177 Matching Annotations
  1. Nov 2023
    1. Your comment inspires me to pay more attention to citing and clarifying my claims.

      replying to Will at https://forum.zettelkasten.de/discussion/comment/18885/#Comment_18885

      I've generally found that this is much easier to do when it's an area you tend to specialize in and want to delve ever deeper (or on which you have larger areas within your zettelkasten) versus those subjects which you care less about or don't tend to have as much patience for.

      Perhaps it's related to the System 1/System 2 thinking of Kahneman/Tversky? There are only some things that seem worth System 2 thinking/clarifying/citing and for all the rest one relies on System 1 heuristics. I find that the general ease of use of my zettelkasten (with lots of practice) allows me to do a lot more System 2 thinking than I had previously done, even for areas which I don't care as much about.

      syndication link: https://forum.zettelkasten.de/discussion/comment/18888/#Comment_18888

  2. Oct 2023
    1. analogical reasoning
      • for: definition, definition - analogical reasoning

      • definition: analogical reasoning

        • comparing archeological and paleontological evidence of past life forms with behavior, anatomy and morphology of existing living species to shed light on past life
  3. Jul 2023
    1. Federal control of the intrastate private possession and breeding of prohibited wildlife species is essential to the effective control of the interstate incidents of traffic in prohibited wildlife species.

      Argument: Federal control of intrastate possession of prohibited wildlife species (i.e., big cats) cannot be effective without control of interstate incidents of traffic of these species

    2. Private possession and breeding of prohibited wildlife species have a substantial and direct effect on interstate commerce because prohibited wildlife species are frequently bred and possessed to be used in public exhibition or for sale or transfer of ownership in the exotic pet trade, and are often transported in interstate commerce for these purposes.

      How private possession and breeding impacts interstate commerce and the public

    3. The private possession, breeding, and sale of prohibited wildlife species has a substantial and detrimental effect on the health and general welfare of the people of the United States and on the conservation of the species themselves.

      This reasoning can be extrapolated to extend to a Small Cat Public Safety Act

    1. The distinction between a priori and a posteriori knowledge thus broadly corresponds to the distinction between empirical and nonempirical knowledge.
    2. The terms “a priori” and “a posteriori” are used primarily to denote the foundations upon which a proposition is known. A given proposition is knowable a priori if it can be known independent of any experience other than the experience of learning the language in which the proposition is expressed, whereas a proposition that is knowable a posteriori is known on the basis of experience.
  4. May 2023
    1. framework for making claims with evidence. The simplest of which, which is what I use, is Claim-Evidence-Reasoning (CER). Students are taught to state their claim (The theme of the story is X), support it with evidence (Readers can infer this through the story's plot, particularly...), and explain their reasoning (Because the character's action result in X, ...) Another great framework is The Writing Revolution/The Hochman Method's "single paragraph outline". Students need to be taught that these are the units of thought -- the most basic forms of an argument. And, even before this, they need to know that a sentence is the form of an idea.
  5. Apr 2023
    1. Clearly this type of reasoning has an argumentation scheme. One premisedefines or describes a goal. The other premise describes a means of achieving thegoal. The conclusion directs the agent towards action to carry out the means.6But this type of reasoning is so common and distinctive, having manyvariants and subspecies of argumentation, that it is misleading to call it anargumentation scheme. Better to call it a type of reasoning that can be used inargumentation in different types of dialogue (as in Walton, What Reas., 1990).
      • Agential Network
      • Case and Inferential Qualifications
      • Conclusions and Goal Relations
      • Normative Framework
    2. A person who puts forward an argumentation anticipates criticism, and bychoosing a particular type of argumentation, using the one argumentationscheme rather than the other, he implies that he thinks he knows which routewill lead to the justification of his standpoint. At any rate, whether he reallythinks this or not, if he is to be taken seriously by the other party, he may beheld to be committed to deal with the critical questions which pertain to ajustification via the argumentation scheme that is inherent in his argumentation.In relying on a certain argumentation scheme, the arguer invokes a particular testing method in a dialectical procedure, in which certain criticalreactions are relevant, and others not. Each argumentation scheme calls, as itwere, for its own set of critical reactions. In conjunction with each other,these reactions constitute a well-rounded test for checking the soundness of anargumentation of the type concerned. (p. 98)This way of describing argumentation schemes suggests that they are normativelybinding, in the following sense. If the hearer accepts the premises of the speaker'sargument, and the argument is an instance of a genuine and appropriate argumentation scheme (for the type of dialogue they are engaged in), then the hearer mustor should (in some binding way) accept the conclusion. This does not appear to be"validity" in the same sense in which the word is familiarly used in deductive (orperhaps even inductive) logic. But it does appear to express a normative or broadlylogical sense of validity, bindingness, conditional acceptability, or whatever youwant to call it
      • Initial Speaker has goal in mind thus presents reasoning that invites particular types of attention
      • This includes Supportive and Critical attention
      • The reasoning is normative in that it conformism to the shared communicative standards. Not definitive logical ones.
    3. Instead, we hope to show, theseargumentation schemes can best be revealed as normatively binding kinds ofreasoning when seen as moves, or speech acts in the setting of dialogue. In thispragmatic framework, two participants are reasoning together in a goal-directed,interactive, conventionalized framework called a dialogue. An argument is evaluated as good (correct, reasonable) to the extent that it contributes to the goal of thedialogue. An argument is evaluated as bad (incorrect, fallacious) to the extent thatit blocks the goals of the dialogue.
      • Normative Reasoning Frameworks
      • Goal Directed Sequential Speech Acts.
      • Positive Argument = Speech act for Goal / Negative Argument vice versa
      • Document ~ Speech act
  6. Jan 2023
    1. It is necessary that the student be alert to reason as the speakerreasons. It is very dangerous to jot down the results of reasoning if youhave not followed it in your own mind.

