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  1. Nov 2022
    1. v5: added git and github (thanks @ceejbot), and RSS (thanks @zem42). Taking suggestions for hierarchical/distributed and hierarchical/decentralized.

      t Laurie Voss's crowdsourced set of examples of things that have structure & control in the form of the following: - centralized - hierarchical - federated - distributed - decentralized

      Picture below: Link to tweet: https://twitter.com/seldo/status/1486563446099300359?s=20&t=C6z9xUF_YBkOFmfcjfjpUA

    1. Other countries do things differently.Canada has undertaken steady changes to improve its election system. In 1920, the country put federal elections under the control of an independent official who does not report to any government or politicians and who has the power to punish rule breakers. Responsibility for setting electoral boundaries was turned over to 10 similarly independent commissions, one for every province, in 1964.Taiwan and more than a dozen countries have also established independent bodies to draw voting districts and ensure that votes are cast and counted uniformly and fairly.The approach is not foolproof. Nigeria, Pakistan and Jordan all have independent election commissions. Many of their elections have still failed to be free and trusted.But in the places where studies show that turnout and satisfaction with the process are highest, elections are run by national bodies designed to be apolitical and inclusive. More than 100 countries have some form of compulsory or automatic voter registration; in general, democracies have been making it easier to vote in recent years, not more difficult.

      Notice the structural-solutionism. Structure is important but what ails the US is cultural (ontological) - though structure may exacerbate it.

      As evidenced by the exceptions they then list. See Putnam on Italy.

  2. Oct 2022
    1. Contenus du livre

      Dans la présentation du livre, peut-être présente les auteurs, dis que c'est un ouvrage collectif et donne peut-être une première idée de la structure

    2. Les décisions ne sont toutefois pas prises à partir des commentaires en ligne. Elles restent opaques.

      c'est une description très détaillée et très linéaire ! peut-être que tu pourrais essayer de lier certains paragraphes davantage entre eux

    1. Anderson, C. s. d. The Long Tail How Endless Choice Is Creating Unlimited Demand. Random House.

      Il aurait fallu un niveau de titre pour la bibliographie

    2. INTRODUCTION GENERALE PROBLEME

      En terme de structure, vous avez complètement occulté l'organisation du texte d'origine et je ne suis pas bien sûre de comprendre pourquoi : ce n'était pas demandé. De plus cela ne coïncide pas avec la pensée des auteurs

    1. Anderson, Chris. 2007. The Long Tail: How Endless Choice is Creating Unlimited Demand. Londres: Random House.

      Il y aurait besoin ici d'un titre annonçant les références

    2. Édition électronique

      Pas de titre de niveau 1 dans le corps du texte

    1. Sur ces trois dimensions de l’édition électronique se greffent d’importants enjeux économiques, technologiques et politiques.

      Dans la version originale, le début du paragraphe est ici.

    1. NOTES

      Pour être plus précis, le titre serait "Bibliographie" ou "Références"

    2. Sur ces trois dimensions de l’édition électronique se greffent d’importants enjeux économiques, technologiques et politiques. Ainsi assiste-t-on à d’amples manoeuvres des géants de l’industrie culturelle pour constituer des plates-formes incontournables dans la diffusion des oeuvres et des idées : Amazon a concentré ses efforts autour du Kindle, sa liseuse, et de son imposant portefeuille de clients ; iTunes est le cheval de Troie d’Apple pour faire converger les pratiques d’achat et de lecture des livres vers l’iPhone, l’iPad, et même les ordinateurs personnels ; Google a misé sur sa puissance de calcul et d’indexation pour construire la plus grande bibliothèque de livres numérisés du monde et devenir l’acteur incontournable de l’édition de demain. Tous se battent pour imposer leur format, leurs protocoles, leur standard sur un réseau traditionnellement neutre et ouvert.

      ici c'était un nouveau paragraphe dans la version pdf de l'article

    3. Édition électronique

      Idem pour le titre de niveau 1

    4. Édition électronique

      Pas de titre de niveau 1 dans le corps du texte (on commence à partir du niveau 2)

    1. Regarding his work on the sciences, Blumenberg did not facilitate hisreception within the Anglophone tradition by engaging much with it. Hemay have initiated the translation of The Structure of Scientific Revolutionsinto German,

      Hans Blumenberg didn't engage much with the Anglophone world of science outside of initiating the translation of Thomas Kuhn's The Structure of Scientific Revolutions into German.

