708 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. One can find utility in asking questions of their own note box, but why not also leverage the utility of a broader audience asking questions of it as well?!

      One of the values of social media is that it can allow you to practice or rehearse the potential value of ideas and potentially getting useful feedback on individual ideas which you may be aggregating into larger works.

    1. how was I ever able to organise my thoughts without atomising them

      Yes! This is the killer feature of TiddlyWiki. I think of it as some kind of intrinsic reward associated with cognitive outsourcing/offloading. Don't hear this mentioned often.

      These "atoms" also seem like the fruit of the insight process, e.g. the moment when Leo Szilard conceived nuclear fission whilst waiting to cross the road near Russell Square. Oh! I just noticed the atom pun! Entirely accidental.

      The "atomising" aspect is also key to making "molecules".

    1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NPqjgN-pNDw

      When did the switch in commonplace book framing did the idea of "second brain" hit? (This may be the first time I've seen it personally. Does it appear in other places?) Sift through r/commonplace books to see if there are mentions there.

      By keeping one's commonplace in an analog form, it forces a greater level of intentionality because it's harder to excerpt material by hand. Doing this requires greater work than arbitrarily excerpting almost everything digitally. Manual provides a higher bar of value and edits out the lower value material.

  2. Jan 2023
    1. Expansion is led by focus. By taking time to edit, carve up, and refactor our notes, we put focus on ideas. This starts the Great Wheel of Positive Feedback. All hail to the Great Wheel of Positive Feedback.

      How can we better thing of card indexes as positive feedback mechanisms? Will describes it as the "Great Wheel of Positive Feedback" which reminds me a bit of flywheels for storing energy for later use.

  3. Dec 2022
    1. Your story is familiar to many and I was in the same position as you until recently. It’s an example of people believing in the Collector’s Fallacy: https://zettelkasten.de/posts/collectors-fallacy/I’d recommend that article as a good reason for others to adopt the active approach of ZK, rather than the passive approach of collecting articles and mostly not reading them.

      What does the collector's fallacy really relate to?

      If you're collecting material you're not processing and either linking/tagging for future active use, then yes, it's definitely a fallacy. Collecting articles and tidbits that you don't read and don't use, at least in the moment is a massive waste.

      But if, instead, you're collecting tidbits of context and examples over time, say like historian Keith Thomas (? double check this reference, but I think it was him in his essay Working Methods (LRB, 2010)) describes, and then linking them into some sort of larger thesis or puzzling out some pattern between and amongst those examples, then you're collecting correctly and productively.

    1. A provocation is a statement that we know is wrong or impossible but used to create new ideas.

      The idea of expressing the worst possible idea first in brainstorming can often often be helpful.

      Example: when brainstorming restaurant suggestions for a group, suggest McDonalds first to subtly pressure people to create better ideas to prevent the lowest common denominator from winning.

    1. Labs can be a useful piece of the innovation puzzle if managers adopt a systems-thinking strategy, thinking more about their role within the wider government, department or company. They need to shape a culture within the whole organisation that is more open to new ideas, and this could be addressed by focusing more on communication.

      This seems to be the key element here: systems-thinking approach and thinking about our role within our departments.

    1. I came to this page after reading the "About the Author (The Second Right Answer)" page of Roger von Oech's "A Whack on the Side of the Head: How You Can Be More Creative" which was mentioned by Kevin Bowers in his discussion with John Vervaeke titled "Principles & Methods for Achieving a Flow State | Voices w/ Vervaeke | John Vervaeke & Kevin Bowers".

      von Oech stated that

      I wrote my doctoral dissertation on the twentieth century German philosopher Ernst Cassirer, the last man to know everything. From him, I learned that it's good to be a generalist, and that looking at the Big Picture helps to keep you flexible.

      This was a surprising reference since Bowers stated that the book was written for helping entrepreneurs become more creative; the book seems more widely applicable based on the examples and exercises given in the first 20 pages.

      Cassirer appears to bridge between the continental and analytic traditions in philosophy. Cassirer's touching on mathematics, aesthetics, and ethics reminds me of - John Vervaeke's work - ie, the process of relevance realization and his neo platonic, transformational reading of ancient texts - Forrest Landry work - ie, his magnum opus "An Immanent Metaphysics" which he purports to be pointing to a foundation between ontology, epistemology, and ethics. Recently, IDM (Immanent Domain Metaphysics) made more sense to me when I attempted to translat the 3 axioms and 3 modalities into language from category theory

      The following seem important and related somehow: 1. the symbolic process 2. the process of abstraction 3. the process of representation

      Maybe these are related to the means by which one can can transcend their current self? ie, is it through particular symbolic practices that one can more easily shed one identity and acquire another?

      Also, are 1., 2., and 3. different aspects of the same thing/event?

    1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q8Xaw72ESdA

      According to researcher Danny Hatcher, the "Feynman Technique" was coined by Scott H. Young in the August 22, 2011 YouTube video Learn Faster with The Feynman Technique and the subsequent 2022-09-01 article Learn Faster with Feynman Technique, ostensibly in a summarization of Gleick, James (1992). Genius: The Life and Science of Richard Feynman. Pantheon Books. ISBN 0-679-40836-3. OCLC 243743850.

      The frequently quoted Einstein that accompanies many instances of the Feynman Technique is also wrong and not said by Einstein.

      The root Einstein quote, is apparently as follows:

      that all physical theories, their mathematical expressions apart ought to lend themselves to so simple a description 'that even a child could understand them.' —Ronald W. Clark, p418 of Einstein: His Life and Times (1972)

    1. I’ve been using this phrase “the next most useful thing” as a guiding light for my consulting work - I’m obsessed with being useful not just right. I’ve always rejected the fancy presentation in favor of the next most useful thing, and I simply took my eye off the ball with this one. I’m not even sure the client views this project as a real disappointment, there was still some value in it, but I’m mad at myself personally for this one. A good reminder not to take your eye off the ball. And to push your clients beyond what they tell you the right answer is.

      So often when developing ideas and solutions, it can be easy to get caught up with the ideal, rather than coming up with an idea that responds to the situation at hand.

  4. Nov 2022
    1. In the same category of integrating h. into my pkm workflows, falls the interaction between h. and Zotero, especially now that Zotero has its own storage of annotations of PDFs in my library. It might be of interest to be able to share those annotations, for a more complete overview of what I’m annotating. Either directly from Zotero, or by way of my notes in Obsidian (Zotero annotatins end up there in the end)

      I've been thinking about this exact same flow. Given that I'm mostly annotating scientific papers I got from open access journals I was wondering whether there might be some way to syndicate my zotero annotations back to h via a script.

    1. http://www.cs.ucr.edu/~eamonn/meaningless.pdf Paper that argues cluster time series subsequences is "meaningless". tl;dr: radically different distributions end up converging to translations of basic sine or trig functions. Wonder if constructing a simplicial complex does anything?

      Note that one researcher changed the algorithm to produce potentially meaningful results

    1. He has a warehouse of notecards with ideas and stories and quotes and facts and bits of research, which get pulled and pieced together then proofread and revised and trimmed and inspected and packaged and then shipped.

      While the ancients thought of the commonplace as a storehouse of value or a treasury, modern knowledge workers and content creators might analogize it to a factory where one stores up ideas in a warehouse space where they can be easily accessed, put into a production line where those ideas can be assembled, revised, proofread, and then package and distributed to consumers (readers).


