113 Matching Annotations
  1. Nov 2022
    1. The paradox of information systems[edit] Drummond suggests in her paper in 2008 that computer-based information systems can undermine or even destroy the organisation that they were meant to support, and it is precisely what makes them useful that makes them destructive – a phenomenon encapsulated by the Icarus Paradox.[9] For examples, a defence communication system is designed to improve efficiency by eliminating the need for meetings between military commanders who can now simply use the system to brief one another or answer to a higher authority. However, this new system becomes destructive precisely because the commanders no longer need to meet face-to-face, which consequently weakened mutual trust, thus undermining the organisation.[10] Ultimately, computer-based systems are reliable and efficient only to a point. For more complex tasks, it is recommended for organisations to focus on developing their workforce. A reason for the paradox is that rationality assumes that more is better, but intensification may be counter-productive.[11]

      From Wikipedia page on Icarus Paradox. Example of architectural design/technical debt leading to an "interest rate" that eventually collapsed the organization. How can one "pay down the principle" and not just the "compound interest"? What does that look like for this scenario? More invest in workforce retraining?

      Humans are complex, adaptive systems. Machines have a long history of being complicated, efficient (but not robust) systems. Is there a way to bridge this gap? What does an antifragile system of machines look like? Supervised learning? How do we ensure we don't fall prey to the oracle problem?

      Baskerville, R.L.; Land, F. (2004). "Socially Self-destructing Systems". The Social Study of Information and Communication Technology: Innovation, actors, contexts. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 263–285

  2. Sep 2022
    1. For millions of Americans who are living pay-check to paycheck and precariously close to the poverty line, normal life eventslike the birth of a child or temporary loss of a job can send them below thepoverty line. But poverty spells tend to be short, and they are caused by the riskassociated with normal events that happen to most of us across the life course.They are just more catastrophic for some than for others.

      Can poverty be modeled after a statistical thermodynamic framework? How might we move the set point for poverty up significantly to prevent the ill effects of regular, repeated poverty?

      What does the complexity of poverty indicate? Within the web of potential indicators, what might be done to vastly mitigate the movement of people in and out of poverty? What sorts of additional resiliency can be built into the system?

  3. Aug 2022
    1. The erasure principle would suggest that “Bill” isthe subject of “write,” although of course the sentence does not imply that Billwrote the book – rather John and Bill did, together.
    2. A-over-A principle that was proposed as the basis for an explanation of suchphenomena as are illustrated by examples 44–58.
  4. Jul 2022
    1. Generally, assets will still perform well if there is only a moderate degree of monetary policy tightening and risk premiums are falling. They will perform particularly poorly if there is a major tightening and risk premiums rise.

      .

    1. now we talk i talk about a few ideas good regulators requisite variety self-organized criticality and then the 01:35:04 free energy principle from active inference um and uh maybe i'll just try to briefly talk mention what's what those means for what those ideas mean for people who 01:35:15 aren't familiar so good regulator really came from the good regular theorem or whatever it's called really came from cybernetics ash ashby yeah a lot his law of requisite 01:35:33 variety and uh the it's the concept is that a organism or a you know a system must be must be a model of that which it but 01:35:47 that needs to control

      These are technical terms employed in this model: * Good regulators * Requisite variety * Self-organized criticality * Free energy principle

    1. A key point I make is that that the boundary between knowledge and ignorance is not impermeable. It is open to political appropriation by less powerful groups. In other words, calling attention to the problem of strategic ignorance by elite actors – and demanding more accountability from those actors – can lead to a new "war of position", in a Gramscian sense. In my book, I term this argument the Lorde principle, after Audre Lorde, in homage to earlier academic and activist work that my argument builds upon. I suggest that the Lorde principle encompasses the way that unknowing can be a revolutionary force for good.

      The Lorde principle is a leverage point for activists representing and from the persecuted masses that can hold people in positions of power who abuse strategic ignorance for personal gain and collective harm.

  5. Jun 2022
    1. I used to tell students (including PhD students) that 90% of what they will write will not be any good. But the only way they will get to the 10% that is good is by writing the 90% that isn't. So, they'd better start writing now! ;-)
    2. This can also be considered The Iceberg Principle. The 10% (really 9%) you do see is only visible because of the 90% (really 91%) you don't see. Without that 90% you don't get the 10%.