    1. Each variable group on an amino acid gives that amino acid specific chemical properties (acidic, basic, polar, or nonpolar). This gives each amino acid R group different chemical properties

      What gives Amino acids their specific special properties?

    2. The carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of the incoming amino acid combine, releasing a molecule of water and creating the peptide bond.

      How are peptide bonds formed? What is released?

    3. Each amino acid is attached to another amino acid by a covalent bond, known as a peptide bond,

      What is a peptide bond?

    4. There are 20 genetically encoded amino acids available to the cell to build in proteins and all of these contain the same core sequence: N-C-C- where the first ("alpha") C will always carry the R group and the second will have a double (ketone) bond to oxygen

      What is the core sequence to a protein structure? Which letters are the Terminus and which is the alpha C?

    5. Each amino acid has the same core structure, which consists of a central carbon atom, also known as the alpha (α) carbon, bonded to an amino group (NH2), a carboxyl group (COOH), and a hydrogen atom.

      What is in a protein structure

    6. Amino acids are the monomers that make up proteins.

      What are Amino Acids?

    1. Eventually, as the cards fall into groups accordingto subject or person or chronological sequence, the pattern of mystory will emerge.

      For creating narrative, Barbara Tuchman apparently relied on grouping her note cards by subject, person, or chronological sequence.

  3. Sep 2022
  4. Aug 2022
    1. In discussing the various ways Luhmann referenced his notes, Schmidt discusses specific notes created by Luhmann that appeared to produce "larger structural outline[s]."8 It seems, when beginning a major line of thought, Luhmann created a note that resembled "the outline of an article or table of contents of a book."9 Today, many call these outline notes "structure notes," a term which has come to prominence through its usage on the zettelkasten.de forum.
    1. In the gap region, however, the collagen molecules are oriented approximately parallel to the unit cell c-axis (slightly tilted in the opposite direction to that of the overlap tilt).

      overlap的collagen miolecule倾斜,gap近似平行于c?

    2. microfibrils, which each comprise five 1D-staggered, twisted collagen triple helix molecules.

      molecule-mircrofobril-then fibril

    3. examined the structure of the collagen gap zone by analyzing the 3D electron density map created from existing X-ray data of hydrated type-I collagen fibrils32.

      用X-ray看,为啥过了这么久没人做

    1. it has been observed that certain phonological rules operate in acycle, in a manner determined by the surface structure.

      which?

    2. We might represent the deep structure in this sample case by formula 1, and thesurface structure by formula 2, where paired brackets are labeled to show thecategory of phrase that they bound.

      surface structure vs. deep structure

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  5. Jul 2022
    1. there has been a tendency in popular discussion to confuse “deep structure”with “generative grammar” or with “universal grammar.” And a number of pro-fessional linguists have repeatedly confused what I refer to here as “the creativeaspect of language use” with the recursive property of generative grammars, avery different matter.

      Noam Chomsky felt that there was a tendency for people to confuse the ideas of deep structure with the ideas of either generative grammar or universal grammar. He also thought that professional linguists confused what he called "the creative aspect of language use" with the recursive property of generative grammars.

  6. Jun 2022
    1. The reason these apps are great for such a broad range of use cases is they give users really strong data structures to work within.

      Inside the very specific realm of personal knowledge bases, TiddlyWiki is the killer app when it comes to using blocks and having structured, translatable data behind them.

    1. when doing independent research I've typically fallen into the habit of creating unbounded projects with no internal structure. I don't think this has been good for my sanity.
  7. May 2022
    1. However, deep framing analysis directs that a frame or narrative is not static, but rather holds that to remain truthful, the frame or narrative necessarily evolves in an intra-active way with other “matter.