  5. Oct 2022
    1. Top 20 Unique Mobile App Ideas for Startups The mobile app market is huge and is growing at a phenomenal rate. Have you considered launching a mobile app? In the first step towards launching you are, it’s important to have an idea in mind. In this, article you can get different ideas about 20 mobile app ideas for your business. https://bit.ly/3WiCeAO

    1. In his delightful autobiography, Memories Migrating, the late John Burrow records his perplexities when this injunction was conveyed to him by his graduate supervisor, George Kitson Clark: ‘I brooded on this. What was a fact? And what made it one fact? Surely most facts were compound. How would I know when I had reached bedrock, the ultimate, unsplittable atomic fact?’

      Historian John Burrow brooded over the definition of the atomicity of an idea in his autobiography Memories Migrating (2009).

      Individual facts link together into small networks to create context for each other.

    1. (Note, by contrast, how much of the literature refers to the design orcreation of new groups (e.g. Goodman and Associates 1988). From our viewpoint, thecentral questions more involve the detection and support of emergent or existingcommunities.

      Research ideas!

    1. Top 10 Full Stack Project Ideas to Implement in 2023

      As we move into the new year, there are a few full stack project ideas that we think would be great to implement in 2023.The way the internet is evolving means that there are many new and exciting projects out there for tech enthusiasts to get involved in. In this article, learn about 10 of the most promising full stack project. Check out for more :https://bit.ly/3VxgQr1

    1. Goutor defines self-help notes as notes which one would use to refresh their memory about what remains to be done or researched, problems that remain to be solved, or information which is needed to be researched or found. (p26) These are akin in some sense to what I call "open questions". He also indicates that these notes might be triggered by one's daily activities or occasional musings which relate to one's project but occur outside of its active pursuit. In this sense, they have a similar feel to the idea of Ahrens' fleeting notes, but in Goutor's practice they aren't defined as occurring while one is doing active reading or research.

      He suggests that one keeps these notes in a separate area so that they might be systematically and regularly visited for review, further research, or answering as the opportunities to do so present themselves. Once the questions have been answered and appropriate notes updated or added, these self-help notes can be discarded.

    1. " f r i n g e - t h o u g h t s "

      C. Wright Mills' idea of "fringe-thoughts" is similar to Ahrens framing of "fleeting notes".

    1. An example of this comes from President Lyndon Johnson. As he explainedto an aide in 1960, “I’ll tell you what’s at the bottom of it. If you can convincethe lowest white man that he’s better than the best colored man, he won’t noticeyou picking his pocket. Hell, give him somebody to look down on, and he’llempty his pockets for you.”25
      1. Robert Dalleck, Lone Star Rising: Lyndon Johnson and His Time, 1908–1960 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1991), p. 584.



  6. Sep 2022
    1. In writing my dissertation and working on my first book, I used an index card system, characterized by the "one fact, one card" maxim, made popular by Beatrice Webb.

      Manfred Keuhn indicates that Webb popularized the idea of "one fact, one card", (and perhaps she may have helped re-popularize the idea in the 20th century) but Konrad Gessner (Pandectarum sive Partitionum Universalium. Zurich: Christoph Froschauer, 1548) had already advised "A new line should be used for every idea." Since Gessner then says that each line was to be cut up into an individual slip, the ideas are equivalent.

      link to: https://hypothes.is/a/uEboYlOwEeykkotYs594LA

    1. “Substantially all ideas are second-hand, consciously and unconsciously drawn from a million outside sources, and daily use by the garnerer with a pride and satisfaction born of the superstition that he originated them.”Mark Twain
    1. https://lu.ma/w6c1b9cd

      [[Anne-Laure Le Cunff & Nick Milo - How can we do Combinational Creativity]]


      Date: [[2022-09-06]]<br /> Time: 9:00 - 10:00 AM<br /> Host: [[Nick Milo]]<br /> Location / Platform: #Zoom<br /> URL: https://lu.ma/w6c1b9cd<br /> Calendar: link <br /> Parent event: [[LYT Conference 2]]<br /> Subject(s): [[combinational creativity]]

      To Do / Follow up

      • [ ] Clean up notes
      • [ ] Post video link when available (@2022-09-11)





      generational effect

      Silent muses which resulted in drugs, alcohol as chemical muses.

      All creativity is combinational in nature. - A-L L C

      mash-ups are a tacit form of combinatorial creativity

      Methods: - chaining<br /> - clustering (what do things have in common? eg: Cities and living organisms have in common?)<br /> - c...

      Peter Wohlleben is the author of “hidden life of trees”

      CMAPT tools https://cmap.ihmc.us/

      mind mapping

      Metaphor theory is apparently a "thing" follow up on this to see what the work/research looks like

      I put the following into the chat/Q&A:

      The phrase combinatorial creativity seems to stem from this 2014 article: https://fs.blog/networked-knowledge-and-combinatorial-creativity/, the ideas go back much further obviously, often with different names across cultures. Matt Ridley describes it as "ideas have sex" https://www.ted.com/talks/matt_ridley_when_ideas_have_sex; Raymond Llull - Llullan combinatorial arts; Niklas Luhmann - linked zettels; Marshall Kirkpatrick - "triangle thinking" - Dan Pink - "symphonic thinking" are some others.

      For those who really want to blow their minds on how not new some of these ideas are, try out Margo Neale and Lynne Kelly's book Songlines: The Power and Promise which describes songlines which were indigenous methods for memory (note taking for oral cultures) and created "combinatorial creativity" for peoples in modern day Australia going back 65,000 years.

      Side benefit of this work:

      "You'll be a lot more fun at dinner parties." -Anne-Laure

      Improv's "yes and" concept is a means of forcing creativity.

      Originality is undetected plagiarism - Gish? English writer 9:41 AM quote; source?

      Me: "Play off of [that]" is a command to encourage combintorial creativity. In music one might say "riff off"...

      Chat log

      none available

    2. Anne-Laure Le Cunff & Nick Milo: How can we do Combinational Creativity?

      Interesting to see people talking about these ideas in these spaces. It's too often a missed piece of the puzzle, and is really one of the most valuable parts.

      What was the origin of the phrase "combinatorial creativity"? Was if Farnam Street in 2014 https://fs.blog/networked-knowledge-and-combinatorial-creativity/

      Some of Anne-Laure Le Cunff's discussion of this in the past: - Building a Creativity Inbox: Anne-Laure Le Cunff & David Perell https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MTSAuSUxuj0 (taped: June 23, 2020; released: Jun 25, 2020) where the phrase is uased as well as "idea sex" - Combinational creativity: the myth of originality https://nesslabs.com/combinational-creativity (see https://twitter.com/anthilemoon/status/1275820127058120705)

  7. Aug 2022
    1. Since the demand for medical healthcare applications is high in demand, it is a great idea to start your start-up journey with a healthcare app. 
    1. Top 30 On-Demand App Ideas to Start Business in 2022

      People always need things done quickly and accurately and following the current situation on-demand services become a growing industry. In this article we are going to discuss about the On-demand App Ideas. Check out for more: https://bit.ly/3AgJUcx

    1. day-length profoundly affects growth responses with stronger impact on root elongation under SD conditions

      SD has a stronger impact on root elongation...

    1. Apart from a higher probability to retrieve particular note sheets, that advantage lies in thecircumstance that notes having a similar keyword will, as the box grows, find themselves atthe same location because of the alphabetical structure. That means not only an automaticcollection of content, but also a comparative review of those related note sheets, which inturn leads to new thoughts basd on the relation between the note sheets with identicalkeywords
    1. We might learn something new, if we understood both sides.

