93 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. Zusammenfassender Bericht der EU über die Folgen der globalen Erhitzung in Europa im vergangenen Jahr. Europa erwärmt sich von allen Kontinenten am schnellsten. Die Menschen in Südeuropa waren über 100 Tage extender gute ausgesetzt. 2022 war das trockenste Jahr der ausgezeichneten Wettergeschichte, und es hatte den mit Abstand heißesten Sommer. https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2023/apr/20/frightening-record-busting-heat-and-drought-hit-europe-in-2022

  2. Apr 2024
    1. In the last decade, there has been >2,300% increase in the loss of human life from heat waves as a result of about 1°C heating
    2. Researchers found that by 2100, under current levels of GHG emissions, 3 of 4 people in the world will be exposed to deadly heat conditions every year, with a higher occurrence of these conditions in intertropical areas
    3. Heat-related deaths of people older than 65 have increased by 85% since the 1990s
    4. Because of heat stress, under a 2°C warming scenario, 525 million additional people will experience food insecurity by midcentury, compared to the period 1995–2014, and the number of heat-related deaths each year will increase by 370%.
    5. day, 1 in 3 people are exposed to deadly heat stress. This number is projected to increase up to 75% by the end of the century
  3. Mar 2024
  4. Feb 2024
  5. Jan 2024
    1. Die obersten 2000 m der Ozeane haben 2023 15 Zettajoule Wärme mehr absorbiert als 2022. Die Erwärmung dieser Schichten verringert den Austausch mit den kälteren unteren Schichten und belastet die marinen Ökosysteme dadurch zusätzlich. Bisher sind keine Zeichen für eine Beschleunigung der Zunahme des Wärmehinhalts im Verhältnis zu den Vorjahren zu erkennen. Die Oberflächentemperatur der Ozeane lag im ersten Halbjahr 0,1°, im zweiten Halbjahr aber für die Wissenschaft überraschende 0,3 Grad über der des Jahres 2022. Schwere Zyklone, darunter der längste bisher beobachtete überhaupt, trafen vor allem besonders vulnerable Gebiete.

      https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2024/jan/11/ocean-warming-temperatures-2023-extreme-weather-data

      Study: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00376-024-3378-5

      Report: https://www.globalwater.online/#content

  6. Nov 2023
  7. Oct 2023
  8. Sep 2023
  9. Aug 2023
    1. The hottest days of the 2021 heatwave coincided with very low, early afternoon low tides throughout most of the Salish Sea (the inland waters of BC and Washington State). As a result, surface temperatures in excess of 50 °C were observed in the intertidal zone (Fig. 6a, b), particularly on gently sloping south and west-facing surfaces that received the most direct solar radiation.
      • for: intertidal zones, Canary in the mineshaft, Pacific Northwest heatwave, marine heatwave
      • paraphrase
        • Rocky intertidal shores are some of the most physically stressful habitats on Earth, and
          • many of the species that occupy them often live very close to their physiological tolerance limits.
        • Intertidal ecosystems are therefore often used as bellwethers for the ecological effects of
          • climate change and
          • extreme weather events.
        • Plants and animals that live in the intertidal zone are especially susceptible to extremely high temperatures during daytime low tides,
          • when solar radiation can raise organismal body temperatures well above air temperature.
        • The hottest days of the 2021 heatwave coincided with
          • very low, early afternoon low tides throughout most of the Salish Sea (the inland waters of BC and Washington State).
        • As a result, surface temperatures in excess of 50 °C were observed in the intertidal zone,
          • particularly on gently sloping south and west-facing surfaces that received the most direct solar radiation.
    2. This “heat dome” phrase is not a common phrase within the scientific community
      • for: definition, definition - heat dome, Pacific Northwest heatwave
      • paraphrase

        • This event was widely described in the media as a “heat dome”, wherein
          • subsidence/adiabatic warming,
          • “trapped air”, and
          • sensible heating
        • are the dominant mechanisms driving the anomalous heat.
        • This conceptual model ignores the role of upstream diabatic heating,
          • which our analysis
        • shows is a significant heat source.
        • This “heat dome” phrase is not a common phrase within the scientific community
      • comment