      The public Indyweb supports this through its inherent conversational structure and focus on knowledge at the edge.

    1. I think it may have been the British Library interview in which Wengrow says something like, you know, no one ever challenges a new conservative book and says, so and so has just offered a neoliberal perspective on X. But when an anarchist says something, people are sure to spend most of their time remarking on his politics. I think it's relevant that G&W call out Pinker's cherry-picking of Ötzi the ice man. They counter this with the Romito 2 specimen, but they insist that it is no more conclusive than Ötzi. So how does a challenging new interpretation gain ground in the face of an entrenched dominant narrative?

      This sentiment is very similar to one in a recent lecture series I'd started listening to: The Modern Intellectual Tradition: From Descartes to Derrida #.

      Lawrence Cahoone specifically pointed out that he would be highlighting the revolutionary (and also consequently the most famous) writers because they were the ones over history that created the most change in their field of thought.

      How does the novel and the different manage to break through?

      How does this relate to the broad thesis of Thomas S. Kuhn's The Structure of Scientific Revolutions?


      The comment Wengrow makes about "remarking on [an anarchist's] politics" as a means of attacking their ideas is quite similar to the sort of attacks that are commonly made on women. When female politicians make relevant remarks and points, mainstream culture goes to standbys about their voice or appearance: "She's 'shrill'", or "She doesn't look very good in that dress." They attack anything but the idea itself.

    1. "I didn't fully understand it at the time, but throughout my time as a freshman at Boston College I've realized that I have the power to alter myself for the better and broaden my perspective on life. For most of my high school experience, I was holding to antiquated thoughts that had an impact on the majority of my daily interactions. Throughout my life, growing up as a single child has affected the way am in social interactions. This was evident in high school class discussions, as I did not yet have the confidence to be talkative and participate even up until the spring term of my senior year."

  8. Mar 2022
    1. The role of governance in organizing cooperation 

      And it seems like we are going for structural solutionism i.e. we will solve free rider by governance ...

  9. Feb 2022
  10. Jan 2022
    1. on feilds or to exercise

      Chloe Nelson Argument Structure: Unlike using a Rogerian Argument, the writer never looks at any other viewpoint. A concession or refutation would have furthered the argument, especially in this highlighted section where an argument from an opposing viewpoint may say that it is appropriate for high school students to exercise in sports bras while exercising.

    2. My point is school is ment to be a safe learning ground, so let's keep it that way.”

      Chloe Nelson: Argument Structure: This is the claim for the Toulmin model, although not explicitly stated, the writer concludes that high schools, girls specifically, would be less safe with girls being allowed to be in sports bras.

    3. horny hormone infused teenage boys,

      Chloe Nelson: Argument Structure: For the Toulmin model, there is never any evidence used to support the assumptions, causing the argument to lack authority.

    4. because of dresscode,

      Chloe Nelson: Argument Structure: This is the warrant/assumption for the Toulmin model, the writer is assuming that high schools have dress codes that prevent high-schoolers from not wearing shirts, and the reader most likely shares the same view.

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    1. Democrats in Washington State are now pushing a bill,

      Aristotelian structure: narration (background)

    2. The vaccine holocaust has arrived,

      Assumptions (Toulmin Model): This claim is based under the assumption that the COVID-19 vaccines are dangerous.

    3. And yes, Leftists and Democrats are gearing up to become actual fascist Nazis, running death camps and mass extermination ovens right here in America. This is how they plan to stay in power, just like Adolf Hitler once did — by exterminating dissenters and ruling through terror.