      Often you may need to dig below the surface of something to find it's real value.

      This is related to quotes about being able to find something interesting, redeeming, valuable about bad books as well as being able to learn from the fool.

    3. "Sturgeon's Law". According to those who were there, Theodore Sturgeon the SF author made this comment at a convention in 1953. it is that:90% of everything is crud, and it's the 10% that isn't crud that is important.

      I've also heard a version of this that relates to only 1% of what's in the Library of Congress being widely known or read.

      Related to: - Pareto principle - iceberg principle

    1. By dropping or reducing or postponing the least importantparts, we can unblock ourselves and move forward even when timeis scarce.

      When working on a project, to stave off potential procrastination on finishing, one should focus on the minimum viable version and finish that. They can then progressively enhance portions and add on addition pieces which may be beneficial or even nice to have.

      Spending too much time on the things that sound nice or that one "might want to have" in the future will be the death of the thing.

      link to: - you ain't gonna need it - bikeshedding for procrastination

      questions: - Does the misinterpreted-effort hypothesis play a role in creating our procrastination and/or lead to decision fatigue?

    2. One of my favorite rules of thumb is to “Only start projects that are already 80percent done.” That might seem like a paradox, but committing to finishprojects only when I’ve already done most of the work to capture, organize,and distill the relevant material means I never run the risk of startingsomething I can’t finish.

      This same sort of principle is seen in philanthropy circles where the group already has commitments for a large proportion of the end goal before they even announce the campaign.

      Is there a rule of thumb for this in philanthropy? 50%? What is it called, ie does it have a specific name?

      What relation does it have to the Pareto principle, if any?

  6. May 2022
    1. Lesson #3: “Decide what you stand for. And then stand for it all the time.”

      .

    2. Lesson #2: Don’t lose track of the essential things. Allocate resources appropriately.

      .

    3. Lesson #1: Don’t over-invest in work or under-invest in relationships.

      .

    1. I originally said: It feels like the principle of least power in action. But another way of rephrasing “least power” is “most availability.” Technologies that are old, simple, and boring tend to be more widely available.

      This is also the reason that space platforms are built on incredibly old computing systems, we know what all the problems and issues are. Then when the satellite is up in outer-space where it's not accessible and not easily repairable, it will hopefully work as expected forever.

    1. I learned the techniques programmers use to tame complexity: things like factoring, levels of abstraction, and separation of concerns.

      with one foot in the design world and one foot in the programming world, I wondered if we could apply these software development principles to the way we designed and managed the product.

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    1. instead of the “Mastodon appraoch” we take the “Replit approach”

      I'm confused by the continual references to the Replit. Once you have Replit-style power, you can do Mastodon interop—but it keeps you dependent on third-party SaaS. Continuing to violate the principle of least power isn't really any improvement. If you're going to shoot for displacing the status quo, it should be to enable public participation from people who have nothing more than a Neocities account or a static site published with GitHub Pages or one of the many other providers. Once you bring "live" backends into this (in contrast to "dead" media like RSS/Atom), you've pretty much compromised the whole thing.

    2. What happens if - maybe! - there’s a model of decentralization that feels more like a bunch of weird Replits networking with each other.

      Get rid of the networking, and make it more like the RSS/Atom model.

      ActivityPub, for example, shouldn't really require active server support if you just want publish to the clear Web (i.e. have no use for DMs). Anyone, anywhere can add RSS/Atom "support" to their blog—it's just dumping another asset on their (possibly static!) site. Not so with something like Mastodon, which is unfortunate. It violates the Principle of Least Power at a fundamental level.

    1. I wrote about my idea for Library.json a while back. It’s this idea that we might be able to rebuild these monolithic centralized services like Goodreads using nothing by a little RSS.

      See also this thread with Noel De Martin, discussing a (Solid-based) organizer for your media library/watchlist: https://noeldemartin.social/@noeldemartin/105646436548899306

      It shouldn't require Solid-level powers to run this. A design based upon "inert" data like RSS/Atom/JSON feeds (that don't require a smart backend to take on the role of an active participant in the protocol) would beat every attempt at Solid, ActivityPub, etc. that has been tried so far. "Inert"/"dead" media that works by just dumping some content on a Web-reachable endpoint somewhere, including a static site, is always going to be more accessible/approachable than something that requires either a server plug-in or a whole new backend to handle.