        • the authors do not refer to this event as a heat dome, as is popularly used in the media because diabatic heating was involved
    3. near-term forecasts of this event were good, albeit underestimating the magnitude of the maximum temperatures.
      • for: weather prediction, climate prediction, Pacific Northwest heatwave, comment, question, question - Pacific Northwest heatwave
      • paraphrase
        • near-term forecasts of this event were good, albeit underestimating the magnitude of the maximum temperatures.
      • comment
      • question
        • could appropriate measures have been in taken, our were the predicted temperature so far off that appropriate measures could not be recommended?
        • in particular, with the mass dieoff from the marine heatwave of an estimate billion marines organisms due to:
          • low tide,
          • high surface air temperature and
          • elevated ocean temperatures,
        • could interventions have been organized such as:
          • increasing dissolved oxygen levels in parts of the ocean dense with sea life or
          • soaking shellfish exposed to extreme sea surface temperature?
        • what are the future impacts in terms of biodiversity loss and extinction?
    4. An unprecedented heatwave occurred in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) from ~25 June to 2 July 2021, over lands colonially named British Columbia (BC) and Alberta (AB) in Canada, Washington (WA), and Oregon (OR) in the United States.
      • for climate change - impacts, climate departure, extinction, biodiversity loss, marine heat wave, ubc, Pacific Northwest heatwave
      • paraphrase
      • stats
        • An unprecedented heatwave occurred in the Pacific Northwest (PNW)
          • from ~25 June to 2 July 2021,
          • over lands colonially named
            • British Columbia (BC)
            • Alberta (AB) in Canada,
            • Washington (WA),
            • Oregon (OR) in the United States.
        • Near-surface air temperature anomalies reached up to 16–20 °C above normal over a wide region (Fig. 1),
          • with many locations breaking all-time maximum temperature records by more than 5 °C (Fig. 2a).
        • The Canadian national temperature record was broken 3 days in a row, at multiple locations,
          • with the highest temperature of 49.6 °C recorded in Lytton, BC, on 29 June (Figs. 1b),
          • 4.6 °C higher than the Canadian record prior to this event.
        • The new record temperature was reportedly the hottest worldwide temperature recorded north of 45° latitude,
          • and hotter than any recorded temperature in Europe or South America.
      • for: marine heat wave, fish dieoff, fish kill, extinction, climate departure, climate change - impacts
      • title: The unprecedented Pacific Northwest heatwave of June 2021
      • date: Feb. 9, 2023
    1. In Deutschland sind im ersten Halbjahr 2023 nur halb so viele Anträge auf die Förderung von Wärmepumpen eingegangen wie im Halbjahr zuvor. Als eine wichtige Ursache dafür sieht ein Branchensprecher die Auseinandersetzungen in der Bundesregierung.https://taz.de/Probleme-bei-der-Waermewende/!5949274/

  10. Jul 2023
    1. Der Chef des europäischen Wetterdienstes Copernicus, Jean-Noël Thépaut, bestätigt, dass es sich bei den derzeitigen Hitzewellen um außerordentliche Phänomene handelt. Dabei verstärken sich Effekte der globalen Erhitzung wechselseitig. Noch nicht verstanden, aber besorgniserregend seien die Erhitzung des Nordatlantik und die Abnahme des antarktischen Meereises. In den vergangenen Jahren hat vermutlich das La Niña-Phänomen das Ausmaß der globalen Erhitzung verdeckt. https://www.liberation.fr/environnement/climat/en-europe-le-puissant-dome-de-chaleur-va-durer-au-moins-jusquau-26-juillet-20230720_GRZXH5FIQ5EYLBZ4CB7U2L2VUY/

    1. Der vergangene Juni war der heisseste seit dem Beginn globaler Temperaturaufzeichnungen 1850, wie die Daten der amerikanischen Wetterbehörde NOAA zeigen. Europäischen Copernicus-Daten zufolge waren die beiden ersten Juliwochen mit hoher Wahrscheinlichkeit die wärmsten der aufgezeichneten menschlichen Geschichte. Der Hitzedom, der die Temperaturen über Mexiko und den südlichen USA in die Höhe treibt, wurde ersten wissenschaftlichen Einschätzungen zufolge durch die globlale Erhitzung 5mal wahrscheinlicher und ca 2.8° wärmer. https://www.nytimes.com/2023/07/20/climate/hottest-june-in-history-noaa.html

    1. Im Verhältnis zur Bevölkerungszahl starben im letzten Jahr in Italien die meisten Menschen an den Folgen der Hitze. Aus den in Nature Medicine publizierten Zahlen zu den Hitzetoten in Europa.geht hervor, dass 2022 auf eine Million Einwohner 295Todesfääe durch Hitze kamen. In Italien war es 2022 im Durchschnitt 2,28° wärmer als im historischen Mittel.