      Conclusion

    4. They are taking the vaccine wars KINETIC: Covid concentration camps ACTIVATED in America, unvaxxed will be kidnapped at gunpoint by left-wing “health officers” with arrest power

      S: Mike Adams from NatrualNews P: To warn the public about supposed "Covid concentration camps" A: NaturalNews readers, typically right-wing anti-vaxxers C:January 10, 2022, COVID-19 pandemic E: Washington's WAC 246-100 bill

    1. This is not the plot of the latest horror film from A24 but the unfortunate tale of Steven Spielberg’s efforts to remake “West Side Story,” the movie musical about love and ethnic rivalry among New York City gangs.

      this is the classical oration structure where the speaker is stating his opinion and will give further reasons as to why he is correct.

    1. Staff Writer

      Argument Structure: Classical Orientation

      The author uses classical orientation in his article to prove to his audience how his views are correct, and anyone who thinks differently is wrong. The argument is week because it is missing a statement of background, a refutation and a proposition. Without these key elements in Pecoraro's essay, the readers are less likely to be persuaded to join in agreement with him. Without those crucial steps, the readers doubt that Pecoraro knows a lot about the topic at hand. The reader also feels like the author is biased when there is no refutation. The author doesn't even acknowledge there is issues with his opinion. This article is also missing a lot of evidence. The author in each body paragraph practically just states a claim, and then gives his reasoning. Typically not with evidence which also loses his audience's trust. The author lacks pathos, making his audience not persuaded by his essay.

      Type of Claim:Implicit

      The author never directly says his issue with tablets, he just says in several different ways why textbooks are better.

  11. Dec 2021
    1. This book reminds me of me because I am funny. I like to joke around make funny faces and make people laugh. Yes I would recommend this book to reader’s ages 8-12 years old because it is hilarious and a good story. I think the drawings might interest the readers of this book.

      Recommendations

    2. My Favorite part is when teenagers are in a truck and there is a teenager in the back of the tuck who sprays something at Greg and Rowley and it was Halloween night and they said they was going to call the cop on them. I found Greg intersting because he was funny and he took things seriously. He says funny things and he is a nice kid and he knows what is right and what’s wrong. The illustrator used black and white drawings and stick men. I thought the illustrations were funny and some of them made me laugh.

      Evaluation + characters

    3. This book is about the first day Greg Heffley went to middle school. Greg thought he was sitting between two morons in the first day of middle school. It was Halloween night and Greg is dad favorite holiday is Halloween. Greg and Rowley were running away from a people with a chainsaw on Halloween night then Greg mom came and ask what is going on here.

      PLOT: Is this enough? Have you read it? Does it really capture the essence of the book?

    1. I would recommend this book. I think a good reader would like this book because they would understand it more. It would interest the reader. The plot is weird you never no what's going to happen next. The setting is in Camp Green Lake and the mountains. The author writes with simple words and it is easy to read.

      Recommendation

      What things DON'T belong in this paragraph?

    2. I really enjoyed reading this book because it was very interesting and it is a good book to read. My favorite part in the book is when they threw the shoes at Stanley because he fell funny. One of the characters reminded me of myself because I didn't know how to read like Zero, but now I do, and so does Zero because Stanley taught him. When I read this book I felt like I was there digging up holes and finding stuff underground.

      Evaluation + Characters

    3. This book is about a kid named Stanley Yalnats. One day he walked under the bridge and a kid had tossed some shoes off the bridge . They fell on Stanley and he fell when they fell on top of him. So about five minutes later the "'Police'" thought that he had stolen them, that's how he went to Camp Green Lake. When he went there he met a lot of people there. Their names were Zig-zag , Armpits , Zero , Twitch. They were good friends, but Zero didn't know how to read, so Caveman showed him. Stanley met them and they had to dig holes with his friends. About a year later Stanley left Camp Green Lake.

      Plot and characters. Is this first paragraph appealing? Does it capture the readers' attention? Why? Why not?

    1. I recommend this book because it has a positive story line. Lots of teenage girls would like this book because it is humorous but realistic. The plot would hold the interest of readers because it makes you laugh and think. I would also recommend this book to anyone who liked reading The Princess Diaries because it is by the same author.