      Allosso is using "both sides" in a broadly journalistic fashion the way it had traditionally meant in the mid to late 21st century until Donald J. Trump's overtly racist comment on Aug. 15, 2017 "you also had people that were very fine people, on both sides." following the Charlottesville, VA protests.

      Perhaps it might be useful if people quit using the "both sides" as if there were only two perspectives on an issue (for or against), when in reality there is often a spectrum of thoughts and feelings, not all mutually exclusive, about issues?

    1. Annotate Books has added a 1.8-inch ruled margin on every page. The ample space lets you to write your thoughts, expanding your understanding of the text. This edition brings an end to does convoluted, parallel notes, made on minute spaces. Never again fail to understand your brilliant ideas, when you go back and review the text.

      This is what we want to see!! The publishing company Annotate Books is republishing classic texts with a roomier 1.8" ruled margin on every page to make it easier to annotate texts.

      It reminds me about the idea of having print-on-demand interleaved books. Why not have print-on-demand books which have wider than usual margins either with or without lines/grids/dots for easier note taking and marginalia?

      Link to: https://hypothes.is/a/C5WcYFhsEeyLyFeV9leIzw

    1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y07l5AsWEUs

      I really love something about the phrase "get them [ideas] into a form that students can work with them". There's a nice idea of play and coming to an understanding that I get from it. More teachers should frame their work like this.

    1. But commission member Kondratiuk, a heraldic expert who served as a military historian for the National Guard and US Army for more than four decades, said such objections are “a misreading of the heraldry.”“That’s the arm of God protecting the Commonwealth,” he said, referring to the upraised sword. “That symbol has been used in European heraldry for hundreds of years.”He added that the Native figure’s downward-facing arrow indicates “peaceful intent.”“The Native American on there is an homage to the Native Americans,” Kondratiuk said, adding he “voted with the pack” to see what recommendations the commission would produce. As for the motto: “That’s an allusion to the monarch,” he continued. “The Founding Fathers would have been very familiar with that.”

      Example of how older traditions have passed from memory and are now re-read (mis-read) in new contexts.

    2. Designed by illustrator Edmund Garrett in 1898, the current seal draws on the original seal of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, which featured a Native American man, naked but for some shrubbery about his groin, saying, “Come over and help us.”
    1. Historical Hypermedia: An Alternative History of the Semantic Web and Web 2.0 and Implications for e-Research. .mp3. Berkeley School of Information Regents’ Lecture. UC Berkeley School of Information, 2010. https://archive.org/details/podcast_uc-berkeley-school-informat_historical-hypermedia-an-alte_1000088371512. archive.org.



      headshot of Charles van den Heuvel

      Interface as Thing - book on Paul Otlet (not released, though he said he was working on it)

      • W. Boyd Rayward 1994 expert on Otlet
      • Otlet on annotation, visualization, of text
      • TBL married internet and hypertext (ideas have sex)
      • V. Bush As We May Think - crosslinks between microfilms, not in a computer context
      • Ted Nelson 1965, hypermedia


      • Michael Buckland book about machine developed by Emanuel Goldberg antecedent to memex
      • Emanuel Goldberg and His Knowledge Machine: Information, Invention, and Political Forces (New Directions in Information Management) by Michael Buckland (Libraries Unlimited, (March 31, 2006)
      • Otlet and Goldsmith were precursors as well

      four figures in his research: - Patrick Gattis - biologist, architect, diagrams of knowledge, metaphorical use of architecture; classification - Paul Otlet, Brussels born - Wilhelm Ostwalt - nobel prize in chemistry - Otto Neurath, philosophher, designer of isotype

      Paul Otlet

      Otlet was interested in both the physical as well as the intangible aspects of the Mundaneum including as an idea, an institution, method, body of work, building, and as a network.<br /> (#t=1020)

      Early iPhone diagram?!?

      (roughly) armchair to do the things in the web of life (Nelson quote) (get full quote and source for use) (circa 19:30)

      compares Otlet to TBL

      Michael Buckland 1991 <s>internet of things</s> coinage - did I hear this correctly? https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_of_things lists different coinages

      Turns out it was "information as thing"<br /> See: https://hypothes.is/a/kXIjaBaOEe2MEi8Fav6QsA

      sugane brierre and otlet<br /> "everything can be in a document"<br /> importance of evidence

      The idea of evidence implies a passiveness. For evidence to be useful then, one has to actively do something with it, use it for comparison or analysis with other facts, knowledge, or evidence for it to become useful.

      transformation of sound into writing<br /> movement of pieces at will to create a new combination of facts - combinatorial creativity idea here. (circa 27:30 and again at 29:00)<br /> not just efficiency but improvement and purification of humanity

      put things on system cards and put them into new orders<br /> breaking things down into smaller pieces, whether books or index cards....

      Otlet doesn't use the word interfaces, but makes these with language and annotations that existed at the time. (32:00)

      Otlet created diagrams and images to expand his ideas

      Otlet used octagonal index cards to create extra edges to connect them together by topic. This created more complex trees of knowledge beyond the four sides of standard index cards. (diagram referenced, but not contained in the lecture)

      Otlet is interested in the "materialization of knowledge": how to transfer idea into an object. (How does this related to mnemonic devices for daily use? How does it relate to broader material culture?)

      Otlet inspired by work of Herbert Spencer

      space an time are forms of thought, I hold myself that they are forms of things. (get full quote and source) from spencer influence of Plato's forms here?

      Otlet visualization of information (38:20)

      S. R. Ranganathan may have had these ideas about visualization too

      atomization of knowledge; atomist approach 19th century examples:S. R. Ranganathan, Wilson, Otlet, Richardson, (atomic notes are NOT new either...) (39:40)

      Otlet creates interfaces to the world - time with cyclic representation - space - moving cube along time and space axes as well as levels of detail - comparison to Ted Nelson and zoomable screens even though Ted Nelson didn't have screens, but simulated them in paper - globes

      Katie Berner - semantic web; claims that reporting a scholarly result won't be a paper, but a nugget of information that links to other portions of the network of knowledge.<br /> (so not just one's own system, but the global commons system)

      Mention of Open Annotation (Consortium) Collaboration:<br /> - Jane Hunter, University of Australia Brisbane & Queensland<br /> - Tim Cole, University of Urbana Champaign<br /> - Herbert Van de Sompel, Los Alamos National Laboratory annotations of various media<br /> see:<br /> - https://www.researchgate.net/publication/311366469_The_Open_Annotation_Collaboration_A_Data_Model_to_Support_Sharing_and_Interoperability_of_Scholarly_Annotations - http://www.openannotation.org/spec/core/20130205/index.html - http://www.openannotation.org/PhaseIII_Team.html

      trust must be put into the system for it to work

      coloration of the provenance of links goes back to Otlet (~52:00)

      Creativity is the friction of the attention space at the moments when the structural blocks are grinding against one another the hardest. —Randall Collins (1998) The sociology of philosophers. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press (p.76)

    1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DJLDF6qZUX0

      The classic Reece's Peanut Butter Cups commercial (circa 1981) in which a boy and a girl run into each other on the street with the following exchange:

      Girl: Hey! You got your chocolate in my peanut butter. Boy: You got peanut butter on my chocolate.

      is a good example of the productive collision of ideas behind the concepts of "ideas have sex" or "combinatorial creativity".

