/idees-et-debats/fin-du-monde-ou-fin-de-mois-quels-sont-les-freins-a-la-conversion-ecologique-des-classes-populaires-20231118_72LRGBQFONDVFJJY26JU5X2JQY/

      Bericht des Wirtschafts-, Sozial- und Umweltrates: https://www.lecese.fr/sites/default/files/pdf/Avis/2023/2023_24_RAEF.pdf

      Bericht des Wirtschaftsinstituts für das Klima: https://www.i4ce.org/publication/transition-est-elle-accessible-a-tous-les-menages-climat/

    1. Ausführlicher Kommentar zu den 2,4 Billionen (Tausend Milliarden, im Artikel falsch übersetzt) Dollar, die laut dem COP27-Bericht von 2022 erforderlich sind, um Klimaschutz und -Anpassung in den Ländern des globalen Südens (außer China) zu finanzieren. Der auf Konsens ausgerichtete COP-Prozess sei außerstande, die nötigen Entscheidungen zu treffen. Der Betrag entspricht grob den aktuellen weltweiten Militärausgaben. https://www.repubblica.it/commenti/2023/11/19/news/cambiamenti_climatici_spesa_annua-420689085/?ref=RHRT-BG-I279994148-P4-S3-T1

    1. Der Emissions Gap Report 2023 des UN-Umweltprogramms (Titel: Broken Rekord) zeigt, dass sich die Welt nach wie vor auf eine Erhitzung um 2,5-2,9° zubewegt. Die Wahrscheinlichkeit dafür, dass das 1,5°-Ziel noch erreicht wird, liegt bei höchstens 14%. Der Treibhausgasausstoß erreichte einen historischen Rekord; er war 2022 1,2% höher als 2021. https://www.derstandard.at/story/3000000195965/welt-steuert-auf-drei-grad-erhitzung-zu-methan

      Bericht: https://www.unep.org/resources/emissions-gap-report-2023

    1. Der westantarktische Eisschild wird in diesem Jahrhundert dreimal schneller abschmelzen als im vergangenen, selbst wenn es gelingt, die globale Erhitzung auf 1,5 Grad zu begrenzen. Einer neuen Studie zufolge wurde einer der Kipppunkte, unterhalb derer das Klimasystem stabil bleibt, überschritten. Dadurch wird es zu einem so großen Anstieg des Meeresspiegels kommen, dass mehrere Küstenstädte aufgegeben werden müssen. Die Studie stützt sich nur auf eine einzige Modellierung, wird aber von den Ergebnissen anderer Untersuchungen ergänzt. https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2023/oct/23/rapid-ice-melt-in-west-antarctica-now-inevitable-research-shows

      Studie: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41558-023-01818-x

    1. Die Menschheit bewegt sich auf mehrere "Risiko-Kipppunkte" zu. Wenn sie überschritten werden, sinkt die Fähigkeit, Unglücke zu überstehen, erheblich. In einer Studie der UN University (mit Sitz in Deutschland) werden sechs dieser Punkte untersucht, etwa der Punkt, an dem sich Gebäude nicht mehr versichern lassen. Diese ökologisch-sozialen Schwellenwerte unterscheiden sich von den durch verstärkendes Feedback charakterisierten Kipppunkten im Sinn der Erdsystem-Wissenschaften. https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2023/oct/25/climate-crisis-threatens-tipping-point-of-uninsurable-homes-says-un

      Studie: https://interconnectedrisks.org/

      Mehr zum 2023 Interconnected Disaster Risks Report: Studie: https://interconnectedrisks.org/

    1. Die italienische NGO Legambiente ruft dazu auf, ein Manifest zum Schutz der Alpengletscher zu unterschreiben. Es fördert Governance auf nationaler wie auf europäischer Ebene. Es bezieht sich auf Klimaschutz- wie auf Anpassungsmaßnahmen. Dabei wird auf zentrale Dokumente und Vereinbarungen zum Schutz der alpinen Ökosysteme und der Kryosphäre zurückgegriffen. https://www.repubblica.it/green-and-blue/2023/10/27/news/legambiente_petizione_ghiacciai-418888279/

      Manifest für die Governance der Gletscher und mit ihnen verbundener Ressourcen: https://www.legambiente.it/rapporti-e-osservatori/manifesto-per-una-governance-dei-ghiacciai-e-delle-risorse-connesse/?_gl=11cfz0u4_upMQ.._gaMTkwMjI0NzAzMy4xNjk4Mzg4MDI5_ga_LX7CNT6SDN*MTY5ODM4ODAyNy4xLjAuMTY5ODM4ODAyNy4wLjAuMA..