      The litmus test for any new proposal for a social protocol should be, "If I can't join the conversation by thumping on my SSG to get it to produce the right kind of output—the way that it's possible with RSS/Atom—then the design is fundamentally flawed and needs to be fixed."

    1. Theoretically, there are many plugins for webservers adding support for scripting using any scripting language you can name. These are sometimes used to host full-blown web applications but I don't see them being used to facilitate mildly dynamic functionality.

      All in all, despite its own flaws, I think this piece hints at a useful ontology for understanding the nuanced, difficult-to-name, POLP-violating design flaws in stuff like Mastodon/ActivityPub—and why BYFOB/S4 is a better fit, esp. for non-technical people.

      https://hypothes.is/search?q=%22black+and+dead+is+all+you+need%22+user:mrcolbyrussell

    2. They might have a style selector at the top of each page, causing a cookie to be set, and the server to serve a different stylesheet on every subsequent page load.

      Unnecessary violation of the Principle of Least Power.

      No active server component is necessary for this. It can be handled by the user agent's content negotiation.

  7. Apr 2022
    1. The reason for this has been discussed earlier in the context of the minimum information principle: you should always try to make sure your brain works in the exactly same way at each repetition.

      There is research that one's first guess or intuition is often correct. In a similar mode, one's first associative thought will likely be the strongest and easiest to remember. It's also more likely that the thought path will occur again and thereby make that association easier to remember in the future.

      What does this research indicate? Has anyone tested for this effect? Does it have a name? the TK effect? (And if it doesn't the TK Effect is actually quite an apt one.)


      This doesn't seem to be the same definition of the minimum information principle as before.

  8. Feb 2022
    1. Research is needed to determine the situations in which the redundancy principle does not hold

      p. 144-145

      The authors describe limits to the research (circa 2016) as follows: 1. Kinds of learners, 2. kinds of material, and 3. kinds of presentation methods. Each of these situations present interesting possibilities for research related to the use of closed captions used by first-year law students while watching course-related videos.

      When considering how "kinds of learners" might be relevant, the authors ask how redundant on-screen text might hurt or help non-native speakers of a language or learners with very low prior knowledge. It is probably reasonable to consider first-year law students as having "very low prior knowledge". Is there any sense in which those same students could be understand as having overlapping characteristics with TBD

    2. Principle 2: Consider Adding On‐Screen Text to Narration in Special Situations

      p. 139-141

      Clark and Mayer describe a key exception to the first principle they describe. One of the special situations they describe consists of when a learner must "exert greater cognitive effort to comprehend spoken text rather than printed text" (p. 140). This could be when the verbal material is complex and challenging, such as when learners are learning another language or when terminology is challenging such as might be encountered in scientific, technical, or legal(?) domains (p. 141).

      [P]rinting unfamiliar technical terms on the screen may actually reduce cognitive processing because the learner does not need to grapple with decoding the spoken words.

      However, it may be necessary to ensure that video is slow-paced or learner-controlled under circumstances where both audio narration and on-screen text are provided. Mayer, Lee, and Peebles (2014) found that when video is fast-paced, redundant text can cause cognitive overload, even when learners are non-native speakers.

      Mayer, R. E., Lee, H., & Peebles, A. (2014). Multimedia Learning in a Second Language: A Cognitive Load Perspective. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 28(5), 653–660. https://doi.org/10.1002/acp.3050

    3. Principle 1: Do Not Add On‐Screen Text to Narrated Graphics

      p. 133-134

      Clark and Mayer advise against providing redundant on-screen text at the same time that graphics (video) and narration are provided. They base their recommendation on both research and theory. And they provide two reasons before getting into the details: 1) learners reading on-screen text might not attend to graphics and 2) learners may try to reconcile on-screen text and audio narration and engage in extraneous processing defined below (p. 459)[emphasis added]:

      Irrelevant mental work during learning that results from ineffective instructional design of the lesson. For example, a graphic appears at the top of a scrolling screen and text explaining the graphic appears at the bottom so that contiguity is violated.

      But what if recognizing words and phrases accurately becomes a key component of comprehending a graphic or a video-recorded presentation? And what if the combination of audio narration and on-screen text can be used to support that that comprehension?

      There are some interesting studies in second language learning that seem to show similar benefits.