      Recommendations

    2. I really enjoyed this book. It was very funny and genuine. Samantha was funny because of her attitude and her "protests" like wearing all black. This book was very well-written. It goes into great depth about how we look at things in life and has great characterization. Samantha changed and grew in the book. By the end, she looked at art and love very differently. I felt this book was easy to relate to because it isn't perfect like a Cinderella story. It describes how life really is and is a very positive story.

      Evaluation + Themes + Characters

    3. Samantha Madison is an outsider. She dresses all in black because she mourns the loss of the art supplies at her school. She is in love with her older sister's boyfriend and the enemy of Kris Parks (the most popular girl at school). After saving the president's life, Samantha's world turns upside down. She is now the most popular girl in the USA and appointed Teen Ambassador for the UN. And the president's son just might be in love with her. Samantha learns a lot about life, love and common sense - but does SHE love the president's son?

      PLOT: What details are included? What is left out? How does the reviewer avoid giving spoilers

    1. My

      The first and second stanza are set up in a similar pattern as the first line describes a setting, the second elaboration on the setting, third an action, the last a feeling from the speaker.

    1. Age

      Breaking the pattern of the previous 7 lines, this line begins with 'Age' instead of 'Youth, flipping the comparison. The sentiment remains the same, however, with the negative half of the line still associated with age.

    2. Youth

      The structure of the vast majority of this poem begins with this 'Youth'. The next 6 lines also begin with 'Youth', contain a description of youth, a comma, then 'age' and a contrast of the latter.

  12. Oct 2021
    1. This is hardly the first time that Minneapolis has erupted into protests about police brutality and the killings of black people.

      This isn't the first time Minneapolis has seen erupted over police brutality and the killings of black people.

    2. Many protesters, including journalists, have captured police on tape pointing guns, shooting rubber bullets and tear gas at them.

      Many protesters and journalists, have captured police pointing guns at them and shooting rubber bullets and tear gas.

    1. Racism has evolved over the past 50 years, and our collective understanding of what constitutes justice, how discrimination functions and how to best address it needs updating.

      Over the last 50 years, racism has changed, and our common understanding of what constitutes justice, how prejudice works, and how to effectively combat it has to be updated as well.

    2. to achieve racial equity, we need to be able to do three things

      We need to be able to do three things to achieve racial equity.

    1. Because at the end of the day, all structures are, in some ways, ideology made manifest.

      Avery Trufelman ends her podcast series, Nice Try! with these words in an episode entitled, Germania: Architecture in a Fascist Utopia.

      One person’s utopia is another person’s dystopia.

      The structure of the mind becomes the architecture of our reality. This thought became the foundation for a mental model for human experience, since these architectural plans for utopia seem like good ideas on paper, but when we live inside these structure in our daily reality, we realize that we have constructed our own mental prisons, the iron cage envisioned by Max Weber.

  13. Sep 2021
    1. A

      In this stanza, Larkin expresses how the thought/fear of death haunts people by cyclically stalking them quietly then striking big. Not only is this expressed literally, but through the tone and diction. For example, he goes from calm descriptions like, "small unfocused blur," to bold descriptions like, "furnace fear." Mirroring the structure of a day, 9am-5pm: ignoring the thought of death to being consumed by it at night, this stanza is a microcosm for the haunting and cyclical fear of death.

    1. INTRODUCTION

      Takes from IMaD structure but some headings help to describe more than just method or results. The headings throughout the body of the article describe the method and result instead of just handing over that information to you. The text is also presented in a "normal." linear format and is a PDF.

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  14. Aug 2021
  15. Jul 2021
    1. To the extentthat people accommodate themselves to the faceless inflexibility ofplatforms, they will become less and less capable of seeing thevirtues of institutions, on any scale. One consequence of thataccommodation will be an increasing impatience withrepresentative democracy, and an accompanying desire to replacepolitical institutions with platform-based decision making:referendums and plebiscites, conducted at as high a level as possible(national, or in the case of the European Union, transnational).Among other things, these trends will bring, in turn, theexploitation of communities and natural resources by people whowill never see or know anything about what they are exploiting. !escope of local action will therefore be diminished, and will comeunder increasing threat of what we might call, borrowing a phrasefrom Einstein, spooky action at a distance.

