152 Matching Annotations
  1. May 2024
    1. One of the key elements was "attribution is non-negotiable". OpenAI, historically, has done a poor job of attributing parts of a response to the content that the response was based on.
    2. If you ask ChatGPT to cite it will provide random citations. That's different from actually training a model to cite (e.g. use supervised finetuning on citations with human raters checking whether sources match, which would also allow you to verify how accurately a model cites). This is something OpenAI could do, it just doesn't.
    3. There are plenty of cases where genAI cites stuff incorrectly, that says something different, or citations that simply do not exist at all. Guaranteeing citations are included is easy, but guaranteeing correctness is an unsolved problem
    4. GenAIs are not capable of citing stuff. Even if it did, there's no guarantee that the source either has anything to do with the topic in question, nor that it states the same as the generated content. Citing stuff is trivial if you don't have to care if the citation is relevant to the content, or if it says the same as you.
    1. We recently improved source links in ChatGPT(opens in a new window) to give users better context and web publishers new ways to connect with our audiences. 
  2. Apr 2024
    1. I ran across an AI tool that cites its sources if anyone's interested (and heard of it yet): https://www.perplexity.ai/

      That's one of the things that I dislike the most about ChatGPT is that it just synthesizes/paraphrases the information, but doesn't let me quickly and easily check the original sources so that I can verify (and learn more about the topic by doing further reading) the information for myself. Without access to primary sources, it often feels no better than a rumor — a retelling of what someone somewhere allegedly, purportedly, ostensibly found to be true — can I really trust what ChatGPT claims? (No...)

    1. Perplexity AI's biggest strength over ChatGPT 3.5 is its ability to link to actual sources of information. Where ChatGPT might only recommend what to search for online, Perplexity doesn't require that back-and-forth fiddling.
    1. it would in most cases be sufficient to indexfrom the most authoritative paper

      When possible, use the most authoritative source in your work, but one should balance this out with the additional work required to find and quote that source versus taking it from a secondary and reliable source.

      Academic researchers ought to default to the original and most authoritative, but others may find it more expedient and just as valuable to rely on secondary sources.

  3. Mar 2024
    1. However, there are very few studies focusing specifically on the health and safety of women in the miningworkplace ( Lynas, 2018). A recent scoping review identified few studies that included vulnerable populations,and none focusing specifically on the health status of women of reproductive age or children who were directlyinvolved in ASM activities (Cossa et al., 2021: 13)

      important - data on vulnerable population OHS

    2. The academicunderstanding of the roles and socio-economic position of women in ASM has been greatly enhanced by abody of scholarship focusing on gender dynamics in ASM (Bashwira et al., 2014; Bashwira, 2017; Bashwira &Cuvelier, 2019; Brottem & Ba, 2019; Bryceson et al., 2013; Buss et al., 2019; Hayes & Perks, 2011; Heemskerk,2003; Hinton et al., 2003, 2006; Kelly et al., 2014; Lahiri-Dutt, 2011; Lahiri-Dutt & Macintyre, 2006; Werthmann,2009; Yakovleva, 2007). Some researchers have specifically focused on the ways in which women are affectedby the formalization of ASM activities, including the grouping in cooperatives (Hilson et al., 2018; Muheki &Geenen 2018; Kamundala, 2020).

      bibliography on women

  4. Feb 2024
    1. The history of Arabia just before the birth of Islam is a profound mystery, with few written sources describing the milieu in which Muhammad lived.

      Few primary sources before Islam

  5. Jan 2024
  6. Dec 2023
  7. Nov 2023
    1. AIs are not capable of citing the sources of knowledge used up to the standards of the Stack Exchange network. Even when Artificial Intelligence appears to cite sources for responses, such sources may not be relevant to the original request, or may not exist at all. For Stack Overflow, this means the answer may not honestly or fairly represent the sources of knowledge used, even if someone explicitly cites the Artificial Intelligence as an author in their answer.
    1. Despite the challenges and barriers black women in senior leadership roles face, studies have shown that they devise mechanisms to overcome the challenges associated to gender and racial discrimination (Cain, 2015; Hill, 2013; Morgan, 2018).
    2. Drawing on data from the USA, Cain’s (2015) study found that 5.3% of executive leaders in U.S corporations were African American woman in comparison to white women who make up 16%.

      Cain 2015

      Cain, L. (2015) Barriers encountered by African American women executives, Walden University, Minnesota

  8. Sep 2023
  9. Aug 2023
    1. How do you refer from and to multiple sources? .t3_15eljnf._2FCtq-QzlfuN-SwVMUZMM3 { --postTitle-VisitedLinkColor: #9b9b9b; --postTitleLink-VisitedLinkColor: #9b9b9b; --postBodyLink-VisitedLinkColor: #989898; }

      reply to u/IvanCyb at https://www.reddit.com/r/antinet/comments/15eljnf/how_do_you_refer_from_and_to_multiple_sources/

