293 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. For whom do we make knowledge and why? This question could not be timelier as humanists and administrators seek to make disciplines appear more relevant to students, applicable to social problems, and attendant to political, social, and economic exigencies” (2019, p. 351)
  2. Nov 2022
    1. Data minimisation

      Collect only the data that we need to meet our research objectives.

    2. The GDPR places obligations on both: the ‘data controller’, which ‘alone, or jointly with others, determines the purposes and means ofthe processing of personal data’; and the ‘data processor’, which ‘processes personal data on behalf of the controller’.

      Nosotros seríamos el data controller

    3. It is your responsibility to ensure that your research complies withthe data protection laws in all the Member States in which your research data areprocessed, as well as the GDPR.33 See in particular Articles 9(4), 8 and 89(3) GDPR.

      Pilas con Alemania

    4. The increasing impact of these and other new technologieson our everyday lives and activity is reflected in the letter and spirit of the EU’s 2016 General DataProtection Regulation GDPR)

      letter about the use of nw technologies (artificial intelligence)

    5. Ethics and data protection

      Ethics and data protection

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    1. This section concerns research involving goods, software and technologies covered bythe EU Export Control Regulation No 482/2009.

      Los sensores que nosotros utilizamos tienen que ser evaluados por esta regulación?

    2. Pseudonymisation and anonymisation are not the same thing.‘Anonymised’ means that the data has been rendered anonymous in such away that the data subject can no longer be identified (and therefore is nolonger personal data and thus outside the scope of data protection law).‘Pseudonymised’ means to divide the data from its direct identifiers so thatlinkage to a person is only possible with additional information that is heldseparately. The additional information must be kept separately and securelyfrom processed data to ensure non-attribution.

      Diferencias entre anonimización y pseudoanonimización

    3. Collecting personal data (e.g. on religion, sexual orientation, race, ethnicity,etc.) that is not essential to your research may expose you to allegations of‘hidden objectives’ or ‘mission creep’

      Justificar por qué queremos recolectar esta información

    4. Ethics issues checklist

      Ethics issues checklist - Personal data

    5. 1) Declarationconfirmingcompliance withthe laws of thecountry where thedata was collected.

      Aquí hay que especificar que se cumplen con las leyes del país de donde se recoge la información.

    6. name, anidentification number, location data, an online identifier or to one or morefactors specific to the physical, physiological, genetic, mental, economic,cultural or social identity of that natural person (art. 2(a) EU General DataProtection Regulation (GDPR).

      What makes a person identifiable

    7. Participants must be given an informed consent form and detailed information sheetsthat: are written in a language and in terms they can fully understand describe the aims, methods and implications of the research, the nature of theparticipation and any benefits, risks or discomfort that might ensue explicitly state that participation is voluntary and that anyone has the right torefuse to participate and to withdraw their participation, samples or data atany time — without any consequences state how biological samples and data will be collected, protected during theproject and either destroyed or reused subsequently state what procedures will be implemented in the event of unexpected orincidental findings (in particular, whether the participants have the right toknow, or not to know, about any such findings).

      Detalles del consentimiento informado

    8. Does it involveinvasivetechniques (e.g.collection ofhuman cells ortissues, surgicalor medicalinterventions,invasive studieson the brain, TMSetc.)?

      It seems we do not

    9. vulnerableindividuals orgroups?

      How do they define vulnerable?

    10. Ethics issues checklist

      Ethics issues checklist - Research on human beings

    11. How to complete your ethics self-assessment

      How to complete your ethics self-assessment

    1. But we cannot have become social beings unless weassumed limitations on freedom of action in the struggle for exis-tence. Hence we must have become ethical before we becamerational.

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  3. Sep 2022
    1. it is now necessary to distinguish “virtue ethics” (the third approach) from “virtue theory”, a term which includes accounts of virtue within the other approaches.

      virtue ethics and virtue theory are somewhat distinct, where the latter deals with virtue from the perspectives of deontology and utilitarianism

    2. Whereas consequentialists will define virtues as traits that yield good consequences and deontologists will define them as traits possessed by those who reliably fulfil their duties, virtue ethicists will resist the attempt to define virtues in terms of some other concept that is taken to be more fundamental. Rather, virtues and vices will be foundational for virtue ethical theories and other normative notions will be grounded in them.
    1. humanity as not only the source and context for technology and its use, but its ultimate yardstick for the constructive use and impact of technology. This may sound obvious, it certainly does to me, but in practice it needs to be repeated to ensure it is used as such a yardstick from the very first design stage of any new technology.

