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  1. Last 7 days
  2. Apr 2024
    1. Whether this Bible is an example of Christian nationalism I will leave to others. It is at least an example of Christian syncretism, a linking of certain myths about American exceptionalism and the Christian faith. This is the American church’s consistent folly: thinking that we are the protagonists in a story that began long before us and whose main character is in fact the Almighty.
  3. Feb 2024
    1. The Crossing of the Red Sea or Parting of the Red Sea (Hebrew: קריעת ים סוף, romanized: Kriat Yam Suph, lit. "parting of the sea of reeds")[1] is an episode in the origin myth of The Exodus in the Hebrew Bible.
    1. Hugh will be the first to produce aconcordance to the Bible, to break the book down and rearrange itinto an alphabetical index of its words.

      Hugh of Saint-Cher was the first person to produce a concordance of the Bible around 1230.

    1. But it was her uncle, the RevdCyrus Byington, who had the greatest influence on her life and interests. Hehad been a missionary with the Brewer sisters’ father to the Choctaw NativeAmerican Communities at the old mission station in Stockbridge; he hadtranslated the Bible into Choctaw, and wrote a grammar and dictionary of thelanguage.
  4. Jan 2024
    1. Many of King’s notecards come from his time earning a Ph.D. in Systematic Theology at Boston University. These notecards contain a mixture of quotations from the Bible and religious thinkers as well as King’s personal views. For example, he wrote more than a thousand notecards exploring the Old Testament.

      Martin Luther King, Jr. maintained a card index during his Ph.D. studies while he was at Boston University working in the area of systematic theology.

      He created over a thousand notecards with respect to the Old Testament, many containing a mixture of biblical quotations as well as his own thoughts.

  5. Nov 2023
    1. I must be diligent in meditating God's Word until I reach the point of identifying its implications in my life.

  6. Oct 2023
    1. Steinberg, Avi. “After More Than Two Decades of Work, a New Hebrew Bible to Rival the King James.” The New York Times, December 20, 2018, sec. Magazine. https://www.nytimes.com/2018/12/20/magazine/hebrew-bible-translation.html.

    2. Daniel is almost certainly the Bible’s latest book, composed during a time when Hebrew, no longer the spoken language, had gone into decline. It is one of the few books in the Hebrew Bible where Aramaic appears for long stretches of the text. And this linguistic estrangement isn’t just the historical background of Daniel’s authors, who scholars believe were living under foreign domination and religious persecution by the Seleucid Greeks around the second century B.C.
    3. Here is Alter’s version of the well-known opening of Genesis 21, part of the story of Isaac, the miracle baby of 90-year-old Sarah, and her 99-year-old husband, Abraham: “And the Lord singled out Sarah.” The word Alter is translating as “singled out” is pakad. The King James, and most others after it, translate it as “visited.” The Jewish Publication Society has it as “remembered.” Others translate it as “kept his word,” “took note of,” “was gracious to,” “was attentive to” or “blessed.” A good literal version, provided by the canny contemporary translator Everett Fox, has it as “took account of” — and there is something numerical and even administrative about pakad. (Elsewhere in the Bible, in the context of describing a public census, pakad means “to number”; in modern Hebrew, it is related to the words for “officer,” “clerk” and “roll-call.”) Weaving together its numerical dimensions with a thread of bureaucratic banality, Alter yields the anxious verb “singled out” and with it, reveals new layers of tension in this story.

      translation of pakad, an administrative word literally translated as "took account of" as "took note of"

    4. Alter regularly composes phrases that sound strange in English, in part because they carry hints of ancient Hebrew within them. The translation theorist Lawrence Venuti, whom Alter has cited, describes translations that “foreignize,” or openly signal that a translated text was originally written in another language, and those that “domesticate,” or render invisible the original language. According to Venuti, a “foreignized” translation “seeks to register linguistic and cultural differences.” Alter maintains that his translation of the Bible borrows from the idea of “foreignizing,” and this approach generates unexpected and even radical urgency, particularly in passages that might seem familiar.
    5. The Bible isn’t just the all-time best seller, it’s consistently so, especially in the United States, where in a typical year about half a billion dollars’ worth are sold.
    6. Alter told me about his decision to reject one of the oldest traditions in English translation and remove the word “soul” from the text. That word, which translates the Hebrew word nefesh, has been a favorite in English-language Bibles since the 1611 King James Version.

      Extended discussion here of the decision to translate nefesh not as "soul" with various examples.

    1. Shulevitz, Judith. “‘The Five Books of Moses’: From God’s Mouth to English.” Book Review of The Five Books of Moses: A Translation With Commentary by Robert Alter. The New York Times, October 17, 2004, sec. Books. https://www.nytimes.com/2004/10/17/books/review/the-five-books-of-moses-from-gods-mouth-to-english.html.

    2. Alter's translation puts into practice his belief that the rules of biblical style require it to reiterate, artfully, within scenes and from scene to scene, a set of "key words," a term Alter derives from Buber and Franz Rosenzweig, who in an epic labor that took nearly 40 years to complete, rendered the Hebrew Bible into a beautifully Hebraicized German. Key words, as Alter has explained elsewhere, clue the reader in to what's at stake in a particular story, serving either as "the chief means of thematic exposition" within episodes or as connective tissue between them.
    3. Biblical Hebrew has an unusually small vocabulary clustered around an even smaller number of three-letter roots, most of them denoting concrete actions or things, and the Bible achieves its mimetic effects partly through the skillful repetition of these few vivid words.
    4. In the case of the binding of Isaac, for instance, Alter not only accepts a previous translator's substitution of "cleaver" for the "knife" of the King James version but also changes "slay" (as in, "Abraham took the knife to slay his son") to "slaughter." Moreover, in his notes, he points out that although this particular Hebrew verb for "bound" (as in, "Abraham bound Isaac his son") occurs only this once in biblical Hebrew, making its meaning uncertain, we can nonetheless take a hint from the fact that when the word reappears in rabbinic Hebrew it refers specifically to the trussing up of animals. Alter's translation thus suggests a dimension of this eerie tale we would probably have overlooked: that of editorial comment. The biblical author, by using words more suited to butchery than ritual sacrifice, lets us know that he is as horrified as we are at the brutality of the act that God has asked Abraham to commit.
    5. But Alter, along with critics like Frank Kermode, Harold Bloom, David Damrosch and Gabriel Josipovici, has spent the past quarter-century rejecting both the preacherly and the historicist approaches to the Bible and devising one that would allow us to grapple with it as literature.
    1. Goldfajn, Tal. “Thou Shalt Show: On Robert Alter’s Translation of the Hebrew Bible.” Book Review of The Hebrew Bible: A Translation with Commentary by Robert Alter. Los Angeles Review of Books, June 2, 2020. https://lareviewofbooks.org/article/thou-shalt-show-on-robert-alters-translation-of-the-hebrew-bible/.