      This fits in line with my thesis to make corporations and especially corporate executives and owners be local, so that they can see the effect that their decisions are having.

    1. Now that they are part of comedy history, it can be hard to imagine George Carlin’s most famous routines as anything but finished products. Whether the infamous “Seven Words” from his album Class Clown (released exactly 45 years ago Friday) or the monologues from his hosting of the first-ever episode of Saturday Night Live (which returns for its 43rd season this Saturday), these routines can seem to have sprung fully formed from his mind. But there’s plenty of physical evidence to the contrary.

      It's rarely ever the case (my cognitive bias statement), that anything springs fully formed from the mind.

      Generally there's an infrastructure, a system, a method by which ideas or physical things are aggregated, accumulated, and edited into existence.

      When seeing them well done, they appear magical because we don't see the work or the process. We will often call them genius, when in reality, they're the result of long hard work.

      Take the Pyramids of Giza. They look large and magesterial---and likely moreso in their non-degraded form. But is it so mystical how they may have been built if we were to see the structure and scaffolding that likely went into constructing them?

  16. Jun 2021
    1. Note that every call of sample(1:6, 3, replace = T) gives a different outcome since we draw with replacement at random. To allow you to reproduce the results of computations that involve random numbers, we will used set.seed() to set R’s random number generator to a specific state. You should check

      In general I really like the online approach etc! really appreciated. I am now actively using and studying through this book. I think what would be super useful is to show some kind of equivalent of page numbers. Going back and forth between sections and scrolling up and down really makes me lose track of where i was.

  17. May 2021
    1. The most common way to stage an argument in the thesis goes something like this: Here is a puzzle/problem/question worth asking. If we know more about this puzzle/problem/question then something significant (policy, practice, more research) can happen.Here is what we already know about the puzzle/problem/question. I’ve used this existing knowledge (literatures) to help: my thinking and approach; my research design; make sense of my results; and establish where my scholarly contribution will be. Here is how I designed and did the research in order to come up with an “answer”.Here’s the one/two/three clusters of results.Missing stepNow here’s my (summarised) “answer” to the puzzle/problem/question I posed at the start. On the back of this answer, here’s what I claim as my contribution(s) to the field. Yes I didn’t do everything, but I did do something important. Because we now know my answer, and we didn’t before I did the research, then here are some possible actions that might arise in policy/practice/research/scholarship.
    1. It is never just the developers or coding that makes an app successful. The fact is – there are piles of factors contributing to the success of a mobile app; Like the business idea, look and feel of the app, user journeys, efficient algorithms, architecture solutions, adequate risk management, security, and so on.
  18. Mar 2021
    1. In computer science, a tree is a widely used abstract data type that simulates a hierarchical tree structure

      a tree (data structure) is the computer science analogue/dual to tree structure in mathematics

  19. Feb 2021
    1. The adapter is where authentication, policy checks, and eventually your domain logic happen. All termini of the protocol’s activity are standardized end events - that’s how protocol and adapter communicate.
    1. Trailblazer offers you a new, more intuitive file layout in applications.
    2. Instead of grouping by technology, classes and views are structured by concept, and then by technology. A concept can relate to a model, or can be a completely abstract concern such as invoicing.
    3. Concepts over Technology
    4. While Trailblazer offers you abstraction layers for all aspects of Ruby On Rails, it does not missionize you. Wherever you want, you may fall back to the "Rails Way" with fat models, monolithic controllers, global helpers, etc. This is not a bad thing, but allows you to step-wise introduce Trailblazer's encapsulation in your app without having to rewrite it.
    1. c0 0000 00

      The "size", defined by the expression `varsize + strx + comsize + (pc + nofimps + nofent + nofptrs + 1)4; (varsize includes type descriptors*), where these names match those used by the code generator ORG.Mod. Used by the module loader for determining how big of a hole needs to be used to accommodate the module in main memory when imported by another module or invoked to service a user command.

