305 Matching Annotations
1. Jul 2024
1. Very fascinating. Substance meaning can change depending on linguistics. For ancient thought, it's best to know the true original language.

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3. Jun 2024
4. languagelog.ldc.upenn.edu languagelog.ldc.upenn.edu
1. It's an interesting position and had me rethinking things a bit, but the way I look at it, the actions themselves are negative; it's their boundary conditions which are different. Take for instance embark/disembark. In pseudo-mathematical terms, I would tend to think they increment or decrement one's embarkedness, with an upper boundary of 1 (aboard), and a lower boundary of 0 (ashore). The non-existence of values >1 (super-aboard) or <0 (anti-aboard) shouldn't affect the relative polarity of the actions themselves. I think. Looking through the rest of the list, there's a variety of different boundary conditions. Prove/disprove would range from 1 to -1 (1=proven, 0=asserted but untested, -1=proven false), entangle/disentangle seems to range from 0 to infinity (because you can always be a little more entangled, can't you?), and please/displease is perhaps wholly unbounded (if we imagine that humanity has an infinite capacity for both suffering and joy).
2. Who says it's not a word? Not a word, simply because lexicographers have not recognized it? When a lexicographer recognizes it, it has already been in use! Even Mr. Fiske says it is a word, although he obviously disprefers it.

by the time a lexicographer recognizes it, it has already been in use

3. I have become a dyed in the wool descriptionist because of Language Log, and have been known to cite entries here in battle against of the prescriptionistas of the Axis of Evil within the blogosphere.

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5. www.merriam-webster.com www.merriam-webster.com

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6. en.wikipedia.org en.wikipedia.org
1. Linguistic description is often contrasted with linguistic prescription

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7. Apr 2024
8. www.technologyreview.com www.technologyreview.com
1. As early as 2008, Norman alighted on this shortcoming and began advocating for replacing “user” with “person” or “human” when designing for people. (The subsequent years have seen an explosion of bots, which has made the issue that much more complicated.) “Psychologists depersonalize the people they study by calling them ‘subjects.’ We depersonalize the people we study by calling them ‘users.’ Both terms are derogatory,” he wrote then. “If we are designing for people, why not call them that?”

## “User” as a depersonalized, derogatory term

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9. www.newyorker.com www.newyorker.com
1. Muhanna, Elias. “A New History of Arabia, Written in Stone.” The New Yorker, May 23, 2018. https://www.newyorker.com/culture/culture-desk/a-new-history-of-arabia-written-in-stone.

2. Al-Jallad began pulling up every inscription that mentioned migrating in search of rain, and soon he had a long list of terms that had resisted translation. Comparing them with the Greek, Aramaic, and Babylonian zodiacs, he started making connections. Dhakar matched up nicely with dikra, the Aramaic word for Aries, and Amet was derived from an Arabic verb meaning “to measure or compute quantity”—a good bet for the scales of Libra. Hunting for Capricorn, the goat-fish constellation, Al-Jallad found the word ya’mur in Edward Lane’s “Arabic-English Lexicon,” whose translation read, “A certain beast of the sea, or . . . a kind of mountain-goat.” He stayed up all night, sifting the database and checking words against dictionaries of ancient Semitic languages. By morning, he had deciphered a complete, previously unknown Arabian zodiac. “We’d thought that they were place names, and, in a way, they were,” he told me. “They were places in the sky.”

There's got to be a great journal article on this!

3. Michael Macdonald amassed a vast collection of photographs of these texts and launched a digital Safaitic database, with the help of Laïla Nehmé, a French archeologist and one of the world’s leading experts on early Arabic inscriptions. “When we started working, Michael’s corpus was all on index cards,” Nehmé recalled. “With the database, you could search for sequences of words across the whole collection, and you could study them statistically. It worked beautifully.”

Researcher Michael Macdonald created a card index database of safaitic inscriptions which he and French archaeologist Laïla Nehmé eventually morphed into a digital database which included a collection of photographs of the extant texts.

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10. Mar 2024
11. Local file Local file
1. Evenbefore his betrayal, though, he felt little identification with the colonists,writing that North Carolinians were the most “cowardly Blockheads[another word for lubber] that ever God created & must be used likenegro[e]s if you expect any good of them.”29

blockheads as a synonym for lubber

This gives new meaning to the use of "blockhead" in Charles Schultz' Peanuts (usually Lucy in reference to Charlie Brown).

Recall Samuel Johnson's (1709-1784) aphorism:

“No man but a blockhead ever wrote except for money.”

Definition from Webster's Dictionary (1913):

Block"head` (?), n. [Block + head.] A stupid fellow; a dolt; a person deficient in understanding.

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12. Local file Local file
1. Office Organisation, of which the work here discussed forms part, 2has been considerably modified within recent years, and Avhatis called the " card system " has now come very much into vogue.

The nebulous, but colloquial "card system" was a common, but now lost moniker for the use of a card index in business settings in the early 1900s.

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13. hardhistoriesjhu.substack.com hardhistoriesjhu.substack.com
1. Read [[Martha S. Jones]] in Sleuthing the Card Catalog

2. The Library of Congress discontinued the use of “Negroes” as a subject heading in 1976.
3. I fingered my way through where I thought I’d find entries: African American, Afro-American, Black. Nothing there. I had to then brainstorm like it was 1999, or was it 1989, 1979, or even earlier, to discover the right term. As far back as 1984, the Library of Congress, whose subject headings most research libraries in the United States utilize, admitted that it was “frustrating” to search for Black people in its catalog because two terms were simultaneously in use: “Afro-Americans” and “Blacks.”1 Neither term made it into the old Peabody Library catalog, so perhaps it and the terminology it reflected dated from an even earlier time.

Research on keywords and their shifting meanings over time can make things difficult for the novice researcher. This example from Martha S. Jones certainly highlights this perspective even in under a century of semantic shift.

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14. Feb 2024
15. www.reddit.com www.reddit.com
1. My first spread doing this, I am so excited :D

First time I've seen a photo of a commonplace book referred to a "spread" which is more commonly seen in Bullet Journal contexts.

