324 Matching Annotations
  1. Feb 2024
    1. ce biais je vous laisse méditer 2 secondes sur cette image cette image ce sont deux hommes préhistoriques qui tirent une charrette avec des roues carrés et il fait un 00:32:15 collègue qui leur dit elle est rourronde et ils disent non on a pas le temps d'installer les roues rondes ça c'est exactement le syndrome de ah je vais continuer à faire à la main c'est pas grave et puis en fait je perds 20 minutes chaque jour au lieu de passer une fois une heure et puis c'est fait
    1. Knowing is not a rationale for not acting. Can we doubt that knowl-edge has become a weapon we wield against ourselves?
    2. But many other people who know about the dangers still seemstrangely silent. When pressed, they trot out the “this is nothing new”riposte—as if awareness of what could happen is response enough.They tell me, There are universities filled with bioethicists who studythis stuff all day long. They say, All this has been written about before,and by experts. They complain, Your worries and your arguments arealready old hat.

      For so many issues we face the "nothing new" argument seems to abound. It's not just the bioethics issues Joy points out, but even things like fascism and Nazism.

      How to better argue these points for society so we aren't always having to re-hoe the same row?

  2. Dec 2023
  3. inst-fs-iad-prod.inscloudgate.net inst-fs-iad-prod.inscloudgate.net
    1. We proved ourselves to be resourceful, tough, adaptable—able toaccomodate ourselves to the tactics of an enemy who was ruthless, relentless, and at timesbarbarous.

      This seems to summarize Bailey's view of the US and Japan.

    2. The fanatically resisting Japanese, though facing atomization, did not surrender.

      Bailey is arguing that the atomic bombing of Nagasaki was necessary to make the Japanese surrender. Do most historians agree with this argument?

    3. The Washington authorities, fearing that these peoplemight act as saboteurs for the Mikado in case of invasion, decided to herd them together inconcentration camps, though about two-thirds of the victims were American-born citizens. Thisbrutal precaution turned out to be unnecessary

      Interesting that Bailey calls the camps "concentration camps" yet he doesn't address the racism that led to the creation of these camps. Was Japanese American loyalty and combat service necessary to prove this was unnecessary?

    4. , Washington wisely adopted the grand strategy of"getting Hitler first."

      Was this the best strategy? What about all the Chinese that were killed?

    5. To keep Britainfrom collapsing, the Roosevelt administration felt compelled to extend the unneutral aid thatinvited attacks from German submarines. To keep Japan from expanding, the Washingtonofficials deemed it necessary to cut off vital Japanese supplies and invite possible retaliation.Rather than let democracy die and dictatorship rule supreme, a strong majority of the Americanpeople were evidently determined to support a policy that might lead to war. It did.

      This is a good summary of Bailey's argument.

    6. while Tokyo was deliberately prolongingnegotiations in Washington. Japanese bombers, winging in from distant aircraft carriers,attacked without warning

      Bailey is arguing that while US leaders might have expected war to begin, Japanese leaders still deceived US officials and "attacked without warning."

    7. No one in high authority in Washingtonseems to have believed that the Japanese were either strong enough or foolhardy enough tolash out at Hawaii

      So, Bailey is arguing that the US expected an attack but not in Hawaii.

    8. The Japanese leaders were faced with two painful alternatives.They could either knuckle under to the Americans, or break out of the embargo ring by adesperate attack on the oil supplies and other riches of Southeast Asia

      Sounds like Bailey is arguing that Japanese actions were understandable.

    9. Congress, respondingto public pressures

      Weren't there still isolationists who wanted to avoid war?

    10. The inevitable clashes with submarines ensued

      This is the second time he uses the word "inevitable." He seems to be arguing that war could not be avoided.

  4. Nov 2023
    1. Phenomenologyexplains that consciousness, treated as an object, limits this pretension: human subjectivity is thefoundation of all scientific knowledge. Therefore, there is a logical error in trying to explain thefoundation through what it has founded.
      • for: scientific naturalism - circular argument, logical error, subjectivity - explanation, quote, quote - studying consciousness

      • quote: consciousness

        • Human subjectivity is the foundation oof all scientific knowledge. Therefore, there is a logical error in trying to explain the foundation through what it has founded.
      • author: Doris Elida Fuster Guillen

      • comment

        • Alternative way to state it
          • Human subjectivity is the foundation oof all scientific knowledge. Therefore, there is a logical error in trying to explain the foundation through what itself.
    1. COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the importance of care and calls for a change in how it is valued and prioritized

      crisis point, now care crisis has come into focus. i like how she didn't focus just on this but took into account long-term systematic problems with the UK's social care system. but not so convinced by the suggestions because the analysis is specific but suggestions are ideological and vague rather than practical.

    2. s-subsidization from more productive parts of the economy and public investment in the care sector

      suggestion of what to do, are there any more?

    3. "asset-based approaches," which view communities and individuals as having valuable skills and abilities that can contribute to the community.

      suggestions?

    4. "co-production" in social care, which involves involving different stakeholders in the production of care outcomes
    5. Advice given to healthcare workers focused on self-care,

      self-care as a type of get of jail free card, could be expanded more

    6. Social care workers had higher mortality rates than healthcare workers.
    7. Black and minority ethnic groups had higher infection and mortality rates due to underlying health conditions, lack of healthcare access, living conditions, and being essential workers.

      intersectionality

    8. Care workers received little support during the pandemic and are dealing with increased stress and exhaustion.
    9. e crisis highlighted the importance of essential workers like supermarket cashiers and care workers, but these workers are often undervalued, especially those who are women or people of color.

      back to be undervalued now but were semi valued- performative, article on clap for the NHS

    10. exploitation of domestic workers and the need for fair pay and working conditions.Many nannies lost their jobs and housing
    11. structural changes to address the housing crisis, such as banning real estate speculation and building more affordable housing.
    12. The social structures and inequalities in society determine who is most vulnerable to the virus.
    13. concept of interdependence
    14. The focus on profit-making and cost-efficiency meant that there were no reserves or adequate supplies of protective equipment.

      profit comes at the expense of lives- should have made this more prevalent throughout the argument

    15. hlighting issues such as underfunding, lack of protective equipment, and the increase in unpaid carers. It also mentions the impact on refuge vacancies, food distribution, and the lack of occupational sick pay.
    16. It mentions the disproportionate impact on disabled individuals and minority ethnic groups.
    1. Self-care can involve setting up supportive networks and making connections between personal experiences and broader social structures.Taking care of oneself is an act of resistance against societal messages that devalue certain lives.

      also acknowledges the other side of the self-care coin!