      Vgl [[Networked Agency 20160818213155]] wrt having a specific issue to address that is shared by the user group wielding a tech / tool, in their own context.

      Vgl [[Open data begint buiten 20200808162905]] wrt the only yardstick for open data stems from its role as policy instrument: impact achieved outside in the aimed for policy domains through the increased agency of the open data users.

      Tech impact is not to be measured in eyeballs, usage, revenue etc. That's (understandably) the corporation's singular and limited view, the rest of us should not adopt it as the only possible one.

    1. The critical writing on data science hastaken the paradoxical position of in-sisting that normative issues pervadeall work with data while leaving unad-dressed the issue of data scientists’ethical agency. Critics need to consid-er how data scientists learn to thinkabout and handle these trade-offs,while practicing data scientists needto be more forthcoming about all ofthe small choices that shape their deci-sions and systems.

      In my opinion, data science is a huge field with a lot of unresolved issues. I believe that critics of data science must be able to understand all the analytics that data scientists use to truly have a valid critique. I also believe that the critical writing about data science doesn't do much justice as actually understanding the analytics would. How would analytics play a role in critical writing?

  4. Aug 2022
    1. We should all transition from thinking about logic as a field of great dead white men and as a field of “geniuses”, to recognizing those men for the flawed creatures they were, whose “genius” relied on the subjugation of many women and BIPOC around them, and ensuring that the Wikipedia, SEP, etc., pages for these logicians acknowledge that.

      This is the wrong approach, because it imposes modern norms on past times. It's illogical and superficial.

      It would be appropriate, though, to carefully review the histories of past logicians and to document more fully the roles that others played in their work, with a clinical and factual dispassion, and with the intention of being accurate and attributing progress to whoever actually did the work.

    1. The purpose of this secular knowledge system is not intrinsically about wellbeing, ethics and goodness per se; it is about the search for truth and efficacy—be that for competing ideas about what is good, for the purposes of competitive advantage in commerce or national prestige, or for destructive purposes linked to warfare and security.
  5. Jul 2022
  6. May 2022
  7. Apr 2022
  8. Mar 2022
    1. Importantly, we had a human in the loop with a firm moral and ethical ‘don’t-go-there’ voice to intervene.

      The human-in-the-loop was a key breakpoint between the model's findings as concepts and the physical instantiation of the model's findings. As the article goes on to say, unwanted outcomes come from both taking the human out of the loop and replacing the human in the loop with someone with a different moral or ethical driver.

  9. Feb 2022
    1. he gaps between data scientists and critics are wide, but critique di-vorced from practice only increases them.

      In my opinion this struggle needs to play out. Data science can always be streamlined to remove the bias that everyone has. the conflict this article speaks of is just the natural progression of what has been happening already. The only way this will get better is through constant struggle, just like everything else.

    1. The paper did not seem to have consent from participants for: (a) Agreeing to participate in the different types of interventions (which have the potential of hurting the health of citizens and could even lead to their death.); (b) using their personal health data to publish a research paper.

      Given that the authors are government actors who can easily access millions of citizens and put them in the study groups they desire, without even telling citizens that they are in a study, I worry that this practice will be popularized by governments in Latin America and put citizens in danger.

      I also want to note that this is a new type of disinformation where government actors can post content on these repositories and given that most citizens do NOT know it is NOT peer reviewed it can help the government actors to validate their public policy. The research paper becomes political propaganda and the international repository helps to promotes the propaganda.

