198 Matching Annotations
  1. Sep 2022
  2. earlybritishlit.pressbooks.com earlybritishlit.pressbooks.com
    1. Higelac’s liegeman

      enter Beowulf; compare: "News went global. In Geatland, Hygelac's right-hand man / heard about Grendel. Bro, here was a warrior like no other: massive, mighty, born of noble / blood. He called for a ship to be readied / for his band, and boasted he'd try his teeth on this tale, / sail in as a savior over the swan-road, seek that king / and lend a hand as defender." (Headley lns. 193-199)

  3. Aug 2022
  4. earlybritishlit.pressbooks.com earlybritishlit.pressbooks.com
    1. Grendel

      Alternative translation: "Grendel was the name of this woe-walker, / Unlucky, fucked by Fate. he'd been / living rough for years, ruling the wild: / the mere, the fen, and the fastness, / his kingdom. his creation was cursed / under the line of Cain, the kin-killer. / The Lord, long ago, had taken Abel's side. / Though none of that was Grendel's doing, / he'd descended from bloodstains. / From Cain had come a cruel kind, / seen by some as shadow-stalked: monsters, / elves, giants who'd ground against God, / and for that, been banished." (Headley lns. 101-113)

    2. his grudges he cherished, Murderous malice, many a winter, 40 Strife unremitting, and peacefully wished he 4Life-woe to lift from no liegeman at all of The men of the Dane-folk, for money to settle, No counsellor needed count for a moment On handsome amends at the hands of the murderer

      Grendel refuses to make peace or provide "money to settle." Heaney translates: "he would never / parley or make peace with any Dane / nor stop his death dealing not pay the man price" (lns. 154-156).

    3. the mighty war-spirit

      OE ellengaést (literally: ellen strong/powerful/vigorous and gaést enemy/stranger

      Heaney trans.: "powerful demon"

    4. In due time it happened Early ’mong men, that ’twas finished entirely, 25 The greatest of hall-buildings; Heorot he named it Who wide-reaching word-sway wielded ’mong earlmen. The hall is completed, called Heorot. His promise he brake not, rings he lavished, Treasure at banquet. Towered the hall up High and horn-crested, huge between antlers: 30 It battle-waves bided, the blasting fire-demon; Ere long then from hottest hatred must sword-wrath Arise for a woman’s husband and father.

      from Heaney (1999): "And soon it stood there / finished and ready, in full view, / the hall of halls. Heorot was the name / he had settled on it, whose utterance was law. / Nor did he renege, but doled out rings / and torques at the table. / The hall towered, / its gables wide and high and awaiting / a barbarous burning. That doom abided, / but in time it would come: the killer instinct / unleashed among in-laws, the blood lust rampant" (lns 76-85).

      from Headley (2020): "So it rose: a greater hall than any other! / Hrothgar filled it, blood-brother by blood-brother, / and named it Heorot. his words were heard and heralded, / and yes, yes, bro! The man was more than just talk: / he gave good gifts. His war-wedded wore kings' rings, / and drank their leader's mead. Nightly, he / feted his fight-family with fortunes. The hall loomed, golden towers antler-tipped; it was asking for burning, but that hadn't happened yet. / You know how it is: every castle wants invading, and every family / has enemies born within it. Old grudges / recrudesce." (lns 75-84)

    5. from scathers in numbers

      OE: sceaþena þrēatum

      Heaney translation; "scourge of many tribes"

      Unsure what "scathers" means; cannot find a definition

    1. The sheet box

      Interesting choice of translation for "Die Kartei" by the translator. Some may have preferred the more direct "file".

      Historically for this specific time period, while index cards were becoming more ubiquitous, most of the prior century researchers had been using larger sheets and frequently called them either slips or sheets based on their relative size.

      Beatrice Webb in 1926 (in English) described her method and variously used the words “cards”, “slips”, “quarto”, and “sheets” to describe notes. Her preference was for quarto pages which were larger pages which were likely closer to our current 8.5 x 11” standard than they were to even larger index cards (like 4 x 6".