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16. Local file Local file
1. The random selection of words by volunteers often resulted in themchoosing the same words with similar dates, and produced gaps in thequotation paragraphs, which Murray and his assistants had to fill by their ownmanual searching. This must have been like trying to find a needle in ahaystack. It was remarkable how successful Murray’s small team was at fillingthose gaps and finding earliest or latest quotations. Murray told thePhilological Society that this manual trawling for words had to be done forthe majority of words: ‘For more than five-sixths of the words we have tosearch out and find additional quotations in order to complete their historyand illustrate the senses; for every word we have to make a general search todiscover whether any earlier or later quotations, or quotations in other senses,exist.’
2. Readers were asked to choose words they considered ‘rare’ and the choice ofthese words was random – they were not guided by Murray on what wasneeded. This resulted in a dearth of quotations for common words whichultimately had to be found by Murray and his assistants. In the first part of theDictionary alone, ‘nearly the whole quotations for about, after, all, also, and,in Part I, and for any, as, in Part II, have had to be found by myself and myassistants’, he explained to the Philological Society. If he had his time again,he said that he would have directed his Readers differently, with theinstructions, ‘Take out quotations for all words that do not strike you as rare,peculiar, or peculiarly used.’
3. Miss Clowes of Ipswich and Miss Wheaton of Bloomsbury Square‘threw up’ (gave up)

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17. pages.oup.com pages.oup.com
1. https://pages.oup.com/ol/cus/1646173949115570121/submit-words-and-evidence-to-the-oed

The modern day digital version of an OED contribution slip includes database fields for the following:

• Submission type (new word or sense of a word; information about origin/etymology; other)
• the word or phrase itself
• the part of speech (noun, verb, adjective, other)
• pronunciation (recording, IPA, rhyming words, etc.)
• the definition or sense number as defined in the OED
• quotation evidence with full text, and bibliographical references/links)

Only the first two fields are mandatory.

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18. www.oed.com www.oed.com

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19. azorion.tripod.com azorion.tripod.com
1. https://azorion.tripod.com/whorf.htm<br /> The (Hopi) World According to Whorf -- a Brief Note<br /> by Gary A. David, 2004

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20. en.wikipedia.org en.wikipedia.org

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21. Jan 2024
1. Some of Newton's notes come from a 1654 edition of: Gregory, Francis. Ονομαστικὸν βραχύ; sive, Nomenclatura brevis, Anglo-Latino-Græca, in usum Scholæ Westmonasteriensis. Per F. G. [i.e. Francis Gregory.] Editio vigesima secunda, etc. John Meredith, in trust for Royston and Elizabeth Meredith, 1710.

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23. johnhalbrooks.substack.com johnhalbrooks.substack.com
1. I have left the word wyrd untranslated from the Old English. It means something like “fate” or “doom.” It is the ancestor of the modern English word weird. When Shakespeare refers to the witches in Macbeth as the “weird sisters,” he doesn’t mean that they are strange (though they are), but rather that they have to do with fate. Weird in its modern sense (meaning “strange” or “uncanny”) is probably connected to the mysterious or “weird” nature of fate.

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24. Dec 2023
1. 漢字很麻煩。多麻煩？從食物就可以看得出來。台灣有一道宴客名菜叫「雞卷」（ㄐ一 ㄐㄩㄢˇ），步驟繁瑣，是可以擺上過年和婚宴桌上的手路菜。

字與音的互染

最初：燒雞卷（卷，名詞，管子，因像雞脖子）

The evolution is like the Telephone game, also known as "Chinese whispers" 電話遊戲，又稱中國話耳語

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26. Nov 2023
27. www.reddit.com www.reddit.com
1. GRMacGirl · 3 days agoSame. I journal them in a Commonplace Book. If I feel the need to keep a note IN the book for some reason I write it on a separate piece of paper and tuck it between the pages. Exception: cooking/recipe books where I need to have the information right there any time I’m cooking the food.

Interesting use of the verb "journal" to indicate placing something into a commonplace book.

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28. Local file Local file
1. The role of stylistic indicators of temporal andspatial location and orientation—those “pointing words”that linguists refer to as deictics—is essential to thecreation of this general effect.

Deixis is the use of words and phrases to refer to a specific time, place, or person in context. Usually their semantic meaning is fixed but their denoted meaning varies depending on contextual cues of time and/or place.

Examples include the do-, ko-, so-, a- progression (dore, kore, sore, are; docchi, kocchi, socchi, acchi, etc.) serve this function of distance from the speaker.

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29. Oct 2023
30. www.nytimes.com www.nytimes.com
1. Biblical Hebrew has an unusually small vocabulary clustered around an even smaller number of three-letter roots, most of them denoting concrete actions or things, and the Bible achieves its mimetic effects partly through the skillful repetition of these few vivid words.

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31. lawliberty.org lawliberty.org
1. Alter knows it ain’t Jesus.

The colloquial use of the word "ain't" here very specifically pegs James Bruce, the author, as writing his argument for an audience of Christians in the Southern part of the United States. It's even more stark as most of his review is of a broadly scholarly nature where the word "ain't" or others of its register would never be used.

How does the shift in translation really negate room for Jesus? If it was a truism that it stood for Jesus, then couldn't one just as simply re-translate the New Testament to make sure that the space for him is still there? Small shifts in meaning and translation shouldn't undermine the support for Jesus so easily as Bruce suggests, otherwise there are terrible problems with these underpinnings of Christianity.

If one follows Bruce's general logic, then there's a hell of a religion based on Nostradamus' work we're all going out of our way to ignore.

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32. en.wal.unesco.org en.wal.unesco.org

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33. phys.org phys.org
1. The women are working with Rapid Word Collection (RWC) software, which uses an algorithm to search Apache text and audio databases for so-called forgotten words.