    1. Ein neuer Bericht der europäischen Kommission sagt aus, dass die EU dreimal so schnell dekarbonisieren muss wie bisher, um das Ziel zu erreichen, die Emissionen bis 2030 um 55% zu reduzieren. Den Zahlen der European Environment Agency zufolge reicht der gegenwärtige Kurs nur für eine Reduzierung um 43%. Ein Haupthindernis sind die enorm hohen fossilen Subventionen. Die Selbstverpflichtungen von EU-Staaten vor der COP28 treffen z.T. verspätet ein, und die vorliegenden sind einem Bericht des Climate Action Network zufolge sehr unzureichend. https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2023/oct/24/eu-must-cut-emissions-three-times-more-quickly-report-says

      State of the Energy Union: https://energy.ec.europa.eu/system/files/2023-10/COM_2023_650_1_EN_ACT_part1_v10.pdf CAN-Bericht: https://caneurope.org/content/uploads/2023/10/NECPs_Assessment-Report_October2023.pdf

    1. Die Pläne der Kohle-, Öl- und gasproduzierenden Staaten zur Ausweitung der Förderung würden 2030 zu 460% mehr Kohle, 83% mehr Gas und 29% mehr Ölproduktion führen, als mit dem Pariser Abkommen vereinbar ist. Der aktuelle Production Gap Report der Vereinten Nationen konzentriert sich auf die 20 stärksten Verschmutzer-Staaten, deren Pläne fast durchgängig in radikalem Widerspruch zum Pariser Abkommen stehen. https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2023/nov/08/insanity-petrostates-planning-huge-expansion-of-fossil-fuels-says-un-report

      Report: https://productiongap.org/

  8. Oct 2023
    1. Die Erde befindet sich bereits in einem "uncharted territory". 20 von 35 Indikatoren, mit denen sich das Funktionieren des Klimasystems beurteilen lässt, zeigen inzwischen extreme Werte. Die aktualisierte Version einer von den renommiertesten Erdsystemwissenschaftler:innen erstellten (und von 2000 Wissenschaftlern unterzeichneten Studie) von 2019 kommt zu dem Ergebnis, dass die Warnungen aus der Wissenschaft, den Planeten nicht überzubelasten, nicht rechtzeitig ernst genommen wurden und das Erdsystem seinen stabilen Zustand verlassen hat. https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2023/oct/24/earth-vital-signs-human-history-scientists-sustainable-future

      Report: https://doi.org/10.1093/biosci/biad080

    1. Die Internationale Energieagentur IEA hält eine Begrenzung der globalen Erhitzung aufgrund des schnellen Wachstums bei den erneuerbaren Energien für sehr schwierig, aber noch möglich. In ihrem Jahresbericht kommt sie zu dem Ergebnis, dass der Höhepunkt der Nachfrage nach Kohle, Gas und Öl bis 2030 erreicht werden wird. Die Energiepolitik der wichtigen Staaten ist aber bei der Umstellung auf Erneuerbare bei weitem nicht so ehrgeizig, als es nötig ist. https://www.liberation.fr/environnement/grace-aux-energies-bas-carbone-limiter-le-rechauffement-climatique-reste-possible-affirme-lagence-internationale-de-lenergie-20231024_YF7ZJA7WBFACRFIVCBRONJPKAA/

      World Energy Outlook 2023: https://origin.iea.org/reports/world-energy-outlook-2023

      Mehr zum World Energy Outlook 2023: https://hypothes.is/search?q=tag%3A%22report%3A%20World%20Energy%20Outlook%202023%22

    1. Zwischen 2016 und 2021 wurden weltweit mindestens 43,1 Millionen Kinder durch klimabedingte Wetterereignisse wie Überschwemmungen, Stürme, Dürren und Waldbrände vertrieben. Bei diesen Angaben aus einem neuen Unicef-Report handelt es sich um Mindestzahlen; die realen Werte dürften weit höher liegen. Der Bericht prognostiziert Verschlimmerungen bis hin zu mehr als einer Verdoppelung dieser Zahlen bis 2050. https://taz.de/Unicef-Bericht-zum-Klimawandel/!5964808/

      Bericht: https://www.unicef.org/reports/children-displaced-changing-climate

    1. Angesichts der Temperaturrekorde im September fasst Adam Morton im Guardian die Kernaussagen des Net Zero Road-Berichts der IEA zusammen. Die Erhitzung kann danach noch gestoppt werden, wenn die Investitionen in Erneuerbare weiter schnell gesteigert werden und wenn nicht mehr in die Entwicklung fossiler Energien investiert wird. https://www.theguardian.com/environment/commentisfree/2023/oct/05/global-heating-weather-temperatures-climate-impact

  9. Sep 2023
    1. Her scholarly agenda also is cutting edge in a post-pandemic worldthat needs more attention given to the technological innovations in legal practice andthe quickly transitioning areas of AI in the landscape of legal research, technologicalcompetence for lawyers, evolution of law practice management, and technologytraining programs in law schools

      Good thing to mention in report

    Tags

    Annotators

    1. in Sweden, the Swedish parliament, which is completely set up by citizens – set up by citizens for citizens. They've produced a fantastic report. Detailed, rich report from citizens about how you could deliver budgets that are... from colleagues' and myself work on this, would say are broadly in line with somewhere between 1.5 and 2 [°C].
      • for: Swedish climate report, cidtizen action, bottom-up climate action, top-down and bottom-up partnership
      • future research

        • study the Swedish parliament climate policy model and citizen's roles in achieving it and see if it can be replicated in all countries
      • question