    2. Several biblical translations into other languages in the 20th and 21st centuries have followed some kind of version of these translation norms, albeit with different goals and within different contexts. The German translation by Martin Buber and Franz Rosenzweig, whose first volume appeared in 1925, for instance, aimed to reflect the linguistic features of the original Hebrew. The central precept of Henri Meschonnic’s French translation, which came out in 1970, is “more than what a text says, it is what a text does that must be translated.” Haroldo de Campos’s translation of individual biblical books into Brazilian Portuguese in the 1990s were meant to “Hebraicize the Portuguese.”

      Nice summary of various modern translations of the bible.

    3. Alter’s keen grasp of that rhythm and syntax is evidenced by his playful 10 commandments for Bible translators: 1.Thou shalt not make translation an explanation of the original, for the Hebrew writer abhorreth all explanation. 2. Thou shalt not mangle the eloquent syntax of the original by seeking to modernize it. 3. Though shalt not shamefully mingle linguistic registers. 4. Thou shalt not multiply for thyself synonyms where the Hebrew wisely and pointedly uses repeated terms. 5. Thou shalt not replace the expressive simplicity of the Hebrew prose with purportedly elegant language. 6. Thou shalt not betray the fine compactness of biblical poetry. 7. Thou shalt not make the Bible sound as though it were written just yesterday, for this, too, is an abomination. 8. Thou shalt diligently seek English counterparts for the word-play and sound-play of the Hebrew. 9. Thou shalt show to readers the liveliness and subtlety of the dialogues. 10. Thou shalt continually set before thee the precision and purposefulness of the word-choices in Hebrew.
    4. Take “soul” in the KJV’s Psalm 23: “The Lord is my shepherd […] He restoreth my soul.” Alter, who has by now become famous for taking the soul out of the Hebrew Bible, gives us: “The Lord is my shepherd […] My life He brings back.” Where has the soul gone? The answer is that the Hebrew didn’t really provide it in the first place. The word “nefesh” is more concrete, meaning “breath,” “life-breath,” “essential self,” and also “throat.” It suggests the material, the bodily, or, as the biblical scholar James Barr put it, “is not a separate essence and is more like the principle of life animating the person, acting in his actions, and touched by that which touches him.”
    5. Alter, for his part, has faith in the original, and the result is both refreshing and beautiful.

      clever use of "faith" with respect to translation here

    6. Let me illustrate by examining a well-known passage, Genesis 7:17–18, in which the flood comes and Noah’s ark is lifted up above the earth. The example involves the Hebrew syntactic tendency to open each sentence in narrative with “and,” to order the words in parallel clauses by coordination (“and” + “and” + “and”), rather than by subordination (“because,” “so,” or “although”). This biblical syntactic feature, known as parataxis, affects the text’s rhythm, its temporal interpretation, its layers of cohesion and ambiguity. Here is Alter’s rendering of this passage: “And the Flood was forty days over the earth, and the waters multiplied and bore the ark upward and it rose above the earth. And the waters surged and multiplied mightily over the earth, and the ark went on the surface of the water.”
    7. Alter’s approaches the Bible as great literature first and foremost — an approach almost inconceivable before the mid-20th century.
    1. Bruce, James. “The Godless Bible.” Book Review of The Hebrew Bible: A Translation with Commentary by Robert Alter. Law & Liberty, July 15, 2022. https://lawliberty.org/book-review/the-godless-bible/.

    2. Even still, these volumes will not rest on my shelf untouched. Yes, I have read them carefully, but I will return to them again. Indeed, whenever I speak or write about the Hebrew Bible, I plan on consulting them. You should, too.

      After such a scathing review, really?? I'd be interested to hear a few paragraphs about why.

    3. The reader should keep in mind that, for Alter, the Hebrew Bible is not one seamless book but a haphazard collection of texts.

      !!

      Perhaps not "haphazard", but they are definitely written by different authors over a large span of time, often each with their own political point of view. Bruce seems to be playing at the common misconception that the books were written as a cohesive whole supporting only one outcome.

      There is some massive historical contextual collapse going on here, particularly in a broader culture in which multiple gods were the norm. Each author certainly had their own idea of what "God" was when writing.

    4. Alter says he avoids the phrase “‘like the son of man’ because of its strong, and debatable, tilt toward a messianic interpretation.”

      Of course Alter's alternate translation of "son of man" allows one a closer meaning of Jews prior to the first century and Jesus, which adds a lot of undue baggage which may be seen as retconning the Hebrew Bible. It is after all, titled The Hebrew Bible and specifically not The Old Testament, thus placing it into the tradition of Christianity.

    5. But sometimes Alter’s comments seem exactly wrong. Alter calls Proverbs 29:2 “no more than a formulation in verse of a platitude,” but Daniel L. Dreisbach’s Reading the Bible with the Founding Fathers devotes an entire chapter to that single verse, much loved at the time of the American Founding: “When the righteous are many, a people rejoices, / but when the wicked man rules, a people groans.” Early Americans “widely, if not universally,” embraced the notion that—as one political sermon proclaimed—“The character of a nation is justly decided by the character of their rulers, especially in a free and elective government.” Dreisbach writes, “They believed it was essential that the American people be reminded of this biblical maxim and select their civil magistrates accordingly.” Annual election sermons and other political sermons often had Proverbs 29:2 as “the primary text.” Far from being a platitude, this single verse may contain a cure to the contagion that is contemporary American political life.

      Ungenerous to take Alter to task for context which he might not have the background to comment upon.