      While I have some dissonance, this translation makes a lot of sense for the specific time period. I also tend to translate the contemporaneous French word “fiches” of that era as “sheets”.

      See also: https://hypothes.is/a/OnCHRAexEe2MotOW5cjfwg https://hypothes.is/a/fb-5Ngn4Ee2uKUOwWugMGQ

    1. Contemporary scholarship is not in a position to give a definitive assessmentof the achievements of philosophical grammar. The ground-work has not beenlaid for such an assessment, the original work is all but unknown in itself, andmuch of it is almost unobtainable. For example, I have been unable to locate asingle copy, in the United States, of the only critical edition of the Port-RoyalGrammar, produced over a century ago; and although the French original isnow once again available, 3 the one English translation of this important workis apparently to be found only in the British Museum. It is a pity that this workshould have been so totally disregarded, since what little is known about it isintriguing and quite illuminating.

      He's railing against the loss of theory for use over time and translation.

      similar to me and note taking...

    2. And just a fewyears later, it was jubilantly discovered that machine translation and automaticabstracting were also just around the corner.

      HA!

  5. Jul 2022
  6. Jun 2022
    1. What information we collect about you Personal identification and communication information: your name, home address, phone number; email address; date of birth, gender, national insurance number and immigration status; Application-related information: resume/curriculum vitae (CV), cover letter, employment history, education history, qualifications and skills, reference contact information, position preferences, willingness to relocate, desired salary, interests and aspirations, and background screening information if relevant; and Sensitive information: for example, information about your health and disabilities where we need to make any reasonable adjustments.

      Information collected by Block, Inc.

    1. SAN FRANCISCO, Calif. — The Oxford English Dictionary declared an emoji its 2015 word of the year. This was puzzling for many. The emoji it singled out — an image of a laughing yellow face crying tears of joy — didn't fit most people's definition of a word.

      オックスフォード英語辞典は、絵文字を2015年の流行語大賞に宣言した。これは多くの人にとって不可解なことでした。その絵文字は、笑っている黄色い顔が喜びの涙を流しているイメージで、多くの人の言葉の定義に当てはまらなかったのです。

    1. You agree to defend, indemnify and hold harmless Motorsport.tv, its parent corporation, officers, directors, employees and agents, from and against any and all claims, damages, obligations, losses, liabilities, costs or debt, and expenses (including but not limited to attorney's fees) arising from: (i) your use of and access to the Motorsport.tv Platform; (ii) your violation of any term of these Terms of Service; (iii) your violation of any third party right, including without limitation any copyright, property, or privacy right; or (iv) any claim that one of your user submissions caused damage to a third party. This defense and indemnification obligation will survive these Terms of Service and your use of the Motorsport.tv Platform.

      If a user's behavior causes harm to another party, and that other party sues Motorsport.tv, the user will cover any losses incurred by Motorsport.tv as a result of the user's behavior.

    2. Nothing in this Agreement shall be deemed to confer any third-party rights or benefits.

      The agreement is only between the user and Motorsport.tv.

    3. Motorsport.tv may, in its sole discretion, modify or revise these Terms of Service at any time, and you agree to be bound by such modifications or revisions.

      Motorsport.tv may change the terms at any time.

  7. May 2022
    1. The source sequence will be pass to the TransformerEncoder, which will produce a new representation of it. This new representation will then be passed to the TransformerDecoder, together with the target sequence so far (target words 0 to N). The TransformerDecoder will then seek to predict the next words in the target sequence (N+1 and beyond).
  8. Apr 2022
    1. Yeshiva teaching in the modern period famously relied on memorization of the most important texts, but a few medieval Hebrew manu-scripts from the twelfth or thirteenth centuries include examples of alphabetical lists of words with the biblical phrases in which they occurred, but without pre-cise locations in the Bible—presumably because the learned would know them.

      Prior to concordances of the Christian Bible there are examples of Hebrew manuscripts in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries that have lists of words and sentences or phrases in which they occurred. They didn't include exact locations with the presumption being that most scholars would know the texts well enough to quickly find them based on the phrases used.