      Dramatically important in mathematics, but also in every other area.



    1. **Use Page Notes to add annotation guidance.

      INSTRUCTIONS - Make 5 new annotations using the prompts below and respond to 3 others. Use text, hashtags, emojis, and G-rated language. Be respectful always.

      PROMPTS - Annotate the text for each of the following: 1. Main claim, and why you think so. 2. Evidence that supports the claim and what additional information would make the evidence stronger. 3. Reasoning that connects the evidence to the claim (or if it's missing). 4. Something new or surprising you learned from this paper. 5. What could be the researchers' next experiment?

  7. Dec 2022
    1. I have deep doubts about the intellectual and social value of schooling.

      I don't believe any deductive reasoning was used.

    2. Even here, though, schools’ performance is mediocre and unlikely to meaningfully improve. Schools have been trying to overcome reading, writing and math deficits among underperforming students for decades.

      I think the argument would improve greatly if statistics were included here. Statistics to prove school performance is mediocre would improve the argument greatly since that is a premise of the argument.

    3. I have deep doubts about the intellectual and social value of schooling.

      I don't believe the author uses analogical reasoning in this argument and cannot think of a particular way this certain argument would benefit from it.

    4. My work focuses on tests of adult knowledge — what adults retain after graduation. The general pattern is that grown-ups have shockingly little academic knowledge. College graduates know about what you’d expect high school graduates to know; high school graduates know about what you’d expect dropouts to know; dropouts know next to nothing

      Week 11- In this paragraph the author mentions that their work consists of collecting data and makes a claim based off that data but does not provide the readers with it. I believe that the argument would be much stronger if supporting data was shown.

  8. Sep 2022
    1. “Madness, say you? Are you sure? Were not these sights, and these sounds, really seen and heard?” My uncle was surprized at my question. He looked at me with apparent inquietude. “Can you doubt,” said he, “that these were illusions? Does heaven, think you, interfere for such ends?” “O no; I think it not. Heaven cannot stimulate to such unheard-of outrage. The agent was not good, but evil.” “Nay, my dear girl,” said my friend, “lay aside these fancies. Neither angel nor devil had any part in this affair.” “You misunderstand me,” I answered; “I believe the agency to be external and real, but not supernatural.” “Indeed!” said he, in an accent of surprize. “Whom do you then suppose to be the agent?”

      This is a great contrast to Wieland's confession. Neither of them think the cause was of supernatural origin, - no cosmologycal drama was involved - but either Wieland became insane or there was a setup by a 3rd party, presumably Carwin.