      Does Alter call it a "platitude" from it's historical context, or with respect to the modern context of Donald J. Trump and a wide variety of Republican Party members who are anything but Christian?

    1. The only place in the Hebrew Bible where nasab is translated as a pillar is the case of Lot’s wife: “Lot’s wife looked back, and she thereupon turned into a pillar of salt” (Genesis 19:26). The Hebrew word nasab indicates that Lot’s wife was standing in place like a pillar.
  7. Sep 2023
  8. Jul 2023
  9. Mar 2023
    1. Job 38:31

      Job 38:31 Verse (Click for Chapter) New International Version “Can you bind the chains of the Pleiades? Can you loosen Orion’s belt?

      New Living Translation “Can you direct the movement of the stars— binding the cluster of the Pleiades or loosening the cords of Orion?

      English Standard Version “Can you bind the chains of the Pleiades or loose the cords of Orion?

      Berean Standard Bible Can you bind the chains of the Pleiades or loosen the belt of Orion?

      King James Bible Canst thou bind the sweet influences of Pleiades, or loose the bands of Orion?

      New King James Version “Can you bind the cluster of the Pleiades, Or loose the belt of Orion?

  10. Oct 2022
  11. Aug 2022
    1. level 2hog8541ssOp · 15 hr. agoVery nice! I am a pastor so I am researching Antinet being used along with Bible studies.

      If you've not come across the examples, one of the precursors of the slip box tradition was the widespread use of florilegia from the 8th through the 13th centuries and beyond, and they were primarily used for religious study, preaching, and sermon writing.

      A major example of early use was by Philip Melanchthon, who wrote a very popular handbook on how to keep a commonplace. He's one of the reasons why many Lutheran books are called or have Commonplace in the title.

      A fantastic example is that of American preacher Jonathan Edwards which he called by an alternate name of Miscellanies which is now digitized and online, much the way Luhmann's is: http://edwards.yale.edu/research/misc-index Apparently he used to pin slips with notes on his coat jacket!

      If I recall, u/TomKluender may have some practical experience in the overlap of theology and zettelkasten.

      (Moved this comment to https://www.reddit.com/r/antinet/comments/wth5t8/bible_study_and_zettelkasten/ as a better location for the conversation)

    1. in biblical citations, instead of Luke, chap. XV, ver.19, write Luke 16:19

      Is this an indication of the shift of biblical quotations into what is now modern form?

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  12. Jul 2022
    1. ROMANS 13 The Most Disastrously Misinterpreted Scripturein the History of the Human Race

      Interesting read. I'm amazed I hadn't found it sooner considering how common this position is among archist Christians.

  13. Apr 2022
    1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open_text

      Within the field of semiotic analysis, an open text is one that can be interpreted by readers in a variety of ways. By way of contrast, a closed text prompts the reader to only one interpretation.

      Given the definition of an open text (opera aperta), in practice, the Bible may be one of the most open texts ever written despite its more likely original intention of it being a strictly closed text.

      What does a spectrum of open to closed look like? Can it be applied to other physical forms that could potentially be open to interpretation? Consider art, for example, which by general nature is far more open to interpretation (an open "text") and rarely are there artworks which are completely closed to a single interpretation.

      How does time and changing audiences/publics affect a work? The Bible may have been meant as a closed text in its original historical context, but time and politics have shown it to be one of the most spectacularly open texts ever written.

    1. In the twelfth century Peter Comestor and Alan of Lille had “published” distinctiones, which listed alphabetically some words found in the Bible (action words, abstract words, and concrete words), along with expla-nations of their various allegorical meanings, as an aid to preachers in search of appropriate biblical passages on a theme.119

      In a precursor to a full concordance of the Bible in 1247, Peter Comestor and Alan of Lille created their distinctiones in the twelfth century. Used as an aid to preachers looking for potential sermon themes, the compilation didn't include every word from the Bible, but instead listed important words including action words, and abstract and concrete words as well as allegorical meanings of words.

    2. Yeshiva teaching in the modern period famously relied on memorization of the most important texts, but a few medieval Hebrew manu-scripts from the twelfth or thirteenth centuries include examples of alphabetical lists of words with the biblical phrases in which they occurred, but without pre-cise locations in the Bible—presumably because the learned would know them.

      Prior to concordances of the Christian Bible there are examples of Hebrew manuscripts in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries that have lists of words and sentences or phrases in which they occurred. They didn't include exact locations with the presumption being that most scholars would know the texts well enough to quickly find them based on the phrases used.


      Early concordances were later made unnecessary as tools as digital search could dramatically decrease the load. However these tools might miss the value found in the serendipity of searching through broad word lists.

      Has anyone made a concordance search and display tool to automatically generate concordances of any particular texts? Do professional indexers use these? What might be the implications of overlapping concordances of seminal texts within the corpus linguistics space?

      Fun tools like the Bible Munger now exist to play around with find and replace functionality. https://biblemunger.micahrl.com/munge

      Online tools also have multi-translation versions that will show translational differences between the seemingly ever-growing number of English translations of the Bible.

    3. he Dominican concordance, in using Stephen Langton’s numbering of 1203, made it standard. Verse numbering was first introduced in printed edi-tions of the Bible in the sixteenth century.121

      Through its use, the Dominican concordance of 1247 helped to standardize Stephen Langton's 1203 verse numbering system for the Bible. A more standardized version wasn't seen in printed versions until later in the sixteenth century.

      link to https://hypothes.is/a/XF3kMLabEeyVPmOqIwBrDg

    4. Various divisions of the Bible into chapters appeared between 1190 and 1230; Smalley (1952), 222–24. The Dominican concordance made Langton’s chapter numbering standard; see Rouse and Rouse (1974b), 10. Verse numbering in the Bible was first used by Sante Pagnini (1470–1541) in an edition of Lyon, 1528; see Engammare (2002). But the numbering in the edition of Robert Estienne, 1551, was most influen-tial, diffused in the Geneva Bible of 1560; see Armstrong (1986).
    5. Around 1230 the Dominicans of the house of St. Jacques in Paris started a project that was completed by 1247: each member of the team recorded the words he encountered in reading the Bible beginning with the letter (or first two letters) he had been assigned, along with a brief indi-cation of the context and a precise location. This version survives in twenty- two manuscripts, most from the thirteenth century, all of them plain and of small size for portability.