      Early concordances were later made unnecessary as tools as digital search could dramatically decrease the load. However these tools might miss the value found in the serendipity of searching through broad word lists.

      Has anyone made a concordance search and display tool to automatically generate concordances of any particular texts? Do professional indexers use these? What might be the implications of overlapping concordances of seminal texts within the corpus linguistics space?

      Fun tools like the Bible Munger now exist to play around with find and replace functionality. https://biblemunger.micahrl.com/munge

      Online tools also have multi-translation versions that will show translational differences between the seemingly ever-growing number of English translations of the Bible.

  9. Feb 2022
    1. Diesen gebrochenen Zahlen, welche zunächst als reine Zeichen auftreten, kann in vielen Fällen eine actuelle Bedeutung beigelegt werden.

      A presented meaning can in many cases be attributed to these rational numbers, which at first appear as pure signs,

    2. Wie wir die Regeln der rein formalen Verknüpfungen, d. h. der mit den mentalen Objecten vorzunehmenden Operationen definiren, steht in unserer Willkühr, nur muss eine Bedingung als wesentlich festgehalten werden: nämlich dass irgend welche logische Widersprüche in den- selben nicht implicirt sein dürfen.

      How we define the rules of purely formal operations (Verknüpfungen), i.e., of carrying out operations (Operationen) with mental objects, is our arbitrary choice, except that one essential condition must be adhered to: namely that no logical contradiction may be implied in these same rules.

    3. man sich zu der gegebenen Reihe von Ob- jecten eine inverse hinzudenkt

      one adds an inverse in thought to the given series of objects

    4. Man sieht aber nicht, wie unter — 3 eine reale Substanz verstanden werden kann, wenn das ursprünglich gesetzte Object eine solche ist, und würde im Rechte sein, wenn man — 3 als eine nicht reelle, imaginäre Zahl als eine „falsche" bezeichnete.

      one cannot see how a real substance can be understood by -3... and would be within his rights if he refers to -3 as a non-real, imaginary number, as a "false" one.

    5. Eine andere Definition des Begriffes der formalen Zahlen kann nicht gegeben werden; jede andere muss aus der Anschauung oder Erfahrung Vorstellungen zu Hilfe nehmen, welche zu dem Begriffe in einer nur zufälligen Beziehung stehen, und deren Beschränktheit einer allgemeinen Untersuchung der Rechnungsoperationen unüber- steigliche Hindemisse in den Weg legt..

      A different definition of the concept of the formal numbers cannot be given; every other definition must rely on ideas from intuition or experience, which stand in only an accidental relation to the concept, and the limitations of which place insurmountable obstacles in the way of a general investigation of the arithmetic operations.

    6. Die Bedingung zur Aufstellung einer allgemeinen Arithmetik ist daher eine von aller Anschauung losgelöste, rein intellectuelle Mathem&tik, eine reine Formenlehre, in welcher nicht Quanta oder ihre Bilder, die Zahlen verknüpft werden, sondern intellectuelle Objecte, Gedankendinge, denen actuelle Objecte oder Relationen solcher entsprechen kön- nen, aber nicht müssen.

      The condition for the establishment of a general arithmetic is therefore a purely intellectual mathematics detached from all intuition, a pure theory of form, in which quanta or their images, the numbers, are not combined, but rather intellectual objects, thought-things, to which presented objects or relations of such objects can, but need not, correspond.

    7. Wie überhaupt die Entwicklung mathematischer Begriffe und Vorstellungen historisch zwei entgegengesetzte Phasen zu durchlaufen pflegt, so auch die des Imaginären. Zunächst erschien dieser Begriff' als paradox, streng genommen unzulässig, unmög- lich;

      As the development of mathematical concepts and ideas generally goes historically through two opposed phases, so goes also that of the imaginary numbers. At first this concept appeared as a paradox, strictly inadmissible, impossible;