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34. www.lrb.co.uk www.lrb.co.uk
1. Ogilvie uncovers the story of Anna Thorpe Wetherill, an anti-slavery activist who hid escaped enslaved people in her house in Philadelphia. Mrs Thorpe focused her efforts in the slips she sent to Oxford on recording the language of slavery, submitting definitions for ‘abhorrent’, ‘abolition’, ‘accursed’ and ‘attack’. Like Margaret Murray’s, her work ensured that the language of colonisation appeared in the dictionary not just as the lingua franca of jingoistic imperialism but shaded with the stories and the voices of the colonised.

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35. en.wikipedia.org en.wikipedia.org

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36. www.ted.com www.ted.com
1. Boroditsky, Lera. How Language Shapes the Way We Think. Streaming Video. TED | TEDWomen 2017, 2017. https://www.ted.com/talks/lera_boroditsky_how_language_shapes_the_way_we_think.

2. Kuuk Thaayorre language (Australia) orients everything with respect to cardinal directions or is mapped onto their terrain/land. Even their perception of time (chronology) is mapped onto the land with respect to their bodies.

3. Perception of events can differ dramatically in different languages based on their constructions and what those constructions dictate.

Example: Accidents in different languages are seen differently. In English, focus is on the actor who receives blame while in Spanish, there is more focus on the action and intention rather than what English would view as "perpetrator". Spanish eyewitness are less likely to remember the actor for testimony versus in English.

4. Do languages change the way we think?

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1. If it requires too many words, you have not seen theunity but a multiplicity.

How are they defining "multiplicity" here? There seems to be a tacit definition with respect to being in opposition to "unity" (of a work), but not an explicit one. It also seems to be a shaded meaning with respect to the more common one.

unity: essence, core, coherence, oneness

They use the word "multiplicity" in the usual sense of large number or multitude on p55: "The multiplicity of the rules indicates the complexity of the one habit to be formed, not a plurality of distinct habits."

They also revisit it in the upcoming section: "Mastering the Multiplicity: The Art of Outlining a Book" on p88

Perhaps its just me but there's a linguistic "softness" of the uses of unity and multiplicity here with respect to 2023. Though these two opposites fit the dictionary definitions of their words, is it possible that this softness is the result of a sort of historical linguistic shift I'm feeling in these words? I can't quite put my finger on it, but perhaps it's the relationship of unity to religion? Neither seem to be frequently used these days.

The Ngram Viewer shows peaks for the use of unity in 1660 and 1960 of almost 75% higher usage compared to a broader historical average. It is generally waning since. Multiplicity has about 1/4 the use of unity and has remained flat over time. What caused the peaks in the use of "unity" during these periods? This 1972 use was on the downslope of the 1960s peak. Was it used in the 1940 version?

The 20th century increase in the use of unity begins around 1914 and may have been related to political shades of meaning going into WWI with another marked rise in the lead up to WW2.

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38. Aug 2023
39. citeseerx.ist.psu.edu citeseerx.ist.psu.edu
1. Compositionality is defined here as the property whereby “the meaning of anexpression is a monotonic function of the meaning of its parts and the way they are puttogether.” (Cann 1993:4) Recursion is “the phenomenon by which a constituent of a sen-tence dominates another instance of the same syntactic category . . . recursion is the principlereason that the number of sentences in a natural language is normally taken to be infinite”(Trask 1993:229-230)

Kirby defines two fundamental properties of language. For one, language is compositional. The meaning of each part of a sentence, as well as the order in which these individual pieces appear, defines the overall meaning of that sentence. Language is also recursive (and therefore infinite). Each constituent in a phrase may contain one or more child constituents of the same syntactic category.

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1. "in his youth he was full of vim and vigor"

vim<br /> 2023 definition: energy; enthusiasm

vim is rarely ever seen outside of the context of the phrase "vim and vigor" and seems to be a calcified word within this phrase.

vigor<br /> 2023 definition: physical strength and good health

2. "in his youth he was full of vim and vigor"

Do calcified words eventually cease to have any definition over time? That is they have a stand alone definition, then a definition within their calcified phrase, then they cease to have any stand alone definition at all though they continue existence only in those calcified phrases.

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41. metodo-rivista.eu metodo-rivista.eu

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42. samplereality.com samplereality.com
1. There's something interesting and unique going on in Mark Sample's use of the N+7 dictionary replacement of Hacking the Academy which still makes broad sense from a grammatical and semantic sense. What levels of transformation would one have to do within a language to loose all semblance of meaning? What do these sorts of transformations, deformations, or deformances indicate about linguistics and semantic meaning within a language?

How far must change go before it is incomprehensible?

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43. Jun 2023
44. ceur-ws.org ceur-ws.org

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1. The German word 'Arbeit', work, descends from Porto-Germanic *arbaidiz, which meant hardship or suffering. Going a couple of thousand years further back in time, the ancestor of arbaidiz was Porto-Indo-European *h₃órbʰos, which mean orphan or slave. 'Orphan' has the same root via Latin. So Arbeit <> orphan: distant cousins. 'Arbeit' did have a relative in Old English too: it was 'earfoþe', difficult, hard

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46. www.lrb.co.uk www.lrb.co.uk
1. Commentators insisted that gossip was the province of women. Originally meaning ‘godparent’, ‘gossip’ shifted its meaning across the early modern period. It became commonplace to accuse women of gossiping and of being gossips, and a set of meanings crystallised around the word that reflected men’s anxiety about what women were saying about them behind their backs.

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47. Apr 2023
48. gallicaintramuros.bnf.fr gallicaintramuros.bnf.fr

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49. ben-mlr.github.io ben-mlr.github.io

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50. zettelkasten.de zettelkasten.de
1. I decided to translate the German “Zettelkasten” as “Zettelkasten” since I consider this an established term.

An example of a bi-lingual German-English speaker/writer specifically translating and using Zettelkasten as an established word in English.

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51. Mar 2023
52. www.jstor.org www.jstor.org
1. Hayes, William C. Review of Historical Records of Rameses III, by William F. Edgerton and John A. Wilson. American Journal of Archaeology 40, no. 4 (1936): 558–59. https://doi.org/10.2307/498809.

https://www.jstor.org/stable/498809

...have been diligently consulted and compared with the present versions and the authors have also availed themselves of the invaluable material contained in the Zettelkasten of the Berlin Wirterbuch der...