    2. demands of work and personal life are becoming blurred

      lost balance of work and personal life, I would argue that the media are trying to encourage this FIND EXAMPLE

    3. sure comes from a fear of job insecurity and a lack of support from welfare systems.

      not so sure, links everything back to capitalism??

    4. neoliberal regime that values productivity and growth.
    5. complex needs behind

      exclusion of marginalised groups due to technology in social care

    6. the pursuit of a "reliable body" in an uncertain world.

      link to no space for female bodies

    7. orthorexia, an eating disorder characterized by an obsession with healthy eating.

      disproportionately affects women, interesting that self-care is considered as part of social care- self- reliance

    1. arguing that care is often subordinated to the demands of capitalism.

      creates a care vs capitalism narrative which is a little reductive?

    2. t financialisation, the process of allocating resources through financial instruments, can worsen inequality and social issues.
    3. cerns that easy targets are prioritized over more challenging cases, and the costs of implementing and scaling these projects may outweigh any potential savings

      SIBs not very effective

    4. Critics argue that this system allows private investors to profit from cost savings that should benefit society.

      criticises capitalism

    5. social impact investing, where investors provide funding for projects that have a social impact.
    1. o reduce staff costs by 30 per cent through wage reductions, changes to bank holiday pay or reductions in staffing level
    2. Personal budgets create extra work and potential exploitation for care recipients who become employers when hiring personal assistants.
    3. improve communication and support for those in need of care, but it has economic implications, such as charging fees or relying on volunteers.
    4. Decisions about technology in care are influenced by politics, economics, and cultural contexts.
    5. more severe in social care due to its lower status compared to healthcare.
    1. assroots social movements and self-help groups can often provide better care than professional services, while creating alternative structures that promote mutual aid and reduce reliance on expensive commodities.

      supports charity but acknowledges that it can't be good without gov funding for everyone- unsure?

    2. "landscapes of care" in everyday places where people gather, such as homes, cafes, community centers, and parks.

      informal social care system- not just a political problem, personal is political

    3. quality and safety of services provided by untrained volunteers.

      link to Tory austerity- Big community, reliance on charity and volunteers rather than public services

    4. Household work is often invisible and paid domestic work is characterized by informality and lack of social protection.

      exploitation of 'female' careers

    5. The text discusses various aspects of care work, including the impact of contracts on unpaid care, the gendered effects of these contracts, the increase in unpaid care work, the rise of informal carers, the financial struggles of carers, the rise of young carers, the reliance on volunteers in the care sector, the dilution of the nuclear family, and the need for collective care that challenges structural inequalities.
    1. The Institute for Fiscal Studies has reported that a 30 per cent reduction to social care spending for people over the age of sixty-five, between 2009 and 2016, led to a significant rise in visits to A&E by the same cohort, signalling increased costs for hospital emergency departments.

      lack of routine social care increases the need for crisis services, so it doesn't really help much by cutting these services

    2. policies undermine social cohesion and exacerbate social divisions.The text discusses how negative stereotypes and stigmatization of welfare recipients have been perpetuated by government campaigns and media portrayals.

      media and social divisions- sociological approach

    3. The United Nations has criticized the British government's austerity measures, calling them punitive and mean-spirited.

      uses IOs to reinforce the situation.

    4. cuts in social services and benefits, affecting the most vulnerable populations.

      non proportional affecting of all areas of the population, marginalised people are marginalised by policies

    5. care

      lack of care in social services- key component, she critiques economic focus

    1. A survey carried out across EU countries in 2016 found that among respondents, 44 per cent of women and 30 per cent of men found it difficult to combine paid work with caring responsibilities.8

      uses personal stories, stats and ideology to explain which is quite convincing

    2. Global Financial Crisis and its aftermath, with austerity measures disproportionately affecting certain groups
    3. certain groups of people were excluded from the welfare state, such as women, people of color, migrants, LGBTQIA communities, and those with mental health or disability issues.
    4. The lens of social reproduction helps to identify the unpaid work that is necessary for the production of economic value in a capitalist economy.

      challenges capitalist way of thinking- challenges status quo through lens of social reproduction, Marxist, women's role in the home that contributes to production

    5. Care can be provided for free or bought and sold as a commodity, but it is best understood as a configuration of social relationships that are politically and economically conditioned
    6. Sue feels isolated and wishes she had more support in her life.

      uses real life examples that people like my mum can relate to

    7. consumer culture

      anti-capitalist

    8. interdependence of our lives

      communism??

    1. he welfare state has played a role in the provision of care, but certain groups have been excluded. Care work is deeply intertwined with power dynamics, and feminist movements have challenged traditional gender roles.
    1. ecorded 20 per cent increase in female labour-force participation in OECD countries over the last thirty years.31
    2. reports by the charity organisation Age UK and the Care Quality Commission, the public body that inspects and regulates health and social care in Britain, one in seven older people (1.4 million) were not receiving the care they needed in 2018.5 The Care Quality Commission also reported in 2019 that the number of children with mental health disorders accessing social services had increased by 50 per cent in four years.6

      evidence

    3. non-academic audience and aims to contribute to the political debate on the topic.

      accessible

    4. criticizes the neoliberal ideology that promotes individual responsibility and privatization of care, arguing that caring for others should be a collective and public responsibility.

      challenges neoliberalism- theoretical and practical text with applications. links political theory to the real world

    5. crisis of care is influenced by material conditions, ideological assumptions, and inequality
    6. lobal crisis of care, where a growing number of people are unable to access the care and support they need.
    7. Privatization of health and social care services has led to financial difficulties and debts for care home providers.

