75 Matching Annotations
  1. Oct 2022
    1. I found in the files three relevant types of "existingmaterials": several theories having to do with the topic;materials already worked up by others as evidence forthose theories; and data already gathered and in variousstages of accessible centralization, but not yet madetheoretically relevant.
  2. Sep 2022
    1. Driving this home, a recent FederalReserve survey found that 37 percent of Americans cannot cover a $400 unexpectedexpense with savings or its equivalence.

      I've read this statistic many times, but where is the original source?


      It's here: Federal Reserve Bank, “Report on the Economic Well-Being of U.S. Households in 2019” (Washington DC: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, 2020).

      This fact is repeated several times throughout the book. At least 3 by my count.

  3. Aug 2022
    1. While it is a fundamental principle that workscontemporary with an event are presumably more authenticthan later ones, it should be borne in mind that the morerecent secondary works are frequently based on more ma-terials and present new interpretations.
  4. Jul 2022
    1. the question you were asking was what is mind or consciousness so here we're using the words synonymously um and from a buddhist perspective uh there are 01:11:50 six what we call primary minds and then there's a whole slew of secondary minds and some of the more common systems include 51 in the secondary minds now please understand that mind like 01:12:04 everything else that exists in the world doesn't exist permanently it exists there are a few exceptions okay but essentially everything that exists in the world um is not permanent therefore 01:12:18 it's changing moment to moment therefore everything exists as a continuum including mind so that means there'll be a moment of mind followed by a next moment of mind etc 01:12:31 and the next moment of mind is determined primarily but not solely by the previous moment of mind so from that we can extrapolate a continuum an infinite continuum and mind is an 01:12:43 infinite continuum from perspective of buddhism and that means that we've had that implies suggests rebirth and it suggests we've had ultimate we've had infinite rebirths there's been no beginning 01:12:56 and so this then comes up again with the notion of a beginning creator if you will a so-called you know god there are some some problems here to resolve this um 01:13:07 and so mind is a continuum it's infinite now each moment of mind is made up of a primary mind and a constellation of secondary minds these six primary or the five as you read from nagarjuna the five 01:13:22 sensory minds of seeing hearing smelling tasting touching tactile right these five plus what's sometimes called the mental consciousness and that has live different levels of subtlety on the 01:13:34 grossest level is thinking if we go a little bit deeper a little bit more so little subtler we have dream mind which seems like these senses are active but actually 01:13:46 when we're sleeping the senses are inactive so it's just something coming from our sixth or mental consciousness it seems like the senses are active in dream mind that dream mind is a little more subtle than a wake mind awake 01:13:59 thinking mind and then if we go more subtle we're talking now again about awake mind we we talk about intuition when we're in intuition we're not thinking right it's a non-conceptual 01:14:11 mind uh in that sense and deeper yet our minds we call non-conceptual and non-dual where there's no awareness of a subject or an object so subject object non-duality so 01:14:25 that's kind of the rough sort of you know lay of the land

      Barry provides a brief summary of what the word "mind" means from a Buddhist philosophy perspective and says that there are six primary minds and 51 secondary minds.

      The 6 primary minds are the 5 senses plus mental consciousness, which itself consists of the coarse thinking (conceptual) mind, the intuitive mind (these two could be roughly mapped to Daniel Kahnaman's fast and slow system respectively), as well as the dreaming mind.

      Barry also conveys an interpretation of reincarnation based on the concept that the mind is never the same from one moment to the next, but is rather an ever changing continuum. The current experience of mind is GENERALLY most strongly influenced by the previous moments but also influenced by temporally distant memories. This above interpretation of reincarnation makes sense, as the consciousness is born anew in every moment. It is also aligned to the nature of the Indyweb interpersonal computing ecosystem, in which access to one's own private data store, the so-called Indyhub, allows one to experience the flow of consciousness by seeing how one's digital experience, which is quite significant today, affects learning on a moment to moment basis. In other words, we can see, on a granular level, how one idea, feeling or experience influences another idea, experience or feeling.

  5. Apr 2022
  6. Mar 2022
    1. Such exercises are somewhat akin to the reproducibility exercisescommonly used in quantitative methods instruction.

      Testing annotation. This claim comes from analyzing _ _

  7. Jan 2022
  8. Dec 2021
    1. When the user stores his thoughts in his own filing cabinet, these thoughts are no longer his own but those of his filing cabinet. In turn, the machine that gathers and reproduces excerpts is, and remains, a ‘black box’. It is not simply another Ego for enacting a user’s soliloquy but a true Alter Ego with whom the user communicates. Additionally, when the machine is started, the user does not simply refresh his memory; the filing cabinet actually speaks. To achieve this practical outcome, the card index must be provided with a ‘life of its own’ (Eigenleben) which should be as independent of the life of its educator as possible.30 In this sense, the card index functions as a ‘secondary memory’ in Stübel’s terms. This result raises some questions which justify the present article. Is there a socio-structural reason why such an improbability became possible? Is there a trend, in early and late modern society, toward an externalization and technologizing of social memory? And what insight can we gain into intellectual history?