  8. Jul 2022
    1. It is terrible to seehow a single unclear idea, a single formula without meaning, lurking in a young man's head, willsometimes act like an obstruction of inert matter in an artery, hindering the nutrition of the brain,and condemning its victim to pine away in the fullness of his intellectual vigor and in the midst ofintellectual plenty.



    1. Beyond the cards mentioned above, you should also capture any hard-to-classify thoughts, questions, and areas for further inquiry on separate cards. Regularly go through these to make sure that you are covering everything and that you don’t forget something.I consider these insurance cards because they won’t get lost in some notebook or scrap of paper, or email to oneself.

      Julius Reizen in reviewing over Umberto Eco's index card system in How to Write a Thesis, defines his own "insurance card" as one which contains "hard-to-classify thoughts, questions, and areas for further inquiry". These he would keep together so that they don't otherwise get lost in the variety of other locations one might keep them

      These might be akin to Ahrens' "fleeting notes" but are ones which may not easily or even immediately be converted in to "permanent notes" for one's zettelkasten. However, given their mission critical importance, they may be some of the most important cards in one's repository.

      link this to - idea of centralizing one's note taking practice to a single location

      Is this idea in Eco's book and Reizen is the one that gives it a name since some of the other categories have names? (examples: bibliographic index cards, reading index cards (aka literature notes), cards for themes, author index cards, quote index cards, idea index cards, connection cards). Were these "officially" named and categorized by Eco?

      May be worthwhile to create a grid of these naming systems and uses amongst some of the broader note taking methods. Where are they similar, where do they differ?

      Multi-search tools that have full access to multiple trusted data stores (ostensibly personal ones across notebooks, hard drives, social media services, etc.) could potentially solve the problem of needing to remember where you noted something.

      Currently, in the social media space especially, this is not a realized service.

    1. probefahrer · 7 hr. agoAre you familiar with Mark Granovetter‘s theory of weak ties?He used it in the sense of the value of weak social connections but I am pretty sure one could make a case for weak connections in a Zettelkasten as being very valuable

      Humanity is a zettelkasten in biological form.

      Our social ties (links) putting us into proximity with other humans over time creates a new links between us and our ideas, and slowly evolves new ideas over time. Those new ideas that win this evolutionary process are called innovation.

      The general statistical thermodynamics of this idea innovation process can be "heated up" by improving communication channels with those far away from us (think letters, telegraph, radio, television, internet, social media).

      This reaction can be further accelerated by actively permuting the ideas with respect to each other as suggested by Raymond Llull's combinatorial arts.

      motivating reference: Matt Ridley in The Rational Optimist

      link to: - Mark Granovetter and weak ties - life of x

  9. Jun 2022
    1. To address these limitations, in Experiment 1, we requiredparticipants to rate their confidence after each individual response(rather than after each pair of responses).
    2. In Experiment 4, we manipulated participants’ confidence priorto administration of the MRT. All participants first completed aline judgment task that was intentionally difficult, so that par-ticipants would be unable to gauge their performance.
    3. Upon completion of the line judgment task, participants wererandomly informed that their performance on the line judgmenttask was either above average (‘‘high confidence’’condition) orbelow average (‘‘low confidence’’ condition).
    4. Ifconfidence mediates mental rotation performance, then partic-ipants in the high confidence condition should outperform theircounterparts in the low confidence condition.
    5. Cooke-Simpson and Voyer (2007) provided tentative evi-dence that confidence predicted MRT performance, but thatstudy had several critical limitations.
    6. correlation was comparable to that observed in prior studies(r = ?.69; Cooke-Simpson & Voyer, 2007).
    7. As illustrated in Fig. 2, confidence predicted accuracy acrossboth sexes, r(67) = ?.56, p\.001, and the strength of this
    8. Thisresult replicates the general pattern observed in Experiment 1(Fig. 3), and indicates that both males’ and females’ confi-dence was indeed calibrated to their performance.
    9. Experiment3 therefore supported the hypothesis that mental rotation ismediated by confidence.
    10. Experiment 3 provided a further test of whether the sex differencein performance is better explained by confidence or by omissions.
    11. Results are summarized in Table 1. The sex difference in accu-racy was replicated in the omission condition but not in the com-mission condition.
    12. Thus, the sex difference in mental rotationwas attributable to confidence rather than omissions.
    13. mediates mental rotation. If confidence was unrelated to mentalrotation, then the sex difference should be equivalent acrossgroups (i.e., no interaction should occur).
    14. Critically, an inter-action in either direction would suggest that confidence
    15. .

      It could also be the case that confidence would have more of an effect on the commission group than the omission group, which would exacerbate the sex difference in MRT performance.

    16. .

      There were two conditions in this experiment, one in which participants could omit trials at their discretion (omission) and one in which they had to respond to every trial (commission). The idea here was that confidence would have less of an effect on the commission group than the omission group, which would eliminate the sex difference in MRT performance.

    17. In Experiment 2, we sought to attenuate the sex difference inmental rotation performance by rendering confidence irrelevantto the task.
    18. Fig. 4

      Shows the mediating relationships between sex, confidence, and mental rotation, via Baron and Kenny's regression method for simple mediation.

      Sex negatively predicted both confidence rating and mental rotation score, whereas confidence positively predicted mental rotation score. Confidence seems to mediate the sex difference in MRT performance.

    19. In conclusion, Experiment 1 corroborated the finding thatconfidence predicted mental rotation performance both acrossand within sexes (Cooke-Simpson & Voyer, 2007). Experiment1 further demonstrated, for the first time, that confidence pre-dicted mental rotation performance within individuals: Partic-ipants were more accurate on trials for which they were moreconfident. These results thus provide the most precise evidenceto date of the relation between confidence and mental rotation.Finally, Experiment 1 also provided the first evidence of thedirection of this relationship: Mediation analyses revealed thatconfidence mediated the sex difference in mental rotation per-formance whereas mental rotation performance did not mediatethe sex difference in confidence.
    20. If confidence mediates mental rotation performance,then confidence ought to predict accuracy on the MRT acrosssexes, within each sex, and possibly even within individuals.
    21. In Experiment 1, we tested whether confidence predicted men-tal rotation performance between sexes, within each sex, andwithin individuals.
    22. Thus, mental rotation performance did notmediate the sex difference in confidence, but rather confidencestrongly mediated the sex difference in mental rotation per-formance.
    23. So, together, Figs. 2 and 3 reveal thatmales and females were similarly successful at calibrating theirconfidence to their accuracy (Fig. 3), though males tendedtoward the upper part of the distribution on both confidence andaccuracy (Fig. 2).
    24. As expected, an independent samples t-test revealed that males(M = 5.61, SD = 1.02) were more confident than females (M =4.62, SD = 1.41), d = .74, t(65) = 3.26, p\.01.
    25. Specifically, if confidence medi-ates mental rotation, then (1) confidence should predict mentalrotation scores not only between sexes, but also within sexes, (2)rendering confidence irrelevant to the task should attenuate thesex difference, and (3) manipulating participants’ confidenceshould affect their mental rotation performance.
    26. .

      Women provide fewer responses to the MRT than men, which means that they deliberately abstain from responding to some MRT questions. This could indicate that women are less confident of their MRT responses than men are.

    27. Because confidence appears tobe an important component of the MRT, it stands as a plausiblemediator of performance.
    28. The most common measure of mental rotation performanceis the Mental Rotations Test (MRT; Vandenberg & Kuse, 1978),which is based on the 3-dimensional block figures introduced byShepard and Metzler (1971) and updated by Peters et al. (1995).
    29. .