      Started around 1230 and completed in 1247, a full concordance of the Bible was created by the Dominican house of St. Jacques in Paris. The group was broken up into word groups of one or two beginning letters and each member would then create an indication of the context and exact location of their assigned words as they encountered them. Twenty two small portable copies of the concordance exist from the thirteenth century. Eighty larger manuscript copies of a later version are extant from from roughly 1280 and 1330.

    6. In a further sign that there was widespread interest in indexing the Bible, biblical concordances were developed independently in both Paris and England around the same time, although the English concordance was overshadowed by the Parisian one and survives only in a single, partial copy

      The first concordances of the Bible were created in the middle of the eleventh century independently by groups in England and Paris. The Parisian version became more widespread while there is only one partial extant copy of the English one.

  14. Mar 2022
    1. https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/idle_hands_are_the_devil%27s_workshop

      Proverbs 16:27 "Scoundrels concoct evil, and their speech is like a scorching fire." (Oxford, NSRV, 5th Edition) is translated in the King James version as "An ungodly man diggeth up evil: and in his lips there is as a burning fire." The Living Bible (1971) translates this section as "Idle hands are the devil’s workshop; idle lips are his mouthpiece."

      The verse may have inspired St. Jerome to write "fac et aliquid operis, ut semper te diabolus inveniat occupatum" (translation: "engage in some occupation, so that the devil may always find you busy.”) This was repeated in The Canterbury Tales which may have increased its popularity.

  15. Jan 2022
    1. Eusebius, a historian and bishop of the coastal city of Caesarea, in Palestine, assembled Christian writings in the local library. He also devised a system of cross-references, known as “canon tables,” that enabled readers to find parallel passages in the four Gospels—a system that the scholar James O’Donnell recently described as the world’s first set of hot links.
  16. Dec 2021
    1. Daf Yomi—a study program launched in the 1920s in which Jews around the world read one page of the Talmud every day for 2,711 days, or about seven and a half years

      An interesting concept.

    1. I mean how are they gonna learn the ten commandments if they don't ever command each other you know no kidding order is necessary it's a moral duh so it's exactly the opposite you know of 00:42:38 the the opinions that most people would have today

      Is it possible that the delivery of the ten commandments was a moral and ethical ill brought upon Western culture? Was the fact of one person (or God, in this case) creating a hierarchical structure of one commanding another that began the idea of inequality in Western culture?

    1. Discussion is led by an instructor, but the instructor’s job is not to give the students a more informed understanding of the texts, or to train them in methods of interpretation, which is what would happen in a typical literature- or philosophy-department course. The instructor’s job is to help the students relate the texts to their own lives.

      The format of many "great books" courses is to help students relate the texts to their own lives, not to have a better understanding of the books or to hone methods of interpreting them.

      This isn't too dissimilar to the way that many Protestants are taught to apply the Bible to their daily lives.

      Are students mis-applying the great books because they don't understand their original ideas and context the way many religious people do with the Bible?

  17. Nov 2021
    1. His baseball glove has the reference for the Bible verse Philippians 4:13 on it, and Hughes has the entire verse ("I can do all things through Christ who strengthens me.") tattooed on his left arm.

      I haven't seen Phil Hughes inscribe Bible verses with his autograph.

    1. Rivera's pitching glove was inscribed "Phil. 4:13", in reference to the Bible verse Philippians 4:13 ("I can do all things through Christ, who strengthens me").

      Mario Rivera has a very nice autograph, but I haven't ever seen it with a Bible verse inscription.

    1. He has the Bible verse Colossians 3:23 inscribed in his baseball glove.

      It appears he does not inscribe Colossians 3:23 with his autograph.

    1. James has many tattoos, including a partial sleeve on his left arm. The bible verse Psalms 119:105 is tattooed on his forearm. The verse reads, "Thy Word Is a Lamp Unto My Feet and Light Unto My Path."

      But it doesn't appear he inscribes Psalm 119:105 on any of his autographs.

    1. On the strap of his left batting glove, Francoeur has the phrase "Joshua 1:9" written, referencing the Bible verse.

      It appears that he doesn't inscribe Joshua 1:9 on his autographs.

  18. Oct 2021
    1. Churches we’re spreading the word in many different ways. The manuscript was most used in a Bible that was Latin.And there was also confession that people had to do said sine against the church. Come to think of it the clergy of men was probably taking notes and creating his own manuscript.

  19. Sep 2021
    1. Bibleref is a simple approach to automatically identifying Bible references that are embedded in blog posts and other web pages. This enables search engines, content aggregators, and other automated tools to correctly label the references so they're more easily searchable. Bibleref is part of a general movement toward markup that expresses more semantic, rather than presentational, element.
    1. Happiness

      Rejoice, O young man, in your youth, and let your heart cheer you in the days of your youth. Walk in the ways of your heart and the sight of your eyes. But know that for all these things God will bring you into judgment.

  20. Aug 2021
    1. Müller-Wille and Scharf ‘Indexing Nature’, also points out that Linnaeus interleaved blanksheets into his texts so that he could take notes. Cooper points out that this had been a common practice in natural historysince at least the late seventeenth century (Cooper, Inventing the Indigenous, 74–5).

      Apparently interleaving blank sheets into texts was a more common practice than I had known! I've seen it in the context of Jonathan Edwards (1703-1758) using the practice to take notes in his Bible, but not in others.

    1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Silva_rerum

      Presumably these are the same sylvae mentioned by Earle Havens on page 10 of his book Commonplace Books (Yale, 2001).

      Where do these fit into a historical commonplace tradition? From a timing and logical perspective they certainly could be a transplant from other parts of Europe in modified forms.

      I'll note that some of the pattern is similar to printed bibles in the 1900's (and perhaps going back earlier) in the United States which held pre-printed pages for adding this sort of historical personal family data that would likely be handed down from generation to generation.

      Compare and contrast this form to the idea of the Relatio chronicle in Jennifer Paxton's essay Forging Communities: Memory and Identity in Post-Conquest England.