  10. Jan 2022
    1. And there are, again, ethical questions that must be asked and answered when dealing with the quantitative study of human atrocity, which is what we’re ultimately doing when we bring statistical and mathematical methods to the study of slavery.
    1. Σύμφωνα μάλιστα με τον νομπελίστα Ινδό οικονομολόγο Αμάρτια Σεν και η γενναιοδωρία είναι μια μεταμφιεσμένη υποκρισία, ένας ιδιοτελής αλτρουισμός, διότι αν είστε καλός με τους ανθρώπους επειδή αυτό σας κάνει να νιώθετε καλύτερα, τότε η ευσπλαχνία σας είναι ιδιοτελής και όχι ανιδιοτελής.

      Αντι να παραδεχτει την ανιδιοτέλεια σας μακροπρόθεσμη στρατηγική ιδιοτέλειας, καταργει κυνικα την έννοια, και κρατάει μονο την ιδιοτέλεια,ωστε να ταιρίαζει με το νοεφιλελευθερισμό - κυκλικό επιχείρημα που φτωχαίνει τη λέξη και το μυαλο.

  11. Dec 2021
    1. How do I allow students to voice contentious, ugly, or even ignorant views, so that they can learn without fear of recrimination?

      Too broad of a spectrum here. And why should students not fear recrimination? This is coddling, pure and simple.

    1. people end up being told their needs are not important, and theirlives have no intrinsic worth. The last, we are supposed to believe, isjust the inevitable effect of inequality; and inequality, the inevitableresult of living in any large, complex, urban, technologicallysophisticated society. Presumably it will always be with us. It’s just amatter of degree.

      People being told they don't matter and don't have intrinsic worth is a hallmark of colonialism. It's also been an ethical issue in the study of anthropology for the past 150 years.

      Anthropologist Tim Ingold in Anthropology: Why It Matters touches on some of this issue of comparing one group of people with another rather than looking at and appreciating the value of each separately.

  12. Nov 2021
    1. The dopamine reward system has also been shown to bestimulated by most drugs of abuse and plays an important rolein addiction [33]. An important question is whether jhanameditators are subject to addiction and tolerance effects thatcan result from stimulation of the dopamine reward system.

      The question of potential addiction to self-induced states that activate the dopamine (and/or other neurochemical) reward system(s) is important. From a more philosophical angle, should we welcome beneficial addictions that, if cultivated, might significantly improve individual and group quality of life? Isn't this related to our high regard for replacing detrimental with positive habits? Habit formation and maintenance also depends on activation of neural reward systems (see Nir Eyal's book, Hooked).

    1. https://thedispatch.com/p/a-note-to-our-readers-from-steve

      Center-right journalists Steve Hayes and Jonah Goldberg of The Dispatch have severed ties with Fox News over a misinformation campaign from Tucker Carlson based on the January 6 events.

      Kudos to them for drawing a line on this issue.

    1. Not that everyone really wants an apology. One former journalist told me that his ex-colleagues “don’t want to endorse the process of mistake/apology/understanding/forgiveness—they don’t want to forgive.” Instead, he said, they want “to punish and purify.” But the knowledge that whatever you say will never be enough is debilitating. “If you make an apology and you know in advance that your apology will not be accepted—that it is going to be considered a move in a psychological or cultural or political game—then the integrity of your introspection is being mocked and you feel permanently marooned in a world of unforgivingness,” one person told me. “And that is a truly unethical world.”

      How can restorative justice work in a broader sense when public apologies aren't more carefully considered by the public-at-large? If the accuser accepts an apology, shouldn't that be enough? Society-at-large can still be leery of the person and watch their behavior, but do we need to continue ostracizing them?

      An interesting example to look at is that of Monica Lewinsky who in producing a version of her story 20+ years later is finally able to get her own story and framing out. Surely there will be political adherents who will fault her, but has she finally gotten some sort of justice and reprieve from a society that utterly shunned her for far too long for an indiscretion which happens nearly every day in our society? Compare her with Hester Prynne.

      Are we moving into a realm in which everyone is a public figure on a national if not international stage? How do we as a society handle these cases? What are the third and higher order effects besides the potential for authoritarianism which Applebaum mentions?