      capitalism

    8. Access to care is becoming more dependent on financial ability,

      impact of capitalism driving down value of care

    9. f elderly people not receiving necessary care is increasing, and there has been a significant rise in children with mental health disorders accessing social services.
    10. issues such as the lack of care facilities for an aging population, reduced mental health services, cuts to disability care budgets, and overworked doctors and nurses
  5. Sep 2023
  6. Apr 2023
    1. According to the pragma-dialectical theory of vanEemeren and Grootendorst, Blair noted, "sufficiency is a function of appropriatelymeeting the critics' challenges to premises and inferences" (p. 3 32) . Blair alsonoted that this means that an argument can rightly be said to be sufficient for itsconclusion in this sense when it meets its burden of proof3 relying on "what maybe presumed without or accepted without further question" (p. 333)
      • Argument Generative Statement Based on proof.
      • Critical Statement test Burden of Proof and Generative Efficiency.
      • Meeting and Satisfying Criticism is part of Generative Process.
      • Pragma-Dialectical Theory
    2. According to this type of analysis, each of the types of argumentation modelled will have a distinctive argumentation scheme (structure, form) that allows itto function as a way of making a point or shifting a burden of proof in a dialogue.
      • Argument and Proof
    3. Instead, we hope to show, theseargumentation schemes can best be revealed as normatively binding kinds ofreasoning when seen as moves, or speech acts in the setting of dialogue. In thispragmatic framework, two participants are reasoning together in a goal-directed,interactive, conventionalized framework called a dialogue. An argument is evaluated as good (correct, reasonable) to the extent that it contributes to the goal of thedialogue. An argument is evaluated as bad (incorrect, fallacious) to the extent thatit blocks the goals of the dialogue.
      • Normative Reasoning Frameworks
      • Goal Directed Sequential Speech Acts.
      • Positive Argument = Speech act for Goal / Negative Argument vice versa
      • Document ~ Speech act
  7. Mar 2023
    1. Here are the main arguments I’ve heard for SMS 2FA: SMS 2FA can prevent phishing. SMS 2FA can’t prevent phishing, but it can prevent “credential stuffing”. We have data proving that SMS 2FA is effective. I’ll cover some other weaker arguments I’ve heard too, but these are the important ones.
    2. Don’t let the perfect be the enemy of the good. Seat belts aren’t perfect either, do you argue we shouldn’t wear them? Etc, etc. This argument only works if what you’re defending is good. As I’ve already explained, SMS-2FA is not good.
    1. Unlike stacks and platforms, protocols tend to define and regulate flows of codified behaviors rather than stocks of technological artifacts.

      does this feed into improvisational ability? Because it's about flow more than artifact, it can more easily substitute or replace one artifact with another? This means the process is easier to replicate with other means when one becomes defunct or there is a better or more suited way?

    2. What is the relationship between protocols and agency? Do protocols assume or require a set of participating agents with autonomy or free-will?

      Initial thoughts — review later I mean, if I had to pull in some Bandura, it's bi-drectional determinism? Right? So it's influencing behaviour as an environmental factor that could also be done by thinking?

      If I think about Csikszentmihalyi in Good Business on culture as a game, perhaps rules are to games what protocols are to culture? If culture is a set of norms that keep you from anomie / entropy and make spaces for alienation, then the agency of the individual may be developed over time (control over consciousness) that may allow for greater expression over agency to follow or not follow protocols. In this sense, protocols would be the default, and intentionally not following protocols (probabilistically not by chance) might require agency? That is if we are following the definition that good protocols have the Schelling point or become default and are almost invisible untill they break.

      Bureaucracy may be an example of a deeply frustrating protocol?

    3. gloom and doom which often accompanies theoretical views and cultural commentary.

      Not sure which theoretical views and cultural commentary is predominantly gloom and doom. Would associate conservative statements (rather than extreme valence) with theory, perhaps this is relating to more popular media like internet bloggers and news sources / op-eds & opinions? twitter? Are these sources too ephemeral to take seriously?

      Unsure.

    4. built around default expectations of obviously worse outcomes dominating obviously better ones, and worst-case behaviors driving systemic outcomes.

      this feels immediately like it might hold some water, not sure if because it's similar to entropy or because of... Not sure whether to trust feelings of agreement This is an interesting statement to me. Perhaps it's because it seems to bridge between catastrophising (which is arguable pathological), and risk management (which acknowledges there is infinite down side and limited upside) Also wonder how trust factors into this and context?

      Concern here is: using emotion to get logical buy in, which is fair, but worth knowing that this is a feels like not an is

      Wonder if this might also relate to play and the 3Cs

  8. Feb 2023
    1. Structure Notes are not limited to hierarchical structures like the nested list from above. Structure notes can also have sequential structures. Imagine the following line of argumentation: a -> b -> c, therefore a -> c. A Structure Note could capture this sequence and link each step of the sequence to a Zettel which expands on it. An example, with annotations to point out each step: (a) The stimulation of surface cold receptors is (b) the main driver of cold adaptation.[[202005201056]] Cold showers stimulate the surface cold receptors sufficiently.[[202005201057]] Therefore, (c) cold showers are a viable method of practicing cold adaptation training.[[202005201058]] The links via [[ID]] refer to Zettels that are compilations of evidence for each statement. The structure of the arguments guides this Structure Note.

      So this is a way to abstract elements in Toulmin's approach to argument construction from the data which instantiates the specific point being argued.

  9. Jan 2023
    1. It is necessary that the student be alert to reason as the speakerreasons. It is very dangerous to jot down the results of reasoning if youhave not followed it in your own mind.

      Dramatically important in mathematics, but also in every other area.