      https://www.repubblica.it/green-and-blue/2023/07/10/news/italia_morti_caldo-407264998/

    1. In der Liberation bezweifelt der Architekt Albert Levi, dass der Plan der Stadt Paris für die Klimaanpassung ausreichend sein wird, um eine unerträgliche Erhitzung und insbesondere die Bildung von Urbanen Hitze-Inseln zu verhindern. Geplant sind 60 Hektar zusätzlicher grünräume, die Entsiegelung von 30 bis 65% aller Parzellen, ein Verbot von Hochhäusern und des Fans von Bäumen. Levi kritisiert, dass die Verdichtungspolitik der vergangenen Jahre nicht gestoppt wird und eine Intensivierung des Tourismus geplant ist. Der Artikel verweist auf wichtige Dokumente zur Vorbereitung der Klimaanpassung in Paris. https://www.liberation.fr/idees-et-debats/tribunes/paris-face-au-rechauffement-climatique-mauvais-plan-20230630_FEFN6PDVJJCXJK2NYAFIE2YZFU/

  11. Jun 2023
    1. Dr Lisa van Aardenne, the chief scientist of the University of Cape Town’s climate system analysis group, discussed the use and utility of thermal stress indices. She pointed out that, by the definitions of the universal thermal climate index, much of Africa is under heat stress most days of the year.  Van Aardenne noted that these indices have been developed from a European perspective and do not align with the reality on the ground in Africa. She added: “I’m very concerned that these indices are not fit for purpose here.”

      So for Africa, the figures are so bad that they always look like they're in an emergency? I'm guessing the impact would be that people are more likely to ignore them

    2. Prof Kris Ebi from the University of Washington started off the third day of the conference with a presentation on heatwaves and early action plans. She pointed to the 2021 Pacific north-west “heat dome” event, which resulted in around 800 excess deaths and was later found to be a 1-in-10,000 year event. The rarity of that event means, in effect, “these people died because of climate change,” Ebi said. She added: “Every heat-related death is preventable.”

      I hadn't realised the attribution was so clear like this. Wow.

  12. May 2023
    1. Auch die Repubblica berichtet über die Studie der Universität Bristol zu zukünftigen extremen Hitzewellen und ihren Folgen. Zwischen 1998 und 2017 sind mehr als 166.000 Menschen an diesen Extremereignissen gestorben. Die Publikation verwendet statistische Methoden der Erforschung extrem unwahrscheinlicher Ergeignisse, um die es sich bei 31% der untersuchten Hitzewellen zwischen 1959 und 2021 gehandelt hat. https://www.repubblica.it/green-and-blue/2023/05/12/news/ondate_di_calore_europa_regioni_a_rischio-399709172/

      Studie: The most at-risk regions in the world for high-impact heatwaves https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-023-37554-1

  13. Apr 2023
    1. Eine n neue Studie untersucht, am welchen stehen der Erde ein Risiko für extreme Hitzewellen versteht, ohne dass es bisher dazu gekommen ist. Bei diesen Gebieten, zu denen sich Deutschland und die Benelux-Staaten gehören, besteht die Gefahr, dass sie sich unzureichend auf Extremereignisse vorbereiten. https://www.nytimes.com/2023/04/25/climate/extreme-heat-waves.html

    1. Mehrere indische Bundesstaaten sind auch in diesem Jahr wieder einer extremen Hitzewelle ausgesetzt. Viele andere Länder, vor allem in Asien,leiden unter Sandstürmen oder andern Extremwetterereignissen sowie einer deutlich erhöhten Luftverschmutzung. https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2023/apr/17/weather-tracker-india-temperatures-hit-40c-heatwave-continues

  14. Mar 2023
  15. Feb 2023
    1. High February temperatures have India already bracing for more heatwaves Karishma Mehrotra, The Washington Post

      Indien verzeichnet die frühesten je festgestellten Hitzewellen. Der verkürzte Frühling gefährdet die Lebensmittelversorgung. Da der Strombedarf durch die Hitze steigt, wird in Kraftwerken wesentlich mehr importierte Kohle verfeuert.