      Gass, S., Winke, P., Isbell, D. R., & Ahn, J. (2019). How captions help people learn languages: A working-memory, eye-tracking study. Language Learning & Technology, 23(2), 84–104. https://doi.org/10125/44684

      Mayer, R. E., Lee, H., & Peebles, A. (2014). Multimedia Learning in a Second Language: A Cognitive Load Perspective. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 28(5), 653–660. https://doi.org/10.1002/acp.3050

      Winke, P., Gass, S., & Sydorenko, T. (2010). The Effects of Captioning Videos Used for Foreign Language Listening Activities. Language Learning & Technology, 14(1), 65–86. http://dx.doi.org/10125/44203

    4. boundary conditions.

      p. 131-132

      Clark and Mayer provide a brief summary of the boundary conditions, the situations in which learners benefit from the use redundant on-screen text. These situations include adding printed text when 1) there are no graphics, 2) the presentation rate of the on-screen text is slow or learner-controlled, 3) the narration includes technical or unfamiliar words, and the 3) on-screen text is shorter than the audio narration.

      The first three conditions described bear some similarity to closed caption use by students in legal education watching class lecture videos, especially students in first-year courses. Typically, the students are viewing videos with very few detailed graphics, they have control over the speed, pause, review, and advance features of the video player, and the narration provides numerous legal terms.

      Although closed captions are intended for hard of hearing and deaf viewers, they may have some benefits for other learners if the boundary conditions described by the authors turn out to be true. Dello Stritto and Linder (2017) shared findings from a large survey of post-secondary students reporting that a range of students found closed captions to be helpful.

      Dello Stritto, M. E., & Linder, K. (2017). A Rising Tide: How Closed Captions Can Benefit All Students. Educause Review Online. https://er.educause.edu:443/articles/2017/8/a-rising-tide-how-closed-captions-can-benefit-all-students

    5. graphics using words in both on‐screen text and audio narration in which the audio repeats the text. We call this technique redundant on‐screen text because the printed text (on‐screen text) is redundant with the spoken text (narration or audio).

      Clark and Mayer provide a definition of redundant: Graphics accompanied by words in both on-screen text and audio narration in which that text is repeated. p. 131

      The authors go on to provide guidance about concurrent graphics, audio, and on-screen text. Based upon the research that they summarize in Chapter Seven, they advise instructors not to add printed text to an on screen graphic.

      p. 131

  9. Jan 2022
    1. Goodhart's law is an adage often stated as "When a measure becomes a target, it ceases to be a good measure".[1] It is named after British economist Charles Goodhart, who advanced the idea in a 1975 article on monetary policy in the United Kingdom:[2][3] .mw-parser-output .templatequote{overflow:hidden;margin:1em 0;padding:0 40px}.mw-parser-output .templatequote .templatequotecite{line-height:1.5em;text-align:left;padding-left:1.6em;margin-top:0}Any observed statistical regularity will tend to collapse once pressure is placed upon it for control purposes.

      We measure what we find important.

      Measures can and often become self-fulfilling targets. (read: Rankings and Reactivity by W. Espeland and M. Sauder https://www.stmarys-ca.edu/sites/default/files/attachments/files/rankings-and-reactivity-2007.pdf)

      When a measure becomes a target it ceases to be a good measure.

      So why measure?


      Is observation and measurement part of a larger complex process which isn't finished until the process itself is finished?


      This seems related to the measurement problem in quantum mechanics, Schrödinger's cat, the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, and the observer effect).

  10. Nov 2021
    1. The fact that these countries are still not on track to reach the 1.5⁰C per capita level by 2030, and have still not delivered the minimal commitment to mobilize $100bn per year in international climate finance by 2020, is a double indictment of their moral and legal failure in view of the equity principle at the heart of the UNFCCC and its Paris Agreement.

      The facts reflect the truth that developed economies are essentially unwilling to cede their way of life. The people of these economies want to cling to their high carbon way of life.

    1. Generate type with the index signature: interface RandomMappingWithIndexSignature { stringProp: string; numberProp: number; [propName: string]: string | number | undefined; }
  11. Oct 2021
  12. Sep 2021
    1. https://nesslabs.com/eisenhower-matrix

      The Eisnehower matrix is a means of helping one to implement the Pareto principle.

      Seen this basic idea so many times before and have it generally implemented in the bullet journal portion of my digital commonplace book. I should spend more time gardening in there regularly though.