        • is there anyone studying this with the object of scaling to other countries?
    1. Social tipping points and physical tipping points are interrelated. With environmental stress, the former could arrive before the latter, and then cascades develop. Hamburg Climate Futures Outlook 2023: https://www.cliccs.uni-hamburg.de/results/hamburg-climate-futures-outlook.html
      • for: TPF
      • comment
        • Hamburg climate futures outlook 2023 report supports need for something on the scale of the planned TPF
  10. Aug 2023
    1. Now, award-winning poet Nicole Sealey revisits the investigation in a book that redacts the report, an act of erasure that reimagines the original text as it strips it away. While the full document is visible in the background—weighing heavily on the language Sealey has preserved—it gives shape and disturbing context to what remains.
  11. Jul 2023
      • Title
        • Psychology and Global Climate Change: Addressing a Multi-faceted Phenomenon and Set of Challenges A Report by the American Psychological Association’s Task Force on the Interface Between Psychology and Global Climate Change
      • Authors
        • Janet Swim
        • Susan Clayton
        • Thomas Doherty
        • Robert Gifford
        • George Howard
        • Joseph Reser
        • Paul Stern
        • Elke Weber
  12. Jun 2023
    1. there came in Britain at the cusp of the1920s and 1930s the Board of Education’s reports on a range of educationaltopics under the chairmanship of Sir William Hadow.
    2. Given the committee’s constitution, it’s all the more remarkable that itproduced probably the single strongest official impetus for progressive educationin the 20th century anywhere in the world.

      Gary Thomas feels that the 1960s Plowden Report was the strongest official impetus for progressive education in the 20th century.

      He suggest that it was a natural successor to the Hadow Report.

  13. May 2023
  14. Apr 2023
    1. Peer review report

      Title: Publication Patterns and Perceptions of Open Science in Indian Scholarly Community: Insights from a Survey

      version: 2

      Referee: Moumita Koley

      Institution: Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India

      email: moumitakoley@iisc.ac.in

      ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2394-0663


      General assessment

      The author of the article provides a limited perspective on Publication Patterns and Perceptions of Open Science in the Indian Scholarly Community. This article sheds some light on open science practices, considering the scarcity of data on this topic. The main drawbacks, the survey conducted in the article is the only methodology used, and it is limited to a small group of researchers. Understanding publication patterns (Open Access publication and use of preprints) should be made using bibliometric studies. Another drawback of the article is that it primarily focuses on researchers from the agriculture field, which is over-represented and makes it misleading to claim that the study represents the entire Indian scholarly community. This is particularly problematic since the physical and chemical sciences dominate the Indian research community, and data from these fields are entirely absent in the article.


      Essential revisions that are required to verify the manuscript

      This study is at an early stage; more data points and representations of various fields are necessary to claim validity. Moreover, a mixed-method approach is more suitable.


      Other suggestions to improve the manuscript

      The introduction section mentions several preprint servers, but some are not operational. For example, ArabiXiv is not accepting new submissions, and IndiaRxiv has few submissions. Since there are limited responses from other South Asian countries, the author has chosen to focus on India. However, it is unclear if the percentages of career levels of professionals are representative of India alone.

      One drawback of this article is the over-representation of researchers from the agriculture field. In the Indian ecosystem, agricultural research institutes are separate from the general university system and governed by different funding and governance systems. Therefore, the norms and practices can vary significantly.

      In the STEM subjects, Chemical Sciences contributed the most publications in India from 2015-2019, followed by Physical Sciences. Biological Sciences had fewer publications during this period(the method used for this statement: a quick search in the Web of Science). However, this data does not represent the publication behaviour of the major constituents (Physical and Chemical Science) of the Indian academic community. Therefore, it is suggested to shift the narrative towards agricultural science.

      The statement "patent and scholarly data website, India has produced 19,76,966 scholarly works till date" lacks a timeframe.

      The APC section statements are unclear. As far as current knowledge goes, no study has shown a correlation between JIF and APC. The statement "Was it because of JIFs they must publish in Open Access when there is Green Route to Open Access (depositing in subject or institutional repositories)" is unclear. Moreover, while Indian national funding agencies have green OA mandates, they have not been enforced. Several studies indicate that Indian researchers' adoption of green OA is low, so authors have no obligation to publish OA.

      The article concludes that advocacy is needed, but it is essential to understand the research assessment frameworks of Indian academia and funding agencies. Without recognition in assessment, researchers are unlikely to adopt Preprints. Preprint submission is becoming the norm in some disciplines, which may improve the situation.


      Decision

      Requires revisions: The manuscript contains objective errors or fundamental flaws that must be addressed and/or major revisions are suggested.

    1. Peer review report

      Title: Maintained imbalance of triglycerides, apolipoproteins, energy metabolites and cytokines in long-term COVID-19 syndrome (LTCS) patients

      version: 1

      Referee: Paola Turano

      Institution: University of Florence

      email: turano@cerm.unifi.it

      ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7683-8614


      General assessment

      This is an integrated study reporting NMR-based metabolomics data and flow cytometry-based cytokine in the blood of 125 individuals (healthy controls (HC; n=73), COVID-19-recovered (n=12), COVID-19 acute (n=7) and LTCS (n=33)).