This is the oldest appearance of the word "Zettelkasten" appearing in a journal article which I could find on JSTOR.

I'm not surprised it's in a journal in the humanities and specifically on archaeology.

Update: even better, this has introduced me to a massive new ZK: Wörterbuch der ägyptischen Sprache!

Where is Indiana Jones' zettelkasten?!

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53. web.archive.org web.archive.org
1. Abb. 9 Im Normalfall erarbeitete man jedoch eine detaillierte interne Feinsortierung des Belegmaterials häufiger Wörter. Naturgemäß hätte jede Dimension der Analyse (chronologisch, grammatisch, semantisch, graphisch) die Grundlage einer eigenen Sortierordnung bilden können.

Alternate sort orders for the slips for the Wb include chronological, grammatical, semantic, and graphic, but for teasing out the meanings the original sort order was sufficient. Certainly other sort orders may reveal additional subtleties.

2. Die Auswertung solcher Materialmengen erwies sich als prekär, und im Falle der häufigsten Wörter, z.B. mancher Präpositionen (allein das Wort m "in" ist über 60.000 Mal belegt) oder elementarer Verben mußte man vor den Schwierigkeiten kapitulieren und das Material aussondern.

The preposition m "in" appears more than 60,000 times in the corpus, a fact which becomes a bit overwhelming to analyze.

3. Textmaterials war zunächst ein technisches Problem. Angelehnt an die Praxis des Thesaurus Linguae Latinae wurde ein ausgeklügeltes Verzettelungssystem entworfen. Die gesammelten Texte wurden dazu in Passagen von jeweils etwa 30 Wörtern Länge unterteilt und in hieroglyphischer Form auf Zettel im Postkartenformat geschrieben. Die Bezeichnung des verzettelten Texts und der aktuellen Textpassage wurden in der Kopfzeile notiert. Wo erforderlich, sind auch Notizen zum szenischen Kontext einer Inschrift beigefügt, und meistens wurde der Versuch gemacht, eine Übersetzung der Textpassage zu geben. Gerade die Lückenhaftigkeit dieser Übersetzungen zeigt deutlich, wie unsicher man sich damals noch an vielen Stellen sein mußte. Die gesamte primäre Textaufnahme hatte bis zu einem gewissen Grade vorläufigen Charakter und war nicht als abschließende Analyse der Textstelle, sondern als Ausgangspunkt eines vertiefenden, vergleichenden Studiums gedacht. Dass heute viele der damals problematischen Passagen keine Schwierigkeiten mehr machen, ist zuallererst ein Verdienst des Wörterbuches und belegt, wie dieses das philologische Textverständnis auf ein neues Niveau gehoben hat.

The structure of the filing system for the Wörterbuch der ägyptischen Sprache was designed based on the work done for the Thesaurus Linguae Latinae started in 1894. Texts in the collection were roughly divided into passages of about 30 words and written in hieroglyphic form on postcard-sized slips of paper. The heading contained the designation of the text and the body included the texts' context (inscriptions, etc.) as well as a preliminary translation of the passage.

These passages were then cross-referenced with other occurrences of the hieroglyphics to provide better progressive translations which ultimately appeared in the final manuscript. As a result some of the translations on the cards were incomplete as work proceeded and cross-comparisons of individual words were puzzled out.

A slip showing a passage of text from the victory stele of Sesostris III at the Nubian fortress of Semna. The handwriting is that of project leader Adolf Erman, who had "already struggled with the text as a high school student".

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54. Local file Local file
1. Hayes, William C. Review of Historical Records of Rameses III, by William F. Edgerton and John A. Wilson. American Journal of Archaeology 40, no. 4 (1936): 558–59. https://doi.org/10.2307/498809.

Tagged this because it's the first appearance of Zettelkasten in an English language setting in the JSTOR repository.

Started on 2023-03-24; finished on 2023-03-27.

2. Allavailable earlier copies and parallel texts havebeen diligently consulted and compared with thepresent versions and the authors have also availedthemselves of the invaluable material contained inthe Zettelkasten of the Berlin Wirterbuch der

ägyptischen Sprache.

This is the first use of the word Zettelkasten in an English (non-German) context in JSTOR that I've been able to find.

Still likely not the first appearance, but reasonably early...

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55. Local file Local file
1. Blair, Ann M. “The Rise of Note-Taking in Early Modern Europe.” Intellectual History Review 20, no. 3 (August 4, 2010): 303–16. https://doi.org/10.1080/17496977.2010.492611.

Annotation target: urn:x-pdf:202007e9836543a7b69e7045c81f5965

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56. www.jstor.org www.jstor.org
1. Review: [Untitled] Roman und Satire im 18. Jahrhundert: Ein Beitrag zur Poetik by Jörg Schönert Review by: J. D. Workman Monatshefte, Vol. 62, No. 4 (Winter, 1970), pp. 420-421 https://www.jstor.org/stable/30156502

...form of the period for which there are no classical "rules." Schinert musters his evidence in an interesting and generally very lucid manner, although at times he may seem somewhat overzealous, if not indeed repetitious, in assembling all the data: at times one detects the faint odor of the Zettelkasten...

faint odor! ha! and in an English language document.

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57. www.jstor.org www.jstor.org
1. In Memoriam: Josef Körner (9 May 1950) Robert L. Kahn The Modern Language Review, Vol. 58, No. 1 (Jan., 1963), pp. 38-59 https://www.jstor.org/stable/3720394

...of German letters long before Heine, impudently naive and imprudently honest, though always in- dustrious, 'griindlich' (and was it not Korner who 'discovered' the numerous un- published notebooks of Friedrich Schlegel and, in turn, left behind some twenty ' Zettelkasten ' which were recently acquired by Bonn University, a unique 'Fund-...

example of use of zettelkasten in English here in 1963 specifically as a loan word from German...