    1. Roberts (II, D) argues thatprinted commonplace books demonstrate a fundamental early modern modeof reading, that of extractingsententiaefrom texts, and thus erasing theoriginal context of these passages in favor of creating new uses for digestiblecouplets.

      How is this similar to/different from modern Bible readers erasing the original context of the texts and reimagining the words for their lives in a world far removed from the original?

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  21. Jul 2021
    1. Seems as if Slavitt has translated a lot of modernity into an ancient text which likely didn't have many of our modern references. This seems to be the sort of reading into a text that many moderns do to the Bible. Better would be to read it as the author intended to the audience to which it was intended rather than reading additional meanings into the text.

    1. Those interested in reading the contents of Edwards’ Blank Bible can either purchase the Yale print edition or read it online here. 

      Copies of print and digital editions of Jonathan Edwards' blank Bible are available.

      Apparently one can buy modern copies of interleaved bibles as well: https://www.amazon.com/Interleaved-Journal-Hardcover-Letter-Comfort/dp/078524316X/

      Video review of an interleaved bible:

      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L6EAu3nB1vk

      What other books can be found in interleaved editions? Ayn Rand perhaps?

    2. Jonathan Edwards’s so-called “Blank Bible.” JE received as a gift from Benjamin Pierpoint, his brother in law, a unique book. Structurally, it is a strange animal. It is a small, double-column King James, unstitched and then spliced back together again inside a large blank journal. The result is a one-of-a-kind Bible that has an empty sheet between every page of Scripture text. 

      If one is serious about annotating a text, then consider making a "blank Bible" version of it.

      Jonathan Edwards apparently received bible as a gift. It had a copy of the text of the bible which interspersed blank pages between every page of text thereby allowing massive amounts of space for marginalia!

    3. The miscellanies, numbered and indexed, would often be noted in the margins of his Bible as well, especially if the note was an expansion of an exegetical point.

      Interesting to see that Jonathan Edwards cross referenced his commonplace book to his bible as well.

  22. May 2021
    1. 3No one, when tempted, shouldsay, “I am being tempted by God”; for God cannot betempted by evil and he himself tempts noone. 14But one is tempted by one's own desire, beinglured and enticed by it; 15then, when thatdesire has conceived, it gives birth to sin, and thatsin, when it is fully grown, gives birth todeath. 16Do not be deceived, my beloved.17Every generous act of giving, with every perfectgift, is from above, coming down from theFather of lights, with whom there is no variationor shadow due to change.18In fulfillment of hisown purpose he gave us birth by the word of truth,so that we would become a kind of first fruitsof his creatures.
      • James did not want anyone to think that God sends trials to break down or destroy our faith; therefore, he will come back to this point in James 1:13-18. -James knew that most people have an evil tendency to blame God when they find themselves in trials. Yet by His very nature, God is unable to either be tempted (in the sense we are tempted, as James will explain), nor does He Himself tempt anyone.
  23. Apr 2021
  24. Mar 2021
  25. Feb 2021
    1. By gathering “clergymen” together you are just assenting to the status quo and, in effect, putting band aids on it. What really needs to be done is to hold a conference where the New Testament’s teaching on leadership is unfolded. If this were done, of course, then the traditional “clergy/laity” practice would have to be jettisoned in favor of the New Testament patterns.
    1. Our mission is to train storytellers to do three things: tell the stories of Scripture in a way that sparks conversation, start groups where the fire can grow, and train more storytellers.
  26. Jan 2021
  27. Dec 2020
    1. Constructing Noah’s Arkis representative of a genre, traditional in Hugh’s time andmilieu, of meditational compositions based on the various buildings whose plans aredescribed in the Bible. These included, most notably, the Tabernacle in Exodus 25ff, Solo-mon’s Temple in 1 Kings 6, the Temple and its platform in Ezekiel’s vision (Ezekiel 40ff ),the Heavenly Jerusalem of Revelation 20, and Noah’s Ark (Genesis 6). All these structures,including the Ark, were analyzed as avatars of one another, and of Christ and the Church,following the statement in Hebrews 8: 2–6 that Christ is the true tabernacle, the patternof the structure revealed to Moses. One of the earliest representatives of the genre stillextant is Gregory the Great’s set of sermons on Ezekiel 40, though there is good reasonto believe that its origins lie in the meditational practice of the early desert fathers andin Jewish spiritual traditions of the first century.

      Cross reference this with the retranslation of the Temple by In the Footsteps of King David.

      The real (open) question is did this memory tradition date back to the time of David, or was it applied (or reapplied) by classical scholars after the first century? Was it transmitted in oral tradition until put back into writing in the new millenium?

  28. Oct 2020
    1. In most oral societies, however, traditions are understood to bemalleable; that is, they are supposed to be changed and made relevant to the new situationsin which they are cited.

      And this is almost just what we see in modern religion concerning the bible. Even though it's written down, people read the words and change their original meaning and intent to make them relevant to their modern lives rather than the older historical context in which they were originally created.

    1. memory-making was regarded as active; it was even a craft with techniquesand tools, all designed tomakean ethical, useful product.

      Perhaps it was this craft and the idea of making an ethical product that forced Peter Ramus and others to suspend the arts and crafts of memory since many early practitioners encouraged violent, sexual, and other absurd images as a means of maintaining them. This certainly may not have sat well with Puritans using these mnemotechniques to memorize portions of the Bible and their catechisms.

    1. The worst answer I can imagine is the one Pope Gregory VII gave for refusing to let the Holy Scripture be translated out of Latin: “... [I]f it were plainly apparent to all men, perchance it would be little esteemed and be subject to disrespect; or it might be falsely understood by those of mediocre learning, and lead to error.”

      I'd push back on this a bit by saying that there are huge swaths of people looking at English translations, of Latin translations, of Greek, Hebrew, and Aramaic translations. Not only is there some detail lost in the multiple levels of translation, but many modern Christians are actively mis-applying the stories in the Bible to apply to their modern lives in radically different ways than was intended.

    1. However, if Welsh does not yet possess a spoken standard, it does possess a literary standard which can be traced back to the translation of the Bible by Bishop WIlliam Morgan in 1588, which in turn is based on the language of the medieval court poets who were the heirs of the Cynfeirdd, the earl poets Aneirin and Taliesin. These lived in the sixth century AD and described battles which took place in today's Scotland and Northern England [...]