      Usually if I find a quote somewhere, I'll try to track down the original source, check the context and excerpt it from the original. If it's something mission critical, I might note that it was excerpted and used in other sources and whether it was well excerpted for their case or not. Sometimes, quoting can also help to make a solid case about the influence a work had and notes on that can be a useful thing. If I make multiple notes about the same sort of idea, that's fine, though I typically try to file them all next to each other for easy consultation and comparison, if necessary. As an example, I have quotes from multiple sources about note taking indicating that one should only write on one side of a(n index) card. Some quote earlier sources, some state it without attribution, some say they've learned to do so over time and with experience. Some give reasons why and some don't. The only way to track these practices over time is to note them all together for comparing and contrasting. It wasn't until I'd seen the third mention that I realized the practice was an interesting/important one and worth tracking, so I had to go back and dig up the originals which I had written briefly on their bibliographic cards with page numbers, so it made things easier to create main cards out of them. Because they're all stored together, there's only one index entry for them (for the first one), under "note taking" with the subheading "write only on one side". Alternately I might have made a single note card about the idea of the practice and created a list with pointers of those who used it (or didn't) and links to the sources where I originally found them. Do what makes most sense for you for tracking based on your own situation and needs. You may also find that these things happen frequently when doing literature reviews and things are repeated often within a field. Sometimes it's helpful to figure out who said a thing first and whether or not others are repeating/quoting them or coming to the same conclusion on their own. Is it a solid conclusion? What is the evidence or lack thereof? The only way to know is to start keeping track of these patterns in your reading and notes. Where and how you choose to track it in your zettelkasten is up to you. Sometimes it may be in brief notes with the original source, sometimes in a "hub note", and still others broken out into primary cards collected together.

  10. Jul 2023
  11. Jun 2023
    1. Tailwind allows you to define a set of documents as trusted sources which the AI then uses as a kind of ground truth, shaping all of the model’s interactions with you.
  12. May 2023
    1. I wanted to try something very different. So, I use another writing system to write my original thoughts. I use the Wakandan writing system to write my thoughts because I already know how to write in it and I virtually know almost no one else who knows how to.

      An example of someone (u/Nervous-Deal7560) using the Wakandan writing system to distinguish their ideas from those of sources!

      see also: - https://omniglot.com/conscripts/wakandan.htm - https://www.fandom.com/articles/how-the-black-panther-writing-system-subverts-our-expectations-of-africa

    1. Jared Henderson writes excerpted ideas in block capital letters and his own observations and thoughts in small print as a means of distinguishing his own ideas from others.

      Others might do this using other means: fonts, color, writing instrument, etc.

  13. Apr 2023
    1. https://minnstate.pressbooks.pub/ushistory1/

      <small><cite class='h-cite via'> <span class='p-author h-card'>Dan Allosso</span> in Welcome to US History & Primary Source Anthology, vol. 1 (<time class='dt-published'>08/21/2022 14:41:00</time>)</cite></small>

  14. Feb 2023
    1. To cover my knowledge management process would distract you from what works for you. Your question needs more context to be actionable.TL;DR; Whichever knowledge management system gets you paid.I've got 13 notes with the term "knowledge management," 15 with "information gathering," and 7 with "strategic intelligence." Without finishing a MOC, here's off the top of my head:Have a purpose or reason for learning.Ask helpful questions that solve problems.Answer questions as stand-alone notes.Learn from primary sources. Even boring ones.Take notes for your intended audience.Serve a specific audience (get paid.)Write about what people care about.Become a subject matter expert in target areas.Deliver what you know as a service first.Build on your strengths. Knowledge is cheap.It's not a process. More like tips. If demand exists, I'll write a book on the topic in a few years. Might be a good podcast topic.“No man but a blockhead ever wrote, except for money.” -- Samuel Johnson, The Life of Samuel JohnsonRemember, there is no shortage of knowledge. Managing information is like masturbation; it feels good but doesn't do much. Focus on making information drive goal achievement.

      Some useful and solid advice here.

  15. Nov 2022
  16. Oct 2022
    1. "There is no reason why a writer should not useopenly . . . the contributions of a corps of helpers," he said ofJames Ford Rhodes ; "but the result of such historical method isunlikely to be volumes that reveal unity of historical constructionor the ripe judgment and point of view that come only to the writerwho has done his own selecting and discarding among the sources."

      Review of James Ford Rhodes, History of the United States From Hayes to McKinley, 1877-1896 (New York, 1919), American Historical Review (New York), XXV (April, 1920), 525. Paxson sometimes filed notes handed in by students in the course of routine checks on their work (to about 1913), and he regularly took notes on students' oral seminar reports, but he apparently did not depend on such notes. On the other hand, he often went out of his way, in his own writings, to refer to related works by his students.

      This almost sounds like he's proposing an auteur theory for historical studies rather than film studies.

    1. For her online book clubs, Maggie Delano defines four broad types of notes as a template for users to have a common language: - terms - propositions (arguments, claims) - questions - sources (references which support the above three types)

      I'm fairly sure in a separate context, I've heard that these were broadly lifted from her reading of Mortimer J. Adler's How to Read a book. (reference? an early session of Dan Allosso's Obsidian Book club?)

      These become the backbone of breaking down a book and using them to have a conversation with the author.