      The main goal appears to be that of demonstrating alterations in the metabolome and immune markers of patients with long COVID. This condition is defined as the continuation or development of new symptoms 3 months after the initial SARS-CoV-2 infection, with these symptoms lasting for at least 2 months with no other explanation.

      As admitted by the authors, the 4 groups are very unbalanced in terms of numbers of enrolled subjects; moreover, all numbers are low but those in the recovered groups and even more in the acute phase are extremely low. Therefore, the only reliable comparison appears to be that between HC and LTCS. And this is a pity because the most important comparison to define the signature associated with long-COVID symptoms would have been the one between recovered and LTCS subjects.

      Another problem is that there is no information on the status of the LTCS before infection nor during the acute phase. This, combined with the low number of individuals, does not allow to draw a real trajectory of the alterations during the observed time line. It is therefore difficult to be 100% sure that alterations in certain metabolites of lipoproteins are a consequence of LTCS or instead intrinsic characteristics of a group of individual that make them more prone to develop LTCS.

      These critical aspects have nothing to do with the experimental approach, which is powerful and carefully performed. Unfortunately, the available cohort is not the best to achieve the goal of a molecular characterization of LTCS.

      In any case the present manuscript provides useful hints to be further investigated in future studies and therefore might deserve publication.


      Essential revisions that are required to verify the manuscript

      If it were possible to enlarge the cohort of patients, confirming the observed trends, this would lead to a significant improvement in the impact of the work. But I understand the practical difficulties in achieving this goal.


      Decision

      Verified with reservations: The content is academically sound but has shortcomings that could be improved by further studies and/or minor revisions.

    2. Peer review report

      Title: Maintained imbalance of triglycerides, apolipoproteins, energy metabolites and cytokines in long-term COVID-19 syndrome (LTCS) patients

      version: 1

      Referee: Christopher Gerner

      Institution: University of Vienna

      email: Christopher.gerner@univie.ac.at

      ORCID iD: 0000-0003-4964-0642


      General assessment

      The manuscript of Berezhnoy et al. is a well written report regarding metabolomics and cytokines in long term COVID-19 syndrome patients. The applied methodology is of some interest and I cannot detect methodological errors. However, I have some concerns which need to be addressed before the manuscript should sent for journal publication.

      Most importantly, the manuscript did not adhere to good scientific practice regarding literature research. There are papers about LTCS patients published more than a year ago following highly similar research strategies with quite similar results. It is not sufficient to cite them in subordinate clauses in the Discussion, they need to be cited in the Introduction accordingly, as well when discussing the results. Indeed, relevant similarities in the results would deserve some discussion, such as the dysregulation of cytokines in LTCS.

      Another weakness is the structure of data interpretation. It is mentioned in the Introduction that several cell types were reported to show altered metabolism after a COVID-19 infection. I cannot see how plasma analysis should allow to verify such observations as it represents a mixture of all cell types in the body. This obvious challenge regarding data interpretation should be addressed.

      This is in line with another weak aspect. The numerous findings a reported without a clear structure regarding potential pathomechanisms. As such, the manuscript is sometimes not easy to read.

      To sum up, the manuscript reports interesting analysis results largely corroborating previous results, which deserved publication after some essential improvements.


      Essential revisions that are required to verify the manuscript

      An improved appreciation of existing literature is essential, as well as an improved data interpretation.


      Other suggestions to improve the manuscript

      A discussion of the pros and cons of NMR-based metabolomics in contrast to other techniques would be helpful.


      Decision

      Verified with reservations: The content is academically sound but has shortcomings that could be improved by further studies and/or minor revisions.

    1. Peer review report

      Title: If it’s there, could it be a bear?

      version: 2

      Referee: Rahul Raveendran

      Institution: Biodiversity Institute, University of Kansas

      email: rahulravi777@gmail.com


      General assessment

      The manuscript needs to be revised thoroughly.


      Essential revisions that are required to verify the manuscript

      I feel that the introduction can be a little more elaborative. My suggestions are as follows:

      • In the first paragraph, the author can give more details about ‘hominology’ by citing the works of Dmitry Bayanov. This is to give a historical account of ‘hominid research’ to the readers who are unfamiliar to this topic.

      • Second paragraph has information related to the ‘misdeeds’ of the ‘proponents of hominology’. According to me, there must be continuous flow of information from paragraph to paragraph. Currently, I do not see a proper chronological flow of details in 1st and 2nd paragraph. I request the learned author to check this in such a way that 1st para must provide details about ‘hominids’, ‘hominology’, and the 2nd para must give the scientific explanation about these ‘controversial findings’.

      • Line numbers 43-44: This paragraph must be expanded, and possibly include more information about ‘American black bear’ being misrecognized as ‘bigfoot sightings’ with references. If available, provide details regarding the molecular/clinical test results (i.e., references).

      • A separate paragraph has to be incorporated to detail the methods adopted by scientists/researchers to link the population density of American black bear and bigfoot sightings.