  13. Aug 2021
    1. RemoteStorage requires the server to support a subset of OAuth, and that's the only kind of authentication supported. It also requires WebFinger support
    1. Principle #3: Intentionality is satisfying. Digital minimalists derive significant satisfaction from their general commitment to being more intentional about how they engage with new technologies. This source of satisfaction is independent of the specific decisions they make and is one of the biggest reasons that minimalism tends to be immensely meaningful to its practitioners.
    2. Principle #2: Optimization is important. Digital minimalists believe that deciding a particular technology supports something they value is only the first step. To truly extract its full potential benefit, it’s necessary to think carefully about how they’ll use the technology.
    3. Principle #1: Clutter is costly. Digital minimalists recognize that cluttering their time and attention with too many devices, apps, and services creates an overall negative cost that can swamp the small benefits that each individual item provides in isolation.
  14. Jul 2021
    1. Aristotle already thought the argument to be deceiving. He ridicules it by saying that according to the same kind of argument a hair, which was subject to an even pulling power from opposing sides, would not break, and that a man, being just as hungry as thirsty, placed in between food and drink, must necessarily remain where he is and starve. To him it was the wrong argument for the right proposition. Absolute propositions concerning the non-existence of things are always in danger of becoming falsified on closer investigation. They contain a kind of subjective aspect: “as far as I know.”

      Aristotle came up with some solid counter examples against using the principle of sufficient reason and showed how they could be falsified.

      What is the flaw in logic that would cause it to fail? Are there situations in which it could be used reliably? Ones in which it can't?

    2. We may assume that Anaximander somehow had to defend his bold theory of the free-floating, unsupported earth against the obvious question of why the earth does not fall. Aristotle’s version of Anaximander’s argument runs like this: “But there are some who say that it (namely, the earth) stays where it is because of equality, such as among the ancients Anaximander. For that which is situated in the center and at equal distances from the extremes, has no inclination whatsoever to move up rather than down or sideways; and since it is impossible to move in opposite directions at the same time, it necessarily stays where it is.” (De caelo 295b10ff., DK 12A26) Many authors have pointed to the fact that this is the first known example of an argument that is based on the principle of sufficient reason (the principle that for everything which occurs there is a reason or explanation for why it occurs, and why this way rather than that).

      principle of sufficient reason

      : for everything which occurs there is a reason or explanation for why it occurs, and why this way rather than that

      The first example in Western culture is that of Anaximander explaining why the Earth does not fall.

    1. Minto is the originator of the MECE principle pronounced "ME-see",[6][3] a grouping principle for separating a set of items into subsets that are mutually exclusive (ME) and collectively exhaustive (CE).[7] MECE underlies her Minto Pyramid Principle,[3] which suggests that people's ideas should be communicated in a pyramid format in which summary points are derived from constituent and supporting sub-points:[8] Grouping together low-level facts they see as similar Drawing an insight from having seen the similarity Forming a new grouping of related insights, etc. Minto argues that one "can’t derive an idea from a grouping unless the ideas in the grouping are logically the same, and in logical order.”[3]

      Saw this mentioned/described in the first session of Roam Book Club 5 [video].

  15. Jun 2021
  16. May 2021
    1. 71% of global emissions can be traced back to 100 companies,

      This would seem to fall into the Pareto principle guidelines. How can we minimize the emissions from just these 100 companies?

  17. Apr 2021
  18. Jan 2021
    1. Jo Maugham QC [@jolyonMaugham] (2020, August) Calling on retired lawyers! Law students! Bored lawyers! We at @GoodLawProject need your help with some research... we are working on what will be (well, if we win it) seminal litigation to establish the precautionary principle as a freestanding part of E&W common law! Twitter. Retrieved from: https://twitter.com/JolyonMaugham/status/1296092565075369984