    Tags

    Annotators

  10. Nov 2022
    1. What does 'passing an argument' mean in programming?You have a grinder that will grind anything that you pass on to her. You give her Rice. She grind it. You give her wheat. She grind it. You give her a Justin Bieber song CD. She grind it. She grinds every thing that you hand over to her. In programming, we create function that does the stuff we need. Say add, subtract, multiply or print the stuff that you pass on to it. Then we pass on stuff upon which the function will operate and return us the results. This process of passing the 'stuff' to be processed is referred to as passing an 'argument' in programming. Thank You.
    1. An argument is a way for you to provide more information to a function. The function can then use that information as it runs, like a variable. Said differently, when you create a function, you can pass in data in the form of an argument, also called a parameter.

      argument and parameter

  11. Oct 2022
    1. It will doubtless be objected that to encourage young persons at the Pert Ageto browbeat, correct, and argue with their elders will render them perfectlyintolerable. My answer is that children of that age are intolerable anyhow;and that their natural argumentativeness may just as well be canalised togood purpose as allowed to run away into the sands.

      HA!

  12. Aug 2022
    1. Eswird also nicht dafür argumentiert, dass man als Mensch philosophierensollte. Es wird nur dafür argumentiert, dass man in der Schule Philoso-phieren durch Kompetenzorientierung verhindert

      Analog dazu könnte ich sagen, dass ich nicht dafür argumentiere, dass Menschen sich mithilfe von PLN unter bestimmten Bedingungen bilden sollen und dadurch die Möglichkeit zu Mündigkeit eröffnen sollen, sondern nur, dass und wie Bildung und Mündigkeit in der Digitalität mithilfe von PLN möglich sind.

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    Annotators

  13. Jul 2022
  14. May 2022
    1. If you assume cops are basically good and just need help doing their job better, then body cameras make sense.

      This is a deductive argument, but I believe theres no error in the way it's used

    1. On the whole, the popularizing of "logical fallacies" has been a net negative for debate. instead of recognizing a strawman and saying "youre not accurately representing my position, heres clear evidence why", the conversation devolves into a juvenille meta-argument that adds no value.
  15. Apr 2022
    1. ReconfigBehSci [@SciBeh]. (2021, October 2). @alexdefig I literally only responded to one point in your overall argument/set of tweets. You somehow seem to assume that it is not possible to try to accumulate facts in order to come to a decision, [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/SciBeh/status/1444361490786492418

    1. ReconfigBehSci. (2022, January 4). @STWorg and what is even more surprising is that it is popping up in a discourse between extremely educated individuals who think and argue about complex issues for a living [Tweet]. @SciBeh. https://twitter.com/SciBeh/status/1478346691073949702

    1. ReconfigBehSci. (2022, January 4). 2/2 it seems to be being advanced as part of an argument against measures to reign in rampant infection rates (as a kind of undercutting defeater). Arguments where its hard to tell whether they are meant as arguments for or against a position seem cases of “poor argument” [Tweet]. @SciBeh. https://twitter.com/SciBeh/status/1478340071027888132

  16. Feb 2022
    1. wisdom transcends all kinds of learning, secular, objective and esoteric; it is subtler than all these and is rooted in the awareness of the atma that is central in all creation

      How wisdom is superior than knowledge

      ...in order to not involve in the trouble that is happening in front of the eyes, whether he is a wise person

    1. A hallmark of a successful disinformation campaign is adaptation — when proponents of the campaign adjust their tactics to get around efforts that journalists, government officials or tech companies have taken to stem its spread. On Oct. 16, campaign operators began adapting to Twitter’s curbs.
    2. The more people hear something, the more likely they are to believe it, whether it’s true or not. And false news can spread further and faster than the truth, especially on social media. Mr. Trump seems to understand this.
    3. Despite the hashtag’s popularity on the right, it received little notice in the mainstream media. This is known as “hidden virality,” meaning something extremely popular in one part of the internet is going unnoticed by the mainstream news media.
    4. For more than a year, right-wing media and partisans have pushed “Biden crime family” as a viral slogan. Media manipulation campaigns are usually conjured in small, hidden spaces by a few operators with an agenda. But in this case, it was influential media and political personalities who got the ball rolling.
    5. In any manipulation campaign, the second stage involves campaign operators strategically spreading the hashtag across the media ecosystem.
    6. Constant repetition makes the charge sound true, and blunts accusations of unethical behavior against Mr. Trump’s own children.
    7. The hashtag took a complicated issue with legitimate questions about Hunter Biden’s business dealings with Ukraine and China — and reduced it to a slogan that could also be used to spread falsehoods about Joe Biden.
  17. Jan 2022
    1. Des initiatives pour protéger ces espaces :

      Arg3: Malgré les risques environnementaux qui pèsent sur les EM, il existe des initiatives pour protéger ces espaces

      • Réduction des émissions de CO2 GAS + niveau CO2 atm + température ++ océans = phytoplanctons moins utiles à l'homme Absorber 30% du CO2 généré par l'homme Produire 50% oxygène = indispensables pour la vie humaine sur terre.
    2. des espaces menacés par les effets du changement climatique

      Arg2: Le réchauffement climatique est une menace pour les EM

      • La pollution plastique Consommation = 8M tonnes déchets / an => Formation d'une "soupe de plastique" / "continent de plastique" Risque pour biodiversité marine, espèces ingèrent le plastique

      • Les marées noires constituent un risque pour les EM 2010: Explosion de la plateforme "Deepwater" = marée noire sur les côtes de la Louisiane = EU conflits d'usage entre compagnies pétrolière, pêcheurs et employés du tourisme .

    3. des ressources surexploitées :

      Arg1: Il est nécessaire de protéger les EM car des ressources sont surexploitées

      • L'enjeu de la surpêche selon ONU: 1975 - 2021: 10% => 30% des ressources halieutiques surexploitées 90% des espèces maritimes peches ne se renouvellent pas assez vite naturellement Mer Noire, Méditerranée = Peche industrielle, technique du chalutage

      • La pêche illégale et la pêche d'espèces protégées Espèces en voie d'extinction: grand requin: ailerons, chair, thon rouge Surexploitation des ressources maritimes, selon FAO 26M tonnes = 15 % prises totales.