      • Line numbers 49-51: The sentence “No positive correlation between……a small proportion of all sightings” has to be re-written as I think that it does not convey its meaning properly.

      • Provide the fundamentals of ecological niche modeling. How such a concept can be adopted in this sort of a study with a strong emphasis on the results of Lozier et al. (2009) would be helpful for the readers.

      • In the last paragraph of the introduction, although not in detail, the author should state clearly the approach that was taken to execute the study. For example, details related to the chosen statistical methods with references. And state your hypothesis clearly.

      Materials and Methods

      • Line numbers 67-77: Please make these sentences more lucid. I feel that this paragraph lacks coherence.

      • Line numbers 90-94: Please make these sentences more understandable.

      • Line numbers 113-116: Please re-write these sentences to make them more understandable. Results

      • Line numbers 121-123: The article states that both the sasquatch sighting and black bear population maps are strongly coloured in the Pacific Northwest area……”. BUT, in PNW, I do not think that bigfoot sightings in British Columbia are proportional to the black bear population.

      • Presentation of results is a bit confusing for me. I would suggest to rewrite the results with a view to make everyone who reads this article understands the results properly.

      Discussion

      • Discussion must be vastly improved

      a) It is difficult to understand the very first sentence of the discussion that starts with “The present study regressed ………………..”. Please re-write it.

      b) Results of the present study should be discussed in detail, linking previous published reports.

      c) The models employed must be discussed in detail with the support of previous reports to substantiate the conceptual correctness of the methodological framework.


      Decision

      Requires revisions: Major revisions are suggested.

    2. Peer review report

      Title: If it’s there, could it be a bear?

      version: 2

      Referee: Julie Sheldon

      Institution: University of Tennessee

      email: jsheldo3@tennessee.edu

      ORCID iD: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2813-3027


      General assessment

      This manuscript is a collection of statistical analyses attempting to show that sasquatch sightings correlate with black bear populations, and humans may be mistaking black bears for sasquatch.

      The author effectively introduces the topic, provides adequate background on sasquatch, but does not provide much on black bear populations, natural history, or human-bear interactions.

      The author performs several statistical tests to support the findings. I am not a statistician, but the tests seem valid. The data used for the statistical analyses, however, are not ideal. The resource (Hristienko and McDonald) provided for obtaining black bear populations was published in 2007 and the data was from 2001 via “subjective extrapolations” and “expert opinions”. Thus, this resource is outdated and suboptimal as black bear populations have changed over time. A more updated resource with more scientific methods in data collection would improve this manuscript since having as accurate as possible bear population estimates is very important for the goal of this study. The author notes this briefly in the limitations. If the human population and sasquatch sighting data matched up with the dates of bear population estimates, it would be more valid (just outdated), but there are no date ranges of human or sasquatch data provided in the manuscript.

      In the results, the maps of bigfoot sightings and black bear population do not appear to correlate visually, which downplays the value of the statistical analysis. The stats should support the visual data and vice versa if the study is sound. Perhaps more updated bear population data will improve this.

      The discussion is short and briefly brings up important points that can invalidate the study without much discussion or argument supporting the findings of this study.


      Essential revisions that are required to verify the manuscript

      I recommend the following to improve the manuscript enough to consider it valid:

      Date-match the bear population, human population, and bigfoot sightings to improve the validity of the data analysis. One way to do this is to use data from the same 10-year period only.

      Improve the sources of bear population information.

      Expand the discussion to include reasons and ideas the maps don’t line up like the statistical analyses do – ie bears in Florida and the southeast.


      Other suggestions to improve the manuscript

      I recommend provide some information on black bear population/natural history in the introduction – ie what sort of habitats do black bears live in. Consider the possibility that sasquatch sightings may correlate with a type of habitat (ie forest), which happen to also correlate with black bear habitat. This may support the idea that sasquatch sightings are bears, or that sasquatch also likes to live in similar habitats as bears.

      The author reports that black bears are not prominent in Florida; however, there are > 4,000 black bears bears in Florida, that are reportedly large, and it may be worth considering this as a reason for the concentration of sasquatch sightings in Florida as seen on the map. More accurate black bear data as discussed above may help improve this aspect. Experientially, there is also a high concentration of black bears in the southeastern US, where there is also a high concentration of humans and human-bear encounters. The author does not discuss this along with the number of sasquatch sightings in this region as seen on the map.


      Decision

      Verified with reservations: The content is academically sound but has shortcomings that could be improved by further studies and/or minor revisions.

    1. The new report evokes a mild sense of urgency, calling on governments to mobilise finance to accelerate the uptake of green technology. But its conclusions are far removed from a direct interpretation of the IPCC’s own carbon budgets (the total amount of CO₂ scientists estimate
      • The report claims that
        • to reach target of 50/50 chance of staying within 1.5 deg C,
        • we must reach meet zero by 2050
          • Yet, updating the IPCC’s estimate of the 1.5°C carbon budget,
            • from 2020 to 2023, and then drawing a straight line down from today’s total emissions to the point where all carbon emissions must cease, and without exceeding this budget,
          • gives a zero CO₂ date of 2040.
          • Furthermore, adding policy delays to set things up, it is more likely a date closer to mid 2030's.
    2. Title IPCC’s conservative nature masks true scale of action needed to avert catastrophic climate change Author Kevin Anderson

      Summary The influential 2023 IPCC Synthesis report for policy makers is quite misleading and can steer policy makers in the wrong, and disastrous direction.