    1. Aboard the research ship RV Laurence M. Gould, cruising along Antarctica’s west coast, according to Carlos Moffat, chief scientist, Palmer Long Term Ecological Research Program: “Even as somebody who’s been looking at these changing systems for a few decades, I was taken aback by what I saw, by the degree of warming that I saw… We don’t know how long this is going to last. We don’t fully understand the consequences of this kind of event, but this looks like an extraordinary marine heatwave,”
      • Aboard the research ship RV Laurence M. Gould,
      • cruising along Antarctica’s west coast, - - Carlos Moffat, chief scientist, Palmer Long Term Ecological Research Program:
      • “Even as somebody who’s been looking at these changing systems for a few decades, I was taken aback by what I saw, by the degree of warming that I saw… We don’t know how long this is going to last. We don’t fully understand the consequences of this kind of event, but this looks like an extraordinary marine heatwave”
    2. Moffat: “It’s very difficult to warm the ocean, and so when we see these conditions, that really speaks to a very intense forcing.”
      • Antarctica ocean warning
      • extraordinary amount of heat
      • in the Ocean
      • in order to warm it this much
      • There is an extraordinary amount of heat in the Antarctic ocean to warm it up to this degree.

      • Question: is it too late? Have we already reached the Antarctic tipping point?

  16. Jan 2023
    1. Heat pumps – those powered by electricity, as well as those using fuel – have a significant potential for reducing the specific CO2 emissions for the heat supply in multifamily buildings. This potential is connected with special demands on both sides: the domestic hot water preparation and the heat transfer system (heat sink) as well as the utilization of environmental energy at site (heat source).

      Warming multi-family houses with heat pumps

    1. In March, Fortum and Microsoft announced our joint plan for a ground-breaking data centre region in the Helsinki, Finland metro­politan area.

      Data centers and district heating - a perfect match. Clean electricity and then output for heat.

    1. Opportunities and challenges of implementing heat pumps in district heating and cooling systems

      IEA Report 2020 - Heat pumps in district heating and cooling systems

    2. Heat pumps, powered by low-emissions electricity, are the central technology in the global transition to secure and sustainable heating. The Future of Heat Pumps, a special report in the IEA’s World Energy Outlook series, provides an outlook for heat pumps, identifying key opportunities to accelerate their deployment.

      IEA Report 2022 - The Future of Heat Pumps

  17. Dec 2022
    1. Heat Pump Ready programme:

      There are two main types of projects:

      High density deployment: 11 projects that are focussed on high density deployment of heat pumps in local areas; Optimised solutions: 24 projects that are building new tools, technologies, processes and approaches to improve heat pump deployment.

    1. We gaan in 5 stappen bepalen of je woning met de huidige radiatoren #LTready is.

      in 5 stappen bepalen

      Stap 1: Bepaal het jaarlijkse gasverbruik voor de ruimteverwarming

      Stap 2: Bepaal het gasverbruik op de ontwerpdag (-10 °C buiten daggemiddeld)

      Stap 3: Bepaal de benodigde uurpiek op de ontwerpdag

      Stap 4: Zet de maximale CV-temperatuur voor ruimteverwarming op 50 °C

      Stap 5: Zet de kamerthermostaat een paar graden hoger, zodat de verwarming minimaal 2 uur aan staat.

    1. Splooting, or more technically heat dumping, is a process through which animals stretch their hind legs back and lie on cooler surfaces to reduce their body heat. It’s commonly done by squirrels and sometimes, by dogs, and it’s no reason for concern, it’s just a sign that the animal is hot and trying to cool off.
  18. Nov 2022
    1. Die Hitzewellen dieses Sommers haben zu 6% Übersterblichkeit und zu vermutlich über 10.000 Toten in Frankreich geführt. In Großbritannien sind etwa 3000, in Spanien 4000 Menschen der Hitze zum Opfer gefallen.Wenn die Temperatur 2100 um 3• über der vorindustriellen Zeit, werden in Europa jährlich bis zu 90.000 Menschen an direkten Folgen der Hitze sterben.

  19. Sep 2022
  20. Aug 2022
  21. Jul 2022
    1. Otto sagt zu den Ergebnissen: „Hitzewellen sind die Extreme, die in einer sich erwärmenden Welt am stärksten zunehmen. Solange der Ausstoß von Treibhausgasen anhält, werden solche Ereignisse zu immer alltäglicheren Katastrophen.“

      Kurze und gute Darstellung der Attributions-Studie zur Hitzewelle in Indien und Pakistan. Wichtig ist sich die Aussage zu Hitzewellen als.der schlimmsten unmittelbaren Folge der Erhitzung.