    4. La lutte contre les trafics illégaux

      Arg3: Les Etats tentent également de lutter contre les trafics illégaux

      • Lutte contre la pêche illicite Selon FAO = 15 et 20 % des prises => 23 Milliards $ /an Moins de préservation du stock renouvelable = surpêche Concurrence déloyale = pecheurs + respect quotas

      • Lutte contre le trafic de cocaïne 2017 - 2019: Cocaïne saisie à bord d'embarcations commerciales x3 = 73 tonnes Moyens ? Sous marins artisanaux, Ou ? Antilles = plaque tournante Quelles saisies ? 3 tonnes sous marins par police espagnole en 2019

      • Lutte contre le trafic des déchets Cout traitement + législation contraignante = Etats exportent leurs déchets / filières illégales ==> Pays d'Asie et d'Afrique: ++ déchets électroniques Malaisie => FR: 43 conteneurs de plastique illégaux

    5. La lutte contre la piraterie maritime

      Arg2: les EM sont confrontés à de la piraterie maritime à laquelle les Etats tentent de faire face

      • Opération de lutte contre la piraterie 2008: Eunavfor = Opération ATALANTE / Golfe d'Aden : Somalie. Soutient bases militaires = Djibouti => Dissuasion => Répression
    6. Les espaces maritimes, des espaces de plus en plus militarisés

      Arg1: La militarisation des EM

      • l'hégémonie américaine EU: 10 portes avions + bases militaires + 7flottes = forte capacité de projection

      • le rattrapage chinois et russe CHINE: 2 portes avions -Liaoning et Shandong depuis Décembre 2019) = Sécurisation Nouvelles routes de la Soie + enjeux M de Chine méridionale et orientale RUSSIE: Forces navales car coopération militaire (Syrie) et ambitions (Arctique). Nouveau SNLE en Mer Blanche (Mai 2018)

      • les puissances émergentes Iran, Inde, Turquie, Brésil (commande de 4 SNA à Naval Group - Décembre 2020)

    7. Des espaces qui suscitent des litiges et des contentieux

      Arg3: Les EM sont au coeur de tensions géopolitiques entre les Etats qui se disputent l'accès aux ressources halieutiques, hauturières et aux routes maritimes

      • Mer de Chine méridionale Chine // Philippines, Vietnam, Brunei, Indonésie, Malaison "langue de boeuf" => Archipel des Spratleys + Îles Paracels Zone de trafic CMM Territorialisation , militarisation des EM Mars 2020: percussion bateau de pêche vietnamien

      • Mer de Chine Orientale Chine // Japon Îles Senkaku et Diaoyu COVID19: Liaoning traverse ZEE jap

      • Mer méditerranée Turquie // Grèce // Chypre // Israël // Liban EM triangulaire de 850km² = réserves de gaz ?

    8. Une délimitation héritée de la Convention de Montego Bay

      Arg1: La délimitation des ZEE est héritée de la Convention de Montego Bay

      • En 1982 est adoptée la CNUDM, réègles internationale utilisation, exploitation, circulation des espaces maritimes

      • Eaux territoriales: droits souverains de l'Etat jusqu'à 22km

      • La ZEE: droits souverains de l'Etat à des fins d'exploration, d'exploitation, de conservation et de gestion des ressources naturelles jusqu'à 200 miles / 370 km.==> 350 km si extension avec le plateau continental selon Convention de Genève (1958)

      • Haute mer: 64% surface des MO, "bien commun de l'humanité" - Résolution 2749 de l'ONU, Arvid Pardo (1970) Exploitation= licences Autorité Internationale des Fonds Marins (AIFM) // liberté de circulation, survol, recherche sc, pose pipe line, cables, ... ==> Mare liberum car "terra nullius"

      • liberté de circulation, "mare liberum" De la liberté des mers, Grotius, XVIIe Un Etat ne peut pas restreindre la circulation d'un navire étrangers hors de ses eaux territoriales. Idem Etats proches d'un passage stratégique

    9. Des frontières maritimes non figées

      Arg 2: Les frontières maritimes ne sont pas figées

      • ZEE = modèle théorique difficilement applicable contentieux entre pays cotiers: Cour Internationale de Justice (1945), Cour permanente d'arbitrage (1899) EX: Fixation ZEE, Ghana - Côte d'Ivoire (2013)

      • ZEE : demande prolongation Demande extension du plateau continental

    10. Des espaces inégalement intégrés

      Arg1: Certaines façades maritimes sont inégalement intégrées au processus de mondialisation

      • Concentration sur certains littoraux = pôles de M° Amérique du Nord, Europe, Asie de l'Est (16/20 ports) 11e: Rotterdam 17e: Los Angeles

      • Des Etats tentent de s'intégrer dans les échanges mondiaux Inde, Vietnam, Maroc = 3e terminal construit au port de Tanger.

      • certains espaces demeurent marginalisés isolation des principales routes maritimes (Amérique du Sud, Afrique) territoires enclavés = dépendance échange: PMA (République centre africaine), Afghanistan

    11. e tourisme de croisière

      Arg6: le tourisme de croisière reste un enjeu économique majeur

      • Un secteur en essor 2019 - 30M de personnes croisière Caraïbes, Mer Méditerranée, Asie Pacifique

      • Qui est marqué par une forte concurrence et de lours freins Multinationales: Carnival, Royal Caribbean, MSC Emissions CO2, risques accidents + COVID19: mauvaise réputation

    12. Les ressources génétiques marines

      Arg5: Les fonds marins regorgent de ressources génétiques marines

      • Le génome des espères sous marines constitue un enjeu commercial et scientifique algues: produits cosmétiques enzymes des éponges: lutte cancer (pharmacie, santé)
    13. Les ressources minérales

      Arg4: Les ressources minérales sont également très convoitées

      • les utilisations technologiques minerais: Cobalt, cuivre, nickel, or, diamant terres rares: cérium, scandium Nodules polymétalliques = hautes technologies (tel, odrinateurs)

      • jeu géopolitique dps 2010's fouilles Etat // monopole chinois Chine = 90% terres rares M

    14. Les ressources énergétiques

      Arg3: les ressources énergétiques sont également exploitées dans les Mers et les Océans

      • les hydrocarbures 30% hydrocarbures proviennent de gisements offshore Mer du Nord, Mer Caspienne, Golfe de Guinée, Golfe Arabo-persique, Mer de Chine méridionale

      espaces inexploités: conditions extrêmes (Arctique), fonds marins profonds = ++ pression (Brésil qui se lance dans l'exploitation d'hydrocarbures au dela du plateau continental)