    1. Peer review report

      Title: Types of Arrhythmias and the risk of sudden cardiac death in dialysis patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

      version: 1

      Referee: Milaras Nikias

      Institution: National and Kapodistrian University of Athens- Ippokrateion Hospital

      email: nikiasmil@med.uoa.gr

      ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7312-0976


      General assessment

      It is now well known that high cardiovascular mortality in ESRD patients is only partly due to atherothrombotic events. Ventricular tachyarrhythmias and electromechanical dissociation account for a significant amount of those deaths as was reported in landmark trials such as the MADIT II. VT or VF might be the mode of death in only a minority of those patients and this is extrapolated from the fact that ICD implantation in this population does not extend survival, whether due to high competing comorbidities or due to electromechanical dissociation being the cause of death. It is true that ESRD patients are underrepresented in such studies due to the high competing factor for non-cardiac death and no safe conclusion can yet be drawn. It remains yet to be seen whether a better risk stratification algorithm through Holter monitoring or programmed ventricular stimulation can unveil those truly at high risk for SCD.

      This meta-analysis tries to unveil the mode of death and the high cardiovascular mortality in renal failure through a thorough literature search that included 11 studies. This systematic review/meta-analysis follows current writing and reporting guidelines.

      The English used is adequate although some parts of the manuscript could be refined (eg 3rd paragraph in Introduction)


      Essential revisions that are required to verify the manuscript

      ESRD and ESKD are both discussed in the manuscript. I would personally prefer that the authors devoted more effort in commenting on the meta-analysis results and its implications. The included studies are not adequately annotated in the text, making reading difficult for the statistically unschooled reader who must understand the plots provided.


      Decision

      Verified with reservations: The content is academically sound but has shortcomings that must be improved.

  15. Mar 2023
    1. Peer review report

      Title: If it’s real, could it be an eel?

      version: 2

      Referee: Dr Don Jellyman

      Institution: National Institute of Water and Atmosphere (New Zealand)

      email: don.jellyman@niwa.co.nz

      ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6941-2703


      General assessment

      An interesting assessment that verifies the obvious – that any monster of ~ 6 m cannot be an eel (Anguilla anguilla), although there is a reasonable likelihood that eels of ~ 1 m could account for some of the “sightings” of elongate animals in the loch. However, even though the outcome is unsurprising, the author approaches the subject in a rigorous and systematic way. As such, the manuscript is of value in eliminating eels as possible candidate species for the mythical monster.

      The manuscript is well written and referenced.


      Essential revisions that are required to verify the manuscript

      Nil


      Other suggestions to improve the manuscript

      Nil


      Decision

      Verified: The content is academically sound, only minor amendments (if any) are suggested.

    1. the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change released its “synthesis” report summarizing the findings of its sixth assessment (the last occurred in 2014). The findings are painfully familiar: the world is falling far short of its emission goals, and without rapid reductions this decade, the planet is likely to shoot to beyond 1.5 or even 2 degrees Celsius of warming this century (we are at 1.1 degrees now). We seem to be stuck in a doom-loop news cycle where scientific reports create headlines, and earnest climate commentators insist the new report represents a true “wake-up call” for action, and then . . . emission keep rising. They hit a record once again in 2022. The world of climate politics appears to exist in two completely different worlds. There is a largely liberal and idealist world of climate technocrats where science informs policy, and there is the real, material capitalist world of power.
      • A good observation
        • about the cognitive dissonance of the situation
    1. Peer review report

      Title: An Improved Peer-Review System to Compensate for Scientific Misconduct in Health-Sensitive Topics

      version: 7

      Referee: Cristina Candal-Pedreira

      Institution: University of Santiago de Compostela

      email: cristina.candal.pedreira@rai.usc.es

      ORCID iD: 0000-0002-1703- 3592


      General assessment

      In this letter, the authors propose a series of actions that the main actors responsible for scientific integrity (researchers, scientific journals, academic institutions, and funding entities) could (and should) implement to prevent and/or detect cases of scientific misconduct. Although the authors refer primarily to high-sensitive publications, in my opinion, many (if not all) of the provided proposals can be applied to any type of publication. Examples of scientific misconduct are commonplace, and the policies implemented so far do not seem to be strong enough to prevent the publication of fraudulent articles. I believe that this article is necessary and very relevant.


      Essential revisions that are required to verify the manuscript

      In my opinion, this letter presents a very comprehensive list of potential strategies that different stakeholders can undertake to reduce the burden of research misconduct. Of course, there are many other actions that could be implemented, such as promoting post- publication review, imposing sanctions, or auditing research funding from an ethical point of view, among others. However, I consider all the strategies developed by the authors to be important and necessary, so I have no essential revisions to this manuscript.