  22. Jan 2022
    1. While heat pumps are the most cost effective way to use electricity to heat your home during the cooler months, leaving them running day and night is not economically efficient. According to Energywise, you should switch off your heat pump when you don’t need it. This is to avoid excessive energy waste.
  23. Dec 2021
    1. For the evaluation of thermal stability, each separator was positioned between slide glasses and subjected to certain tensile shear stress. Then, the temperature was raised to 150℃ and 180℃ at 5℃·m−1, and both separators were kept for 12 h at each temperature in order to compare their contraction percentages

      how to test heat shrinkage

  24. Aug 2021
    1. “We need to find ways to meet our customers’ needs and ambitions of reducing emissions to remain relevant for them.

      Énergir can, and should, meet their customers' needs by helping them to end their use of gas and by accelerating a managed decapitalization of their existing gas assets. Énergir should "Pump Heat, Not Gas." By this I mean, they should refocus as a "thermal-utility," rather than as a gas-supplier and build a new business focused on the installation of heat pumps and the provision of geothermal district heating for their customers.

    2. will reduce overall natural-gas usage by about 70 percent in buildings that install them,

      Quebec's plan to encourage hybrid heating (electric + gas) will cause a dramatic increase in gas bills:

      Reducing the quantity of gas commodity consumed does not reduce the largely fixed costs of gas delivery. Thus, in order to ensure revenue neutrality and adequate utility cost recovery, a 70% reduction in the quantity of gas delivered will require a 333% increase in the per-unit cost of gas delivery. This increased cost will, of course, be offset by reduced expenditure on the gas commodity. However, If we make the reasonable assumption that today's costs are evenly split between commodity and delivery, a 70% reduction in gas consumption will require a new per-unit price of delivered gas which is at least 182% of the current price with a reduction to 8.25% of the commodity's share of costs. Gas consumers will be paying for pipes, not gas... (I'm not sure what todays cost split is in Quebec. If it's 60% delivery, the price will rise to 212% of today's cost. If it is only 40%, the price will rise to 151% of today's. )

      However, it is likely that if the per unit cost of gas increases by the amounts calculated above, a great many gas users will realize that the cost/kWh or BTU of heating with electric heat pumps is lower than that for gas. Thus, it is likely that gas abandonment will increase over the current rates. While environmentalists will welcome increased gas abandonment, it should be recognized that it will create additional pressure to increase the per-unit cost of gas delivery which will, of course, encourage even more abandonment. The result will be a gas death-spiral.

      The Quebec approach is unlikely to lead to good outcomes.

  25. Jul 2021
  26. Jun 2021
  27. Jan 2021
    1. a report identifying the climate strategies and technologies that will result in the most air and water quality improvements

      One would expect such a report to say much about reducing emissions from electricity generation, however, in many states, particularly those in the Northeast and North, electricity generation and use only produces a small portion of GHG emissions. In New York State, electricity generation is responsible for less than 20% of emissions while heating and transportation each produce between 35% and 40% of emissions. Thus, in New York, emissions from electricity are a third-level priority. In New York, a focus on adoption of heat pumps and electric vehicles will contribute more to cleaning our air and water than a focus on electricity.

      It is important that this report identify strategies and technologies which are appropriate for the various regions of the country.

  28. Aug 2020
  29. Jul 2020
  30. Jun 2020
    1. Figure 6.1.46.1.4\PageIndex{4}: Temperature versus heat. The system is constructed so that no vapor evaporates while ice warms to become liquid water, and so that, when vaporization occurs, the vapor remains in the system. The long stretches of constant temperatures at 0oC0oC0^oC and 100oC100oC100^oC reflect the large amounts of heat needed to cause melting and vaporization, respectively.

      Figure 6.1.4 : Temperature versus heat. The system is constructed so that no vapor evaporates while ice warms to become liquid water, and so that, when vaporization occurs, the vapor remains in the system. The long stretches of constant temperatures at 0oC and 100oC reflect the large amounts of heat needed to cause melting and vaporization, respectively.

    2. Heat and work have signs (positive or negative), and the sign of each depends on whether the system we are considering is gaining or losing energy. In this class, if a process makes the system gain energy, qqq and/or www are positive; if the process makes the system lose energy, qqq and/or www are negative. We can put this information into four formal statements: If heat flows into a system, qqq is positive. If heat flows out of a system, qqq is negative If the surroundings do work on the system, www is positive. If the system does work, www is negative.