    8. Wissenschaft leistete, im Laufe der Zeit alle Zweifel an seiner Legitimität nieder und es bildete sich die Ueberzeugung seiner inneren Wahrheit und Nothwendigkeit in solcher Entschiedenheit aus, dass die Schwierigkeiten und Widersprüche, welche man anfangs in ihm bemerkte, kaum noch gefühlt wurden. In diesem zweiten Stadium befindet sich die Frage des Imaginären heut zu Tage ; — indessen bedarf es keines Beweises, dass die eigentliche Natur von Begriffen und Vorstellungen erst dann hinreichend auf- geklärt ist, wenn man unterscheiden kann, was an ihnen noth- wendig ist, und was arbiträr, d. h. zu einem gewissen Zwecke in sie hineingelegt ist.

      however, in the course of time, the essential services which it affords to science subdue all doubts of its legitimacy, and one is convinced in such decisiveness of its inner truth and necessity, that the difficulties and contradictions which one noticed in it at the beginning are hardly felt. Today, the question of imaginary numbers is in this second stage; --- however it needs no proof that the actual nature of concepts and ideas is only sufficiently clarified when one can distinguish what is necessary in them, and what is arbitrary, i.e., is put to a certain purpose in them.

  10. Jan 2022
    1. Even finding terms totranslate concepts like ‘lord’, ‘commandment’ or ‘obedience’ intoindigenous languages was extremely difficult; explaining theunderlying theological concepts, well-nigh impossible.

      Example of the difficulty of translating words when the underlying concepts don't exist in a culture.

  11. Nov 2021
    1. And then they met— the offspring of Skywoman and the children of Eve— and the land around us bears the scars of that meeting, the echoes of our stories.

      There's a subtle sense of repetition here. She frames the result of the meeting in two different cultures: a Western-centric one and an Indigenous one. The Western result is a "scar", but it's retranslated into "echoes of our stories" from the indigenous perspective.

    2. Our elders say that ceremonies are the way we “remember to remember,”

      The Western word "ceremony" is certainly not the best word for describing these traditions. It has too much baggage and hidden meaning with religious overtones. It's a close-enough word to convey some meaning to those who don't have the cultural background to understand the underlying orality and memory culture. It is one of those words that gets "lost in translation" because of the dramatic differences in culture and contextual collapse.

      Most Western-based anthropology presumes a Western idea of "religion" and impinges it upon oral cultures. I would maintain that what we would call their "religion" is really an oral-based mnemonic tradition that creates the power of their culture through knowledge. The West mistakes this for superstitious religious practices, but primarily because we can't see (or have never been shown) the larger structures behind what is going on. Our hubris and lack of respect (the evils of the scala naturae) has prevented us from listening and gaining entrance to this knowledge.

      I think that the archaeological ideas of cultish practices or ritual and religion are all more likely better viewed as oral practices of mnemonic tradition. To see this more easily compare the Western idea of the memory palace with the Australian indigenous idea of songline.

  12. Oct 2021
    1. Lost in Translation

      In the film, Lost in Translation, Bob and Charlotte begin their conversation learning what each of them is doing in Tokyo.

      Bob: What do you do?

      Charlotte: I’m not sure yet, actually. I just graduated last spring.”

      Bob: What did you study?

      Charlotte: Philosophy.

      Bob: Yeah, there’s a good buck in that racket.

      Charlotte: (Laughs.) Yeah. Well, so far it’s pro bono.

      (33:45)


      Edge Effects

      In ecology, edge effects are changes in population or community structures that occur at the boundary of two or more habitats. Areas with small habitat fragments exhibit especially pronounced edge effects that may extend throughout the range. As the edge effects increase, the boundary habitat allows for greater biodiversity.

      Wikipedia: Edge effects

  13. Sep 2021
    1. People believed that they could translate it with a magnifying glass. Not possible because The machine is reading it for you.