      Evidence from previous research indicates that confidence mediates performance on cognitive tasks, but the relationship between confidence and spatial ability is under studied and not well understood.

    30. Preliminary evidence suggests that confidence might indeedunderlie the sex difference in mental rotation.
    31. .

      Multiple studies have found that stereotype threat (especially for sex stereotypes) can affect performance on cognitive tasks by influencing confidence.

    32. We therefore tested whether confidence mediatedmental rotation performance.
    33. basic cognitive skills, such as attention, memory, and judgment(e.g., Schmader et al., 2008), which ultimately would affectperformance.
    34. The beliefthat one (or one’s social group) is skilled or poor at a given taskmay well affect one’s confidence when approaching that taskand this effect on confidence may have cascading effects on
    35. Much of the research on gender role and sex stereotype effectsassumes confidence as a potential cognitive mechanism bywhich those social factors exert their effect.
    36. So, in summary, beliefs about and aware-ness of sex stereotypes are both related to the sex difference inmental rotation performance. But how exactly might sex ste-reotypes affect performance?
    37. Mental rotation performance may also be affected by mereawareness of, rather than belief in, the stereotype that men aresuperior to women on spatial tasks.
    38. .

      Research has suggested that women who hold the stereotypical belief that men are better than women at spatial tasks might perform worse on these spatial tasks as a result of this belief.

    39. Performance on spatialtasks thus is clearly related to gender role beliefs and traits.
    40. Gender role beliefs and traits may partially explain the sex dif-ference in mental rotation performance.
    41. Here, we examined whether one suchsociocognitive factor, namely participants’ confidence, contrib-uted to this sex difference in mental rotation performance.Although this presumed relation between confidence and men-tal rotation performance has received little empirical attention,related research on gender roles, sex stereotypes, and stereotypethreat provides a rich source of supportive evidence.
    42. .

      Research has reliably demonstrated that men perform better at the MRT than women do. It is unlikely that there is a purely biological explanation for this sex difference, and sociocognitive factors probably play a role in the sex difference.

    43. Given the complexity of the taskand the magnitude of the sex difference, it likely has multi-ple causes or mediators.
    44. Of all cognitive sex differences, the mental rotation of abstractfigures in 3-dimensional space is the most robust (Halpern, 2000;Hines, 2004; Linn & Petersen, 1985; Maccoby & Jacklin, 1974).
    45. Thus, confidence medi-ates the sex difference in mental rotation performance and hencethe sex difference appears to be a difference of performancerather than ability. Results are discussed in relation to otherpotential mediators and mechanisms, such as gender roles,sex stereotypes, spatial experience, rotation strategies, work-ing memory, and spatial attention.
    46. On tasks that require the mental rotation of 3-dimensional figures, males typically exhibit higher accuracythan females. Using the most common measure of mental rota-tion (i.e., the Mental Rotations Test), we investigated whetherindividual variability in confidence mediates this sex differ-ence in mental rotation performance.
    1. .

      Varying the amount of stimuli presented to the participants in the MRT could reveal sex differences as a result of women spending more time making sure that their MRT answers are correct than men do.

    2. Thus, the third approach to the issue of Sex differencesand the time factor in the MRT examined the sex differ-ence in a RT paradigm where only two mental rotationfigures were used.
    3. .

      A past study found evidence to support the assertion that women take more time than men do on the MRT because women spend extra time making sure that their answer is correct while men do not do this. This is an alternative explanation to women taking more time than men do on the MRT because they simply cannot solve spatial problems as fast as men can.

    4. For this reason, Study 2, which manipulatestime directly, compares sex differences under the stan-dard condition with sex differences which are observedwhen time is increased, but within limits.
    5. Here, we administered the MRT under identical con-ditions, but allowing two durations.
    6. .

      Large sample size allows for the examination of sex differences on the MRT as it progresses. This condition documents the effect of time constraints on MRT performance between sexes (baseline condition).

    7. If time pressure is a significant factor in per-formance, we expect to see two indicators in the data.First, we expect to see that females attempt significantlyfewer problems than males and, second, we expect to seethat the magnitude of the sex difference increases as theproblem position increases.
    8. In the present study, three different approaches to theproblem of time constraints are taken, each examining adifferent aspect of how time might affect the sex differ-ences on the MRT.
    9. Thus, our understanding of the role of time con-straints in MRT sex differences remains inconclusive.
    10. Several studies find that when enough time is pro-vided for the V&K MRT, sex differences on the MRTdisappear (Goldstein, Haldane, & Mitchell, 1990;Voyer, 1997), leading to the conclusion that sex differ-ences arise because the sexes differ in the amount of timetaken to perform the mental rotation.
    11. The idea that the activational effects of hormones mightlead to relatively faster mental rotations touches uponthe time factor in MRT sex differences.
    12. That males and females differ in performance on Van-denberg and Kuse (1978) mental rotation task is wellknown (Voyer, Voyer, & Bryden, 1995). The causes areless well understood.
    13. .

      Sex differences may arise because of qualitative differences in how the sexes solve spatial problems, or because of spatial problem solving ability being modulated by hormonal differences between the sexes.

    14. We conclude that performancefactors may play a role in sex difference on mental rotation tasks, but do not account for all of the differences.
    15. In accounting for the well-established sex differences on mental rotation tasks that involve cube stimuli of the Shepard and Met-zler (Shepard & Metzler, 1971) kind, performance factors are frequently invoked.



    1. There’s no need to capture every idea; the best ones willalways come back around eventually.

      While one can certainly capture a lot of cruft that isn't actionable or easily reusable, it's a fable that the best ideas will come back around. All too often the really brilliant ideas can be quickly lost to the wind if not captured immediately.

    2. An Archipelago of Ideas separates the two activities your brainhas the most difficulty performing at the same time: choosing ideas(known as selection) and arranging them into a logical flow (knownas sequencing).*

      A missed opportunity to reference the arts of rhetoric here. This book is a clear indication that popular Western culture seems to have lost the knowledge of it.

      As a reminder, in the review be sure to look at and critique the invention, arrangement, style, memory, and delivery of the piece as well as its ethos, pathos, and logos. :)

    3. The Archipelago of Ideas

      This idea doesn't appear in Steven Johnson's book itself, but only in this quirky little BoingBoing piece, so I'll give Forte credit for using his reading and notes from this piece to create a larger thesis here.

      I'm not really a fan of this broader archipelago of ideas as it puts the work much later in the process. For those not doing it upfront by linking ideas as they go, it's the only reasonable strategy left for leveraging one's notes.

    4. Sometimes you know a project is coming and can startsaving things to a project folder in advance,

      no mention of the affordances of being able to cross-link things or even transclude them from an original location (which works for one currently) to another useful location.

    1. The box is not a substitute for creating. The box doesn’t compose or write apoem or create a dance step. The box is the raw index of your preparation. It is therepository of your creative potential, but it is not that potential realized.

      Great quote about what a zettelkasten isn't. This is also one of the reasons why I've underlined the amount of work that one must put into the box to get productive material back out the other end.

    2. Beethoven, despite his unruly reputation and wild romantic image, waswell organized. He saved everything in a series of notebooks that were organizedaccording to the level of development of the idea. He had notebooks for rough ideas,notebooks for improvements on those ideas, and notebooks for finished ideas,almost as if he was pre-aware of an idea’s early, middle, and late stages.

      Beethoven apparently kept organized notebooks for his work. His system was arranged based on the level of finished work, so he had spaces for rough ideas, improved ideas and others for finished ideas.

      Source for this?