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58. www.jstor.org www.jstor.org
1. Review: [Untitled] Historical Records of Rameses III by William F. Edgerton, John A. Wilson Review by: William C. Hayes American Journal of Archaeology, Vol. 40, No. 4 (Oct. - Dec., 1936), pp. 558-559

...have been diligently consulted and compared with the present versions and the authors have also availed themselves of the invaluable material contained in the Zettelkasten of the Berlin Wirterbuch der...

This is the oldest appearance of the word "Zettelkasten" appearing in a journal article which I could find on JSTOR.

I'm not surprised it's in a journal in the humanities and specifically on archaeology.

Where is Indiana Jones' zettelkasten?!

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1. My Ten Years With Michel Thomas - Dr. Harold Goodman

Michel Thomas taught languages conversationally in both languages by creating absolutely no pressure or worry and always keeping students in the "now".

Find:<br /> Kaplan, Howard. “The Language Master.” The Jerusalem Report, August 11, 1994.

Watch:<br /> “The Language Master.” 1:33 : 1, color. London, UK: BBC 2, March 23, 1997. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O0w_uYPAQic.

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60. en.wikipedia.org en.wikipedia.org
1. Rask is especially known for his contributions to comparative linguistics, including an early formulation of what would later be known as Grimm's Law.

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61. en.wikipedia.org en.wikipedia.org
1. In fact the idea of creating a phonetic alphabet that could be used by every language was first put forward by Jespersen in a letter he sent to Paul Passy.[4]

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62. Local file Local file
1. Isuwans

Isuwa (transcribed Išuwa and sometimes rendered Ishuwa) was the ancient Hittite name for one of its neighboring Anatolian kingdoms to the east. Isuwa is the origin of our word 'Asia'.

#### Annotators

63. www.gutenberg.org www.gutenberg.org
1. A Graduated English-Welsh Spelling Book by John Lewis

Some of the words may have shifted a bit since 1857, but there's something delightfully subversive about considering using this book to learn/practice Welsh in 2023.

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Close to the phrase "at your finger tips". Would it have appeared before or after this?

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65. Feb 2023
66. www.washingtonpost.com www.washingtonpost.com
1. shifts in language and meaning of words and symbols as the result of algorithmic content moderation

instead of slow semantic shifts, content moderation is actively pushing shifts of words and their meanings

article suggested by this week's Dan Allosso Book club on Pirate Enlightenment

2. In January, Kendra Calhoun, a postdoctoral researcher in linguistic anthropology at UCLA, and Alexia Fawcett, a doctoral student in linguistics at UC Santa Barbara, gave a presentation about language on TikTok. They outlined how, by self-censoring words in the captions of TikToks, new algospeak code words emerged.

follow up on this for the relevant forthcoming paper....

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67. wordcraft-writers-workshop.appspot.com wordcraft-writers-workshop.appspot.com
1. The application is powered by LaMDA, one of the latest generation of large language models. At its core, LaMDA is a simple machine — it's trained to predict the most likely next word given a textual prompt. But because the model is so large and has been trained on a massive amount of text, it's able to learn higher-level concepts.

Is LaMDA really able to "learn higher-level concepts" or is it just a large, straight-forward information theoretic-based prediction engine?

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68. www.complexityexplorer.org www.complexityexplorer.org
1. Rhetoric of encomium

How do institutions form around notions of merit?

Me: what about blurbs as evidence of implied social networks? Who blurbs whom? How are these invitations sent/received and by whom?

diachronic: how blurbs evolve over time

Signals, can blurbs predict: - the field of the work - gender - other

Emergence or decrease of signals with respect to time

Imitation of styles and choices. - how does this happen? contagion - I'm reminded of George Mathew Dutcher admonition:

Imitation to be avoided. Avoid the mannerisms and personal peculiarities of method or style of well-known writers, such as Carlyle or Macaulay. (see: https://hypothes.is/a/ROR3VCDEEe2sZNOy4rwRgQ )

Systematic studies of related words within corpora. (this idea should have a clever name) word2vec, word correlations, information theory

How does praise work?

metaphors within blurbs (eg: light, scintillating, brilliant, new lens, etc.)

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69. www.srf.ch www.srf.ch
1. Lois Hechenblaikner, Andrea Kühbacher, Rolf Zollinger (Hrsg.): «Keine Ostergrüsse mehr! Die geheime Gästekartei des Grandhotel Waldhaus in Vulpera». Edition Patrick Frey, 2021.Der reich bebilderte Band bietet eine spannende Reise in ein Stück Schweizer Tourismusgeschichte: Die Herausgeber haben die 20'000 Karteikarten aus den Jahren 1920-1960 sehr sorgfältig kuratiert, nach Themen gegliedert und in einen grösseren, gesellschaftlichen Zusammenhang gestellt.Die Leserinnen und Leser erfahren viel über die Klientel im Hotel Waldhaus, zum Teil sogar in kleinen biografischen Porträts; und sie können an konkreten Beispielen verfolgen, wie sich der Sprachgebrauch der Concierges im Laufe der Zeit verändert – gerade zum Beispiel im Zusammenhang mit jüdischen Gästen.

Lois Hechenblaikner, Andrea Kühbacher, Rolf Zollinger (editors): «No more Easter greetings! The secret guest file of the Grandhotel Waldhaus in Vulpera". Edition Patrick Frey, 2021.

The richly illustrated volume offers an exciting journey into a piece of Swiss tourism history: the editors have very carefully curated the 20,000 index cards from the years 1920-1960, structured them by topic and placed them in a larger, social context.

The readers learn a lot about the clientele in the Hotel Waldhaus, sometimes even in small biographical portraits; and they can use concrete examples to follow how the concierge's use of language has changed over time - especially in connection with Jewish guests, for example.

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70. Jan 2023
71. www.complexityexplorer.org www.complexityexplorer.org
1. Semantic leadership   Extent to which word usage by one entity is subsequently adopted by others. Specifically, Klein measures how often novel semantic usage in a given newspaper is mirrored by other newspapers. When a newspaper is a semantic leader, its semantic usage better predicts the later usage of that word in other newspapers compared to those other newspapers' own, earlier usage of the word.