      • les énergies renouvelables off shore Usines marémotrices: UM de la Rance (Côtes d'Armor, FR) Parcs éoliens off shore: projets aux îles de Lérons, Europe = 1er prod mondial électricité = 5000 éoliennes off shore (Mer du Nord ++)

      • les avancées scientifiques possibles Bathymétrie est mal connue = couts ++ 90% des espèces marines resteraient à découvrir

    15. Les ressources halieutiques Ŕ doc 1 p. 62 sur l’exploitation des ressources halieutiques

      Arg2: les ressources halieutiques constituent un enjeu économique majeur

      • La pêche et l'aquaculture subviennent aux besoins énergétiques et protéiniques de la population 1950 - auj = production halieutique*8 1950 - 2016 = 19M tonnes - 170M tonnes (dont 150M pour conso° humaine directe) 1980 - 2016 = 4,5M - 80M de tonnes prod° aquaculture

      • les ressources halieutiques sont exportées 27% prod° halieutique = int 143 Milliards $ = CA

      • des intérêts économiques vitaux pour les Etats 60M travailleurs = secteur de la pêche situations précaire = 95% des pêcheurs vivent en Afrique ou en Asie

    16. Selon l’OCDE, les mers et les océans rapportent chaque année près de 1500 milliards de dollars

      Les bénéfices économiques de l'économie bleue

      Economie bleue - Bertrand Blancheton, Introduction aux politiques économiques (2020)

      Mers et océans rapportent 1500 Milliards $/an 3000 Milliards en 2030 "Qui tient la mer tiens le commerce du monde, qui tient le commerce tient la richesse, qui tient la richesse tient le monde lui-même", Walter Raleigh => Halford Mackinder

    17. Argument 4 : Les espaces maritimes et les points de passage stratégiques : des zones sensibles menacées

      Arg 4: Les choke points et les EM sont menacés Pirtarie maritime 2018: 201 attaques // navires marchands 4000 attaques depuis 20 ans selon l'IRIS 330M $ de rançons en 7 ans = financement activités criminelles Golfe de Guinée Golfe d'Aden Asie du Sud (Bangladesh) Asie du Sud Est (Détroit de Malacca) Amérique du Sud (Bolivie et Venezuela) = 2 régions les + touchés => next to routes maritimes

    18. Argument 3 : Les routes maritimes, les points de passage stratégiques et les goulets d’étranglement : des espaces maritimes vitaux pour le commerce maritime

      Arg3: les enjeux vitaux des chokes points pour l'économie mondialisée et le CM Connecter espaces de prod°/conso° Espaces maritimes très réduits concentrent trafic maritime:

      • Canaux; Suez, Panama
      • Détroit, Ormuz, Gibraltar, Bab el Manbed, Bering, Malacca
      • Caps: Bonne espérance, Horn

      Détroit de Malacca selon Institut Supérieur d'économie marine (2017) 14M barils / jours Port Klang (Malaisie) = 12e port à conteneurs mondial "Dilemme de Malacca" selon Hu Jintao 20 - 25% du trafic mondial / an

      Dépendance = ouverture permanente des passages stratégiques Mauvaise situations: insécurité, piraterie, conflits, tensions géopolitiques sinon = perturber approvisionnement marchandises + matières premières = - économie mondiale EX: 1967 -> 1974 = pas Canal de Suez (G6jours) alternative = Cap de Bonne Espérance (+ temps, +argent)

    19. Argument 2 : La maritimisation renforce la littoralisation et le rôle des façades maritimes

      Arg2: Maritimisation = littoralissation + importance facades maritimes littoralisation: 60% pop in moins 60km côtes (3,6 Milliards hab) 14/16 aires urbaines

      **Secteurs économiques 1st = pêche 2nd = ZIP (Port de Pirée, Port de Marsaxlokk à Malte), accesibilité, entreprises de raffinages et sidérurgiques = matières premières Services = tourisme, aménités, héliotropisme, haliotropisme => stations balnéaires

      Rôle des ports: HUB dans le processus de M°

      • grande capacité portes conteneurs (1st = Shanghai Yangshan, St Expuéry par CMA CGM) MAIS nécessitent port adaptés (ports en eaux profondes de Kribi, espaces de stockage, portd de transbordement, plateformes intermodales: Port de Rotterdam)

      Rôle façades maritimes = lieu de concentration CMM Northern Range: Have - Hambourg Cote Est des EU: Nord de Boston - Miami Cote ouest des EU: Puget Sound - Californie Asie de l'Est et Japon: Tokyo - Singapour

    20. Argument 1 : L’accroissement du commerce maritime et l’accélération du processus de mondialisation renforcent le rôle central des espaces maritimes

      Arg1: CM + M = rôle des espaces maritimes ++

      90% marchandises et matières première

      • temps, - couts, + fiable
      • Grandes capacités portes conteneurs (CMA CGM Megamax // Ecounter Bay)

      Espaces maritimes inclus dans fluw et réseaux télécommunications = cables sous marins (1,2M km, 99% trafic intercontinental, 10T $/jour) trafics illicites: piraterie, narcotrafiquants

    1. Espérons que le 1er janvier prochain, les entreprises appliquent le « droit à la déconnexion » !

      Espoir de l'auteur de poser un cadre concret et juridique et ainsi protéger le salarié face aux dérives du télétravail. Cette phrase conclut l'article de l'auteur et met en avant ce qu'il pense être à date la meilleure façon de réagir.

    2. Ainsi, en situation de télétravail, le salarié découvre que sa zone d’autonomie ressemble à une peau de chagrin. Joignable à tout moment avec son téléphone portable, il ne profite guère de l’éloignement de son supérieur hiérarchique et reste toujours disponible (messagerie).

      Pour terminer son article, l'auteur fait un constat assez pessimiste de la situation des salariés en télétravail

    3. Ainsi, les télétravailleurs devront s’adapter à cette absence de frontière en créant leurs propres limites entre travail, famille, loisirs. Les directions des ressources humaines devront les y aider en organisant le travail et en fixant des objectifs réalistes.