    2. 01

      The version/class of the object file format used here. Special class 0 is used for the bootloader.

    3. b765 6d6c

      The module "key"—a signature computed by the Oberon compiler, used for verification by the linker.

      Note that this is stored as a little-endian 32-bit word. This is the native byte order. (Signed integers use two's complement arithmetic.)

    4. 4865 6c6c 6f00

      NUL-terminated module name, as ASCII.

  20. Jan 2021
  21. Dec 2020
    1. Types of Structure Outliners take advantage of what may be the most primitive of relationships, probably the first one you learned as an infant: in. Things can be in or contained by other things; alternatively, things can be superior to other things in a pecking order. Whatever the cognitive mechanics, trees/hierarchies are a preferred way of structuring things. But it is not the only way. Computer users also encounter: links, relationships, attributes, spatial/tabular arrangements, and metaphoric content. Links are what we know from the Web, but they can be so much more. The simplest ones are a sort of ad hoc spaghetti connecting pieces of text to text containers (like Web pages), but we will see many interesting kinds that have names, programs attached, and even work two-way. Relationships are what databases do, most easily imagined as “is-a” statements which are simple types of rules: Ted is a supervisor, supervisors are employees, all employees have employee numbers. Attributes are adjectives or tags that help characterize or locate things. Finder labels and playlists are good examples of these. Spatial/tabular arrangements are obvious: the very existence of the personal computer sprang from the power of the spreadsheet. Metaphors are a complex and powerful technique of inheriting structure from something familiar. The Mac desktop is a good example. Photoshop is another, where all the common tools had a darkroom tool or technique as their predecessor.

      Structuring Information

      Ted Goranson holds that there are only a couple of ways to structure information.

      In — Possibly the most primitive of relationships. Things can be in other things and things can be superior to other things.

      Links —Links are what we know from the web, but these types of links or only one implementation. There are others, like bi-directional linking.

      Relationships — This is what we typically use databases for and is most easily conceived as "is-a" statements.

      Attributes — Adjectives or tags that help characterize or locate things.

      Metaphors — A technique for inheriting structure from something familiar.

  22. Nov 2020
    1. example of poor target accessibility, manifested by the significant number of mid-level amplitude droplets (that is, rain), which is resolved by performing a restriction digestion on the DNA before ddPCR
  23. Oct 2020
    1. The results of a DEXA scan are most often reported as T-scores. A T-score compares a person’s bone density to the average peak bone density of a healthy 30-year-old population of the same gender. A T-score of −1.0 or above indicates normal bone density. A person with a T-score between −1.0 and −2.5 has low bone density, which is a condition referred to as osteopenia. A person with a T-score of −2.5 or below is diagnosed with osteoporosis.

      T score levels for bone density.

    1. La distinction entre les mondes marchand et non marchand sépare moins deux populations différentes qu’elle ne traverse chaque internaute publiant en quête de réputation et de visibilité. Beaucoup d’entre eux ne cessent de calculer, cherchent à se faire voir et sont en compétition pour obtenir une place de choix dans les résultats « organiques » du moteur de recherche. Et pour cela, ils vont entreprendre de déformer à leur profit la structure des liens de la Toile, afin de capturer un surcroît de l’autorité dispensée par le PageRank.

      Non seulement ça, mais l'Internet encourage de plus en plus la culture du hustling, qui encourage chacun (en particulier les millénaux qui peinent à joindre les deux bouts) à tenter de capitaliser sur le moindre de ses talents.

    2. Car la condition essentielle de son fonctionnement est que les internautes n’aient pas agi en fonction du PageRank, mais que leur choix de liens distribue de façon « naturelle » les honneurs et les oublis. Si les jugements qu’ils s’échangent à travers les liens ont été produits en fonction du méta-coordinateur qui les agrège, la pertinence épistémique du résultat en sera profondément altérée.