    1. À la fin des années 50, j’ai mêmetransplanté, fertilisé et taillé des noisetierspris à l’état sauvage (Corylus cornuta et C.americana) lesquels ont donné un bonrendement en fruits
    2. Actuellement nos plants de noisetiers etnoyers proviennent de Ontario et de Jolymais nous travaillons étroitement avec laPépinière Lafeuillée (Bernard Contré) pourproduire nos futurs plants mieux adaptés ànotre climat
    3. La pépinièreaméricaine nous a offert de généreusescompensations sans mettre notre parole endoute, en nous promettant 400 plants desureau rouge et 150 coudriers pour leprintemps prochain. Les noyers noirs quiont succédé à ceux que nous n’avons pasvu "débourrer" sont ceux que nous avonscréés durant l’été à partir des noix de Joly-de-Lotbinière
    4. Pour lancer notre verger, nous avons faitvenir du Dakota du Nord 1800 noyers noirsdont la rusticité avait été éprouvée par leclimat de là-bas : aussi froid que le nôtre enhiver, mais avec moins de neige au sol.Nous avons aussi fait stratifier et germer desnoix de toutes les espèces d’arbres quenous projetons de voir dignementreprésentés dans notre futur verger-école,durant l’hiver 2006-2007; merci au domaineJoly-de-Lotbinière, à M. Bernard Contré et àM. Neil Thomas pour les semences. Nousnous sommes aussi procuré 60 chênesblancs et 25 châtaigniers d’Amérique auprèsde l’UPA de Valleyfield, grâce aux initiativesde M.Giulio Neri, et enfin, nos 60 premiersnoisetiers hybrides à la Pépinière Lafeuilléede M. Contré

      Sources des premiers arbres du Jardin des Noix

    1. It was Ranke, too, who set the historian’s task: to find out wie eseigentlich gewesen ist, what really happened, or, literally, how itreally was. His goal is one that will remain forever just beyond ourgrasp for reasons I explained in a “Note on Sources” in The Guns ofAugust (a paragraph that no one ever reads but I think is the bestthing in the book). Summarized, the reasons are that we who writeabout the past were not there. We can never be certain that we haverecaptured it as it really was. But the least we can do is to stay withinthe evidence.
    1. Leopold von Ranke (German: [fɔn ˈʁaŋkə]; 21 December 1795 – 23 May 1886) was a German historian and a founder of modern source-based history.[3][4] According to Caroline Hoefferle, "Ranke was probably the most important historian to shape [the] historical profession as it emerged in Europe and the United States in the late 19th century".[5] He was able to implement the seminar teaching method in his classroom and focused on archival research and the analysis of historical documents. Building on the methods of the Göttingen School of History,[6] he was the first to establish a historical seminar. Ranke set the standards for much of later historical writing, introducing such ideas as reliance on primary sources (empiricism), an emphasis on narrative history and especially international politics (Außenpolitik). Ranke also had a great influence on Western historiography. He was ennobled in 1865, with the addition of a "von" to his name.
    1. I found in the files three relevant types of "existingmaterials": several theories having to do with the topic;materials already worked up by others as evidence forthose theories; and data already gathered and in variousstages of accessible centralization, but not yet madetheoretically relevant.
  17. Sep 2022
    1. Driving this home, a recent FederalReserve survey found that 37 percent of Americans cannot cover a $400 unexpectedexpense with savings or its equivalence.

      I've read this statistic many times, but where is the original source?

      It's here: Federal Reserve Bank, “Report on the Economic Well-Being of U.S. Households in 2019” (Washington DC: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, 2020).

      This fact is repeated several times throughout the book. At least 3 by my count.

    1. Originality has three dimensions: new sources, new arguments, and/or new audiences.

      Originality has many facets including:<br /> - new arguments - new sources - new audiences

      What other facets may exist? Think about communication theory to explore this.

      I particularly like the new audiences aspect as there are dramatically different audiences for different pieces. (Eg: academic articles, newspapers, magazines, books, blog posts, social media, etc.) A plethora of audiences may be needed to reach the right audiences.

      Compare this with Terry Tao's list of mathematical talents which includes communication.

    1. We need not interpret in the Jewish oretymological sense the dictum of Renan : " I do notthink it possible for any one to acquire a clearnotion of history, its limits, and the amount ofconfidence to be placed in the different categoriesof historical investigation, unless he is in the habitof handling original documents." ^

      Renan, Essais de morale et de critique, p. 36

  18. Aug 2022
    1. While it is a fundamental principle that workscontemporary with an event are presumably more authenticthan later ones, it should be borne in mind that the morerecent secondary works are frequently based on more ma-terials and present new interpretations.
    1. additional redundant sources of the same information


  19. Apr 2022
  20. Feb 2022
    1. the telling of oppressive history can make people uncomfortable. One common argument against incorporating the history of enslaved people, she says, is that, due to the scarcity of primary sources, the history is difficult to tell meaningfully and accurately. But, Rose explains, "resistance to interpreting slavery is not about scarcity of documentation." Rather, using the supposed scarcity of documentation to excuse engagement is a form of resistance, as are denial, sarcasm, and apathy.

      The scarcity of primary sources making it difficult to tell meaningful and accurate history is a common argument against incorporating the history of enslaved people. These excuses as well as denial, sarcasm, and apathy are used to erase the value of these people and our shared history.

  21. Nov 2021
    1. Necessarily, a lot of important details are therefore excluded. But for some, this is now the only way they dare to speak out at all.