  13. Oct 2021
    1. This is a nice introduction to some issues of concern to me. For instance, the absence of pain is good - but why is it good? The empirical reason for this is that it satisfies evolved instinct. So again, what is good tracks to what is natural. But the naturalistic fallacy undermines that. And most importantly, there is no known scientific connection between evolution and instinct on the one hand, and "good" on the other. My answer is: morality is not natural, it is an artifice of humanity. And since it's an artifice, we can make it whatever we want.

    1. UX is now "user exploitation."

      As a student in the new generation of UX designers i've been more sensible to these matters but i do see signs of alternative behaviors emerging (the right to repair, for example) which could benefit hugely from our discipline methods and learnings.

    1. Victor Papanek’s book includes an introduction written by R. Buckminster Fuller, Carbondale, Illinois. (Sadly, the Thames & Hudson 2019 Third Edition does not include this introduction. Monoskop has preserved this text as a PDF file of images. I have transcribed a portion here.)

    1. The real conspiracies are hiding in plain sight.

      The big difference between the paranoiac's conspiracy theories and the real ones is that in the fake ones the conspirators are "in it together" and form a like-minded group. In reality, the billionaires would be very happy to through each other under the bus if they could.

      So it's not so much that there are real conspiracies as there are a known set of methods and tools - known to everyone, everywhere - that allow this gross power imbalance to be created. These methods and tools are known to all but can only be used by the rich because they are themselves very costly.

  14. Sep 2021
    1. In fact, researchers must decide how to exercise their power based on inconsistent and overlapping rules, laws, and norms.

      It shouldn't be decided by researchers.

    1. Under the no-harmprinciple, we owe it to our communities to undertake respon-sible scholarship that minimizes the possibilities of harm.

      No harm principle

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    1. should we do research that is not consciousness raising for the participants? Is such research an oppressive process that of necessity exploits the subject?

      Do the researchers have any responsibility towards safeguarding the wellbeing of their interviewees when such research of difficult topics and discusses can create emotionally challenging or be restimulating for the participants.

    2. We were pushed to develop our analysis further by women in the study whom we asked to read the manuscript. They were hesitant about being negative, but were clearly critical.

      Justice - allowing women to read and critque manuscript. Result - researchers - participant design changes - participants asked for sociological interpretation by the researchers. They were looking for insights.

    3. right suggests that researchers must take care not to make the research relationship an ex- ploitative one.

      Don't exploit the relationship

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    1. The authors propose a feminist ethics of care approach to CTCs in order to address the gendered power dynamics that often define and shape existing infomediary practices, distribute care work, and make existing care work visible.
    1. liberty of conscience

      "Liberty of conscience" is a phrase Roger Williams uses in a religious context to denote the freedom for one to follow his or her religious or ethical beliefs. It is an idea that refers to conscious-based thought and individualism. Each person has the right to their own conscience. It is rooted in the idea that all people are created equal and that no culture is better than the other.

      This idea is strongly tied to: freedom from coercion of conscience (own thoughts and ideas), equality of rights, respect and toleration. It is a fundamental element of what has come to be the "American idea of religious liberty". Williams spoke of liberty of conscience in reference to a religious sense. This concept of individualism and free belief was later extrapolated in a general sense. He believed that government involvement ended when it came to divine beliefs.

      Citation: Eberle, Edward J. "Roger Williams on Liberty of Conscience." Roger Williams University Law Review: vol 10:, iss: 2, article 2, pp. 288-311. http://docs.rwu.edu/rwu_LR/vol10/iss2/2. Accessed 8 Sept. 2021.

    1. The tunnel far below represented Nevada’s latest salvo in a simmering water war: the construction of a $1.4 billion drainage hole to ensure that if the lake ever ran dry, Las Vegas could get the very last drop

      Deep Concept: Modern America is mostly corrupt from it's own creation of wealth. Wealth is power, power corrupts and absolute power corrupts absolutely! Money and wealth have completely changed the underlying foundation of America. Modern America is the corrupted result of wealth. Morality and ethics in modern American have been reshaped to "fit" European Aristocracy, ironically the same European aristocracy America fled in the Revolutionary War.

      Billions and billions of tax payer money is spent on projects that could never pass rigorous examination and best public ROI use. Political authoritative conditions rule public tax money for the benefit of a few at the expense of the many. The public "cult-like" sheep have no clue how they are being abused.