  14. Aug 2021
    1. While it is clear that technologies of communication change societiesand permit different forms of human organization, it is not clear that theychange the basic human thought processes embedded in language. The humanbrain does adapt differently to different technologies (recall the differences inbrain wiring between readers of ideograms and of phonetic alphabets), butthe evidence to date indicates the human brain adapts in order to translateinformation into language, so as to exchange information and permit concertedaction with others with whom we communicate. This concerted action is nolonger, as at the dawn of language, action undertaken by people in close contactbut rather is activity undertaken because of reliance upon expectations storedin individual and social memory.
  15. Jul 2021
  16. Jun 2021
    1. I think it's just a bad English/mis-translation problem. I'm guessing @pmmmwh assumed 'master' meant like 主 in 奴隸主 (slave owner/master). Actually a better translation would be 師 like 功夫大師 (Kung Fu master). The specimen copies are made from.
    1. Thank God for Cook County Hospital [Chuckles]. They don't charge you a thing, but she got the medical treatment that she needed. She had brain surgery. They removed the tumor and she had to be in therapy for a few years in order to gain … she couldn't talk. She didn't have movement in half of her face, so she couldn't speak because her tongue was numb on one side, so she had to have physical therapy. I went with her a couple times because I had to translate. Sometimes they didn't have people who would translate for my mother. At this point, I had already learned English, but she had to practice every single day. Still to this day, there are a few words that she cannot say.

      Time in the US, Illness

  17. Apr 2021
    1. Apidologie

      Translations :

      • French translation (title and keywords): <br/> La taille du corps mais non l’âge influence la phototaxis chez les bourdons (Bombus terrestris L.).

      activité locomotrice / division du travail / taille du corps / phototaxie / âge / Bombus

      • German translation (title and keywords): <br/> Die Körpergrösse und nicht das Alter beeinflusst das Phototaxisverhalten bei Arbeiterinnen der Hummel Bombus terrestris L.

      Bewegungsaktivität / Arbeitsteilung / Körpergrösse / Phototaxis / Alter / Bombus

    1. Species turnover and low stability in a community of euglossine bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) sampled within 28 years in an urban forest fragment

      French translation (title and keywords):

      Turnover d’espèces et faible stabilité dans une communauté d’abeilles euglossine (Hymenoptera : Apidae) échantillonnée dans un fragment de forêt urbaine, pendant 28 ans.

      Euglossa cordata / Eulaema nigrita / abeille à orchidées / espèce résiliente.

      German translation (title and keywords):

      Artenwechsel und geringe Stabilität in einer Gemeinschaft von Euglossinen (Hymenoptera: Apidae), die über einen Zeitraum von 28 Jahren in einem urbanen Waldfragment gesammelt wurden.

      Euglossa cordata / Eulaema nigrita / Prachtbienen/ resiliente Arten.

  18. Mar 2021
    1. Dank der tollen Unterstützung von @TheRealTweetmo , Thomas Traill & Ulrike Hahn gibt es jetzt die deutsche Übersetzung des Anfang Januar erschienenen "COVID-19 Vaccine Communication Handbook" als "Kommunikationshandbuch zum COVID-19-Impfstoff" - https://sks.to/c19vax-de #COVID-19

    1. we used `backticks` to jump into native Javascript to use moment.js

      In regular Ruby, `` executes in a shell, but obviously there is no shell of that sort in JS, so it makes sense that they could (and should) repurpose that syntax for something that makes sense in context of JS -- like running native JavaScript -- prefect!

  19. Feb 2021
    1. Agents are usually understood to be human, although some paradigms, such as actor-network theory, maintain that non-humans are also endowed with agency.
    2. actor-network theory

      Actor network theory (ANT), also known as enrolment theory or the sociology of translation, emerged during the mid-1980s, primarily with the work of Bruno Latour, Michel Callon, and John Law. Actor–network theory tries to explain how material–semiotic networks come together to act as a whole; the clusters of actors involved in creating meaning are both material and semiotic.

    3. In Translation Studies (TS), the notion of agent has received various definitions. For Juan Sager (quoted in Milton & Bandia 2009: 1), an agent is anyone in an intermediary position (i.e. a commissioner, a reviser, an editor, etc.) between a translator and an end user of a translation whereas for Milton & Bandia (2009) an agent of translation is any entity (a person, an institution, or even a journal) involved in a process of cultural innovation and exchange. A third avenue was suggested by Simeoni (1995) who defined the agent as “the ‘subject,’ but socialized.
    1. Shure kwehure kunotambatamba haaa! Shure kwehure kunotambatamba haaa! Kanandazofa ndinokuchengetera nzvimbo haa! Kanandazofa ndinokuchengetera nzvimbo haa!