    3. It’s not the only answer, of course. Maurice Sendak has a room that’s theequivalent of my boxes, a working studio that contains a huge unit with flat pulloutdrawers in which he keeps sketches, reference materials, notes, articles. He works onseveral projects at a time, and he likes to keep the overlapping materials out of sightwhen he’s tackling any one of them. Other people rely on carefully arranged indexcards. The more technological among us put it all on a computer. There’s no singlecorrect system. Anything can work, so long as it lets you store and retrieve yourideas—and never lose them.

      Regardless of what sort of physical instantiation one's notes may take, a workable storage option for them is necessary whether it is a simple box, a shelving system, a curiosity cabinet, a flat file, or even an entire room itself.

    1. .

      Lots of research has investigated the cause of sex differences in MRT performance. One proposed explanation is that men and women emphasize different instructional aspects under timed conditions. For this reason, men are able to complete more items than women do when taking the MRT.

    2. Gender differences in favor of men in spatial abilities are one of the most commonly replicated finding inpsychology research (Hedges & Nowell, 1995; Linn & Petersen, 1985; Voyer, Voyer, & Bryden, 1995). Among thetasks that produce such differences, the Mental Rotations Test (MRT), developed by Vandenberg and Kuse (1978),produces the largest effects (Linn & Petersen, 1985; Peters, 2005).
    3. Eighty undergraduate students (40 males, 40 females) completed the MRT while ratingtheir confidence in the accuracy of their answers for each item. As expected, gender differences in favor of men were obtained.Results also indicated a positive correlation between confidence ratings and scores on the MRT, as well as negative correlationsbetween confidence ratings and MRT outcomes presumed to reflect propensity to guess. More elaborate analyses using a measureof accuracy of predictions (the Brier score) indicated that men have a more accurate perception of their performance on the MRTthan women do.



    1. Further support for a constant anduniform biological explanation comes from studies that findsimilar effect sizes for gender across cultures (Silverman,Phillips, & Silverman, 1996).
    2. The distinct hormonal environments of men and womenmay play a role.
    3. .

      Hormones having an activational effect on cognitive functioning in adulthood could also cause sex differences in the MRT. Research has suggested that greater exposure to androgens/estrogens in adulthood can affect cognitive functioning.

    4. .

      Organizational effects during prenatal development could also play a role in MRT sex differences, since these effects could cause the brain to develop differently based on androgen or estradiol exposure. They could also occur as a result of hemispheric specialization. Right hemisphere specialization favors spatial tasks, and left hemisphere specialization favors verbal tasks, and male brains are more lateralized to the right while female brains are more bilateral. For this reason, men may have an advantage in spatial processing that causes them to be better at the MRT. .

    5. When brain imaging studies are done on subjects per-forming mental rotation tasks, there is some evidence ofactivation in motor areas of the brain.
    6. .

      Neuroimaging studies have shown that mental rotation involves parietal region activation. Specifically, males activate the left inferior parietal region and the right head of the caudate nucleus while completing MRTs and females activate the parietal lobe in general while completing MRTs.

    7. Biological factors have also been discussed as potentialcauses for this difference. Biological theories stress theimportance of genetics, hormonal influence, brain organi-zation, and maturational factors.
    8. There is,however, no consensus as to the role of task complexity ongender differences in mental rotation.
    9. Task difficulty is one potential performance factor thathas been explored (Bryden, George, & Inch, 1990; Collins& Kimura, 1997).
    10. .

      Differences in performance on the mental rotation task could be due to cultural norms subconsciously influencing performance or due to task variables that inflate male performance advantage (such as task difficulty, previous task exposure, time limits, and weighted scoring systems).

    11. .

      The mental rotations test (MRT) was created by Vandenberg and Kuse (1978). It uses line drawing of block stimuli and consists of two 10-item sections in which the subject is required to match two of four choices to a target figure.

    12. A number of explanations have been advanced for theexistence of the gender difference in mental rotation.
    13. Voyer, Voyer, & Bryden’s (1995) meta-analysis of sexdifferences in spatial abilities, found that the average differ-ence (using Cohen’s d = (M1 − M2)/σ) between men andwomen on the (MRT; Vandenberg & Kuse, 1978), was 0.94(this represents a very large effect), indicating that men per-form nearly one standard deviation above the average per-formance of women.
    14. The ability to mentally rotate an object has been foundto produce one of the largest sex differences in the cogni-tive literature (Linn & Petersen, 1985).
    15. The visuospatial ability referred to as mental rotation has been shown to produce one of the largest and most consistent sex differences,in favor of males, in the cognitive literature.
    16. Sex differences were also seen in the patterns of correlations between rotation tasks and other neuropsycho-logical measures. Current results suggest men may rely more on left hemisphere processing than women when engaged in rotational tasks.© 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.



    1. .

      If men have a visuospatial advantage and global bias, and if women have a local advantage, then men should be better at classifying line orientation than women, and men should exhibit a global advantage and women should exhibit a local advantage regardless of relevant classification property. It could also be that men would be faster than women in global classification and women would be faster than men in local classification regardless of relevant classification property, Likewise, if gender differences in global-local processing are only related to visuospatial performance, then global bias for men and local bias for women would only be observed for line orientation classification but not for closure classification.

    2. .

      Global-local processing is typically tested using hierarchical stimuli (larger figures are composed of smaller figures). Generally speaking, people usually display a global advantage (faster responses to larger figures than smaller figures) in processing the hierarchical stimuli. Also, they typically display global-to-local interference (conflicting information between the larger figures and the smaller figures interferes with responses to the smaller figures but not the larger ones). Global advantage can be confounded by factors like visual angle, exposure duration, retinal position, density of elements, number and relative size of elements, and the nature of the stimuli at the global and local level.

    3. .

      Men and women were shown hierarchical stimuli that differed in closure (open/closed shape) and line orientation (oblique/horizontal or vertical line) at the global or local level. They had to classify the stimuli on the basis global variation or local variation.

    4. Pre-vious results with similar stimuli and mixed groups of participants(Han, Humphreys, & Chen, 1999; Kimchi, 1994) showed the globaladvantage that is typically observed with hierarchical stimuli (e.g.Kimchi, 1992; Navon, 1977), as well as faster classification by clo-sure than by line orientation. In addition, the global advantage wasmore pronounced when local classification was based on line ori-entation than on closure (Han et al., 1999; Kimchi, 1994).
    5. Thus, in this study, we examined gender differences in global–local processing with a visuospatial judgment task (line orienta-tion) and a shape judgment task (open vs. closed shape).
    6. .

      The stimuli used in this study were specifically designed to evoke the typical global advantage. The study also included both spatial and non-spatial task contexts to see if sex differences in global-local perception only happened in spatial task contexts.

    7. The investigation of gender differences in global–localprocessing in the context of a spatial and a non-spatial task will al-low us to examine whether these differences, if they exist, charac-terize visual perception of women and men in general, or whetherthey are related only to visuospatial performance.
    8. The main purpose of the present study was to systematicallyexamine gender differences in global–local processing.
    9. The inconsistencies in the results of these studies are mostprobably due to the differences in stimulus and task variables,which are known to affect global–local performance, as discussedearlier.
    10. Direct examinations of gender differences in global–local pro-cessing are sparse, and the results are equivocal.
    11. .

      Gender differences in global-local bias could be the result of hemispheric specialization differences in men and women. Women are better at cognitive tasks that use the left hemisphere, which is more implicated in local processing, and men are better at cognitive tasks that use the right hemisphere, which is more implicated in global processing.