      Un peu de la même manière que l'observateur d'une population influence toujours les observations anthropologique, ou que les études cliniques peuvent être biaisées si les participants connaissent à l'avance l'hypothèse exacte que les chercheurs veulent vérifier.

    3. PageRank est un champion de la démocratie […] : tout lien pointant de la page A à la page B est considéré comme un vote de la page A en faveur de la page B.

      D'où la pertinence de sites comme donotlink.com (aujourd'hui désuet) et la propriété rel="nofollow" sur les hyperliens. Article de blog intéressant à ce sujet: https://skeptools.wordpress.com/2015/02/16/nofollow-donotlink-best-practice-skeptic/

    1. In the third step of bone remodeling, the site is prepared for building. In this stage, sugars and proteins accumulate along the bone’s surface, forming a cement line which acts to form a strong bond between the old bone and the new bone that will be made. These first three steps take approximately two to three weeks to complete.

      Bone remodeling process.

    2. In adulthood, our bones stop growing and modeling, but continue to go through a process of bone remodeling.

      I would challenge that fact.

    3. Bone tissue cells include osteoprogenitor cells, osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteocytes. The osteoprogenitor cells are cells that have not matured yet. Once they are stimulated, some will become osteoblasts, the bone builders, and others will become osteoclasts, the cells that break bone down. Osteocytes are the most abundant cells in bone tissue. Osteocytes are star-shaped cells that are connected throughout the bone and exchange nutrients from bones to the blood and lymph.

      The Asteo Class of Bone Tissue

    4. Your bones are stronger than reinforced concrete. Bone tissue is a composite of fibrous collagen strands that resemble the steel rebar in concrete and a hardened mineralized matrix that contains large amounts of calcium, just like concrete.

      What Is Bone?

    1. Doctoral programs are often highly unstructured learning and training environments, where individual autonomy and freedom are highly valued. Decisions as to what counts as a good idea, a worthwhile project, or adequate progress are often left to the discretion of professors, and criteria for success can be opaque for students. This is even more so for those who are not already “in the know.”
    1. in E

      An example to reinforce the statement made in the previous paragraph

    2. 2-3). This article proposes to take up where Frank furt left off and to address the question of bullshit in a way that is especially pertinent to academics, even more pertinent to people in the humanities and social sciences, and most pertinent of all to those who specialize in rhetoric and writin

      Thesis?

    3. Philip Eubanks and John D. Schaeffe

      Authors

    1. I call it the detective-fever; and I first caught it in the company of Sergeant Cuff

      For some reason this little section is so funny to me. It almost reads like a Buddy Comedy or something. I also think that it's sort of supposed to feel like a bit like things are starting to come full circle as we get near to the end of the story. The same setting is back, the same jokes are back, we're back with Betteredge and encouraged to feel comforted by that through Franklin's narrative.

  24. Sep 2020
  25. Aug 2020
    1. Walls, A. C., Fiala, B., Schäfer, A., Wrenn, S., Pham, M. N., Murphy, M., Tse, L. V., Shehata, L., O’Connor, M. A., Chen, C., Navarro, M. J., Miranda, M. C., Pettie, D., Ravichandran, R., Kraft, J. C., Ogohara, C., Palser, A., Chalk, S., Lee, E.-C., … King, N. P. (2020). Elicitation of potent neutralizing antibody responses by designed protein nanoparticle vaccines for SARS-CoV-2. BioRxiv, 2020.08.11.247395. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.08.11.247395

    1. Kreye, J., Reincke, S. M., Kornau, H.-C., Sánchez-Sendin, E., Corman, V. M., Liu, H., Yuan, M., Wu, N. C., Zhu, X., Lee, C.-C. D., Trimpert, J., Höltje, M., Dietert, K., Stöffler, L., Wardenburg, N. von, Hoof, S. van, Homeyer, M. A., Hoffmann, J., Abdelgawad, A., … Prüss, H. (2020). A SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody protects from lung pathology in a COVID-19 hamster model. BioRxiv, 2020.08.15.252320. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.08.15.252320