      The buttocks of a whore wiggle haa!

      The buttocks of a whore wiggle haaa!

      When I die I will reserve a place for you haa!

      When I die I will reserve a place for you haa!

  20. Jan 2021
  21. Dec 2020
  22. Nov 2020
    1. Capacitor is a framework that provides developers a coherent API set to access various features on different platforms. By doing so, it also simplifies using those features. Especially for web APIs that are hard to use or require multiple steps to set them up, Capacitor provides an easy-to-use interface.
  23. Oct 2020
    1. someday, NVIDIA GPUs in the cloud will enable real-time transcription and translation for videoconferencing

      ... and that will be also the day when most of the simultaneous interpreters will go out of business https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Simultaneous_interpretation

  24. Sep 2020
    1. To avoid these complexities, it was decided to introduce an additional, intermediate service, which was called Translation Proxy. Translation Proxy is an intermediate software between WPML and the software of other companies offering translation services.
    1. Bringing the Author to Terms — In analytical reading, you must identify the keywords and how they are used by the author. This is fairly straightforward. The process becomes more complicated now as each author has probably used different terms and concepts to frame their argument. Now the onus is on you to establish the terms. Rather than using the author’s language, you must use your own. In short, this is an exercise in translation and synthesis

      [[translation and synthesis]] - understanding the authors in your own words, and being able to summarize their points without just copy-pasting. To be able to do this well, you really need to understand the authors ideas.

  25. Aug 2020
    1. The straightforward solution to integrate WPML with third party translation services was to do it via dedicated plugins. A separate plugin for each company offering translation services could do the trick. However, this approach had a few drawbacks. For example, WPML developers would need to update and test all these plugins whenever the WPML core plugins received an update, and vice versa; when the API used by the external service changed, you needed to incorporate the change to WPML and test it as well.
    2. WPML knows how to communicate with the Translation Proxy, and the Translation Proxy knows how to communicate with translation services. If a Translation Service company happened to change their API, we needed to only update the Translation Proxy.
  26. Jul 2020
  27. Jun 2020
    1. Since onion services can receive incoming connections even if they are behind a router doing network address translation (NAT), TorChat does not need any port forwarding to work.
  28. May 2020
    1. I originally did not use this approach because many pages that require translation are behind authentication that cannot/should not be run through these proxies.
    2. Thank you for letting me know about this move by Google. Definitely something to watch. While I agree with Google's position from an end user experience perspective, it unfortunately puts Firefox at a further disadvantage since Mozilla does not have its own language translation initiatives.
    1. You might try this extension: https://github.com/andreicristianpetcu/google_translate_this It does the same thing in the same way as Page Translator and likely will be blocked by Mozilla, but this is a cat and mouse game worth playing if you rely on full-page in-line language translation.
  29. Apr 2020
    1. parsec

      The word parsec is composed of the words parallax and arcsecond. Parsec is a unit used in astronomy to measure extraordinarily large spaces between astronomical objects outside of our Solar System. While the full explanation of this mathematical concept is beyond the scope of this project, a detailed description can be found in the source below. [1]

      Sources:

      [1] Bender, Stephanie. "What is a Parsec?" Universe Today, 14 November 2013, https://www.universetoday.com/32872/parsec/.

    2. Humanity

      The word "человек" in Russian has a variety of possible translations and meanings. On the one hand, the word refers to "mankind" or "humanity," while on the other it can describe an individual "person," "man," or "human." Throughout my translation, I have translated человек as "humanity" and "human," in order to make the word's meaning as inclusive as possible while maintaining consistency throughout the poem.

    3. from one problem to the next.

      This line could also be translated as "From stress to stress."

    4. Wasn’t there a way to put concrete and yellow steel in a radiation-proof sarcophagus that would not put an Iron Curtain in control?

      The syntax of this section is strange in the original Spanish. While translating it, I endeavored to preserve as much of the sentence structure as possible while maximizing clarity.