      The authoritative abusers (politicians) follow the "mostly" corrupt American (fuck-you) form of government and individual power tactics that have been conveniently embedded in corrupt modern morality and ethics, used by corrupted lawyers and judges to codify the fundamental moral code that underpins the original American Constitution.

  15. Aug 2021
  16. Jul 2021
    1. "For example, human annotators rarely reached agreement when they were asked to label tweets that contained words from a lexicon of hate speech. Only 5% of the tweets were acknowledged by a majority as hate speech, while only 1.3% received unanimous verdicts."

      This seems shocking to me.

    2. Well, no. I oppose capital punishment, just as (in my view) any ethical person should oppose capital punishment. Not because innocent people might be executed (though that is an entirely foreseeable consequence) but because, if we allow for capital punishment, then what makes murder wrong isn't the fact that you killed someone, it's that you killed someone without the proper paperwork. And I refuse to accept that it's morally acceptable to kill someone just because you've been given permission to do so.

      Most murders are system 1-based and spur-of-the-moment.

      System 2-based murders are even more deplorable because in most ethical systems it means the person actively spent time and planning to carry the murder out. The second category includes pre-meditated murder, murder-for-hire as well as all forms of capital punishment.

    1. or Jonas, one of the questions we must face is this“What force shall represent the future in the present?”

      This is a pressing question which our governments pay far too little attention to.

    2. e book does not wholly succeed, but Jonas’s central idea ispowerful and has not been given the attention it deserves. !at ideaarises from one governing insight: Under technocratic modernity,“the altered nature of human action, with the magnitude andnovelty of its works and their impact on man’s global future, raisesmoral issues for which past ethics, geared to the dealings of manwith his fellow-men within narrow horizons of space and time, has

      left us unprepared.” Although Heidegger found it necessary, in his attempt to rethink metaphysics, to go back to the insights of the pre-Socratic philosophers, Jonas does not believe that any earlier thinkers hold the key to the ethical challenge posed by technocratic modernity, because no previous society possessed powers that could extend its reach so far in both space and time. A wholly new ethics is required, and is required simply because of the scope of our technologies.

      Hans Jonas, a student of Martin Heidegger, argues in The Imperative of Responsibility, that modern technology requires a new ethical framework because no previous societies possessed the technical powers to extend their reach so far in time and space as ours currently do.

  17. Jun 2021
    1. objective function that tries to describe your ethics

      We can't define ethics and human values in objective terms.

    2. many other systems that are already here or not far off will have to make all sorts of real ethical trade-offs

      And the problem is that, even human beings are not very sensitive to how this can be done well. Because there is such diversity in human cultures, preferences, and norms, deciding whose values to prioritise is problematic.

  18. May 2021
    1. O’Connor, D. B., Aggleton, J. P., Chakrabarti, B., Cooper, C. L., Creswell, C., Dunsmuir, S., Fiske, S. T., Gathercole, S., Gough, B., Ireland, J. L., Jones, M. V., Jowett, A., Kagan, C., Karanika‐Murray, M., Kaye, L. K., Kumari, V., Lewandowsky, S., Lightman, S., Malpass, D., … Armitage, C. J. (2020). Research priorities for the COVID‐19 pandemic and beyond: A call to action for psychological science. British Journal of Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjop.12468

  19. Apr 2021
    1. People can take the conversations with willing co-workers to Signal, Whatsapp, or even a personal Basecamp account, but it can't happen where the work happens anymore.

      Do note that two of the three systems that Fried use for examples are private. In other words, only people who you explicitly want to see what you're writing will see just that.

      This goes against his previous actions somewhat, e.g. https://twitter.com/jasonfried/status/1168986962704982016

    2. Sensitivities are at 11, and every discussion remotely related to politics, advocacy, or society at large quickly spins away from pleasant. You shouldn't have to wonder if staying out of it means you're complicit, or wading into it means you're a target.

      This is something that even pre-Socratic philosophers discussed. Not saying something is also saying something.

      Most of what is done by and in a capitalist company is supported by a certain rationale: to make as much money as possible for your shareholders.