      Some may deride journalists for these sorts of grants of immunity, but based on her background I'll completely give Anne Applebaum a flier on this even though I'm also sure The Atlantic will have done additional editorial due diligence.

  22. Jul 2021
  23. May 2021
    1. One of the challenges of writing a research paper is successfully integrating your ideas with material from your sources. Your paper must explain what you think, or it will read like a disconnected string of facts and quotations. However, you also need to support your ideas with research, or they will seem insubstantial. How do you strike the right balance? In your essay, the introduction and conclusion function like the frame around a picture. They define and limit your topic and place your research in context. In the body paragraphs of your paper, you need to integrate ideas carefully at the paragraph level and at the sentence level. You will use topic sentences in your paragraphs to make sure readers understand the significance of any facts, details, or quotations you cite. You will also include sentences that transition between ideas from your research, either within a paragraph or between paragraphs. At the sentence level, you will need to think carefully about how you introduce paraphrased and quoted material.

      Integrating source material into analysis adds credibility. You can do this in a variety of ways: direction quotation, in-text citation, and paraphrasing.

  24. Apr 2021
  25. Nov 2020
    1. The Thirteen Sources of Well-Being:More positive emotionsFewer negative emotionsLife satisfactionVitalityEnvironmental masteryPositive relationshipsSelf-acceptanceMasteryAutonomyPersonal growthEngagement in lifePurpose and meaning in lifeTranscendent experiences

      The Thirteen Sources of Well-Being

      1. More positive emotions
      2. Fewer negative emotions
      3. Life satisfaction
      4. Vitality
      5. Environmental mastery
      6. Positive relationships
      7. Self-acceptance
      8. Mastery
      9. Autonomy
      10. Personal growth
      11. Engagement in life
      12. Purpose and meaning in life
      13. Transcendent experiences
    1. At the extreme ends of the concentration range (for example, fewer than ten copies of target in a well or more than 120,000 copies of target in a well), fewer droplets in a well will lead to slightly larger error bars.
  26. Oct 2020
  27. Aug 2020
  28. Jul 2020
    1. An estimate of par-titioning error can be found based on the analysis of Dube et al.,39 which models the partitioning as a binomial process.
    2. Digital assays have two sources of error: subsampling error and partitioning error
    3. Subsampling error sets the lower detection limit at low concentrations and is independent of the instrument, while partitioning error domi-nates at high concentrations and may depend on the sampling and partitioning instrument
  29. Jun 2020
    1. Report A report relays the results of your research in an organized manner. A report is written from the perspective of someone who already knows the answers.

      Definition of a report

    1. Create source bricks, which are essentially chunks of text you place before and after a quotation or a paraphrase. Here is how you do it:

      source bricks, good tip in preparing to write.

    1. When you quote, you use the exact wording from the source When you paraphrase, you put a passage or part of a text in your own words, being careful not to copy the sentence structure of the original source When you summarize, you give a very broad overview of a passage or a text--writing your summary in a 10th of the size of the original text

      quoting written sources

  30. May 2020
  31. Apr 2020
  32. Oct 2019
  33. Aug 2019
    1. Research. As zero-textbook-cost degrees are implemented across the country, research could be conducted to analyze the impact of degree establishment on student access and success, as well as on faculty pedagogical practice. Metrics related to access and success might include credit loads, withdrawal rates, persistence rates, pass rates, and actual cost savings.

      Zero-textbook cost degrees is still a long way off as far as India goes. Our students are now extremely proficient in the use of the internet and open sources. However, compared to open access resources use of standardised textbooks in traditionnal classrooms is definitely better as teachers has a personal connect with the student. This is particularly necessary as students are becoming victims of PUBG and other such addctive games leading to either suicide or other behavioural problems. We do not need a plethora of zombie students in our schools and colleges!

    1. As far as I can tell, open educational practice captures the true potential of OER to improve teaching and learning. Now that adoption of OER has been maturing and expanding, more people are interested in how to use OER more effectively. In other words, they’re asking what can OER do that traditional textbooks cannot?

      Replacing text books with open resources does push teachers out of their comfort zones!

  34. Jun 2019
  35. Mar 2019
    1. The anxiety perspective and academic performance is adopted from Catastrophe theory which explains about the relationship of anxiety and performance in terms of sport performance. It is important to understand the theory and the influence of anxiety upon performance. Martin in Robb (2005) proposed that cognitive anxiety would have negative correlation with performance and physiological anxiety have curvilinear relationship with performance. The cognitive anxiety is the component that most strongly affects performance

      Providing secondary evidence helps the authors construct the basis of the research subject and support the main claims.