      L'auteur avance brièvement qu'il va falloir s'adapter à ce nouveau mode de travail

    4. Le télétravailleur apparaît donc comme une victime du harcèlement constant des technologies.

      L'auteur avance brièvement qu'il va falloir s'adapter à ce nouveau mode de travail

    5. L’absence de frontière « physique » risque de provoquer une interpénétration des valeurs d’une zone à l’autre. Le cumul de deux identités en même temps et en un même lieu peut être destructeur et déstabilisant. Le sas entre le domicile et le travail, représenté par le temps de transport, peut également venir à manquer à certains télétravailleurs.

      L'auteur met en avant la perte de repères, notamment lié au fait qu'il n'y a plus de frontière physique lorsqu'on est en télétravail et qu'un flou entre vie perso et vie pro peut se créer

    6. Les TIC (technologies de l’information et de la communication) permettent de gérer des tâches dans l’urgence et d’améliorer l’exécution de certaines missions. Mais, cela favorise l’immiscion dans la vie personnelle des salariés.

      A nouveau, l'auteur fait le constat que les nouvelles technologies rendent le salarié disponible tout le temps et connecté en permanence

    7. De plus en plus de salariés tentent d’éviter la submersion en traitant les mails professionnels hors temps de travail.

      L'auteur met en avant la notion d'engrenage. Pus on traite des mails en dehors du temps de travail, pour éviter d'être submergé, plus cela devient normal pour l'employeur et plus le salarié devient la victime d'un système qu'il a lui-même mis en place

    8. Le télétravail « gris » correspond à un « débordement » des activités professionnelles induit par les diverses sollicitations (mails, smartphone, forums…). (Y. Lasfargue Obergo)

      L'auteur fait le constat que les nouvelles technologies rendent le salarié disponible tout le temps et connecté en permanence

    9. L’absence de régulation entre les sphères privées et professionnelles présente des risques pour l’efficacité de l’équipe de travail. L’organisation doit donc anticiper la perméabilité de la frontière travail/famille.

      On note la notion d'anticipation qui est importante dans toute conduite de changement et nouvelle situation à vivre

    10. La vidéo permet également un contrôle à distance par le manager. Les formes de contrôles sont donc diverses et probablement intrusives.

      On note ici une alerte hypothétique de l'auteur sur les formes de contrôle

    11. La qualité de vie familiale est présentée comme meilleure (étude Obergo, Lasfargue et Fauconnier 2010).

      L'auteur met en avant un point positif du télétravail selon une étude

    12. Le nombre de télétravailleurs est en augmentation puisque 16,7 % des salariés français déclarent télétravailler au moins huit heures par mois en 2014, contre 12,4 % en 2012 (source : LBMG Worklabs, Le télétravail en France, 2012).

      On énonce un fait, celui de l'augmentation du télétravail avec des données chiffrées

    13. Le télétravail a été introduit dans le Code du travail à l’article 1222-9 par la loi du 23 mars 2012 (l’article 46 de la loi dite Warsmann définit le télétravail). Cette loi prévoit des mesures de protection des données et de préservation de la vie privée. L’Accord National Interprofessionnel du 19 juillet 2005 dans son article premier donne du télétravail la définition suivante :

      ici on pose le cadre juridique

    14. La loi n° 2016-1088 du 8 août 2016 relative au travail, à la modernisation du dialogue social et à la sécurisation des parcours professionnels (JO du 9 août 2016), instaure à compter du 1er janvier 2017 (art. 55) un droit à la déconnexion pour tous les salariés ainsi qu’une concertation relative au télétravail (art. 57).

      ici on pose le cadre juridique

    1. It was largely the speakers of Iroquoian languages such as theWendat, or the five Haudenosaunee nations to their south, whoappear to have placed such weight on reasoned debate – evenfinding it a form of pleasurable entertainment in own right. This factalone had major historical repercussions. Because it appears tohave been exactly this form of debate – rational, sceptical, empirical,conversational in tone – which before long came to be identified withthe European Enlightenment as well. And, just like the Jesuits,Enlightenment thinkers and democratic revolutionaries saw it asintrinsically connected with the rejection of arbitrary authority,particularly that which had long been assumed by the clergy.

      The forms of rational, skeptical, empirical and conversational forms of debate popularized by the Enlightenment which saw the rejection of arbitrary authority were influenced by the Haudenosaunee nations of Americans.


      Interesting to see the reflexive political fallout of this reoccurring with the political right in America beginning in the early 2000s through the 2020s. It's almost as if the Republican party and religious right never experienced the Enlightenment and are still living in the 1700s.


      Curious that in modern culture I think of the Jesuits as the embodiment of rationalist, skeptical argumentation and thought now. Apparently they were dramatically transformed since that time.

    1. on feilds or to exercise

      Chloe Nelson Argument Structure: Unlike using a Rogerian Argument, the writer never looks at any other viewpoint. A concession or refutation would have furthered the argument, especially in this highlighted section where an argument from an opposing viewpoint may say that it is appropriate for high school students to exercise in sports bras while exercising.

    2. My point is school is ment to be a safe learning ground, so let's keep it that way.”

      Chloe Nelson: Argument Structure: This is the claim for the Toulmin model, although not explicitly stated, the writer concludes that high schools, girls specifically, would be less safe with girls being allowed to be in sports bras.

    3. horny hormone infused teenage boys,

      Chloe Nelson: Argument Structure: For the Toulmin model, there is never any evidence used to support the assumptions, causing the argument to lack authority.

    4. because of dresscode,

      Chloe Nelson: Argument Structure: This is the warrant/assumption for the Toulmin model, the writer is assuming that high schools have dress codes that prevent high-schoolers from not wearing shirts, and the reader most likely shares the same view.

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    Annotators

    1. Democrats in Washington State are now pushing a bill,

      Aristotelian structure: narration (background)

    2. The vaccine holocaust has arrived,

      Assumptions (Toulmin Model): This claim is based under the assumption that the COVID-19 vaccines are dangerous.