      "Sarcófago certero contra la radiación" could also be translated as a "sarcophagus well-aimed against radiation."

    5. N. P. S.

      In Ukrainian, АЕС stands for Атомна електростанція, which would be widely recognized as standing for Atomic Energy Station. I translated this line into English as N.P.S. which stands for Nuclear Power Station. [1] Since English-language readers may not be familiar with this acronym, I wanted to explain it in this annotation.

      Source:

      [1] "Acronyms." Nuclear Energy Agency, https://www.oecd-nea.org/general/acronyms/.

  30. Mar 2020
    1. Then there’s markup inside each paragraph, like links and such. You could do it right in the translation strings, but your translator then needs to know how to handle the markup, and you risk duplicating knowledge if you go as far as to hard-code link URLs. What I do is split up the translations, but keep them under the same key: en.yml1 2 3 4 log_in_or_sign_up: text: "%{log_in} or %{sign_up} to do stuff." log_in: "Log in" sign_up: "Sign up" header.erb1 2 3 4 5 <%= t( :'log_in_or_sign_up.text', log_in: link_to(t(:'log_in_or_sign_up.log_in'), login_path), sign_up: link_to(t(:'log_in_or_sign_up.sign_up'), signup_path) ) %> This way, the translator sees no code or markup (except for the i18n interpolation syntax) and there is no duplication.
    2. If you ever need to work with external translators, it’s a bit of a pain sending both your YML files and a bunch of views like index.en.html.erb. For one thing, you need some code to find all those files and send them, and put them back after receiving the translations. For another, your translator must respect the markup and code of the template, and know not to translate them. And if you want to use tools like WebTranslateIt, it’s easier to stick to YML.

      Good point. Better to store translations in your I18n backend in the same place as your subject translations, etc. (which by default is in YAML file).

    1. Action View has the ability to render different templates depending on the current locale.For example, suppose you have an ArticlesController with a show action. By default, calling this action will render app/views/articles/show.html.erb. But if you set I18n.locale = :de, then app/views/articles/show.de.html.erb will be rendered instead. If the localized template isn't present, the undecorated version will be used. This means you're not required to provide localized views for all cases, but they will be preferred and used if available.

      This is one option, but there is another camp that says it's better to store translations in your I18n backend in the same place as your subject translations, etc.: https://thepugautomatic.com/2012/07/rails-i18n-tips/

    1. ActionController and ActionMailer default include AbstractController::Rendering directly or indirectly (ActionController::Metal::Rendering). AbstractController::Rendering uses ActionView as default library for its template rendering engine and includes AbstractController::ViewPaths and an instance of I18n proxy to find localized views. To learn more i'd like to refer to the ActionPack source code on github. To get to the point. ActionView allows you to use localisation in your templates: See Rails guide: Action View Overview , Chapter Localized views.

      Not a very detailed or good code dissection, but is kind of one.

    1. However imagine we are creating a format string in a separate file, commonly because we would like to internationalize it and we rewrite it as: <?php$format = 'The %s contains %d monkeys';echo sprintf($format, $num, $location);?> We now have a problem. The order of the placeholders in the format string does not match the order of the arguments in the code. We would like to leave the code as is and simply indicate in the format string which arguments the placeholders refer to. We would write the format string like this instead: <?php$format = 'The %2$s contains %1$d monkeys';echo sprintf($format, $num, $location);?> An added benefit is that placeholders can be repeated without adding more arguments in the code.
    2. $format = 'There are %d monkeys in the %s';

      Compared to below:

      $format = 'The %s contains %d monkeys'
      