How might this leadership happen within the social epidemic view of Malcolm Gladwell's Tipping Point framework?

• the law of the few,
• the stickiness factor, and
• the power of context

and with respect to mavens, connectors, and salespeople?

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• Llyn Bochlwyd (lake gray cheek)
• Foel Fawr
• Coed Llugwy
• Cwm Cneifion

Erasure of culture

Memory and place names

"A nation which forgets its past has no future." - Winston Churchill (check quote and provenance)

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73. polygloss.app polygloss.app
1. https://polygloss.app/posts/learning-toki-pona-language-of-good/

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74. en.wikipedia.org en.wikipedia.org
1. The hypothesis of linguistic relativity, also known as the Sapir–Whorf hypothesis /səˌpɪər ˈwɔːrf/, the Whorf hypothesis, or Whorfianism, is a principle suggesting that the structure of a language influences its speakers' worldview or cognition, and thus people's perceptions are relative to their spoken language.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linguistic_relativity

link to Toki Pona as a conlang

Link to https://hypothes.is/a/6Znx6MiMEeu3ljcVBsKNOw We shape our tools and thereafter they shape us.

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75. www.complexityexplorer.org www.complexityexplorer.org
1. a common technique in natural language processing is to operationalize certain semantic concepts (e.g., "synonym") in terms of syntactic structure (two words that tend to occur nearby in a sentence are more likely to be synonyms, etc). This is what word2vec does.

Can I use some of these sorts of methods with respect to corpus linguistics over time to better identified calcified words or archaic phrases that stick with the language, but are heavily limited to narrower(ing) contexts?

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76. www.merriam-webster.com www.merriam-webster.com
1. anastrophe noun anas·​tro·​phe ə-ˈna-strə-(ˌ)fē : inversion of the usual syntactical order of words for rhetorical effect

https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/anastrophe

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77. richardcarter.com richardcarter.com
1. For the time being, my writing app of choice is Ulysses, but plenty of others are available—even, heaven help you, Micros✽ft W✽rd.

Multiple interesting things going on here with the use of "Micros✽ft W✽rd".

He's simultaneously: - Voldemorting the phrase to some extent so that it doesn't show up easily or at all in digital search. - He's visually marring the phrase to show active dislike of the software and its general use - By using the symbols, he's effectively turning the word into a form of profanity the way many have used the top row of symbols on typewriters to indicate swear words in the 20th century. Examples: sh@t, dmn, he!!, or any set of four symbols like &%^ to generally indicate a "four letter word" as many profane words typically have four letters.

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78. github.com github.com
1. https://github.com/CopticScriptorium<br /> Tools and technologies for digital and computational research into Coptic language and literature

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79. www.geschkult.fu-berlin.de www.geschkult.fu-berlin.de
1. Database and Dictionary of Greek Loanwords in Coptic (DDGLC) https://www.geschkult.fu-berlin.de/en/e/ddglc/index.html

2. What is Coptic?Coptic is the name of the last phase (ca. 300 CE - 1300 CE) of the longest-attested human language yet available to linguistic study, the Ancient Egyptian lan­guage. Closely connected to the Christian population of Egypt, Coptic is one of the most important languages of ancient Christian literature, alongside Greek, Latin and Syriac. A great deal of Biblical and early Christian literature was translated into Coptic for Egyptian consumption, while an autochthnous Coptic Christian literature flourished for centuries.

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80. www.reddit.com www.reddit.com
1. If it interests you, GPC lists phrases like dysgu ar gof. This page then gives the example, "Yn yr hen ddyddiau byddai pobl yn dysgu cerddi ar gof" - like saying "to learn by heart" in English.

Fascinating that the Welsh language doesn't seem to have a direct translatable word/verb for "to memorize". The closest are dysgu (to learn, to teach) and cofio (to remember).

Related phrase: yn dysgu cerddi ar gof (to learn poems by heart), though this last is likely a more direct translation of an English concept back into Welsh.

Is this lack of a seemingly basic word for such a practice a hidden indicator of the anthropology of their way of knowing?

If to learn something means that one fully memorizes it from the start, then one needn't sub-specify, right?

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81. www.cambridge.org www.cambridge.org
1. An additional affordance of <Y> is that it may be the first known example of an ‘action‘ word, i.e. a verb (‘to give birth’), although we acknowledge that this is ambiguous: it could function as a noun, ‘birth’, or ‘place of birth’.

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82. genizalab.princeton.edu genizalab.princeton.edu

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83. Local file Local file
1. Fried-berg Judeo-Arabic Project, accessible at http://fjms.genizah.org. This projectmaintains a digital corpus of Judeo-Arabic texts that can be searched and an-alyzed.

The Friedberg Judeo-Arabic Project contains a large corpus of Judeo-Arabic text which can be manually searched to help improve translations of texts, but it might also be profitably mined using information theoretic and corpus linguistic methods to provide larger group textual translations and suggestions at a grander scale.

2. More recent ad-ditions to the website include a “jigsaw puzzle” screen that lets users viewseveral items while playing with them to check whether they are “joins.” An-other useful feature permits the user to split the screen into several panelsand, thus, examine several items simultaneously (useful, e.g., when compar-ing handwriting in several documents). Finally, the “join suggestions” screenprovides the results of a technologically groundbreaking computerized anal-ysis of paleographic and codiocological features that suggests possible joinsor items written by the same scribe or belonging to the same codex. 35

Computer means can potentially be used to check or suggest potential "joins" of fragments of historical documents.

An example of some of this work can be seen in the Friedberg Genizah Project and their digital tools.

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84. Dec 2022
85. forum.artofmemory.com forum.artofmemory.com
1. Asian Memory Methods : Secret Memory Techniques, Kyoto 1771

Thanks for this Lynne! I've ordered a copy.

I've been working on-again, off-again at learning Japanese and spent quite a while looking at mnemonic techniques with respect to it and kanji in particular. I've done a reasonably thorough, though not exhaustive search on the topic with respect to titles in English.