    2. The Relationship of Study Anxiety and Academic Performance The Pearson correlation examines the relationship between study anxiety and academic performance. The result show mean and standard deviation of STAI (M=95.53; SD=12.008) and GPA (M=2.18; SD=0.250), a significant correlation (p=0.000), the correlation coefficient is small with r=-.264, and finally the sample size yield n=205.Study anxiety is negatively related to academic performance with a Person correlation coefficient was small. Nonetheless, the result proven that students who have high anxiety levels achieve low academic performance with anxiety level > 95 and academic performance < 2.50. Therefore, it can be concluded that there is a significant relationship between high level anxiety and low academic performance among engineering students. Consistently result with previous studies found a negative correlation between high levels of anxiety and low academic performance (Soler, 2005 and McCraty, 2007). In otherwise, El-Anzi (2005) describes a positive relationship between high degrees of academic achievement and low anxiety. Small of coefficient correlation is linked with the small of sample size yield seventy participants. Others expressed the opinion that the high level of anxiety will be associated with low academic performance (Luigi et al., 2007, and Sena et al., 2007). The finding support with McCraty (2000) where anxiety plays significant role in student's learning and academic performance, moreover it was revealed that a high facilitating achievement anxiety was related to low debilitating achievement anxiety. Similar statement cites to support the finding a fair number of engineering students that there are many situations which it is appropriate and reasonable to counter with some anxiety. That they may not find jobs in the future, express these feelings with ambivalence, confusion, lack of confidence and worry (Ercan et al., 2008). Researchers generally agree that high level anxiety will construct of low academic performance. Table 4 present the finding as follows
    3. Procedure The test aimed to find the relationship of study anxiety and academic performance among engineering students. Immediately participants giving a test, testing also aims to select trainees who have been identified in high anxiety and low academic performance were to participate in this training. The participants came to the lab and fill in the questionnaire include the S-Anxiety scale (STAI Form Y-1) and T-Anxiety scale (STAI Form Y-1). The STAI has 40 items of question and took approximately 20 minutes to complete. The students first read and answered if they had problems the researcher will guide students to answer the questions. This test was based on the faculty, after two weeks who have high levels of anxiety and low academic performance were offered to participate in this study. Result of the test was used to find out correlation between anxiety and academic performance.

      The authors explain the steps and procedures of the study and gives information about the way the research experiment will be executed. This is primary evidence as it is new information formulated and analysed by the authors to generate useful outcomes.

    4. Prima Vitasari et al. / Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences 8 (2010) 490–497491Anxiety while studying is a major predictor of academic performance (McCraty, 2007 and McCraty, et al., 2000) and various studies have demonstrated that it has a detrimental effect. Little is known that there exist a possible association between high level of anxiety and low academic performance among students. Researchers revealed that high levels of anxiety influence on the decrease of working memory, distraction, and reasoning in students (Aronen et al., 2005). Tobias in Ibrahim (1996) has been recognised that anxiety plays significant role in student's learning and academic performance, moreover anxiety has been known to have both facilitating and debilitating effects on academic achievement

      The authors mention secondary evidence to discuss the correlation between high anxiety levels and academic progress. This is done to establish the main claim and building blocks of the study that is to be conducted.

    1. In fact,Russell and Topham (2012) propose that social anxietymay have a negative impact on university/college students’academic achievement

      The author cites a secondary source to present his claim through a similar opinion

    2. Depending on the threshold of diagnosis,prevalence rates of social anxiety in university/collegestudents range from 10 to 33 % as compared to 7–13 % inthe general population

      The author uses secondary sources to back up his claims with evidence and support his argument

    1. Harris Shah Abd Hamid and Muhamad Karimi Sulaiman (2014) stated that the students from Department of Psychology, International Islamic University Malaysia who took a statistics course seemed to have a high level of statistical anxiety which due to a student’s negative self-perception in solving mathematical issues. According to the data found by the researchers, another predictor that contributes to the highest statistics anxietywas aroused by the teacher or course instructor. So, in this issue, the instructors may focus on verbal and nonverbal immediacy behaviorsto reduce students’ anxiety (Williams, 2010 as cited by Harris Shah Abd Hamid & Muhamad Karimi Sulaiman, 2014)

      The author effectively used a secondary source to propose an explanation and a theory for the reason students may suffer from anxiety symptoms. The source provides a credible basis on which the author was able to build a claim upon.

    2. Lama M. Al-Qaisy (2011) conducted research on identifying the impact of mood disorder particularly depression and anxiety among a sample of students of Tafila Technical University, Jordan for their academic performance. He claimed that whenever students have medium level of concern, in which not to the extent of disturbing one’s own mood experiences, they will achieve higher in academic performances

      The author used a secondary source as evidence and to make a point that mood has an effect on the performance as well, explaining that students who were less anxious or concerned seemed to score higher grades

    3. which can lead to poor academic performance

      The author used the definition to draw connection and reach the conclusion that academic performance is affected by anxiety, using the source to support the claim

    4. Spielberger (1983) and Vitasari (2011) referred anxiety to “a subjective feeling of tension, apprehension, nervousness, and worry associated with arousal of the nervous system”.

