787 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. It’s a community effort with no figureheads (and certainly no “benevolent dictators for life”), and it’s all about interoperability and learning from each other with humility and respect.

      A pretty solid definition of IndieWeb here.

    1. you’ll spend the beginning phases learning by readingbooks in brand new fields and noting down brand new ideas. You’ll mostlybe writing reformulation notes in this phase.

      Yet another new name for a sub-type of notes, here he uses reformulation notes as a shorthand for the old advice to rewrite ideas you find in your own words. This advice is often suggested to accomplish two things: - avoid plagiarism - restatement of ideas in your own words is related to the Feynman Technique and assists one in learning and ensuring they understand the concepts

  2. Nov 2022
    1. “pattern language” to describe the show’s plot formulas, which they and ultimately other users would then apply to a variety of programs.

      Tropes are shorthand storytelling methods that rely on a common storytelling grammar or pattern language to quickly relay information to the viewer or listener.

    1. Creative ambiguity. This is where one part of an idea is fixed, but the other part has a lot of freedom of movement. A good example of this would be appending ‘digital’ or ‘e-‘ to existing ideas – such as ‘e-books’ or ‘digital literacy’. Others can begin to see what the person is getting at.

      As portions of ideas begin to become clear and crystalize, they still maintain some creative ambiguity while the remaining portions aren't necessarily clearly defined. Creatively ambiguous ideas are better defined than generatively ambiguous ones.

    2. The lowest strata represents Generative ambiguity. Here, words are used as symbols for ideas that are very hard to express; an individual gives a name to a nebulous collection of ideas or thoughts. They struggle to make this approach make sense to others.

      Generative ambiguity is the process of giving names, potentially tentative, to a nebulous collection of nascent and unclear ideas in an effort to help make sense of them both to themselves as well as others.

    3. https://dougbelshaw.com/blog/2015/01/22/volcanoes-and-ambiguity/

      <small><cite class='h-cite via'> <span class='p-author h-card'>Aaron Davis </span> in 📑 The Two Definitions of Zettelkasten | Read Write Collect (<time class='dt-published'>11/18/2022 19:54:00</time>)</cite></small>

    1. The theory of capital as a mode of production isone thing. The theory of capitalism as a social formation is quite another.
      • What is a "mode of production"?
      • What is a "social formation"?

      "In the Marxist theory of historical materialism, a mode of production (German: Produktionsweise, "the way of producing") is a specific combination of the:

      • Productive forces: these include human labour power and means of production (tools, machinery, factory buildings, infrastructure, technical knowledge, raw materials, plants, animals, exploitable land).
      • Social and technical relations of production: these include the property, power and control relations (legal code) governing the means of production of society, cooperative work associations, relations between people and the objects of their work, and the relations among the social classes, [JC -- in this case, "social classes" exist]

      ref. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mode_of_production

  3. view.connect.americanpublicmedia.org view.connect.americanpublicmedia.org
    1. The word “kafala” in Arabic has traditionally been used to describe a social and moral “responsibility to another.”  Researchers Ray Jureidini and Said Fares Hassan write, “kafala contracts were used to protect the weak and vulnerable by instituting the patronage of a prominent local who provided whatever protection was required.” Think of raising an orphaned child, for example. In business, kafala originally referred to contracts where a guarantor assumes liability for another person (e.g. a cosigner for a loan).    Kafala nowadays is often used to describe the legal relationship between businesses and migrant workers. Employers, typically citizens, act as sponsors for workers and assume legal responsibility for their movement and actions in exchange for their right to work in a geographic area. 

      The use of kafala shows a shift from a meaning of social responsibility into a meaning co-opted by capitalism and social contract.

    1. ‘‘Personality is conceived as (a) an individual’sunique variation on the general evolutionary design for humannature, expressed as a developing pattern of (b) dispositional traits,(c) characteristic adaptations, and (d) self-defining life narratives,complexly and differentially situated (e) in culture and social con-text’’

      Definition of personality

    1. That is to make notes about the shape of the discussion-the discussion that is engaged in by all of the authors,even if unbeknownst to them. For reasons that will becomeclear in Part Four, we prefer to call such notes dialectical.