      Heat and work have signs (positive or negative), and the sign of each depends on whether the system we are considering is gaining or losing energy. In this class, if a process makes the system gain energy, q and/or w are positive; if the process makes the system lose energy, q and/or w are negative. We can put this information into four formal statements:

      • If heat flows into a system, q is positive.
      • If heat flows out of a system, q is negative
      • If the surroundings do work on the system, w is positive.
      • If the system does work, w is negative.
  31. Apr 2019
  32. Mar 2019
    1. According to the analysis, urban areas were found to be relatively cooler than the surrounding non-urban areas during heat waves. At 44.5°C, the non-urban areas were warmer than urban areas (43.7°C). However, during the night, all urban areas were hotter than the surrounding non-urban areas.

      Urban heat island effect

  33. May 2018
  34. May 2017
    1. heat trace (heating cable)
      Heat trace or heating cable is used to warm or heat underground structures, storage tanks, vessels, and instrumentation in order to maintain a specified temperature or eliminate the possibility of freezing. Heat trace or heating cable accomplish this task by adding the amount of heat energy to the process fluid that is lost from the process fluid. It is desirable to maintain a certain temperature since higher temperatures reduce viscosity, enhance combustion, and prevent freezing or crystallization of the fluid. Within the oil and gas industry, elevated temperatures are required to separate the crude oil or raw natural gas to the surface and freeze protection is required to allow refining and distribution of the fluid (Thermon South Africa (Pty.) Ltd. ). Heat trace or heating cable often utilizes resistance wire to provide a medium for voltage to pass through. Due to the resistance of the wire, the heat trace or heating cable becomes warmer and is able to use this heat to warm the underground structures that it surrounds. One material used in resistance wires is nickel-chromium (Peterjohn, Melillo, Bowles, & Steudler, 1993). Heat trace has been used since the early 1900s to ensure the proper flow of petroleum, tar, and wax through pipelines. Since then, certain products within the petroleum and chemical industries needed to be kept between specific temperatures to ensure their quality. Today, the most commonly used heat trace medium is steam (Thermon South Africa (Pty.) Ltd. ). 
      

      References

      Peterjohn, W. T., Melillo, J. M., Bowles, F. P., & Steudler, P. A. (1993). Soil Warming and Trace Gas Fluxes: Experimental Design and Preliminary Flux Results. Oecologia, 18-24.

      Thermon South Africa (Pty.) Ltd. . (n.d.). Heat Tracing Technologies. Retrieved from Thermon South Africa (Pty.) Ltd. : file:///H:/Users/rrs020.BUCKNELL.000/Downloads/thermon-sa_heat-trace-technologies_energy-savings.pdf

    2. frost heave
      Before the understanding of frost heave, there was a widely held belief that rocks and stones could grow and multiply. Stones were believe to grow from small pebbles. These stones then rose to the surface of the ground. Another belief was that stones were the offspring of “mother-stones” or “breeding-stones.” Today, it is known that this motion of stones moving upwards toward the surface of the ground is due to frost heave. Frost heave occurs when water in soil or rock freezes and thaws in a cyclic process. This causes an upward movement of the surface of the ground due to the freezing of water underneath. Geologist Stephen Taber from the University of South Carolina proved through extensive research that “it was not expansion, but rather the formation of ice lenses by segregation of water from the soil as the ground freezes that is the principal cause of frost heave.” He also showed that liquids other than water can also cause frost heave. The direction of heave is governed by the growth of ice lenses. Ice lenses form perpendicular to the direction of heat flow, so it is not always the case that frost heave occurs in the path of least resistance (Manz, 2011). 
      

      References

      Manz, L. (2011). Frost Heave. Geo News, 18-23.

  35. May 2016
    1. lesh, the engineering manager, and Dubusker drew on all of McDonnell's experience with shingled-skin structures around jet afterburners for heat protection.
  36. Nov 2015
    1. LOPINOD is also being used to fund the development of a Low Carbon Plan. This plan will focus on the full spectrum of renewables including wind, solar, marine source heat pumps and tidal. It is hoped that we will become a hub for all green energy going forward, building on our existing involvement in the wind farm industry.

      Beachhead for solar, tidal, marine source heat pumps as well as wind energy

  37. Sep 2015
    1. ITM is based on the theory of temperament. Temperament is a quality resulting from the interaction of opposite properties present in elements consisting of minute particles. Thus, a uniform quality occurs which is present in all of them. Hotness, coldness, moistness, and dryness are four temperaments that naturally occur in every existingsubstance including living creatures (2)

      These temperments match up with the four-fold alchemical division that uses the same four qualities of heat, cold, moisture and dryness.