      The author uses the mentioned secondary sources as a basis to establish a connection between the provided definition of anxiety and the concept that it has negative effects on the lives of students



    1. spread

      It’s crucial to note that the map is not a complete picture of the riot or even of the evidence I have of specific events that took place that night. It includes at most 1/3 of the 300 or more properties damaged during the riot. Of the 280 events I identified, 179 are on the map (64%). I found reports of 132 men and women arrested during the riot, but the location of only 43% of those arrests. A greater proportion of the 79 individuals assaulted, killed or seriously injured, 72%, appear on the map. See Mapping the disorder

    2. waves of activity

      The map from which this narrative is derived has limits as evidence of the riot’s chronology. Only 40% (69/173) of the events on the map appear on the timeline; for the majority there is no information on when they took place. That is particularly the case for stores with broken windows; only 4 of 49 appear in the timeline. Nonetheless, the map does confirm the pattern reported in other sources. See Mapping the disorder

  36. Dec 2018
  37. www.lexisnexis.com www.lexisnexis.com
    1. Primary SourcesA document that establishes the law on a particular issue, such as a case decision or legislative act
    2. Secondary Sources:Sources of information that describe or interpret the law, such as legal treatises, law review articles, and other scholarly legal writings, cited by lawyers to persuade a court to reach a particular decision in a case, but which the court is not obligated to follow
  38. Aug 2018
  39. Nov 2017
    1. entered the University of Chicago at fifteen.

      Here, Gladwell establishes the credibility of his source by stating that he was a child prodigy. By noting that Ekman is a highly intelligent individual,

    2. Ekman and Friesen ultimately assembled all these combinations

      The process described in this paragraph, and in the three or four previous paragraphs, maintains the flow of one big idea. He uses this structure to make the point that the study of the face requires attention to the minute details and a massive time commitment. It also describes the sheer magnitude of the study itself and the daunting task that these two scholars took on.

  40. Oct 2017
    1. panes

      During WWI "panes" were visors of the gas mask that were used during war. Recall that this war was the introduction of chemical warfare; there was a lack of preparation in terms of understanding what exactly the gas was capable of doing to a human. Captain A.J. Waugh (as cited in Jones, 2014) expressed, “uncontrolled anxiety during a gas attack could cause men to tear off their protective masks” which would result in agonizing pain or death; however, the goal of chemical warfare was to instill fear and destroy the enemy.

    2. Gas! GAS! Quick, boys!—An ecstasy of fumbling

      WWI marked the introduction of chemical warfare which in return created complete terror and pandemonium; soldiers were not prepared for the effects of chemical warfare. As Jones indicates, the use of chemical warfare was to “terrorize the enemy and make their troops temporarily lose their minds.” Alexander Watson also claimed in his study (as cited in Jones, 2014) “gas created uncertainty: unlike shrapnel, it killed from the inside, eroding a soldier’s sense of control, while raising the terrifying fear of being suffocated." Going off the “created uncertainty” we have the use of "ecstasy" which encompasses a trance-like state; coinciding with the idea of being "drunk with fatigue" (see above annotation) from the effects of the gas. The delayed reactions of the soldiers against the gas would result in a behavior of "fumbling." The gas was designed to attack the nervous system; accelerating the deterioration of the body and mind.

    3. Dulce et Decorum Est

      This title was written in Latin and originally comes from the Roman poet Horace ode (III.2.13) which translates to “sweet and fitting it is to die for one’s country.” Horace’s ode paints patriotism and nationalism in a positive light as opposed to Owen’s bitter and stark realization of the cost of patriotism; paid for at the expense of the physical and mental deterioration of the soldier’s body during the First World War. As Harold Bloom suggest, Owen’s aim was “to attack the concept that sacrifice is sacred; he hoped to destroy the glamorized decency of war.” It is important to keep the title in mind in regards to what it means in the connotation of sweet verses sickly.

  41. Sep 2017
    1. Liberty has a broader meaning of which privacy is a subset. All liberties may not be exercised in privacy. Yet others can be fulfilled only within a private space. Privacy enables the individual to retain the autonomy of the body and mind. The autonomy of the individual is the ability to make decisions on vital matters of concern to life

      Privacy as subset of liberty

    2. The concept is founded on the autonomy of the individual. The ability of an individual to make choices lies at the core of the human personality. The notion of privacy enables the individual to assert and control the human element which is inseparable from the personality of the individual. The inviolable nature of the human personality is manifested in the ability to make decisions on matters intimate to human life. The autonomy of the individual is associated over matters which can be kept private. These are concerns over which there is a legitimate expectation of privacy. The body and the mind are inseparable elements of the human personality. The integrity of the body and the sanctity of the mind can exist on the foundation that each individual possesses an inalienable ability and right to preserve a private space in which the human personality can develop. Without the ability to make choices, the inviolability of the personality would be in doubt. Recognizing a zone of privacy is but an acknowledgment that each individual must be entitled to chart and pursue the course of development of personality. Hence privacy is a postulate of human dignity itself.

      privacy and autonomy. Privacy a postulate of human dignity

    3. Where there is a contradiction between international law and a domestic statute, the Court would give effect to the latter. In

      If contradiction, then domestic law takes precedence. If no contradiction, international obligations must be read so as to be incorporated

    4. In Vishakav State of Rajasthan226, this Court observed that in the absence of domestic law, the Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) is applicable

      Vishakha - applicability of international instruments in the absence of domestic law.