  9. Aug 2022
  10. Jul 2022
    1. Though man began to lose its central place as subject of philosophy immediately after Socratic period with the glorification of reason by Plato and Aristotle, but Renaissance and Enlightenment intensified its severity and put last nail in the coffin

      when human lost self in world history of philosophy

      • what is the influence of plato and Aristotle's reasoning in the decline of self thinking ?
      • what is the influence of Renaissance in decline of self?
  11. Jun 2022
    1. Since one cannot prove that it is inaccurate, you cannot discount its possibility.

      False. Per Hitchens's Razor, "what can be asserted without evidence can also be dismissed without evidence."

      Put simply, the responsibility for proving a claim rests with those making the claim. One may safely discount the possibility of anything that cannot be proven.

      See also "Russel's Teapot".

  12. May 2022
    1. Reformers, or people who defend current police systems, tend to talk as if most police work is beneficial. Officers in this view are friendly, as in the police fictionalized in the comedy “Brooklyn Nine-Nine,” or are at least engaged in vital work, as portrayed dramatically in “Law & Order.” But Kaba doesn’t get her view of policing from television. She gets it from talking to Black people and people of color — especially youth, queer people and sex workers — who deal with the police every day.

      Although this isn't used as an analogy, it points out the analogy people have with their viewpoints on police. For some, they see these characters on television which ended up persuading their viewpoint on what police are really like.

    2. Her opposition to police and prison starts with the experiences of marginalized people, who have to deal with police and carceral violence every day.

      Although I know this from a first hand experience and experience of family members, I think statistics on incarcerated people would benefit the article.

      If someone who has never researched this topic reads this, they wouldn't truly understand the gap between marginalized people incarcerated and those not.

      Another good statistic that could be used is the recent amount of people that have been released early or with certain crimes being decrimalized and what groups those are.

    3. Black people, 32 percent of the population in Chicago, account for 72 percent of police stops, according to ACLU of Illinois data.

      I believe this is a great use of statistics in an argument like this. It instantly responds to the statement said before and shows how even though black people take up such a small percent of Chicago, they are the most stopped.

  13. Apr 2022
    1. Michael Bang Petersen. (2021, March 17). This is worsened as costs of #covid19 are not mentally similar to costs of side effects, even if the latter are less risky. People prefer controllable risks to uncontrollabe risks, even if less lethal (https://t.co/kSIcObWYmT). That is why you fear flying but not driving. [2/2] [Tweet]. @M_B_Petersen. https://twitter.com/M_B_Petersen/status/1372103708218159109

  14. Mar 2022
    1. ReconfigBehSci. (2022, March 12). @rwjdingwall @mugecevik @RobFreudenthal 2/2 it’s like comparing how wet you got in a down pour with and without umbrella... The biggest surprise to me in this pandemic hasn’t been the “overreaction” it’s been the constant failure with respect to basic counter-factual reasoning [Tweet]. @SciBeh. https://twitter.com/SciBeh/status/1502681510436130831

    1. t can’t be possible, because the texts were from his agent. A senior-aged Asexual woman, and I quote:“so it’s far-from-romantic.”Talk to any Asexual person, and they would be offended at the implication that Asexuals aren’t romantic or don’t date. It’s actually more-in-line with Aphobic rhetoric that Asexuality is born from somebodies lack of ability to form relationships due to looks or personality.

      This is a case of false generalization.

    1. ReconfigBehSci. (2022, March 12). @rwjdingwall @mugecevik @RobFreudenthal it makes little sense to numerically compare this pandemic with all of the intervention that occurred directly with past ones where medicine and epidemiology where of a completely different standard to conclude that this one ‘wasn’t bad’. 1/2 [Tweet]. @SciBeh. https://twitter.com/SciBeh/status/1502681086819721223

  15. Feb 2022
    1. Greenland’s Melting Ice Is No Cause for Climate-Change Panic

      Overall scientific credibility: 'very low' according to the scientists who analyzed this article.

      evaluation card

      Find more details in Climate Feedback's analysis

  16. Jan 2022
    1. And no child in highschool regardless should be able to do that either because of dresscode, horny hormone infused teenage boys, and you never know if some of the teacher are attracted to children.

      The writer of this argument does not use a specific type of evidence (first-hand, second-hand, and quantitative). The writer does not use facts proven by trustworthy authority, personal experience that would be reasoning for the writers opinion, or data that can be measured, but rather simply stating their opinion as evidence.