      Dialectical notes are made at the level of syntopical reading and entail creating a conversation not only between the reader and the author, but create a conversation of questions and answers between and among many texts and the reader.

    2. during an analytical reading, you will need to give answers to questions about the truthand significance of the book. The notes you make at this levelof reading are, therefore, not structural but conceptual.

      Conceptual notes are made during the analytical reading of a book and "give answers to questions about the truth and significance of the book."

    3. The point to recognize is that these notes primarily concern the structure of the book, and not its substance-at leastnot in detail. We therefore call this kind of note-making structural.

      Adler and Van Doren define structural note making as the sorts of questions one might ask at the level of inspectional reading including: - what kind of book is it? - what is it about? - what is the overall structure with respect to the argument the author intends to make?

    1. This reminded me of Robert Greene’s definition of creativity, which is that creativity is a function of putting in lots of tedious work. “If you put a lot of hours into thinking and researching and reading,” Robert says, “hour after hour—a very tedious process—creativity will come to you.” 

      Robert Green's definition of creativity sounds like it's related to diffuse thinking processes. read: https://billyoppenheimer.com/august-14-2022/

      Often note taking, and reviewing over those notes is more explicit in form for creating new ideas.

      Come back to explore these.

    1. fulgence LANGUAGE FAMILY: indo-european > italic > latinORIGIN: latin NAME ROOT: FULGĕO > FULGENS / FULGēRE > FULGENTIUSMEANING: This name derives from the Latin “fulgĕo > fulgens / fulgēre > Fulgentius”, meaning “illustrious, beautiful, famous, shine brightly, glitter, sparkle”. Fabius Planciades Fulgentius was a Latin writer of late antiquity. Four extant works are commonly attributed to him, as well as a possible fifth which some scholars include in compilations with much reservation. His mytho-graphic work was greatly admired and highly influential throughout much of the medieval period, but is viewed with little favor today.

      in relation to the character in the satire Penguin Island by Anatole France who dies by zettelkasten

      Naturally a tapir is the nocturnal hoofed mammal with a stout body, sturdy limbs, and a short flexible proboscis, native to the forests of tropical America and Malaysia.

      So the name Fulgence Tapir is essentially "a sparkling foraging pig".

  4. Oct 2022
    1. elaboration n. 1. the process of interpreting or embellishing information to be remembered or of relating it to other material already known and in memory. The levels-of-processing model of memory holds that the level of elaboration applied to information as it is processed affects both the length of time that it can be retained in memory and the ease with which it can be retrieved.
    1. Another help to the memory is the pocketbook in which to enter stray thoughts and observations: what the Elizabethans called ‘tablets’.

      Elizabethans called pocketbooks or small notebooks "tablets."

    1. The Greeks had elementary schools for the teaching of reading and arithmetic,and they had ephebic colleges—secondary schools to us—with end-of-termexaminations in geometry, grammar, music, and rhetoric.

      ephebic • \ih-FEE-bik\ • adjective. : of, relating to, or characteristic of a youth of ancient Greece or a young man.



    1. Cuauhtémoc,

      I did not know this word, and looked it up to discover it was the name of the last Aztec Emperor. He surrendered his Empire to Cortés.

    1. Deutsch’s focus on facts was commonplace among professional US historians atthis time, as was his conception of the ‘fact’ as a small item that could fit onto the sizeof an index card (Daston, 2002).

      Find this quote and context!

    2. Walter Benjamin termed the book ‘an outdated mediationbetween two filing systems’

      reference for this quote? date?

      Walter Benjamin's fantastic re-definition of a book presaged the invention of the internet, though his instantiation was as a paper based machine.