    Tags

    Annotators

  29. mitpressonpubpub.mitpress.mit.edu mitpressonpubpub.mitpress.mit.edu
    1. This, too, is an act of everyday annotation, stretched over time and etched with love.

      Another good example is the built up genealogy of family bibles inscribed with the names of owners and their family tree which are passed from one generation to the next. To some extent this is highlighted by the passages of the bible in which W begat X begat Y begat Z begat... (Genesis chapters 5 & 11).

  30. Sep 2020
    1. the fallen nature which we all inherit from Adam

      Miss Clack already seems to be far more religious than Betteredge. I wonder if she is going to cite the Bible similarly to Betteredge with Robinson Crusoe. It also suggests that Clack will be conservative in her views of societal norms and traditions, and may have a strict, judgmental perspective in line with her Christian values.

      The reference to Original sin also brings up the classic dichotomy of good vs evil, innocence vs guilt. Does Clack view knowledge of good and evil as a deficiency in human nature? Does she believe in free will? These factors bring may provide a basis for how her narrative may be skewed or unreliable. Even if she does not ponder these questions herself, Collins certainly posits them to the reader by invoking original sin here. Furthermore, this sets up a tension between western Christianity and eastern Hinduism, reinforcing the previously introduced conflict between domestic and foreign values.

    1. he will crush[j] your head,(BL)    and you will strike his heel.”

      God curses the serpent after deceiving Eve in the garden, and creates "enmity between [the serpent] and the woman." In the "Harry Potter" series by JK Rowling, the serpent is a symbol of evil, and near the end of the books, is the only piece of evil left to destroy before good can truly be restored.

  31. Aug 2020
    1. house stood upon the edge of a hill

      This is evocative wording; a reference to "city on a hill"? A phrasing originally from Matthew 5:4.

      John Winthrop used this phrase to describe a new Puritan community on the American continent, and the phrase more recently has been used to refer to ideas of American exceptionalism.

      https://www.winthropsociety.com/doc_charity.php https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/City_upon_a_Hill

    2. Deut. 32.39. See now that I, even I am he, and there is no god with me, I kill and I make alive, I wound and I heal, neither is there any can deliver out of my hand.

      More translations: New International Version "See now that I myself am he! There is no god besides me. I put to death and I bring to life, I have wounded and I will heal, and no one can deliver out of my hand.

      New Living Translation Look now; I myself am he! There is no other god but me! I am the one who kills and gives life; I am the one who wounds and heals; no one can be rescued from my powerful hand!

      English Standard Version “‘See now that I, even I, am he, and there is no god beside me; I kill and I make alive; I wound and I heal; and there is none that can deliver out of my hand.

      New American Standard Bible 'See now that I, I am He, And there is no god besides Me; It is I who put to death and give life. I have wounded and it is I who heal, And there is no one who can deliver from My hand.

      King James Bible See now that I, even I, am he, and there is no god with me: I kill, and I make alive; I wound, and I heal: neither is there any that can deliver out of my hand.

      From https://biblehub.com/multi/deuteronomy/32-39.htm

  32. May 2020
    1. Only let each person lead the life[a] that the Lord has assigned to him, and to which God has called him. This is my rule in all the churches.
  33. Feb 2020
    1. and the Breach of my Duty to God and my Father.

      Here, Crusoe parallels “God” and his “Father”. This hints at him holding them up to similar pedestals.This peculiar way of comparing them is also evidently seen in the bible, where Jesus- being crucified- exclaims out to his Father (who is also “god”) “Father, into thy hands I commit my spirit.” In another passage he similarly shouts”My God, My God, why have you forsaken me?”, while being crucified. Here, Jesus uses both “God” and “Father” interchangeably. This parallel between crusoe and Jesus demonstrates how Crusoe’s character is mirroring Jesus. This shows us how, although an early novel, the narrative still contains similar plots and characters to traditional pre-novel pieces of literature- in this case being the bible.

      “BibleGateway.” Mark 4:35-41 NIV - - Bible Gateway, www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Mark+4:35-41&version=NIV. “BibleGateway.” Luke 23:46 NIV - - Bible Gateway, www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Luke+23:46&version=NIV. Mowat, Diane, and Daniel Defoe. Robinson Crusoe. Oxford University Press Canada, 2008.

    2. how justly I was overtaken by the Judgment of Heaven for my wicked leaving my Father's House, and abandoning my Duty; all the good Counsel of my Parents,

      This reminds me of the story in the bible of the prodigal son. In this story, a young man leaves his family and completely wastes his inheritance. Ultimately, he returns home and his father accepts him with open arms, throwing him a huge welcome back party. Saying ”For this son of mine was dead and is alive again; he was lost and is found.”. When crusoe says he feels guilty for having left his “duty” to God and his father, it almost sounds exactly like the prodigal son apologizing to his father upon returning home:‘Father, I have sinned against heaven and against you. I am no longer worthy to be called your son”. This illustrates how Robinson crusoe indeed mirrors the bible, which considered a traditional text, although it is still considered one of the earliest novels.

      Luke 15 NIV, biblehub.com/niv/luke/15.htm. Mowat, Diane, and Daniel Defoe. Robinson Crusoe. Oxford University Press Canada, 2008.

    3. The Ship was no sooner gotten out of the Humber, but the Wind began to blow, and the Waves to rise* in a most fright-ful manner; and as I had never been at Sea before, I was most inexpressibly sick in Body, and terrify'd in my Mind:

      This phrase really mirrors the story in the bible of Jesus calming the storm while on a boat. That story can be found in Mark 4:35-41 New International Version (NIV).The story consists of Jesus on a boat with his disciples, and while on a boat, a raging storm develops. The storm persists until the disciple wakes Jesus and he calms the storm saying, “Why are you so afraid? Do you still have no faith?”. The fact that both of these excerpts are so similar in plot demonstrates how prevalent traditional literatures, in this case the bible, heavily influence emerging novels of the time.

      “BibleGateway.” Mark 4:35-41 NIV - - Bible Gateway, www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Mark+4:35-41&version=NIV. Mowat, Diane, and Daniel Defoe. Robinson Crusoe. Oxford University Press Canada, 2008.