      Other suggestions to improve the manuscript

      The text is well written, very clear and easy to follow.

      Some comments/suggestions/reflections:

      I would suggest introducing the definition of “high sensitivity topic” in the first part of the manuscript. Also, in the title another term is used (health-sensitivity topic), I would homogenize terms.

      J2. In addition to solving the problem of coercive citations, open peer review can make the peer review process more transparent by making public how many rounds of review have been done and how the conclusion was reached to publish or reject the article. In addition, reviewers, because they are not anonymous, can take the review more seriously.

      R1-R2-R3. Regarding regulatory agencies, funders and institutions, it could also be helpful for them to perform audits of the projects, not only justification of where the money was spent, but also whether the research is being done ethically, including during the phase of dissemination of results.


      Decision

      Verified: The content is academically sound, only minor amendments (if any) are suggested.

  16. Feb 2023
    1. When train 32N passedthe next HBD, at MP 69.01, the bearing’s recorded temperature was 103°F aboveambient. The third HBD, at MP 49.81, recorded the suspect bearing’s temperature at253°F above ambient.

      Though trending up, the bearing temperature was within non-critical limits until shortly before the wreck occurred. It was about 46 miles between the last detector and the one that alerted just before the accident.

    2. The train engineer increased the dynamic brake application to further slow andstop the train. During this deceleration, an automatic emergency brake applicationinitiated, and train 32N came to a stop.

      After being alerted to the unsafe condition, the crew seemed to respond appropriately by slowing down to stop, but during that process derailment further back in the train must have separated the air hoses causing the emergency braking application.

      This suggests that the crew didn't throw the train into emergency as some had suggested.

    3. The positive train control system was enabled and operating at thetime of the derailment.

      No other trains were involved, but this system is intended to prevent multi-train collisions or crews inattentively passing stopped signals. It indicates that the crew was alert enough to be following inputs within the confines of the system.

    4. Train 32N was traveling about 47mph at the time of the derailment, which was less than the maximum authorizedtimetable speed of 50 mph.

      So we know it wasn't speeding as some had alleged.

    1. Most of them are, in general, moving in the right direction. They just aren’t aggressive enough yet to be consistent with the kind of transformative social change required to achieve the 1.5 C target.
      • climate change actions
      • Most of the climate actions are moving in the right direction.
      • but they just aren’t aggressive enough yet to achieve the 1.5 C target.
      • right direction, wrong speed
    1. Peer review report

      Title: Crossref as a source of open bibliographic metadata

      version: 2

      Referee: Silvio Peroni

      Institution: University of Bologna

      email: silvio.peroni@unibo.it

      ORCID iD: 0000-0003-0530-4305


      General assessment

      This article describes an analysis of the Crossref dataset to assess if it can be a rich and reliable source for open bibliographic metadata, considering its central role as a primary source of several Open Science infrastructures such as OpenCitations and OpenAlex. The article is very well-written and addresses an important topic for the community. The analysis focuses mainly on the availability of some metadata, namely reference lists, abstracts, ORCIDs, author affiliations, funding information, and license information. Both data and interactive versions of the figures in the article are openly available online, shared in open formats and appropriately cited, supporting well the reproducibility of the analysis. However, it would be crucial to clarify a few aspects, listed in the section below.


      Essential revisions that are required to verify the manuscript

      Only a few aspects may need to be clarified in the paper.

      1. In Section 3.2, there is a link between the fact that large publishers support I4OC and the fact that we have reached a tipping point of one billion open citations available. However, in the cited paper by Hutchins (2021), while there is a strict reference to I4OC, the reaching of the tipping point was not computed directly using Crossref (which is the dataset discussed in the present article) but by combining the data contained OpenCitations’ COCI (derived from Crossref data) and the NIH Open Citation Collection (derived from PubMed data). Thus, while indeed this result has been reached thanks to the enormous contribution of Crossref data, it was necessary to involve other open collections that do not necessarily involve the same publishers participating in I4OC and releasing their bibliographic references via Crossref.

      2. In the case of ORCIDs (page 9), it would be good to clarify whether the availability of such identifiers (and other metadata) in Crossref is full responsibility of the publisher or Crossref makes some inference (e.g. using specific tools and/or external sources) either to fill in fields that are not specified or to validate them (at least at a first syntactic level, e.g. by seeing if the check digit of the ORCID identifier is correct or not).


      Other suggestions to improve the manuscript

      There are two aspects that, if included, would make the analysis even more robust.

      First, the authors explicitly tell us that IEEE references have yet to be considered in the analysis since the Crossref dump they have used precedes the release of IEEE bibliographic references in Crossref. It would be great to re-run everything with a newer dump to address this lack, if feasible, considering the publisher's importance and dimension in terms of publications.

      Second, it is clear that the authors have developed some tools (e.g. scripts, software, queries) they used to parse the Crossref dump and extract the relevant information from it. However, there is no mention of such tools in the paper. Having them available as open-source material would be ideal since they implement the methods that have been used for processing data and gathering the statistics introduced in the article. Indeed, such a code's availability would increase the analysis's reproducibility. Therefore, even if it is not mandatory for the narrative of the article, I would suggest (if feasible and legally allowed) publishing such sources with a readme file that explains how to run them, providing them with a persistent identifier (either Software Heritage or GitHub+Zenodo can be used for it), and to cite them properly in the article.