    5. while acceding to the ICCPR, India did not file any reservation or declaration to Article 17. While India filed reservations against Articles 1, 9 and 13, there was none to Article 17

      Not reservation against Article 17 of ICCPR

    6. Article 17 of the ICCPR provides thus:“The obligations imposed by this article require the State to adopt legislative and other measures to give effect to the prohibition against such interferences and attacks as well as to the protection of the right.”
    7. Article 12 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
    8. Article 51 of the Constitution, which forms part of the Directive Principles, requires the State to endeavour to “foster respect for international law and treaty obligations in the dealings of organised peoples with one another

      Article 51 - basis for incorporating international law and obligations

    9. The sanctity of privacy lies in its functional relationship with dignity. Privacy ensures that a human being can lead a life of dignity by securing the inner recesses of the human personality from unwanted intrusion. Privacy recognises the autonomy of the individual and the right of every person to make essential choices which affect the course of life

      privacy as an element of dignity

    10. Privacy with its attendant values assures dignity to the individual and it is only when life can be enjoyed with dignity can liberty be of true substance. Privacy ensures the fulfilment of dignity and is a core value which the protection of life and liberty is intended to achieve

      privacy interconnected with dignity

    11. So fundamental is dignity that it permeates the core of the rights guaranteed to the individual by Part III.

      Dignity permeates through Part III

    12. Dignity, the Court held, is not something which is conferred and which can be taken away, because it is inalienable

      Dignity is inalienable. Not conferred by Constitution but inheres in human life.

    13. Reflections of dignity are found in the guarantee against arbitrariness (Article 14), the lamps of freedom (Article 19) and in the right to life and personal liberty (Article 21)

      Dignity cuts through 14, 19 and 21

    14. the inseparable relationship between protection of life and liberty with dignity

      Dignity intrinsically linked to life and liberty in 21

    15. The individual lies at the core of constitutional focus and the ideals of justice, liberty, equality and fraternity animate the vision of securing a dignified existence to the individual.

      the primacy of the individual in the preamble and the constitution

    16. adverted to international conventions acceded to by India including the UDHR and ICCPR. Provisions in these conventions which confer a protection against arbitrary and unlawful interference with a person’s privacy, family and home would, it was held, be read in a manner which harmonizes the fundamental rights contained in Articles 14, 15, 19 and 21 with India’s international obligations

      Nalsa - recognition of international conventions in interpreting FRs

    17. reasonable expectation that it will be utilised

      Does the constitutional right to privacy envisage the purpose limitation principle? Does it only apply to state/private parties acting on behalf of state or for purely horizontal relationships as well?

    18. access to bank records to the Collectordoes not permit a delegation of those powers by the Collector to a private individual. Hence even when the power to inspect and search is validly exercisable by an organ of the state, necessary safeguards would be required to ensure that the information does not travel to unauthorised private hands.

      Where delegation of responsibilities, need for proper safeguards. Very relevant observation in the context of PPP models of governance and data collection/processing

    19. India’s international commitments under the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) and International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights(ICCPR)

      ICCPR and UDHR as instrumental in foundation for affirmation of privacy

    20. The significance of the judgment in Canara Banklies first in its reaffirmation of the right to privacy as emanating from the liberties guaranteed by Article 19 and from the protection of life and personal liberty under Article 21

      privacy derived from freedoms under 19, as well life and liberty under 21

    21. Court repudiated the notion that a person who places documents with a bank would, as a result, forsake an expectation of confidentiality. In the view of the Court, even if the documents cease to be at a place other than in the custody and control of the customer, privacy attaches to persons and not places and hence the protection of privacy is not diluted

      2 important observations

      • recognition of privacy attached to persons and and not places (moving beyond a propertarian view of privacy)

      • sharing of information does not lead to forsaking a reasonable expectation of privacy. Without reference, repudiation of third party doctrine. privacy not quivalent with secrecy.

    22. penumbras created by the Bill of Rights resulting in a zone of privacy101leading up eventually to a “reasonable expectation of privacy”

      Canara Bank - reference made to penumbra of rights creating a zone of privacy

    23. The need to read the fundamental constitutional guarantees with a purpose illuminated by India’s commitment to the international regime of human rights’ protection also weighed in the decision

      reading FRs in light of international commitments

    24. Article 21, in the view of the Court, has to be interpreted in conformity with international law

      International law

    25. rights which individuals while making a social compact to create a government, reserve to themselves, are natural rights because they originate in a condition of nature and survive the social compact

      Patterson on natural rights surviving the social contract

    26. The idea that individuals can have rights against the State that are prior to rights created by explicit legislation has been developed as part of a liberal theory of law propounded by Ronald Dworkin

      Rights predating the recognition through explicit legislation (Dworkin)

    27. The notion that certain rights are inalienable was embodied in the American Declaration of Independence

      Recognition of natural rights by the American Declaration of Independence

    28. t finds an origin in the notion that there are certain rights which are natural to or inherent in a human being

      Privacy as a natural right

  42. Jul 2017
    1. One of my favorite tools to use in doing this is the CRAAP test developed by the University of California at Chico. This method requires students to evaluate a source based on its Currency, Relevance, Authority, Accuracy, and Purpose. In fact, this method could easily be applied to “traditional” sources as well.
    1. When he read the Web address, http://pubweb.northwestern.edu/~abutz/di/intro.html, he assumed that the domain name “northwestern.edu” automatically meant it was a credible source. He did not understand that the “~” character, inserted after the domain name, should be read as a personal Web page and not an official document of the university.

      Even though I consider myself web literate enough to tell the difference between a personal and academic page, I honestly didn't know that the "~" denoted that. I really need to get better about thinking of web addresses and code as a language (which they are).