    1. Dismayingly, Spielberg didn’t have the courage or the insight to imagine it.

      Throughout the whole article, Brody has been stating that Spielberg was not creative enough. By stating this as the last sentence he is leaving his readers with one last opinion from him that tries to prove his point.

    2. Spielberg didn’t open up the story to involve new ideas and experiences, nor did he reckon with the cultural and political forces that gave rise to “West Side Story” in the first place.

      He is stating his claim again to make a point and leave his audience with this bit of information and opinion left in their heads.

  17. Dec 2021
  18. Nov 2021
    1. how many of those metaphors are there in your brain tens of thousands and then we're going to point out in a little while that they have 00:20:06 elementary metaphors that that make them up there are actually smaller metaphors that fit together

      Metaphors and analogical reasoning plays a major role in language use.

    1. Notice that in the else branch, we don’t need to do anything special - if x wasn’t a string[], then it must have been a string.
    1. ReconfigBehSci. (2021, October 30). as the fallout from the JCVI minutes build, it’s worth considering that the corresponding U.S. body ACIP has been live streaming its meetings on YouTube... Transparency helps reduce faulty reasoning...we should have learned that lesson with the very first lockdown, no? [Tweet]. @SciBeh. https://twitter.com/SciBeh/status/1454502337368764421

  19. Oct 2021
  20. Sep 2021
    1. One last resource for augmenting our minds can be found in other people’s minds. We are fundamentally social creatures, oriented toward thinking with others. Problems arise when we do our thinking alone — for example, the well-documented phenomenon of confirmation bias, which leads us to preferentially attend to information that supports the beliefs we already hold. According to the argumentative theory of reasoning, advanced by the cognitive scientists Hugo Mercier and Dan Sperber, this bias is accentuated when we reason in solitude. Humans’ evolved faculty for reasoning is not aimed at arriving at objective truth, Mercier and Sperber point out; it is aimed at defending our arguments and scrutinizing others’. It makes sense, they write, “for a cognitive mechanism aimed at justifying oneself and convincing others to be biased and lazy. The failures of the solitary reasoner follow from the use of reason in an ‘abnormal’ context’” — that is, a nonsocial one. Vigorous debates, engaged with an open mind, are the solution. “When people who disagree but have a common interest in finding the truth or the solution to a problem exchange arguments with each other, the best idea tends to win,” they write, citing evidence from studies of students, forecasters and jury members.

      Thinking in solitary can increase one's susceptibility to confirmation bias. Thinking in groups can mitigate this.

      How might keeping one's notes in public potentially help fight against these cognitive biases?

      Is having a "conversation in the margins" with an author using annotation tools like Hypothes.is a way to help mitigate this sort of cognitive bias?

      At the far end of the spectrum how do we prevent this social thinking from becoming groupthink, or the practice of thinking or making decisions as a group in a way that discourages creativity or individual responsibility?

  21. Aug 2021
  22. Jun 2021
  23. May 2021
    1. There is no climate emergency

      Overall scientific credibility: 'very low' according to the scientists who analyzed this article.

      evaluation card

      Find more details in Climate Feedback's analysis

  24. Apr 2021
    1. Are We Doomed?

      Overall scientific credibility: 'very low' according to the scientists who analyzed this article.

      evaluation card

      Find more details in Climate Feedback's analysis

  25. Mar 2021
    1. Nick Barrowman. (2021, March 26). Throughout the pandemic, a widespread inability to reason counterfactually has been on display. For example, some people apparently think lockdowns don’t work. They seem unable to imagine the situation had there not been a lockdown. Lockdowns are costly, but they work! [Tweet]. @nbarrowman. https://twitter.com/nbarrowman/status/1375240312264740870

  26. Jan 2021
  27. Nov 2020
  28. Oct 2020
    1. A lot of Democrats believe in what is called Enlightenment reasoning, and that if you just tell people the facts, they’ll reach the right conclusion. That just isn’t true.
  29. Sep 2020
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  32. Jun 2020
  33. May 2020
  34. Apr 2020
  35. Mar 2020
  36. Dec 2019
    1. See how global warming has changed the world since your childhood