  34. Dec 2019
    1. renew life

      Victor implies that life can be renewed from death, a theme present in biblical scripture. See Gen. 3:19, 18:27; Job 30:19; Eccl. 3:20) and in the Anglican Book of Common Prayer (Burial Rite 1:485, 2:501).

    2. A new species would bless me as its creator and source

      The religious connotations of the passage connect Victor to the human project of playing God, much as Adam was said to be formed of clay. Historically, Jewish rabbis were also thought to have created golems from clay to seek revenge on enemies. However, following orders literally, the golems inevitably became destructive. Cautionary tales about technology and hubris were not only frequent in Shelley's time but have proliferated. In Karel Čapek's R.U.R (1920), for example, robots confound expectations by violently rebelling against their creators. Cadavers for anatomical training in this period were scarce, and thus a medical education meant to study and extend life also fostered serial killers who committed murders for the sake of selling fresh corpses. Such killing sprees were ended by the Anatomical Act of 1832 in England, which made corpses legally available for medical research.

    3. It was with these feelings that I began the creation of a human being

      "Creation" points toward popular literary themes, and to the Bible. It also calls into question property rights. John Locke (1632-1704) argued in Two Treatises of Government that applying one's labor to nature made that creation one's property. Shelley seems to call into question the relation of scientific research to the idea of ownership.

    4. It was indeed a paradise

      At this moment, the Creature appears more strongly associated with Adam than with Satan, apparently born into a "paradise." However, Shelley's allusion might be to that of the serpent or snake, as in Revelation: "So the great dragon was cast out, that serpent of old, called the Devil and Satan, who deceives the whole world; he was cast out to the earth, and his angels were cast out with him . . . He laid hold of the dragon, that serpent of old, who is the Devil and Satan, and bound him for a thousand years (Rev. 12:9; 20:2).

  35. Aug 2019
    1. Let your reasonableness[d] be known to everyone.

      Everyone should aspire to have a reputation for . "reasonableness" or "gentleness" - both Christians, Jews, and Gentiles .

    2.  I can do all things through him who strengthens me.

      This verse is often taken out of context, often to imply that God will give you whatever you want if you just ask.

      If you look at the two verses that proceed it, Paul wrote that he had "learned in whatever situation I am to be content". The next verse talks about being "brought low" and facing "hunger". This verse offers no support for easy success or a "Prosperity Gospel".

  36. Jul 2019
  37. Jun 2019
  38. May 2019
    1. But Jonah rose up to flee to Tarshish from the presence of the Lord. So he went down to Joppa, found a ship which was going to Tarshish, paid the fare and went down into it to go with them to Tarshish from the presence of the Lord.

      This is more than just a travel log. Here Jonah is saying no to God. He is refusing God’s plan for him. He is actually rejecting a direct request from the creator because of his own interests. Maybe he is afraid to prophesy repentance because his life could be at risk. There may be smooth sailing at first, but the wrath of God eventually catches up with him.

    1. But Jonah rose up to flee to Tarshish from the presence of the Lord. So he went down to Joppa, found a ship which was going to Tarshish, paid the fare and went down into it to go with them to Tarshish from the presence of the Lord.

      This is more than just a travel log. Here Jonah is saying no to God. He is refusing God’s plan for him. He is actually rejecting a direct request from the creator because of his own interests. Maybe he is afraid to prophesy repentance because his life could be at risk. There may be smooth sailing at first, but the wrath of God eventually catches up with him.

  39. www.bible.com www.bible.com
    Matthew 13:35 This is as the prophet said: “I will speak using stories; I will tell things that have been secret since the world was made.” All Jesus did that day was tell stories—a long storytelling afternoon. His storytelling fulfilled the prophecy: I will open my mouth and tell stories; I will bring out into the open things hidden sinc This was to fulfill what was spoken through the prophet: “I WILL OPEN MY MOUTH IN PARABLES; I WILL UTTER THINGS HIDDEN SINCE THE FOUNDATION OF THE WORLD.” This fulfilled what God had spoken through the prophet: “I will speak to you in parables. I will explain things hidden since the creation of the world.” That it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophet, saying, I will open my mouth in parables; I will utter things which have been kept secret from the foundation of the world. that it might be fulfilled which was spoken through the prophet, saying, I will open my mouth in parables; I will utter things hidden from the foundation of the world. So was fulfilled what was spoken through the prophet: “I will open my mouth in parables, I will utter things hidden since the creation of the world.” This was to fulfill what was spoken by the prophet: “I WILL OPEN MY MOUTH IN PARABLES; I WILL UTTER THINGS [unknown and unattainable] THAT HAVE BEEN HIDDEN [from mankind] SINCE THE FOUNDATION OF THE W He did this in order to fulfill the prophecy: I will speak to you in allegories. I will reveal secrets that have been concealed since before the foundation of the world. This was to fulfill what was spoken by the prophet: "I will open my mouth in parables; I will utter what has been hidden since the foundation of the world."
    1
    1. All Jesus did that day was tell stories—a long storytelling afternoon. His storytelling fulfilled the prophecy: I will open my mouth and tell stories; I will bring out into the open things hidden since the world’s first day.
    1. He is dressed in a robe dipped in blood,a and His name is The Word of God.
  40. Apr 2019
    1. Balm of Mecca[edit] Forskal found the plant occurring between Mecca and Medina. He considered it to be the genuine balsam-plant and named it Amyris opobalsamum Forsk. (together with two other varieties, A. kataf Forsk. and A. kafal Forsk.).[4] Its Arabic name is abusham or basham, which is identical with the Hebrew bosem or beshem.[6] Bruce found the plant occurring in Abyssinia.[3] In the 19th century it was discovered in the East Indies also.[4] Linnaeus distinguished two varieties: Amyris gileadensis L. (= Amyris opobalsamum Forsk.), and Amyris opobalsamum L., the variant found by Belon in a garden near Cairo, brought there from Arabia Felix. More recent naturalists (Lindley, Wight and Walker) have included the species Amyris gileadensis L. in the genus Protium.[4] Botanists enumerate sixteen balsamic plants of this genus, each exhibiting some peculiarity.[6] There is little reason to doubt that the plants of the Jericho balsam gardens were stocked with Amyris gileadensis L., or Amyris opobalsamum, which was found by Bruce in Abyssinia, the fragrant resin of which is known in commerce as the "balsam of Mecca".[3] According to De Sacy, the true balm of Gilead (or Jericho) has long been lost, and there is only "balm of Mecca".[6] Newer designations of the balsam plant are Commiphora gileadensis (L.) Christ., Balsamodendron meccansis Gled. and Commiphora opobalsamum.
    2. Cancamon[edit] The lexicographer Bar Seroshewai considered the Arabic dseru (ﺿﺮﻭ), a tree of Yemen known as kamkam (ﮐﻤﮑﺎﻡ) or kankam (ﮐﻨﮑﺎﻡ), Syriac qazqamun (ܩܙܩܡܘܢ), Greek κάγκαμον, Latin cancamum, mentioned by Dioscorides (De materia medica 1.32) and Pliny (Hist. Nat. 12.44; 12.98).[28][30][31] Cancamon has been held for Balsamodendron kataf,[31] but also as Aleurites laccifera (Euphorbiaceae), Ficus spec. (Artocarpeae), and Butea frondosa (Papilionaceae).[32] Sanskrit kunkuma (कुनकुम) is saffron (Crocus sativus).
    3. Terebinth[edit] Bochart strongly contended that the balm mentioned in Jer. 8:22 could not possibly be that of Gilead, and considered it as the resin drawn from the terebinth or turpentine tree.[6] The Biblical terebinth is Hebrew eloh (אֵלׇה), Pistacia terebinthus L.[24] or P. palaestina Boiss
    4. Zukum[edit] Ödmann and Rosenmüller thought that the pressed juice of the fruit of the zukum-tree (Eleagnus angustifolius L.) or the myrobalanus of the ancients, is the substance denoted; but Rosenmüller, in another place, mentioned the balsam of Mecca (Amyris opobalsamum L.) as being probably the tsori. Zukum oil was in very high esteem among the Arabs, who even preferred it to the balm of Mecca, as being more efficacious in wounds and bruises. Maundrell found zukum-trees near the Dead Sea. Hasselquist and Pococke found them especially in the environs of Jericho. In the 19th century, the only product in the region of Gilead which had any affinity to balm or balsam was a species of Eleagnus
    5. Mastic[edit] Celsius (in Hierobotanicon) identified the tsori with the mastic tree, Pistacia lentiscus L. The Arabic name of this plant is dseri or dseru, which is identical with the Hebrew tsori. Rauwolf and Pococke found the plant occurring at Joppa