I had come across Rowley's book along with a few others, though generally they've only got a few hundred examples, usually meant for early learners. One of my favorite more comprehensive texts was:

Henshall, Kenneth G. A Guide to Remembering Japanese Characters. 1st ed, 7th Printing. Tokyo, Japan: Charles E. Tuttle Company, Inc., 1988.

It is much more comprehensive and has some incredibly useful descriptions of kanji, how they relate to other kanji (pictographically), as well as additional subtle meanings and what I would almost call "mini-stories" about the words, origins and their development over time, which for me made them much easier to recall and use. These descriptions also included some scholarly mentions as well as interesting Japanese historical and cultural context that also slowly build up to something bigger over time. He cleverly links and interlinks various words together to build up meanings over time as well. In addition to this, he included specific mnemonic phrases to make the kanji easier to remember. (Many of these become cumulative and rely on knowledge of previous words and pictograms.) I'll note that later editions were somewhat similar, but the incredibly rich stories were significantly pared down or removed making them less valuable, at least to me. He covers 1,945 kanji including those up to the sixth grade and general use kanji which he individually numbers within the text (so one could also more easily create and cross link them within their own memory palace/journey/songline.) Given the relationship of Japanese with Chinese, perhaps similar texts may exist for Chinese?

As an illustrative example of the work in the text, here's a link to a picture from a random page of the book: https://boffosocko.com/wp-content/uploads/2022/12/wp-1672269705369-scaled.jpg that may be helpful.

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86. mapofstories.scot mapofstories.scot
1. https://mapofstories.scot/

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87. format.digitallinguistics.io format.digitallinguistics.io

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88. herbertlui.net herbertlui.net
1. Whether you want to call them mottos, memes, or manifestos, words can be the building blocks of how we think and transmit ideas. You can also gauge how well someone is grasping your concepts—or at least making an effort to—by the language they’re responding to you with as well.

You can use the way that a person responds to your concepts as a metric for how well they understand you. If they don't understand chances are they will retreat back to jargon to try to hide the fact that they're struggling. If they're getting on well they might have an insightful way to extend your metaphor

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89. www.nytimes.com www.nytimes.com
1. Each November, the island hosts the Cooish (pronounced koosh), a five-day festival of Manx language and culture.

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90. Nov 2022
91. www.theatlantic.com www.theatlantic.com
1. “pattern language” to describe the show’s plot formulas, which they and ultimately other users would then apply to a variety of programs.

Tropes are shorthand storytelling methods that rely on a common storytelling grammar or pattern language to quickly relay information to the viewer or listener.

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92. www.frontiersin.org www.frontiersin.org
1. Lilienfeld, S. O., Sauvigné, K. C., Lynn, S. J., Cautin, R. L., Latzman, R. D., & Waldman, I. D. (2014). Fifty psychological and psychiatric terms to avoid: a list of inaccurate, misleading, misused, ambiguous, and logically confused words and phrases. Frontiers in Psychology. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01100

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93. www.pbs.org www.pbs.org
1. The final thing I will say is, we have the 2016 model in our mind that, if there's a normie Republican, they get crushed by Donald Trump. Why should a Mike DeWine, not that he's going to run, but why — normie Republicans did way better than the performative Republicans.

https://www.pbs.org/newshour/show/brooks-and-capehart-on-the-midterm-results-and-what-it-means-trumps-role-in-the-gop#transcript

David Brooks here (coins?) uses the phrase "normie Republican" to describe Republicans who tend to center rather than to the far right, Christian right, or who are Trump Republicans. Some of those people might describe these normie Republicans as Rhinos (Republicans in name only.)

Typically I've only seen "normie" used by those who identify as ADHD, Aspergers, or otherwise on the (neurodiverse) spectrum to describe average people who don't display those behaviors.

Judy Woodruff: So, I just want to be clear. We're using the word normie, as in — this is a David Brooks word, right? (LAUGHTER)

David Brooks: No, this — I did not invent this. I think two generations below me invented that word. (LAUGHTER)

Brooks admits he learned the word from others, but he's also using it with a different meaning and context than the original "normie" unadorned.

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94. www.researchgate.net www.researchgate.net
1. Robert Amsler is a retired computational lexicology, computational linguist, information scientist. His P.D. was from UT-Austin in 1980. His primary work was in the area of understanding how machine-readable dictionaries could be used to create a taxonomy of dictionary word senses (which served as the motivation for the creation of WordNet) and in understanding how lexicon can be extracted from text corpora. He also invented a new technique in citation analysis that bears his name. His work is mentioned in Wikipedia articles on Machine-Readable dictionary, Computational lexicology, Bibliographic coupling, and Text mining. He currently lives in Vienna, VA and reads email at robert.amsler at utexas. edu. He is currenly interested in chronological studies of vocabulary, esp. computer terms.

https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Robert-Amsler

Makes me wonder how we might better process and semantically parse peoples' personal notes, particularly when they're atomic and cross-linked?

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95. view.connect.americanpublicmedia.org view.connect.americanpublicmedia.org
1. The word “kafala” in Arabic has traditionally been used to describe a social and moral “responsibility to another.”  Researchers Ray Jureidini and Said Fares Hassan write, “kafala contracts were used to protect the weak and vulnerable by instituting the patronage of a prominent local who provided whatever protection was required.” Think of raising an orphaned child, for example. In business, kafala originally referred to contracts where a guarantor assumes liability for another person (e.g. a cosigner for a loan).    Kafala nowadays is often used to describe the legal relationship between businesses and migrant workers. Employers, typically citizens, act as sponsors for workers and assume legal responsibility for their movement and actions in exchange for their right to work in a geographic area.

The use of kafala shows a shift from a meaning of social responsibility into a meaning co-opted by capitalism and social contract.

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96. blog.duolingo.com blog.duolingo.com
1. To create accurate animations, we generate the speech, run it through our in-house speech recognition and pronunciation models, and get the timing for each word and phoneme (speech sound). Each sound is mapped onto a visual representation, or viseme, in a set we designed based on linguistic features.

viseme, an atomic speech visualization of a particular phoneme

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97. getblogging.org getblogging.org
1. Originally blogs were called weblogs: a log of activity that you wrote to the web. Peter Merholz jokingly split the term into two words to make it an activity: we blog. Ev Williams started to use it as a verb and a noun: to blog. And the rest is history.