      I'm not completely sure I can agree with this. Perhaps I'm missing part of his point?

      There is a quirky relationship here to the idea of a personbyte, the complete amount of information and knowledge a person can have. Even misty memories that a person can remember or be reminded of are part of this knowledge. Perfect recall isn't necessary as some things can potentially be reconstituted with some thought towards recreation of an idea.

      Compare this with the idea of epic poetry and song of the Yugoslavian guslars. Some may be more artful than others, but at what point are they telling a new story?

    2. In a short academic dissertation on the art of excerpts, Andreas Stübel described the card index as a ‘secondary and subsidiary memory’ (‘memoria secundaria and subsidiaria’), summing up in just three words the dilemma scholars had been struggling with for two centuries with respect to the use of commonplace books.28 As far as I know, Stübel was the first among contem-poraries to speak of secondary memory.

      28 Andreas M. Stübel, Exercitatio academica de excerptis adornandis (Leipzig, 1684), 33

      Andreas M. Stübel, in Exercitatio academica de excerptis adornandis (Leipzig, 1684), becomes the first to of many to speak about the idea of "secondary memory".

      I like this idea better than Tiago Forte's marketing term "second brain."

    3. In fact, the methodical use of notebooks changed the relationship between natural memory and artificial memory, although contemporaries did not immediately realize it. Historical research supports the idea that what was once perceived as a memory aid was now used as secondary memory.18

      During the 16th century there was a transition in educational centers from using the natural and artificial memories to the methodical use of notebooks and commonplace books as a secondary memory saved by means of writing.

      This allows people in some sense to "forget" what they've read and learned and be surprised by it again later. They allow themselves to create liminal memories which may be refreshed and brought to the center later. Perhaps there is also some benefit in this liminal memory for allowing ideas to steep on the periphery before using them. Perhaps combinatorial creativity happens unconsciously?

      Cross reference: learning research by Barbara Oakley and Terry Sejnowski.

  9. Nov 2021
    1. A study of French university studentsshowed that, in a course redesigned around appropriate onlinetools, distance learning achieved similar learning outcomesto a course taught in person

      S. Jacques, A. Ouahabi, and T. Lequeu. Remote Knowledge Acquisition and Assessment During the COVID-19 Pandemic. International Journal of Engineering Pedagogy (iJEP), 10(6):120, Dec. 2020.

    2. A study of French university studentsshowed that, in a course redesigned around appropriate onlinetools, distance learning achieved similar learning outcomesto a course taught in person

      french secondary school students

    3. wedish schoolsremained open, except for upper

      exception in Sweden

    4. upper secondary schools

  10. Oct 2021
  11. Sep 2021
  12. Jul 2021
    1. It’s also most effective when the instructor is alongside students, participating in the annotations and conversations.

      Agreed!

      Adding messaging and chat to Hypothesis could go a long way toward helping with this.

      David Bokan proposes WebAnnotation in the Browser

    1. commonplace book From IndieWeb Jump to: navigation, search

      Commonplace books - "a way to compile and store knowledge, usually by writing information into books, notebooks, card catalogs, or in more modern settings on one's own website."

    1. A grantmaking process that would solicit and receive proposals to expand the existing universe of open source software that implements or works with the Open Annotation specification

      Is The Fund still funded? How about a new module for educators...a new button on the Hypothes.is UI, that taps into emerging shared knowledge repositories.

  13. Apr 2021
  14. Mar 2021
  15. Feb 2021
  16. Jan 2021
  17. Nov 2020
    1. example of poor target accessibility, manifested by the significant number of mid-level amplitude droplets (that is, rain), which is resolved by performing a restriction digestion on the DNA before ddPCR
  18. Sep 2020
  19. Aug 2020
  20. Jul 2020
  21. Jun 2020
  22. May 2020
    1. Ghinai, I., Woods, S., Ritger, K. A., McPherson, T. D., Black, S. R., Sparrow, L., Fricchione, M. J., Kerins, J. L., Pacilli, M., Ruestow, P. S., Arwady, M. A., Beavers, S. F., Payne, D. C., Kirking, H. L., & Layden, J. E. (2020). Community Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 at Two Family Gatherings—Chicago, Illinois, February–March 2020. MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 69(15), 446–450. https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6915e1