      Decision

      Verified: The content is scientifically sound, only minor amendments (if any) are suggested.

  17. Dec 2022
    1. I have yet to see a Snapd or Flatpak build of Audacity that I'm happy with. Those builds are beyond our control as they are made by 3rd parties. I do find it mildly annoying that Flatpak direct users that have problems with their builds to us.

      annotation meta: may need new tag: the runaround?

  18. Nov 2022
    1. Peer review report

      Title: Burden of HCoV infection in children hospitalized with lower respiratory infection in Cape Town, South Africa

      version: 1

      Referee: Jessica Price

      institution: University of Witwatersrand

      email: Jessica.Price@wits.ac.za

      ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4020-6850


      General assessment

      This manuscript it well written, with a clear description of the methods, results and discussion of findings. I think that with minor corrections it would be ready for publication.


      Essential revisions that are required to verify the manuscript

      Methods:

      Study procedure:

      1) Please add a reference to the parent study which details the full methods of the parent study.

      2) In the third paragraph of this section the authors refer to children young than 18 months with a positive HIV Elisa as being confirmed to have HIV infection. Please double check this - I think it is supposed to be that these children were categorised as HIV- exposed with a confirmatory HIV PCR preformed to determine HIV infection.

      Results:

      3) The current phrasing of the results suggests that there were no refusals amongst those eligible to participate. Is that accurate?

      4) In table 1: HIV status “exposed by negative” – is that children under 18 months or under 6 months? If only those less than 6 months please explained where children between 6-18 months are categorised.

      Discussion:

      5) 16 patients were found to have different human coronaviruses on the IS and NP samples. Please discuss the implications of this finding. Which would you act on? Does this bring into question the validity of the two methods if they are detecting different viruses in the same patient. I would understand if one method detected additional viruses but to have completely different viruses across the two specimens on the same patient is potentially problematic.

      6) The authors note that the study group only incudes hospitalised patients and therefore cannot comment on community transmission/burden. However there have been many community-based surveillance programmes to track respiratory virus burdens and transmission patterns in SA (including work by Sharon Cohen, NICD) – it would be helpful to the readers if the authors could review some of these publications and comment on relevant similarities or differences. (most recent of these publications can be found here: https://crdm.nicd.ac.za/projects/phirst-c/)

      7) Please review and redraft this paragraph 5 in the discussion – starting “compared to RSV and other respiratory viruses…”. I could not follow what the authors are trying to say in this paragraph.

      8) Please add in a limitations/recommendations section.

      Conclusion:

      9) The final paragraph of the conclusion raises some interesting questions but does not fit as part of the conclusion. I suggest moving this to be included as part of the discussion, and more fully discussing the questions raised regarding the value of testing for disease if they do not cause severe disease, nor change treatment strategies.


      Other suggestions to improve the manuscript

      • Stylistic preferences in the introduction: avoid using “for example” when describing work referenced. Either just add the reference number, or use phrasing such as “as shown by (author name) who found …” etc.

      • Methods - Statistics: Typo in the last paragraph – please confirm if Stata 13 or stata 16, and add in the necessary stata package reference.


      Decision

      Requires revisions: The manuscript contains objective errors or fundamental flaws that must be addressed and/or major revisions are suggested.

    1. Peer review report

      Title: Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) 1 expression in leukocytes of adults from 64 to 67 years old

      version: 2

      Referee: Calogero Caruso MD

      Institution: Professor Emeritus, University of Palermo

      email: Calogero.caruso@unipa.it

      ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8004-2363


      General assessment

      The paper is essentially anecdotal because it studies the cells of 6 subjects without any comparison with other age groups. There is also a serious limitation because beyond the age and sex there is no information on the donors (how and why they were recruited, what drugs they took, etc.). To infer that chronological and biological ages do not match is inappropriate in the absence of the above information.

      However, the paper is of some interest because there are few studies on the topic.


      Essential revisions that are required to verify the manuscript

      1) Although we do not have data on donors, placing an age and gender column in all tables adds a minimum of useful information for the reader.

      2) Inflamm-ageing means low grade of inflammation. The value of CRP 23.1 suggests acute inflammation (also because albumin has high values, while in chronic inflammation its values decrease). Therefore the Ly averages do not have to take this subject into account.


      Other suggestions to improve the manuscript

      The authors write that their findings suggest that ACE1 could play a role in several processes linked to aging including the generation and activation of autoimmune cells, due to the experimental evidence that inhibitors of ACE suppress the autoimmune process in a number of autoimmune diseases such as EAE, arthritis, autoimmune myocarditis. [49] They do not appear to have these findings in their paper. So, it needs to change the sentence.


      Decision

      Requires revisions: The manuscript contains objective errors or fundamental flaws that must be addressed and/or major revisions are suggested.

      Decision changed:

      Verified manuscript: The content is scientifically sound, only minor amendments (if any) are suggested.