    12. .

      Research suggests that men use more "global" reference points (such as the position of the sun in the sky) when navigating, while women use more "local" reference points (such as landmarks) when navigating.

    13. The gender differences in navigation and way-finding also ap-pear to suggest a global bias for men versus a local bias for women.
    14. .

      Gender differences in mental rotation tasks could be accounted for by men and women using different strategies to mentally rotate an object. Research suggests that men use a more holistic or "global" approach when mentally rotating objects, while women use a more segmented or "local" approach when when mentally rotating objects.

    15. .

      Men outperform women on a variety of spatial tasks, from mental rotation tasks to maze navigation tasks.

    16. Gender differences in spatial abilities have been reported in anumber of studies over the years (see Voyer, Voyer, & Bryden,1995, for a review).
    17. Direct examinations of gender differences in global–local processing are sparse, and the results are incon-sistent. We examined this issue with a visuospatial judgment task and with a shape judgment task.Women and men were presented with hierarchical stimuli that varied in closure (open or closed shape)or in line orientation (oblique or horizontal/vertical) at the global or local level. The task was to classifythe stimuli on the basis of the variation at the global level (global classification) or at the local level (localclassification).
    18. This finding suggests that women aremore distracted than men by misleading global oriented context when performing local orientation judg-ments, perhaps because women and men differ in their ability to use cognitive schemes to compensatefor the distracting effects of the global context. Our findings further suggest that whether or not genderdifferences arise depends not only on the nature of the visual task but also on the visual context.



    1. .

      This study found that there are significant sex differences in number line estimation task performance and in confidence judgments about performance. Women/girls are significantly less precise on their number line estimation task performance than men are, and are significantly less confident about performance than men are.

    2. Nevertheless, we conducted linear mixedmodels to statistically test for developmental effects to assess whether the magnitude of genderdifferences in confidence increases (or decreases) with grade and found no evidence ofdevelopmental effects in gender differences in confidence (Appendix 4).
    3. Finally, our analyses included data from participants ranging from early childhood toadulthood, but we chose not to focus on developmental trends in our outcomes of interest.
    4. .

      This study couldn't evaluate sex differences in degree of overconfidence on number-line estimates because judgments must be made on the same scale as performance, and this was not the case for many of the experiments talked about here.

    5. .

      Measures of number line estimation performance were not detailed enough to be able to calculate absolute accuracy (degree of overconfidence) on them, so sex differences in absolute accuracy were not able to be determined.

    6. Across allparticipants, we found the mean values of gamma were positive for both genders (boys/men: n =309, M = .18, SD = .31; girls/women: n = 400, M = .20, SD = .28), which suggests that participantshave some ability to monitor the accuracy of their estimates. However, no reliable gender differencewas observed for relative accuracy (forest plot and analyses are displayed in Appendix 3). Takentogether, the present outcomes suggest that although girls/women (as compared to boys/men) areless confident in their task performance, they are equally able to discriminate between estimates thatare more versus less precise.
    7. Although we cannot calculate measures of absolute metacognitive accuracy, we were able toassess whether gender differences exist for relative accuracy, or the degree to which participants candiscriminate between number-line estimates that are more (vs. less) precise.
    8. Because of these issues, assessing the degree of over- or under-confidence for the number-line estimation task will require future advances in measurement ofjudgments and performance (so they can be made on comparable scales) for this task.
    9. In the current study, we found gender differences in confidence, even when controlling forperformance. We also found that the magnitude of the gender differences observed forconfidence were smaller than those for performance (g = .30 versus .52).
    10. .

      The experiments detailed in this meta-analysis could have their methods slightly adjusted in order to test whether girls/women having lower confidence scores on number line estimation tasks than boys/men is because of lower self-efficacy on math tasks or because of lower perceived familiarity with the numbers.

    11. .

      Boys/men may be higher in their trial-by-trial confidence judgments than girls/women because girls/women tend to have lower self-efficacy when performing math tasks than men. It could also be that girls/women being less familiar with specific numbers than boys/men lowers their number-line estimation confidence.

    12. That is, as compared toboys/men, girls/women may generally have less task-specific efficacy for number-line esti-mation (either because of its math component, spatial component, or both) and may also haveless perceived familiarity with the numbers. In fact, lower self-efficacy may push some girls/women away from engaging in math tasks, which in turn could reduce their actual familiaritywith those numbers.
    13. As mentioned in the Introduction, confidence judgments can be influ-enced by multiple theory- and experience-based factors (e.g., Undorf et al. 2018). The observedgender gap in confidence could be explained by differences in judgment cue use by girls/womenand boys/men.
    14. Although considerable debate exists over the causes of such gender differences when they areobserved (e.g., Hyde 2014), we imagine that psychological (e.g., differences in math attitudes;Sidney et al. 2019), social (e.g., differences in early spatial experiences, such as exposure to spatiallanguage, media, and toys; Caldera et al. 1989; Doyle et al. 2012; Pruden and Levine 2017; orgendered stereotypes about math and spatial ability, McGlone and Aronson 2006; Moè andPazzaglia 2006), and possibly even biological factors (e.g., sexual dimorphism in the parietalcortex; Goldstein et al. 2001) could contribute to the gender differences observed in the number-line estimation task (as is the case for performance; e.g., Tosto et al. 2018).
    1. In summary, the current study indicates that sex differences inglobal self-assessments of performance do not always coincide with sexdifferences in moment-to-moment spatial performance monitoring.Even though female students were in most cases less confident thanmale students in their general spatial ability, their trial-by-trial meta-cognitive monitoring accuracy was not impaired in either an absoluteor relative sense. Thus, female students appear to have relatively ac-curate perceptions of their spatial performance for spatial orientationand spatial visualization tasks.
    2. .

      Research suggests that even women with high spatial reasoning ability are underconfident about that ability. This study's results showed that women generally had lower absolute accuracy than men when making global performance postdictions on spatial orientation tasks than men did.

    3. Regardless, the current results show that even female studentspursuing STEM degrees are less confident than male students in theirability to reason spatially about some STEM related content. It is un-clear if these differences reflect true underconfidence or if they are dueto actual differences in academic spatial ability.
    4. .

      This study's results differing from the findings of previous studies could also be because students in this sample are less susceptible to having their metacognitive monitoring accuracy affected by negative stereotypes than students in more typical samples. The negative stereotype of women being worse at spatial tasks would normally make it so that women have worse metacognitive monitoring accuracy, but in this case they do not because they strongly identify with spatially oriented tasks (being STEM majors).

    5. .

      This study's results differing from the findings of previous studies could be because of the sample. This sample was taken from a STEM university, so both the men and the women in the sample had above average spatial reasoning ability and spatial experience. In a sample from a less STEM-oriented university, this would not be the case. Hence, this sampling difference may have biased the results of the study so that sex differences were not as prominent as they would be in a more typical setting.

    6. Given that female students have lower visual-spatial working memoryspans than male students (Voyer et al., 2017), they may be more sus-ceptible to monitoring errors in dynamic spatial domains that they arenot susceptible to in static spatial tasks.
    7. Although we observed limited sex-related differences in monitoringaccuracy in the current study, more substantial sex-related differencescould be present in qualitatively different tasks that require dynamicspatial processing.
    8. The cues people attend to can also vary when monitoring is pro-spective vs. retrospective (Nelson, 1990).
    9. However, the sex differences in relativeaccuracy we observed for the PSTV:R, suggest that the quality of thecues students used to monitor their performance may have differed formen and women. It is unclear whether these differences are task-spe-cific or reflect sex differences in cue utilization during prospectivemonitoring that are less prevalent in retrospective monitoring tasks.
    10. .