    1. Van den Akker, O., Weston, S. J., Campbell, L., Chopik, W. J., Damian, R. I., Davis-Kean, P., Hall, A. N., Kosie, J. E., Kruse, E. T., Olsen, J., Ritchie, S. J., Valentine, K. D., van ’t Veer, A. E., & Bakker, M. (2019). Preregistration of secondary data analysis: A template and tutorial [Preprint]. PsyArXiv. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/hvfmr

  23. Apr 2020
    1. Often, because of bacterial contamination or tissue loss, a wound will be left open to heal by granulation tissue formation and contraction; this constitutes healing by secondary intention
  24. May 2019
  25. Mar 2019
    1. The anxiety perspective and academic performance is adopted from Catastrophe theory which explains about the relationship of anxiety and performance in terms of sport performance. It is important to understand the theory and the influence of anxiety upon performance. Martin in Robb (2005) proposed that cognitive anxiety would have negative correlation with performance and physiological anxiety have curvilinear relationship with performance. The cognitive anxiety is the component that most strongly affects performance

      Providing secondary evidence helps the authors construct the basis of the research subject and support the main claims.

    2. Prima Vitasari et al. / Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences 8 (2010) 490–497491Anxiety while studying is a major predictor of academic performance (McCraty, 2007 and McCraty, et al., 2000) and various studies have demonstrated that it has a detrimental effect. Little is known that there exist a possible association between high level of anxiety and low academic performance among students. Researchers revealed that high levels of anxiety influence on the decrease of working memory, distraction, and reasoning in students (Aronen et al., 2005). Tobias in Ibrahim (1996) has been recognised that anxiety plays significant role in student's learning and academic performance, moreover anxiety has been known to have both facilitating and debilitating effects on academic achievement

      The authors mention secondary evidence to discuss the correlation between high anxiety levels and academic progress. This is done to establish the main claim and building blocks of the study that is to be conducted.

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    Annotators

    1. In fact,Russell and Topham (2012) propose that social anxietymay have a negative impact on university/college students’academic achievement

      The author cites a secondary source to present his claim through a similar opinion

    2. Depending on the threshold of diagnosis,prevalence rates of social anxiety in university/collegestudents range from 10 to 33 % as compared to 7–13 % inthe general population

      The author uses secondary sources to back up his claims with evidence and support his argument

    1. Harris Shah Abd Hamid and Muhamad Karimi Sulaiman (2014) stated that the students from Department of Psychology, International Islamic University Malaysia who took a statistics course seemed to have a high level of statistical anxiety which due to a student’s negative self-perception in solving mathematical issues. According to the data found by the researchers, another predictor that contributes to the highest statistics anxietywas aroused by the teacher or course instructor. So, in this issue, the instructors may focus on verbal and nonverbal immediacy behaviorsto reduce students’ anxiety (Williams, 2010 as cited by Harris Shah Abd Hamid & Muhamad Karimi Sulaiman, 2014)

      The author effectively used a secondary source to propose an explanation and a theory for the reason students may suffer from anxiety symptoms. The source provides a credible basis on which the author was able to build a claim upon.

    2. Lama M. Al-Qaisy (2011) conducted research on identifying the impact of mood disorder particularly depression and anxiety among a sample of students of Tafila Technical University, Jordan for their academic performance. He claimed that whenever students have medium level of concern, in which not to the extent of disturbing one’s own mood experiences, they will achieve higher in academic performances

      The author used a secondary source as evidence and to make a point that mood has an effect on the performance as well, explaining that students who were less anxious or concerned seemed to score higher grades

    3. which can lead to poor academic performance

      The author used the definition to draw connection and reach the conclusion that academic performance is affected by anxiety, using the source to support the claim

    4. Spielberger (1983) and Vitasari (2011) referred anxiety to “a subjective feeling of tension, apprehension, nervousness, and worry associated with arousal of the nervous system”.

      The author uses the mentioned secondary sources as a basis to establish a connection between the provided definition of anxiety and the concept that it has negative effects on the lives of students

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    Annotators

  26. Jan 2019
    1. persuasive explanation of what the humanities are and do

      Both this and an earlier statement about humanities needing justified (last paragraph on 116) made me think about the lack of understanding of humanities at all levels of education. This piece is specifically aimed at "the university," but even at the secondary level, humanities are the first things threatened by a budget cut. Could a lack of understanding be a main reason public schools, primarily 9-12, aren't overly worried by the idea of cutting humanities courses?