      If you care about making money, you speak out against injustices; These injustices could be logical, moral, ethical, or a mixture.

      The phrase 'It's become too much' is a bit vague from Fried, who has written books that advocate speaking out, e.g. 'It Doesn't Have To Be Crazy At Work'.

    1. You do not need to use your real name or identity on any public-facing work that you do in this course.

      Thank you for this, it's great to see in a syllabus!

  20. Mar 2021
    1. the community is both endlessly creative and genuinely interested in solving big issues in meaningful ways. Whether it's their commitment to careful (and caring) community stewardship or their particular strain of techno-ethics, I have been consistently (and pleasantly) surprised at what I've seen during the last twelve months. I don't always see eye-to-eye with their decisions and I don't think that the community is perfect, but it's consistently (and deliberately) striving to be better, and that's a fairly rare thing, online or off.
    1. But anything that reduced engagement, even for reasons such as not exacerbating someone’s depression, led to a lot of hemming and hawing among leadership. With their performance reviews and salaries tied to the successful completion of projects, employees quickly learned to drop those that received pushback and continue working on those dictated from the top down.

      If the company can't help regulate itself using some sort of moral compass, it's imperative that government or other outside regulators should.

  21. Feb 2021
    1. What is the relationship between design, power, and social justice? “Design justice” is an approach to design that is led by marginalized communities and that aims explicitly to challenge, rather than reproduce, structural inequalities. It has emerged from a growing community of designers in various fields who work closely with social movements and community-based organizations around the world.

      Alles wat niet wordt gedisciplineerd en gestructureerd door natuurwetenschappelijke wetmatigheden hangt samen met de menselijke creativiteit en behoeften. Van de inrichting van steden tot de inrichting van de maatschappij hebben we te maken met het ontwerpactiviteiten. De relatie tussen die inrichting en het gedrag van gebruikers waarvoor die inrichting is bedoeld is een vrij complexe. Of zoals Churchill het eens (1943) verwoordde:

      “We shape our buildings, thereafter they shape us.”

      Niet veel later (1967) werd een vergelijkbare uitspraak (ten onrechte) toegeschreven aan McLuhan:

      "We shape our tools, and thereafter our tools shape us."

      Degene die deze uitspraak deed, John Culkin, illusteerde dit aan de hand van de intrede van de auto

      Once we have created a car, for example, our society evolves to make the car normal, and our behavior adapts to accommodate this new normal.

      De wederkerige invloed (performativiteit) van al hetgeen de mens creëert (uiteenlopend van gebouwen en apparaten tot 'simme steden' en algoritmes) is een belangrijk om te begrijpen dat een ontwerp meer is dan kenmerk dat het gebruik bevorderd. Ontwerpkenmerken hebben blijkbaar wederkerig effect op het menselijk gedrag. Ze zetten niet alleen aan tot gedrag dat is bedoeld en wordt getriggerd door de affordances van het ontwerp: unieke relatie tussen de kenmerken van een ‘ding’ in samenhang met een gebruiker die beïnvloedt hoe dat ding wordt gebruikt. Een relatie die verder gaat dan een eenzijdige perception-action coupling.

      Met betrekking tot sociale media kunnen we bijvoorbeeld spreken van 'transactional media effects':

      "... outcomes of media use also influence media use. Transactional media-effects models consider media use and media effects as parts of a reciprocal over-time influence process, in which the media effect is also the cause of its change (Früh & Schönbach, 1982)."

      Het gegeven dat ontwerpers vaak alleen de positieve ervaring van gebruikers voor ogen hebben is volgens Danah Abdulla niet constructief.

      "...optimism in design is not always constructive. In fact, it hinders the politicization of designers. If design is going to contribute to tools that can change the world positively, it must begin to embrace pessimism."

    1. Carl T. Bergstrom. (2020, December 5). I don’t have a background in medical ethics but this makes me uncomfortable unless it was very clearly explained to study participants at enrollment, and to some degree even then. H/t @RMCarpiano https://t.co/WUE1mXgjJG https://t.co/yLXkxIa5O8 [Tweet]. @CT_Bergstrom. https://twitter.com/CT_Bergstrom/status/1335152266840424449

    1. Most business writing lacks a meaningful engagement with the question of whether the strategies, tactics, and trends on offer are good, in a larger and longer term sense. It is negligent not to address these questions.