    1. In other words, programs that send messages to other machines (or to other programs on the same machine) should conform completely to the specifications, but programs that receive messages should accept non-conformant input as long as the meaning is clear.
    2. be conservative in what you do, be liberal in what you accept from others
  19. Dec 2020
    1. Serving pages and assets as pre-generated files allows read-only hosting reducing attack vectors even further. Meanwhile dynamic tools and services can be provided by vendors with teams dedicated to securing their specific systems and providing high levels of service.
  20. Sep 2020
    1. What I believe should happen is the Svelte compiler should, when a promise is passed to onMount, realise that a promise has been passed, and await the result of the function to be used as the onDestroy function. i.e, it should behave the exact same way for an async function as it does for a non-async function (if this is possible)
    1. The main rationale for this PR is that, in my hones opinion, Svelte needs a way to support style overrides in an intuitive and close to plain HTML/CSS way. What I regard as intuitive is: Looking at how customizing of styles is being done when applying a typical CSS component framework, and making that possible with Svelte.
    2. Web developers are well aware of the mess you can get into with global CSS, and the action of writing <Child class="foo"/> and <div class={_class}>` (or similar) in the child component is an explicit indication that, while taking advantage of all the greatness of style encapsulation by default, in this case you have decided that you want a very specific and controlled "leak", of one class, from one component instance to one component instance.
  21. Aug 2020
  22. Jul 2020
    1. It’s even worse that there’s no alternative method that does the unsurprising thing IMO.
    2. The "unsurprising" thing here would generally be to maintain the order, for instance, and subtract the first or last instance...
    3. Code doing surprising and slightly nonsensical things... I'm weary now. And that's with ruby being more consistent than most!
  23. Jun 2020
  24. May 2020
    1. using SSH is likely the best approach because personal access tokens have account level access

      personal access tokens have account level access ... which is more access (possibly access to 10s of unrelated projects or even groups) than we'd like to give to our deploy script!

  25. Apr 2020
    1. This isn’t the first time Kerckhoffs’ Principle has come up. I specifically discussed it when talking about creating good, strong Master Passwords, when I said that we should use a system for coming up with Master Passwords that doesn’t lose its strength if the attacker knows the system that we used
  26. Mar 2020
    1. A Portuguese hospital was fined because of inadequate account management practices, such as having five times the number of active accounts than required and giving doctors blanket access to all patient files, irrespective of the doctor's specialty.
  27. Dec 2019
    1. Among Mayer’s principles are that audio and visual should work seamlessly together, and that on-screen text should be minimal and in close proximity to the graphics [1]

      keep visuals clean, mostly. audio should not distract.

  28. Jun 2018
    1. In this kind of situation one might well ask: why continue to make the 80 per cent of products that only generate 20 per cent of profits? Companies rarely ask these questions, perhaps because to answer them would mean very radical action: to stop doing four-fifths of what you are doing is not a trivial change.

      Relevant on larger scale of global economies.