  27. Dec 2018
  28. www.lexisnexis.com www.lexisnexis.com
    1. Secondary Sources:Sources of information that describe or interpret the law, such as legal treatises, law review articles, and other scholarly legal writings, cited by lawyers to persuade a court to reach a particular decision in a case, but which the court is not obligated to follow
  29. Jan 2018
  30. Sep 2017
    1. combination of blast, heat, and radiation would kill virtually everyone in this zone. The blast would be accompanied by winds of many hundreds of miles per hour
    2. Thousands of panic-stricken people might receive deadly doses of radiation as they fled from their homes. Some of the radiation will be longer-lived; areas most severely affected would have to be abandoned for many years after the attack

      Secondary effect from panic

    1. ******

      The different theses Moe presents to her reader are all an original take on reading Charlotte and Elizabeth's argument, and Charlotte's individual views, especially considering the extensive description of the typical reading of these characters which Moe provides us with.

      This introduction, though at times distracted from the main point through inclusion of so many outside theories and readings of Elizabeth/Charlotte/Austen, definitely engages the reader, provides grounding for Moe's argument, and makes this subject appear significant in understanding the conflict of modern viewpoints in Pride and Prejudice, as well as to better understand Charlotte as a character and her decisions.

    2. Austen’s novels were diagnostic of her social world and conservative in the sense that they offered social compromises rather than fractious challenges to the uncertain social future of her moment.

      OK, clearly Moe has done her research, as she has provided a great number of sources about Austen's writing, Austen's characters, Austen's personal/written setting, and so forth. The consistent inclusion of reputable sources strengthens Moe's argument (as it makes her assertions seem well based on research), but I am finding it also a bit distracting. She is jumping from topic to topic with inexplicit transitions, and providing so much outside detail, that it is taking away from her own contentions. More analysis, as I have highlighted here, is what would make this article even better.

      Also, this notation makes sense, as it extends to Charlotte's marital decisions.

    3. The agency of the critic is exemplified in discovering and naming the overlooked agency of Austen’s female subjects, who in themselves demonstrate Austen’s attentiveness to the limits of patriarchal norms and her willingness to transgress.

      Again, Moe is using secondary sources to accentuate that Austen writes about women constrained by patriarchy. Here, however, she includes the concept of "Agency" (for both critic and character), which connects to her argument about Charlotte's actions.

    4. been to emphasize Austen’s overlooked expansive subtexts and allu-sions, her wide, even global appeal and relevance.

      Transition into feminist readings of Austen from giving examples of older critiques (of secondary sources) of Austen's work. This aids her argument and supports her challenging of previous readings of the work.

  31. Jul 2017
    1. But the goal of the dealing was also, from York’s perspective, to keep enrolment up by keeping student costs down and to use whatever savings there may be in other parts of the university’s operation.

      What a crass analysis.

  32. Aug 2016
    1. Page 122

      Borgman on terms used by the humanities and social sciences to describe data and other types of analysis

      humanist and social scientists frequently distinguish between primary and secondary information based on the degree of analysis. Yet this ordering sometimes conflates data, sources, and resources, as exemplified by a report that distinguishes "primary resources, E. G., Books close quotation from quotation secondary resources, eat. Gee., Catalogs close quotation . Resources also categorized as primary or sensor data, numerical data, and field notebooks, all of which would be considered data in the sciences. Rarely would books, conference proceedings, and feces that the report categorizes as primary resources be considered data, except when used for text-or data-mining purposes. Catalogs, subject indices, citation indexes, search engines, and web portals were classified as secondary resources. These are typically viewed as tertiary resources in the library community because they describe primary and secondary resources. The distinctions between data, sources, and resources very by discipline and circumstance. For the purposes of this book, primary resources are data, secondary resources are reports of research, whether publications or intern forms, and tertiary resources are catalogs, indexes, and directories that provide access to primary and secondary resources. Sources are the origins of these resources.

    2. Page 10

      Borgman on the merging of primary and secondary information sources .

      primary and secondary information sources long to be treated as a dichotomy, with different strands of research on each. Sociologist of science study the context in which primary data are produced, or primary archivists are concerned with how those that are captured, managed, and preserved. Researchers in the field of information studies and communication investigate how scholarly publications are written, disseminated, sought, used, and reference. Librarians select, collect, organize, conserve, preserve, and provide access to scholarly publications and print and digital form. Little research has explored the continuum from primary to secondary sources, much less the entire lifecycle from data generation through the preservation of scholarly products that set those data in context.

  33. Jul 2016
    1. p. 8-actually this is link to p. 7, since 8 is excluded

      Another trend is the blurring of the distinction between primary sources, generally viewed as unprocessed or unanalysed data, and secondary sources that set data in context.

      Good point about how this is a new thing. On the next page she discusses how we are now collpasing the traditional distinction between primary and secondary sources.