      Very few businesses consider the long term effects of their work...

    1. it might be killing three times the number of cyclists over a million rides than another model

      Fair enough. But then we should also make the counter-argument...how many motorists did the self-driving car save in the same period?

      I know that this is a tricky ethical scenario and I'm not trivialising it, but these arguments are overly simplistic and one-sided.

  22. Jan 2021
    1. The submitted manuscript is a privileged communication; reviewers must treat it as confidential. It should not be retained or copied. Also, reviewers must not share the manuscript with any colleagues without the explicit permission of the editor. Reviewers and editors must not make any personal or professional use of the data, arguments, or interpretations (other than those directly involved in its peer review) prior to publication unless they have the authors' specific permission or are writing an editorial or commentary to accompany the article.

      Etika untuk Mitra Bestari

    2. The reviewer should have identified and commented on major strengths and weaknesses of study design and methodology The reviewer should comment accurately and constructively upon the quality of the author's interpretation of the data, including acknowledgment of its limitations. The reviewer should comment on major strengths and weaknesses of the manuscript as a written communication, independent of the design, methodology, results, and interpretation of the study. The reviewer should comment on any ethical concerns raised by the study, or any possible evidence of low standards of scientific conduct. The reviewer should provide the author with useful suggestions for improvement of the manuscript. The reviewer's comments to the author should be constructive and professional The review should provide the editor the proper context and perspective to make a decision on acceptance (and/or revision) of the manuscript.

      Poin-poin yang mejadi tolok ukur mitra bestari dalam melakukan review

    3. to provide written assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of written research, with the aim of improving the reporting of research and identifying the most appropriate and highest quality material for the journal

      Tujuan dari peninjauan sejawat (peer-review) adalah mengetahui kekuatan dan kelemahan naskah sehingga dapat dilakukan peningkatan mutu.

    4. Authorship

      semua orang yang berkontribusi secara substansial terhadap proses perencanaan, pengumpulan data, interpretasi hasil maupun penulisan dan merevisi naskah secara kritis dan menyetujui manuskrip versi akhir dan setuju untuk bertanggung jawab atas semua aspek pekerjaan. Setiap orang yang memenuhi kriteria pertama harus diizinkan berpartisipasi dalam penyusunan dan persetujuan manuskrip versi final (ICMJE 2017). Penulis pertama haruslah seseorang yang berkontribusi paling banyak.

      https://www.ease.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/doi.10.20316.ESE_.2018.44.e1.in_.pdf

    5. Animal experiments should require full compliance with local, national, ethical, and regulatory principles, and local licensing arrangements

      Demikian juga dengan penggunaan hewan sebayak objek kajian, harus mengikuti standar etika yang berlaku (Helsinki).

    6. Journals should have explicit policies as to whether these review board approvals must be documented by the authors, or simply attested to in their cover letter, and how they should be described in the manuscript itself

      Seminimal mungkin, penulis harus menyampaikan keputusan etik dari komisi etik dan lebih ideal lagi jika menyertakan surat keputusan bebas etiknya.

    7. For those investigators who do not have access to formal ethics review committees, the principles outlined in the Declaration of Helsinki should be followed

      Jika tidak memungkinkan untuk diperoleh hasil review etik, penulis seharusnya secara explisit menjelaskan apakah pelaksanaan kajian sesuai dengan Deklarasi Helsinki atau mereka memiliki pandangan lain.

    8. Documented review and approval from a formally constituted review board (Institutional Review Board or Ethics committee) should be required for all studies involving people, medical records, and human tissues

      Penulis harus menyertakan keterangan bebas review yang diterbitkan oleh komisi etik penelitian kesehatan.