    2. There are two routes to achieving this. One is to reallocate the resources from unproductive to productive uses, the secret of all entrepreneurs down the ages. Find a round hole for a round peg, a square hole for a square peg, and a perfect fit for any shape in between. Experience suggests that every resource has its ideal arena, where the resource can be tens or hundreds of times more effective than in most other arenas. The other route to progress—the method of scientists, doctors, preachers, computer systems designers, educationalists and trainers—is to find ways to make the unproductive resources more effective, even in their existing applications; to make the weak resources behave as though they were their more productive cousins; to mimic, if necessary by intricate rote-learning procedures, the highly productive resources. The few things that work fantastically well should be identified, cultivated, nurtured and multiplied. At the same time, the waste—the majority of things that will always prove to be of low value to man and beast—should be abandoned or severely cut back.
    3. Certainly, the principle brings home what may be evident anyway: that there is a tragic amount of waste everywhere, in the way that nature operates, in business, in society and in our own lives. If the typical pattern is for 80 per cent of results to come from 20 per cent of inputs, it is necessarily typical too that 80 per cent, the great majority, of inputs are having only a marginal—20 per cent—impact.
    4. Both phenomena help to show how the universe abhors balance. In the former case, we see a natural flight away from a 50/50 split of competing phenomena. A 51/49 split is inherently unstable and tends to gravitate towards a 95/5, 99/1 or even 100/0 split. Equality ends in dominance: that is one of the messages of chaos theory. The 80/20 Principle’s message is different yet complementary It tells us that, at any one point, a majority of any phenomenon will be explained or caused by a minority of the actors participating in the phenomenon. 80 per cent of the results come from 20 per cent of the causes. A few things are important; most are not.
    5. Related to the idea of feedback loops is the concept of the tipping point. Up to a certain point, a new force—whether it is a new product, a disease, a new rock group or a new social habit such as jogging or roller-blading—finds it difficult to make headway. A great deal of effort generates little by way of results. At this point many pioneers give up. But if the new force persists and can cross a certain invisible line, a small amount of additional effort can reap huge returns. This invisible line is the tipping point.
    6. We can see positive feedback loops operating in many areas, explaining how it is that we typically end up with 80/20 rather than 50/50 relationships between populations. For example, the rich get richer, not just (or mainly) because of superior abilities, but because riches beget riches. A similar phenomenon exists with goldfish in a pond. Even if you start with goldfish almost exactly the same size, those that are slightly bigger become very much bigger, because, even with only slight initial advantages in stronger propulsion and larger mouths, they are able to capture and gobble up disproportionate amounts of food
    7. At the heart of this progress is a process of substitution. Resources that have weak effects in any particular use are not used, or are used sparingly. Resources that have powerful effects are used as much as possible. Every resource is ideally used where it has the greatest value. Wherever possible, weak resources are developed so that they can mimic the behaviour of the stronger resources.
    8. Why should you care about the 80/20 Principle? Whether you realize it or not, the principle applies to your life, to your social world and to the place where you work. Understanding the 80/20 Principle gives you great insight into what is really happening in the world around you.
    9. The reason that the 80/20 Principle is so valuable is that it is counterintuitive. We tend to expect that all causes will have roughly the same significance. That all customers are equally valuable. That every bit of business, every product and every dollar of sales revenue is as good as another. That all employees in a particular category have roughly equivalent value. That each day or week or year we spend has the same significance. That all our friends have roughly equal value to us. That all enquiries or phone calls should be treated in the same way. That one university is as good as another. That all problems have a large number of causes, so that it is not worth isolating a few key causes. That all opportunities are of roughly equal value, so that we treat them all equally. We tend to assume that 50 per cent of causes or inputs will account for 50 per cent of results or outputs. There seems to be a natural, almost democratic, expectation that causes and results are generally equally balanced. And, of course, sometimes they are. But this ‘50/50 fallacy’ is one of the most inaccurate and harmful, as well as the most deeply rooted, of our mental maps.
    10. The key point is not the percentages, but the fact that the distribution of wealth across the population was predictably unbalanced.
    11. In business, many examples of the 80/20 Principle have been validated. 20 per cent of products usually account for about 80 per cent of dollar sales value; so do 20 per cent of customers. 20 per cent of products or customers usually also account for about 80 per cent of an organization’s profits. In society, 20 per cent of criminals account for 80 per cent of the value of all crime. 20 per cent of motorists cause 80 per cent of accidents. 20 per cent of those who marry comprise 80 per cent of the divorce statistics (those who consistently remarry and redivorce distort the statistics and give a lopsidedly pessimistic impression of the extent of marital fidelity). 20 per cent of children attain 80 per cent of educational qualifications available. In the home, 20 per cent of your carpets are likely to get 80 per cent of the wear. 20 per cent of your clothes will be worn 80 per cent of the time. And if you have an intruder alarm, 80 per cent of the false alarms will be set off by 20 per cent of the possible causes. The internal combustion engine is a great tribute to the 80/20 Principle. 80 per cent of the energy is wasted in combustion and only 20 per cent gets to the wheels; this 20 per cent of the input generates 100 per cent of the output!
    12. The 80/20 Principle asserts that a minority of causes, inputs or effort usually lead to a majority of the results, outputs or rewards. Taken literally, this means that, for example, 80 per cent of what you achieve in your job comes from 20 per cent of the time spent. Thus for all practical purposes, four-fifths of the effort—a dominant part of it—is largely irrelevant. This is contrary to what people normally expect.
  29. Mar 2018
  30. Nov 2017
    1. the algorithms of the Web are one of the least understood concepts that our students know nothing about

      “Pay no attention to that mind behind the algorithm”

  31. Mar 2017
    1. Principle 1—Problem-centered: Learning ispromoted when learners are engaged in solvingreal-world problems.

      In my experience, this is a very powerful principle for learning.It can provide many variables that are not present in traditional learning environments:

                   * Authentic context
                   * Complex problems  
                   * Real stakeholders
                   * Authentic feedback from real stakeholders 
      

      Solving real-world problems can naturally lead to inter-disciplinary work and high levels of motivation if the student is allowed to pick a real world problem that is important for them.