      Overall scientific credibility: 'very high' according to the scientists who analyzed this article.

      evaluation card

      Find more details in Climate Feedback's analysis

    1. More Polio Cases Now Caused by Vaccine Than by Wild Virus

      Overall scientific credibility: 'high', according to scientists who analyzed this article.

      evaluation card

      Find more details in Health Feedback's analysis

  37. Nov 2019
  38. Oct 2019
  39. Aug 2019
  40. Jun 2019
  41. May 2019
  42. Apr 2019
  43. Feb 2019
    1. In 2016, the top seven advanced to the grand championship finale, where they’d need to enter a full cyber-reasoning system—one that would not merely notice a problem but could also infer its nature.
  44. Jan 2019
  45. Dec 2018
  46. Nov 2018
    1. Here's How to Tell if You Have a Cold or the Flu

      Overall scientific credibility: 'high' to 'very high', according to scientists who analyzed this article.

      evaluation card

      Find more details in Health Feedback's analysis

  47. Oct 2018
    1. As the power is unleashed, computers on the Semantic Web achieve at first the ability to describe, then to infer, and then to reason. The schema is a huge step, and one that will enable a vast amount of interoperability and extra functionality. However, it still only categorizes data. It says nothing about meaning or understanding.

      The author presents an interesting progression for the Web to eventually learn to reason. The picture he paints of more accessible content on the internet hinges on the internet learning to reason, which is a human characteristic. It seems we need to apply human characteristics to all of our mechanics for them to progress in their usefulness.

  48. Sep 2018
    1. Hurricane Florence is not climate change or global warming. It's just the weather.

      Overall scientific credibility: 'low' to 'very low', according to scientists who analyzed this article.

      evaluation card

      Find more details in the annotations below and in Climate Feedback's analysis

  49. Aug 2018
    1. In contrast, activities of invention almost always progress towards the creation of new or better things but not necessarily through refi nement. Normally we invent by combining a set of things we already understand how to create into larger, more complex, or more capable things that did not previously exist.

      The purpose of HCI as invention:

      • "understanding can sometimes decrease" due to complexity of making things

      • "things are more capable"

    2. Activities of discovery can have a variety of aims, including generating rich, empirically based descriptions, and creating new theoretical understandings

      The purpose of HCI as discovery:

      •"form framing truths"

      • elaborate to "progress toward improved understandings"

      • refined to "explain more phenomena or to be more predictive"

      • "developing and testing competing ideas"

    3. Another way of understanding technical HCI research is by contrasting it with other types of technical work that is not research. For our purposes, research can be seen as having the creation of reusable knowledge at its core. More specifi cally technical HCI research emphasizes knowledge about how to create something (invention) but also knowledge that might be reused to assist in the creation of a whole class of similar things or even multiple types of different things.

      HCI research definition. Contrast this with the previous development-based definition.

    4. In an interdisciplinary setting such as HCI, we often shift between disciplines that have stable and functional but potentially con-tradictory world views. In doing so, we are confronted with the need to select and use (or at least appreciate, understand, and evaluate) a wide range of methods and with them a wide range of expectations and values.

      The interdiscipliinary nature of HCI provides an impetus to consider non-STEM perspectives but can also reveal frictions between approaches, practices, values, and goals.

    5. Technical HCI focuses on the technology and improvement aspects of this task—it seeks to use technology to solve human problems and improve the world. To accom-plish this, the fundamental activity of technical HCI is one of invention —we seek to use technology to expand what can be done or to fi nd how best to do things that can already be done.

      HCI definition

  50. Jun 2018
    1. Hurricanes Are Moving Slower—And That's a Huge Problem

      Overall scientific credibility: 'very high', according to scientists who analyzed this article.

      evaluation card

      Find more details in the annotations below and in Climate Feedback's analysis

  51. May 2018
    1. In a Warming West, theRio Grande Is Drying Up

      Overall scientific credibility: 'high', according to scientists who analyzed this article.

      evaluation card

      Find more details in the annotations below and in Climate Feedback's analysis

    1. The Sea Is Rising, but Not Because of Climate Change

      Overall scientific credibility: 'very low', according to scientists who analyzed this article.

      evaluation card

      Find more details in the annotations below and in Climate Feedback's analysis