    9. Fabrication, falsification, concealment, deceptive reporting, or misrepresentation of data constitute scientific misconduct

      Untuk mencapai kualitas terbaik pada ilmu pengetahuan yang diterbitkan, kajian harus terbebas dari permasalahan etika tersebut

  23. Dec 2020
    1. The settlement of the res-titution claims made by the Italian government against the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, the Getty Museum in Malibu, and the Cleveland Museum of Art and the return to Italy of looted antiquities raise ques-tions about the integrity of some museum directors and trustees – well-informed people whom one would expect to be the guardians and defenders of the past, not par-ticipants in the commercial processes which lead to its destruction.

      The museum directors definitely should know and have some subject area expertise here, but likely the trustees wouldn't have. While the museum directors should educate them, the financial position the trustees have will almost always tend to drown out the better angels of the museum directors who rely on those trustees' support.

      Part of the question is how to redesign the structural support underpinning the system to help ensure more ethical outcomes.

    2. Chairman Mao coined the slogan “Let the past serve the present,” but that was sometimes used as an excuse for the deliberate destruction of ancient things.

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  24. Nov 2020
    1. Because medicines have healing or minimizing the negative effects of an illness or an injury as their end, they are good for the human person even if they have deleterious side effects. Thus, chemotherapy to treat a cancer is justifiable by the principle of double effect even if it leads to the foreseen but unintended detrimental consequences of nausea, hair loss, and fatigue (Cataldo 1995). This essay does not address or evaluate the legitimacy of the medical use of marijuana. We note, however, that there are significant blurred boundaries between medical and recreational uses: multiple studies have found that those who used marijuana for purported medical reasons also used it for recreational reasons (Ware et al. 2005; O'Connell and Bou-Matar 2007; Reinarman et al. 2011; Bostwick 2012). Furthermore, patients without recreational experience of marijuana have trouble tolerating its psychoactive effects and often reject continued medical use

      This is an interested statement from both a medical and recreational side of the use of marijuana. Why is it that people who do not use marijuana for recreational have trouble coping with the effects vs. a person who uses it recreationally.

  25. Oct 2020
    1. Voluntariness is a legal requirement of valid consent. In Beausoleil v. Sisters of Charity[8] a young woman about to undergo spinal surgery repeatedly requested a general anesthetic and refused a spinal anesthetic. After the patient had been sedated, the anesthetist convinced her to have a spinal anesthetic. The patient was subsequently paralyzed as a result of the procedure and successfully sued the anesthetist. In testimony, a witness said that the patient "refused [the spinal anesthetic], but they continued to offer it to her; finally she became tired and said: 'You do as you wish' or something like that."[9] The judge stated that the patient's agreement to the spinal anesthetic was involuntary, because it rested on "words which denote defeat, exhaustion, and abandonment of the will power."

      Very interesting case in which the doctor wore out out the patient by repeatedly asking her to for permission for spinal anesthetic to the point where the lady 'gave permission'. This was found by the courts to be involuntary as it was permission gained from loss of willpower.

    1. Looking at a few isolated examples doesn’t really represent the enormity of the maintenance problem when you modify objects that you shouldn’t. To understand this point of view, it’s helpful to take a step back and look at moral philosophy (aka ethics).
    1. the entire supply chain putting food in our supermarkets has been whittled down to the sharpest edge of profitability by suit-wearing Midwesterners who pride themselves on exemplifying the American capitalist spirit. It’s more surprising that anybody put the Thai shrimp industry story on a newspaper front page, Lorr thinks, than it is that we’re eating the fruits of indentured labor.

      So your instinctive reaction is "fine, I'll stop buying slave labor shrimp imported from Thailand." Or "I'll stop eating shrimp, being a vegetarian is more ethical, right?" ...

    2. This kind of casting is true, Lorr explains, of nearly all supermarket employees, who would be automated away in a heartbeat if the data didn’t show that the average American consumer prefers a human touch.

      The "fishmonger" at Whole Foods as "window dressing." Oof, that's an image.

    3. Shrimp are perhaps the paradigmatic grocery store item. They used to be expensive, and now they’re not. They are born animals, and when they die they become meat, then cargo, then merchandise represented by a bar code—a product with a notably high profit yield on the grocery floor because it’s a dirt-cheap factory-farmed import.
  26. Sep 2020
  27. Aug 2020