    3. And yes, Leftists and Democrats are gearing up to become actual fascist Nazis, running death camps and mass extermination ovens right here in America. This is how they plan to stay in power, just like Adolf Hitler once did — by exterminating dissenters and ruling through terror.

      Conclusion

    4. They are taking the vaccine wars KINETIC: Covid concentration camps ACTIVATED in America, unvaxxed will be kidnapped at gunpoint by left-wing “health officers” with arrest power

      S: Mike Adams from NatrualNews P: To warn the public about supposed "Covid concentration camps" A: NaturalNews readers, typically right-wing anti-vaxxers C:January 10, 2022, COVID-19 pandemic E: Washington's WAC 246-100 bill

    5. these covid concentration camps are going to be ramped up into extermination / death camps

      Argument by assertion fallacy and claim of fact: Repeating the claim again and again, does not make it true.

    6. Democrats have built death camps in America

      Argument by assertion fallacy and claim of fact: Restating this claim once again.

    7. covid concentration camps are actually politically-motivated death camps

      Argument by assertion fallacy and claim of fact: The article has repeated this claim multiple times.

    1. Indeed, Spielberg’s film radically, woefully transforms the one scene in the original that conveys a sense of Maria and Tony’s family histories,

      He acknowledges that Spielberg used one scene, but then goes on to explain how the scene was not recreated very well.

    1. Staff Writer

      Argument Structure: Classical Orientation

      The author uses classical orientation in his article to prove to his audience how his views are correct, and anyone who thinks differently is wrong. The argument is week because it is missing a statement of background, a refutation and a proposition. Without these key elements in Pecoraro's essay, the readers are less likely to be persuaded to join in agreement with him. Without those crucial steps, the readers doubt that Pecoraro knows a lot about the topic at hand. The reader also feels like the author is biased when there is no refutation. The author doesn't even acknowledge there is issues with his opinion. This article is also missing a lot of evidence. The author in each body paragraph practically just states a claim, and then gives his reasoning. Typically not with evidence which also loses his audience's trust. The author lacks pathos, making his audience not persuaded by his essay.

      Type of Claim:Implicit

      The author never directly says his issue with tablets, he just says in several different ways why textbooks are better.

  18. Dec 2021
    1. such experiments can represent as many “projects of becom-ing”

      The authors posit that policy experimentation in shrinking cities can lead to emergent forms of economic restructuring that serves as a counter narrative to neoliberalism.

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    1. Health Nerd. (2021, December 13). Accusing everyone you disagree with of being a shill for pharmaceutical companies is a very simple way to tell anyone with even the slightest insight that you have absolutely no idea what you’re talking about and no desire to do simple things to educate yourself [Tweet]. @GidMK. https://twitter.com/GidMK/status/1470287869168152576

  19. Nov 2021
    1. The negative indirect effects of additional land-use change may outweigh the positive direct effects on global climate and biodiversity, so that a large-scale switch to organic farming in the EU could possibly turn out to be a disservice to global sustainability.

      Argument

    1. ignores

      Critiques community economic development's focus on local empowerment. Advances the argument that a local focus divorced from the broader political economy cannot tackle the larger governance and economic forces that create inequality, especially due to concentrated poverty in some jurisdictions that leaves local governments under-resourced due to a meager tax base.

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    1. Calling a software convention "pretty 90s" somewhat undermines your position. Quite a lot of well-designed software components are older than that. If something is problematic, it would be more useful to argue its faults. When someone cites age to justify change, I usually find that they're inexperienced and don't fully understand the issues or how their proposed change would impact other people.
  20. Oct 2021
    1. rms of Global Systems, but we do need an earth- wide network of connections, including the ability partially to translate knowledges among very different-and power-differenti- ated - communities. We need the power of modern critical theories of how meanings and bodies get made, not in order to deny meanings and bodies, but in order to build meanings and bodies that have a chance for life.

      Here's Haraway is argueing for the need for a critical analysis of how meaning is ascribed.

  21. Sep 2021
    1. is, each landowner (or person who otherwise has some interest in the prospective use of a given piece of land) has in mind a certain future for that parcel which is linked somehow with his or her own well-bein

      Land and rational self-interst regarding its use.

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  22. Aug 2021
    1. The goal of this text is topresent a version of the history of psychologythat resists the traditional storylines of greatachievements by eminent people or schools ofthought that rise and fall in the wake of scientificprogress and that instead attempts to reveal thecomplex trajectory of psychology as a sociallyembedded set of theories and practices thatboth reify and reflect the contexts from whichthey arise and to which they return.

      This seems to be the key idea of the authors writing. Identifying that their approach to the history of Psychology will differ from the usual "traditional storylines" and to bring in a more complex, messy(?) and overlapping narratives that reflects the contexts that these psychological knowledge emerge from.

    1. You need to explicitly delegate keyword arguments. def foo(*args, **kwargs, &block) target(*args, **kwargs, &block) end
    2. you can use the new delegation syntax (...) that is introduced in Ruby 2.7. def foo(...) target(...) end
    3. In Ruby 2, you can write a delegation method by accepting a *rest argument and a &block argument, and passing the two to the target method. In this behavior, the keyword arguments are also implicitly handled by the automatic conversion between positional and keyword arguments.
  23. Jul 2021
    1. But having an experienced team that knows the codebase well as an argument for using them is weird and not strong.
  24. May 2021
    1. The most common way to stage an argument in the thesis goes something like this: Here is a puzzle/problem/question worth asking. If we know more about this puzzle/problem/question then something significant (policy, practice, more research) can happen.Here is what we already know about the puzzle/problem/question. I’ve used this existing knowledge (literatures) to help: my thinking and approach; my research design; make sense of my results; and establish where my scholarly contribution will be. Here is how I designed and did the research in order to come up with an “answer”.Here’s the one/two/three clusters of results.Missing stepNow here’s my (summarised) “answer” to the puzzle/problem/question I posed at the start. On the back of this answer, here’s what I claim as my contribution(s) to the field. Yes I didn’t do everything, but I did do something important. Because we now know my answer, and we didn’t before I did the research, then here are some possible actions that might arise in policy/practice/research/scholarship.
  25. Apr 2021
  26. Mar 2021
  27. Feb 2021