  43. May 2017
    1. It's about finding good-tasting solutions to the growing list of problems caused by global food.

      More emphasis by Freidberg on the issues of global food.

    2. A tour of the modern fridge reveals a world of interdependencies and inequalities, forged through trade, conquest, and politics. It is a world of sharp contradictions between marketed ideals and industrial realities. Nothing is as pure or natural as we'd like, but there's no shutting the door on this world.

      More critical of the indirect impacts the fridge has had on moral values (makes sense b/c this book isn't really about refrigeration but fresh food, and in many ways food justice). Rees is more critical of the direct impacts of refrigeration such as climate change and calls for more innovation to address problems. Freidberg asks readers to reconsider the impact of refrigeration on our morals. Both drawn from their conclusion/epilogue.

    1. Ownership of most of the nation's refrigerator cars helped the big packers push down shipping rates, and eventually push local butchers out of business. (Courtesy Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of American History, Pullman Photographic Collection)
    2. journal Ice and Refrigeration

      Was a journal that all the refrigeration literature I've studied in this context referred to, and appeared to be one of the only sources of literature that documented refrigeration in the the US in the 1900s. Thus there is very limited information on the nature of refrigeration, similar to how it is now. Though more books on refrigeration have recently been published, as its importance in changing food culture is realized. (Both modern sources consulted, consulted both Ice and Refrigeration and Anderson.

  44. Jan 2017
    1. The conclusion Mr Sinek came to in the video

      Do you think the journalist followed up with Sinek, or just watched the video & took notes? If the latter, would that actually qualify as a source?

    2. 'Some of them got into honours classes, not because they deserved it, but because their parents complained,' Mr Sinek said.

      How does he know this? Is it supported by evidence? What kind of evidence?

    3. dopamine is released from the brain when people interact with each other on online platforms

      Is this true? Can it be confirmed elsewhere? How would you find out?

    4. he researched millennials

      What kind of research? Has he published the research? Is his data available? Has his research been confirmed by the findings of other researchers?

    5. (They were) thrust into the real world and in an instant, they find out they're not special, their mums can't get them a promotion. And by the way, you can't just have it because you want it.

      Evidence? Sources?

  45. Oct 2016
    1. In Wall-E and the Toy Storytrilogy, the pleasure is of the suspen-sion of knowledge—the pleasure of notknowing.
    2. One of the distinct pleasures in Pixar’s films is the pleasure of seeing the deepest of human struggles, timeless philosophical questions projected in and through remote forms of representation.
    1. (“The Vacation So-lution”)

      This is an extended summary of a particular episode in 'The Big Band Theory".

    2. (“The Fish Guts Displacement”)

      This is a summary of a specific episode of the TV series that talks about a characters role.

  46. Aug 2016
    1. The definition of literacy has evolved in the 21st century. The basic definition of literacy means to be able to read and write. To be successful in today’s digital world, literacy goes far beyond being able to read and write. What it means to be digitally literate has reflected the change in how information is processed, delivered, and received in today’s highly connected world.

      This is pointing to an expanded definition of literacy with the growth of technology. It argues that literacy in today's world goes far beyond just knowing how to read and write.

    1. Page 122

      Borgman on terms used by the humanities and social sciences to describe data and other types of analysis

      humanist and social scientists frequently distinguish between primary and secondary information based on the degree of analysis. Yet this ordering sometimes conflates data, sources, and resources, as exemplified by a report that distinguishes "primary resources, E. G., Books close quotation from quotation secondary resources, eat. Gee., Catalogs close quotation . Resources also categorized as primary or sensor data, numerical data, and field notebooks, all of which would be considered data in the sciences. Rarely would books, conference proceedings, and feces that the report categorizes as primary resources be considered data, except when used for text-or data-mining purposes. Catalogs, subject indices, citation indexes, search engines, and web portals were classified as secondary resources. These are typically viewed as tertiary resources in the library community because they describe primary and secondary resources. The distinctions between data, sources, and resources very by discipline and circumstance. For the purposes of this book, primary resources are data, secondary resources are reports of research, whether publications or intern forms, and tertiary resources are catalogs, indexes, and directories that provide access to primary and secondary resources. Sources are the origins of these resources.

    2. Page 10

      Borgman on the merging of primary and secondary information sources .

      primary and secondary information sources long to be treated as a dichotomy, with different strands of research on each. Sociologist of science study the context in which primary data are produced, or primary archivists are concerned with how those that are captured, managed, and preserved. Researchers in the field of information studies and communication investigate how scholarly publications are written, disseminated, sought, used, and reference. Librarians select, collect, organize, conserve, preserve, and provide access to scholarly publications and print and digital form. Little research has explored the continuum from primary to secondary sources, much less the entire lifecycle from data generation through the preservation of scholarly products that set those data in context.

  47. Jul 2016
    1. Page 10

      little research has explored the Continuum from primary to secondary sources, much less the entire life cycle from data generation through the preservation of the scholarly products that set those data in context.

      More from Borgman on the gradual collapsing of primary and secondary sources

    2. p. 8-actually this is link to p. 7, since 8 is excluded

      Another trend is the blurring of the distinction between primary sources, generally viewed as unprocessed or unanalysed data, and secondary sources that set data in con