    1. Acknowledging prior learning

      "Students come to the classroom with preconceptions about how the world works. If their initial understanding is not engaged, they may fail to grasp the new concepts and information that are taught, or they may learn them for purposes of a test but revert to their preconceptions outside the classroom". How People Learn

      Examples: Harvard graduates talk about: seasons electricity mass of trees 3:50

      "A critical feature of effective teaching is that it elicits from students their preexisting understanding of the subject matter to be taught and provides opportunities to build on—or challenge—the initial understanding."

    2. Metacognition activities in support of metacognitive practices

      This is a basic principle from the researh presented in How People Learn

    3. Formative Assessment

      Another Basic Principle from learning research.

    4. Community Centered
  32. Jan 2017
    1. One of those values is the principle of material honesty. One material should not be used as a substitute for another. Otherwise the end result is deceptive.

      Great principle!

      Should be applied to science as well: scientific publication is meant to spread ideas and findings, not to evaluate researchers!

  33. Apr 2016
  34. Nov 2015
    1. Paul, there is only one thing going on. That one thing is the Life Principle Itself, which constitutes Your Being. It is not necessary for you, as a person, to duplicate what your Being is already being. I know you are having difficulty relating that to your experience, since it appears that everyone is demanding that you, as a mortal, respond to and fulfill these demands.

      Being is already occurring....

    1. You must grasp that every specific aspect of the Universe is the individualization of God without any diminution of God. Three-dimensionally, it appears to be finite, but Fourth-dimensionally, every individuation of God is all of God, all of the Life/Principle, all of the Love, all of the All. Therefore, the One being Many, you could say the One is not alone.

      Having the experience of being an individuated being does not mean I am alone and separate as I and still an aspect of the totality of all that is.

    1. PAUL: In what way does Substance constitute Supply? RAJ: Let us first be clear that when we speak of Supply we are not speaking from a finite, three-dimensional standpoint. Supply is not something that comes from one point to another point, such as payment from a client or customer. Supply does not come from one thing to another, such as food value from wheat. Supply is not given or received. Supply is an Omnipresencing of That Which Is: God, the Life Principle, Divine Mind, Fourth-dimensional Being as Conscious Being. You must remember that Substance is Activity, not a static lump of stuff. We have already spoken in regard to the fact that It has intent or purpose. Substance is Being’s Ability to fulfill Itself successfully, Totally. Therefore, it should be clear that Substance is fulfillment—Supply in its truest meaning. Supply is inescapable, unavoidable, when understood.

      "Supply is an Omnipresencing of That Which Is: God, the Life Principle, Divine Mind, Fourth-dimensional Being as Conscious Being."

      "Substance is Being’s Ability to fulfill Itself successfully, Totally. Therefore, it should be clear that Substance is fulfillment."

    2. Spirit is the substance of all of these, both nondimensionaly and dimensionally. It is the Light, Itself, which illuminates and is illumined. It is That which shines, and That which is shone upon. Spirit is, Itself, the Life Principle, the Life Force, the Initiator and Initiated, the Cause and the Effect.

      "Spirit is the substance of all of these, both nondimensionaly and dimensionally. It is the Light, Itself, which illuminates and is illumined. It is That which shines, and That which is shone upon. Spirit is, Itself, the Life Principle, the Life Force, the Initiator and Initiated, the Cause and the Effect."

  35. Oct 2015
    1. Paul, it is impossible for your world to become integrated if you do not understand what the Substance of that Totality is. This is why we are discussing this point this morning. The only Substance there is throughout the Universe—and throughout all dimensions—is Light. This Light, in Its various aspects, is Life, Truth, Principle, Mind, Soul, and Spirit. It is also Intelligence and Substance. In everything you do, I want you to begin to be conscious of this idea that all there is to you—and all there is to everything—is this Light of Living Love. There are not two things going on. This Light is eternally living Itself as the intelligent expression of Conscious Experience, universally and specifically.

      My world cannot be healed unless I come to understand that the totality of all things is Light, which is Love.

      Here he equates Light to Life, Truth, Principle, Mind, Soul, and Spirit.

      He gives Paul an exercise. To begin to be conscious, in everything he does, that all there is to him - and to everything - is Living Love (God!!!!)

      There is not two things going on, there is not the perceived drama of life and Living Love. And this is where the practice is important because it the insanity of the world seems to be true.