      Plants

      Assuming that the 'tsori' was a plant product, several plants haven been proposed as its source.

    6. Tsori[edit] In the Hebrew Bible, the balm of Gilead is tsori or tseri (צֳרִי or צְרִי). It is a merchandise in Gen. 37:28 and Ez. 27:17, a gift in Gen. 43:11, and a medicament (for national disaster, in fig.) in Jer. 8:22, 46:11, 51:8.[11] The Hebrew root z-r-h (צרה) means "run blood, bleed" (of vein), with cognates in Arabic (ﺿﺮﻭ, an odoriferous tree or its gum), Sabaean (צרו), Syriac (ܙܪܘܐ, possibly fructus pini), and Greek (στύραξ, in meaning).[12] The similar word tsori (צֹרִי) denotes the adjective "Tyrean", i. e. from the Phoenician city of Tyre.[13] Many attempts have been made to identify the tsori, but none can be considered conclusive. The Samaritan Pentateuch (Gen. 37:25) and the Syriac bible (Jer. 8:22) translate it as wax (cera). The Septuagint has ῥητίνη, "pine resin". The Arabic version and Castell hold it for theriac. Lee supposes it to be "mastich". Luther and the Swedish version have "salve", "ointment" in the passages in Jer., but in Ezek. 27:17 they read "mastic". Gesenius, Hebrew commentators (Kimchi, Junius, Tremellius, Deodatius), and the Authorized Version (except in Ezek. 27:17, rosin) have balm, balsam, Greek βάλσαμον, Latin opobalsamum.[3
    7. Balm of Gilead was a rare perfume used medicinally, that was mentioned in the Bible, and named for the region of Gilead, where it was produced. The expression stems from William Tyndale's language in the King James Bible of 1611, and has come to signify a universal cure in figurative speech. The tree or shrub producing the balm is commonly identified as Commiphora gileadensis. Some botanical scholars have concluded that the actual source was a terebinth tree in the genus Pistacia.

      Gift to King Solomon by the Queen of Sheba

  41. Mar 2019
  42. Feb 2019
    1. 15 The Lord God took the man and put him in the Garden of Eden to work it and take care of it.

      This is showing man's role in society. Man would be the laborer.

    2. The Lord God said, “It is not good for the man to be alone. I will make a helper suitable for him.”

      It's weird that women are referred to as "helpers". Especially since this proves the point that women's roles were slowly becoming household workers.

    1. But when they said, “Give us a king to lead us,”

      The pleading for a leader, is a very strong statement. It is something that people only ask at the edge of desperation, even when they knew it wasn't the right choice.

  43. Oct 2018
    1. two mites.

      Mites or also known as Greek Lepta. The smallest coin of value in Rome.

    1. I will not be afraid,    for you are close beside me.

      I like how in the part about fear it switches from talking about God to talking to him.

  44. Sep 2018
    1. Rael, a Frenchman previously known as Claude Vorilhon, he told me that aliens had visited him in 1973 and shown him machines that could clone humans and sprout them into full-grown adults. Impressed, he decided to become their messenger, and raise $20 million to build an embassy to house the extraterrestrial visitors who would one day bring our salvation.

      The Raelian religion is one of the fastest growing cults in the world, proposing that Biblical occurrences, such as Jesus' famous walk on water was done with alien technology (Bathroom Reader) However, an eye raising proposal put forth by Rael is the construction of a space embassy to finally have extraterrestrial visitors to our world. Another controversial facet about Raelism is that they utilize the Swastika as their symbol, prompting Israel to laugh at their proposal to build their embassy on its land. The proposals put forth by Raelism is the emphasis put forth to advance the human condition through science, and the visitation of aliens.