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98. forum.zettelkasten.de forum.zettelkasten.de
1. https://forum.zettelkasten.de/discussion/848/zettelizers

A thread about what to call those who have a zettelkasten or those who practice the method.

2. Being an English only speaker I love the mystery invoked by the German term "Zettelkasten".

Example of someone who sees "mystery" in the idea of Zettelkasten, which becomes part of the draw into using it.

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99. Oct 2022
100. www.reddit.com www.reddit.com
1. Bilingual Antinet?

There's research to support that thinking in a non-native language has benefits for your thought processes and decision making. E.g.: https://news.uchicago.edu/story/thinking-foreign-language-helps-economic-decision-making

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1. All materials available will be evaluated: Dictionaries, glossaries, and texts of a literary and non-literary nature. The slip box presently contains 1.5 million slips referring to 12 million references; the slips are supplemented by means of digital material.

Dictionnaire étymologique de l’ancien français (DEAF) is a dictionary built out of a slip box containing 1.5 million slipswith over 12 million references.

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1. Intellectual readiness involves a minimumlevel of visual perception such that the child can take in andremember an entire word and the letters that combine to formit. Language readiness involves the ability to speak clearly andto use several sentences in correct order.

Just as predictive means may be used on the level of letters, words, and even whole sentences within information theory at the level of specific languages, does early orality sophistication in children help them to become predictive readers at earlier ages?

How could one go about testing this, particularly in a broad, neurodiverse group?

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103. Sep 2022
104. theconversation.com theconversation.com
1. One shibboleth, or highly marked feature, of North-East Scots is that “wh” is in fact pronounced “f”.
2. “Doric” is a term used across Europe during the Renaissance to refer to rougher, but more genuine forms of language, in comparison to the “Attic” of the cities, smart but corrupt.

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Does anyone know what exactly this is? A friend gave it to me years ago when they visited Jerusalem. I don't read Hebrew. Is it something harmless or should it be shamshed(jew magic)? (attached photo of a mezuzah)

The idea of "magic" here within a modern religious context is interesting in that it shows the divergence of religion and magic as concepts with respect to cultural practices.

The phrasing also has a sense of othering the unknown culture with a sense of fear in the idea that the object should be smashed. There's also a lack of basic science knowledge and tinge of superstition implied by the fact that they think that smashing will somehow dissipate the unknown magic.

So many different cultural indicators of various things going on here...

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106. Aug 2022
107. psyarxiv.com psyarxiv.com
1. Atari, M., Reimer, N. K., Graham, J., Hoover, J., Kennedy, B., Davani, A. M., Karimi-Malekabadi, F., Birjandi, S., & Dehghani, M. (2021). Pathogens Are Linked to Human Moral Systems Across Time and Space. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/tnyh9

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108. Local file Local file
1. for example, having occasion to make thousandsof brief records of such small matters as the spelling or pronunciation of a word, might well prefera slip no larger than 2x4. On the other hand, anyperson writing a coarse or heavy hand wouldprobably not care for a very small slip, whateverhis interests.

I haven't seen 2 x 4" slips suggested before!

Dow suggests the possibility of various small sizes based on the individual researchers' needs. Linguists might have very little and benefit from a 2 x 4" slip. Though once chosen, he does caution consistency of that size for easy manipulation.

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109. Local file Local file
1. A-over-A principle that was proposed as the basis for an explanation of suchphenomena as are illustrated by examples 44–58.
2. The most challenging theoretical problem in linguistics is that of discoveringthe principles of universal grammar that interweave with the rules of particulargrammars to provide explanations for phenomena that appear arbitrary andchaotic.
3. Suppose that“persuaded” in 19 is replaced by one of the following words: 1322 expected, hired, tired, pleased, happy, lucky, eager, certain, easyWith “expected” replacing “persuaded,” the sentence can mean roughly thatthe fact of John’s leaving was expected; but it is impossible to speak of the factof John’s leaving being persuaded.

Does this point to different classes of verbs based on their replaceability or not?

4. I use the asterisk in the conventional way, to indicate a sentence that deviates in some respectfrom grammatical rule.
5. In practice, the linguist is always involved in the study of both universal andparticular grammar.
6. Correspondingly,the far-reaching studies of language that were carried out under the influence ofCartesian rationalism suffered from a failure to appreciate either the abstractnessof those structures that are “present to the mind” when an utterance is producedor understood, or the length and complexity of the chain of operations that relatethe mental structures expressing the semantic content of the utterance to thephysical realization.

What are the simple building blocks of thought and speech that make it so complex in aggregate?

7. Saussure echoed an important critique of Humbold-tian linguistic theory by the distinguished American linguist William DwightWhitney, who evidently greatly influenced Saussure.
8. yntagmatic – that is,patterns of literal succession in the stream of speech – or paradigmatic – that is,relations among units that occupy the same position in the stream of speech.
9. Thegreat Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure, who at the turn of the century laidthe groundwork for modern structural linguistics, put forth the view that theonly proper methods of linguistic analysis are segmentation and classification.
10. the writings of the Spanish physician JuanHuarte, who in the late sixteenth century published a widely translated studyon the nature of human intelligence. In the course of his investigations, Huartecame to wonder at the fact that the word for “intelligence,” ingenio, seems tohave the same Latin root as various words meaning “engender” or “generate.”
11. I recall being told by a distinguishedanthropological linguist, in 1953, that he had no intention of working througha vast collection of materials that he had assembled because within a few yearsit would surely be possible to program a computer to construct a grammar froma large corpus of data by the use of techniques that were already fairly wellformalized.

rose colored glasses...

12. particular branch of cognitive psychologyknown as linguistics

Chomsky categorized linguistics as a branch of cognitive psychology.

13. What contri-bution can the study of language make to our understanding of human nature?