      Women might be worse at the mental rotation task than men because they pay attention to less informative cues than men do when completing the task. In other words, women might have a less effective strategy of solving the mental rotation task than men, and that's why they perform worse on it.



    1. This reveals an interesting pattern:for the left ROI, both ipsi- and contralateral attention conditionslead to a decrease in alpha power compared with pre-cue values.However, in the right ROI, we observed a contralateral decreasebut a slight ipsilateral increase.
    2. For the left ROI, the observed decreases were signifi-cant for both conditions (Fig. 6, p  0.05; significant time sam-ples indicated). For the right ROI, only the contralateral attentioncondition lead to a trend ( p  0.064).
    3. A lin-ear regression analysis showed that with decreasing cue reliabil-ity, there was a strong trend toward decreasing differences in thealpha-lateralization index between correct and incorrect trials(R 2  0.043, p  0.081). This effect was significant for reactiontimes: with decreasing cue reliability, the difference in the alpha-lateralization index between low- and high-RT trials becomessmaller and eventually flips from positive to negative values(R 2  0.135, p  0.01)
    4. As expected, in the 50% condition alpha-lateralization index val-ues were rather low and did not correlate with performance (data notshown): both correct and incorrect, and low- and high-RT trialsshowed similarly low alpha-lateralization index values (in the rangeof 0.01– 0.02; correct vs incorrect: t(17)  0.436, p  0.669; low vshigh RT: t(17)  0.375, p  0.712).
    5. For discrimination rate this effect was not sig-nificant (t(17)  0.638, p  0.532), for RT a near significant trend wasobserved (t(17)  2.048, p  0.056).
    6. This was further substantiated by analysis of the invalid cue trialsfrom the 75% condition, on which an opposite pattern was ob-served: high alpha lateralization was detrimental for performance oninvalid cue trials (Fig. 4C,D).
    7. This analysis showsthat a higher alpha-lateralization index precedes better perfor-mance: both correct trials and fast RTs are related to high alphalateralization values whereas incorrect trials and slow RTs showless alpha lateralization. Paired-sample t tests confirmed thatthese differences were significant (correct vs incorrect: t(17) 2.187, p  0.05; low vs high RT: t(17)  2.556, p  0.05).
    8. alpha-lateralization index showed no significant effect (R 2 0.000, p  0.964).
    9. This decrease could not be explained by a difference in overallipsilateral plus contralateral alpha power between the conditions(data not shown), as a similar test on the denominator (normal-ized per subject using the average power over conditions) in the
    10. There was a significant parametric decrease of thealpha-lateralization index with decreasing cue reliability (Fig.3B) as assessed by linear regression (R 2  0.150, p  0.01).
    11. The alpha lateralization was significanton sensor level both in the 100% (see before) and 75% condi-tion ( p  0.01 for two clusters above left and right sensori-motor regions). For the 50% condition the effect was muchweaker, however, a significant cluster was found in sensorsover left sensorimotor regions ( p  0.05).
    12. A cluster-based randomization test overthe 3D source space showed that the lateralized difference inalpha activity between attention-left and attention-right was sig-nificant for the right somatosensory source ( p  0.01) andshowed a trend for the left source ( p  0.062). Note that data ofonly 17 subjects was used for the source analysis.
    13. A time-frequency analysis of the lower frequencies (5–35Hz) showed that alpha lateralization was sustained through-out the 1 s before stimulus onset (Fig. 2 B) and that none of theother lower frequencies between 5 and 35 Hz showed a sub-stantial modulation.
    14. Spectral analysis revealed a lateralized pattern of alpha power. Acluster-based randomization test over the sensors further showedthat the alpha lateralization had two significant clusters of sensorsabove left and right sensorimotor regions ( p  0.05 for bothclusters) (Fig. 2 A).
    15. To summarize, the behavioral results confirmed the expectedoutcome: performance on invalid trials was significantly worsethan on valid trials, both in terms of discrimination rate and RT.Invalid cues had a more detrimental effect on RT for the 75%condition than for the 50% condition. Subjects were faster on the100% condition than on the 75% or 50% conditions.
    16. In terms of discrimination rate there were no differencesbetween the reliability conditions (100% vs 75%, t(17)  0.687,p  0.502; 100% vs 50%, t(17)  1.208, p  0.244), but subjectswere faster on the 100% condition compared with the other twoconditions (100% vs 75%, t(17)  2.445, p  0.05; 100% vs50%, t(17)  2.960, p  0.01).
    17. Therewas neither a significant effect of reliability on discrimination rate(F(1,17)  0.847, p  0.370), nor on RT (F(1,17)  1.479, p 0.241). There was a significant effect of validity both on discrim-ination rate (F(1,17)  6.534, p  0.05) and on RT (F(1,17) 23.239, p  0.001), with higher discrimination rates and lowerRTs for validly cued trials. Furthermore, the interaction effectbetween reliability and validity was not significant for discrimi-nation rate (F(1,17)  0.458, p  0.508), but showed a highlysignificant effect for RT (F(1,17)  11.715, p  0.01).
    18. .

      This study asked whether somatosensory alpha activity, which occurs in anticipation of information processing, reflects how attentional resources are allocated. It also asked about the extent to which somatosensory alpha activity is top-down modulated by how much anticipation there is.

    19. .

      The brain is constantly receiving sensory information, and it needs to filter this information according to behavioral relevance in order to process it effectively. Hence, the brain might process sensory information more or less thoroughly depending on how relevant it anticipates that information to be. Oscillatory alpha band activity may modulate how thoroughly sensory areas process sensory information based on how demanding a related task is.

    20. Wehypothesized that prestimulus somatosensory alpha powerwould modulate with respect to attention and that thestrength of this modulation would increase parametricallywith cue reliability. Since we posit that alpha activity plays adirect role in modulating neuronal processing, we further hy-pothesized that prestimulus alpha would be predictive of so-matosensory discrimination performance.
    21. These results indicate that the somatosensory alpha rhythmserves the same functional role as posterior alpha.

      In visual spatial attention tasks, alpha activity decreases on the side of the brain opposite to the area being attended to and increases on the side of the brain opposite to the area being ignored, which suppresses distracting inputs and increases visual detection performance. In a somatosensory WM task, somatosensory alpha activity increased on the same side of the brain as the tactile stimulus and increased somatosensory WM performance.



    1. If you take too many notes, theywill swamp you. You wi ll shuffle and review them over and overand be left bewildered. It will be almost as bad as having all therelevant books and encyclopedias piled on your desk. So takenotes only upon what you judge to be: the main new points,the complex events or ideas, the striking statements (for quoting),and also your ow n thoughts as they pop into your mind whilereading in preparation.

      advice about quantity of notes

    2. Almost every-body thinks not in single words, nor yet in con1plete sentences, butin blobs of ideas and words between the two-say, a subject withtwo or three notions clinging to it that one wants to bring out.That first portion once put in shape pulls along another andanother, and by then one probably has a sentence, compound orcomplex. It is very difficult to think more extensively in onestroke, though it often happens that the fragments come so fast,the next pushing the one in front out of sight, that the blur inter-feres with the task of formulation.

      Ideas move pretty fast. If you don't stop and write them down once in a while, you could forget them.

      Cross reference:

      “Life moves pretty fast. If you don't stop and look around once in a while, you could miss it.” – Ferris Bueller