    1. Translatable strings should be limited to one paragraph; don’t let a single message be longer than ten lines. The reason is that when the translatable string changes, the translator is faced with the task of updating the entire translated string. Maybe only a single word will have changed in the English string, but the translator doesn’t see that (with the current translation tools), therefore she has to proofread the entire message.
    2. Entire sentences are also important because in many languages, the declination of some word in a sentence depends on the gender or the number (singular/plural) of another part of the sentence. There are usually more interdependencies between words than in English. The consequence is that asking a translator to translate two half-sentences and then combining these two half-sentences through dumb string concatenation will not work, for many languages, even though it would work for English. That’s why translators need to handle entire sentences.
    1. WordPress 5.0 introduced the wp-i18n JavaScript package that provides the functions needed to add translatable strings as you would in PHP.
    2. For this simple example, you can simply edit the .po file in your editor and add the translation to all the msgstr sets. For a larger, more complex set of translation, the GlotPress and Poedit tools exist to help.
    1. Sometimes a single term is used in several contexts. Although it is one and the same word in English, it may need to be translated differently in some languages. For example, the word "Post" can be used both as a verb ("Click here to post your comment") and as a noun ("Edit this post"). In such cases, the _x() function should be used. It is similar to __(), but it has an additional second argument -- the context:
    1. Poedit and other tools can scan your .php files for references of __(), _e(), _n() and so on, and grab those strings for translation, which is awesome, because otherwise you’d have to manually add every single string. Now, when these tools come across _n() in our sources, they know it’s a plural thing, because of a special keyword setting which looks something like _n:1,2, meaning _n() takes at least two arguments, where the first argument is the singular, and the second argument is a the plural, so it grabs both strings. Let’s take a look at how Poedit and other tools will parse our function above: Hello there _n() on line 3! I’m supposed to grab two of your arguments because I have this smart keyword setting, but none of these arguments are strings, so I’ll just skip to the next match
    1. Quite a few times, there will be collisions with similar translatable text found in more than two places, but with different translated context. By including the context in the pot file, translators can translate the two strings differently.
    1. WordPress uses gettext libraries to be able to add the translations in PHP. In WordPress you should use the WordPress localization functions instead of the native PHP gettext-compliant translation functions.
    1. This is where the incredibly useful gettext filter comes in. If you take a peek at your plugin's code you'll see strings like this: .gist table { margin-bottom: 0; } <?php _e( 'Related Products', 'woocommerce' ); ?> view raw sample-translatable-string.php hosted with by GitHub You can easily translate these strings by adding a filter to your functions.php file: .gist table { margin-bottom: 0; } <?php /** * Change text strings * * @link http://codex.wordpress.org/Plugin_API/Filter_Reference/gettext */ function my_text_strings( $translated_text, $text, $domain ) { switch ( $translated_text ) { case 'Related Products' : $translated_text = __( 'Check out these related products', 'woocommerce' ); break; } return $translated_text; } add_filter( 'gettext', 'my_text_strings', 20, 3 );
    1. Poedit’s built in support for Crowdin, a great localisation management platform, makes collaboration a breeze. Access to all your projects and translate directly from the app.
    1. Are you telling your customers that you are willing to invest $0 in providing them with a proper translation? Are you prepared to signal that those markets or languages aren’t a priority for your organization? That is a dangerous message to send, primarily if you rely on your global audience for significant amounts of your total revenue. 
    2. Another “decision” to make GoogleYoutube crappier and crappier with every passing day. The corporation seems stridently dedicated to deprecating its own products and abusing its customers.Search is now suckier than DuckDuckGo. Fuzzy and/or cherry-picked results.YouTube flooded with reposts/stolen vids and the “recommended” videos have literally nothing to do with your viewing behavior.Politicization and one-way censorship.Translator used to be nearly limitless (no text limit, websites translatable, etc) — now it’s basically a severely nerfed mini-tool to translate short phrases.
    1. We no longer provide new access to Google Translate's Website Translator. This change does not affect existing use of the Website Translator. We encourage users looking to translate webpages to use browsers that support translation natively.
    1. At its face, translating between one language might sound like a pretty simple idea. In every language, words have definitions, right? All you have to do is find the words with the same definition and switch between them.
    2. Metaphase is a literal word-for-word translation. Paraphrase, on the other hand, is an idea-for-idea translation. In an idea-for-idea translation, you try to find the closest equivalent idea between the two languages.
    1. “Is it all right if 42% of my web copy is wrong?”
    2. Don’t you want your Spanish-speaking readers to understand your message rather than laugh at it?