    1. here are several ways I havefound useful to invite the sociological imagination:

      C. Wright Mills delineates a rough definition of "sociological imagination" which could be thought of as a framework within tools for thought: 1. Combinatorial creativity<br /> 2. Diffuse thinking, flâneur<br /> 3. Changing perspective (how would x see this?) Writing dialogues is a useful method to accomplish this. (He doesn't state it, but acting as a devil's advocate is a useful technique here as well.)<br /> 4. Collecting and lay out all the multiple viewpoints and arguments on a topic. (This might presume the method of devil's advocate I mentioned above 😀)<br /> 5. Play and exploration with words and terms<br /> 6. Watching levels of generality and breaking things down into smaller constituent parts or building blocks. (This also might benefit of abstracting ideas from one space to another.)<br /> 7. Categorization or casting ideas into types 8. Cross-tabulating and creation of charts, tables, and diagrams or other visualizations 9. Comparative cases and examples - finding examples of an idea in other contexts and time settings for comparison and contrast 10. Extreme types and opposites (or polar types) - coming up with the most extreme examples of comparative cases or opposites of one's idea. (cross reference: Compass Points https://hypothes.is/a/Di4hzvftEeyY9EOsxaOg7w and thinking routines). This includes creating dimensions of study on an object - what axes define it? What indices can one find data or statistics on? 11. Create historical depth - examples may be limited in number, so what might exist in the historical record to provide depth.

    2. whether he knows it or not, the intellec-tual workman forms his own self as he works towards theperfection of his craft.

      Here Mills seems to be defining (in 1952) an "intellectual workman" as an academic, but he doesn't go as broad as a more modern "knowledge worker" (2022) which includes those who broadly do thinking in industry as well as in academia. His older phrase also has a more gendered flavor to it that knowledge worker doesn't have now.

    3. And yet that is not " r e a l l y " how the project arose.What really happened is that the idea and the plan cameout o f my files; for all projects with me begin and end withthem, and books are simply organized releases from thecontinuous work that goes into them.

      Surely by "files" he means his written notes and ideas which he has filed away?

      Thus articles and books are agglomerations of ideas within notes (or perhaps one's retained memory, as best as that might be done) which are then broken off from them and released to a wider readership.

  5. Sep 2022
    1. High-poverty neighborhoods arefrequently defined as census tracts in which 40 percent or more of the residentsare living below the poverty line.6
    2. three-fourths of Americans will encounterpoverty or near- poverty (150 percent below the official poverty line).4

      Open question:<br /> Why is the word "below" used with numbers like "150 percent below the poverty line" when in fact this number indicates near, but above, poverty based on my reading?

    3. in discussing economic mobility across generations, we refer to theintergenerational elasticity statistic. Again, this ranges between 0 and 1 andindicates how strong the relationship is between parents’ income and theirchildren’s income.10
    4. With respect tomeasuring the amount of economic inequality in a country, we make use ofwhat is known as the Gini coefficient or index.9 This is an overall measure ofhow unequal the income distribution is, and it ranges from 0 (complete equality)to 1 (complete inequality).

      see also: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gini_coefficient

      It can apparently apply to either income inequality or wealth inequality, so it may have slightly different meanings based on this underlying context.

      Delve into this question of definition.

    5. Welfare programs are generally considered those in whichan individual has to be below a certain income and asset level and fall into aparticular population group in order to be eligible. These are also known asmeans- tested programs, with individuals only able to participate if their incomeand assets are low enough to qualify.7
    6. We will also examine wealth inequality. This is analogous toincome inequality but is looking at the distribution of economic assets ratherthan income. Net worth refers to all of one’s assets minus all of one’s debts.Financial wealth is exactly the same but does not include the equity that onehas built up in a home.6

      compare with income inequality: https://hypothes.is/a/_JLGuj3HEe2dJFdOJRcvaQ

    7. Income inequality refers to how wide or narrow the overall distribution of an-nual income is.5
    8. The mostcommon relative poverty measure is one that counts individuals as poor if theyfall below one-half of a country’s median income.4
    1. GWAS genetic association

      A genome-wide association study (abbreviated GWAS) is a research approach used to identify genomic variants that are statistically associated with a risk for a disease or a particular trait. The method involves surveying the genomes of many people, looking for genomic variants that occur more frequently in those with a specific disease or trait compared to those without the disease or trait. Once such genomic variants are identified, they are typically used to search for nearby variants that contribute directly to the disease or trait.

      source: https://www.genome.gov/genetics-glossary/Genome-Wide-Association-Studies

      this is more like a medical definition... what about plants?

    1. • Daily writing prevents writer’s block.• Daily writing demystifies the writing process.• Daily writing keeps your research always at the top of your mind.• Daily writing generates new ideas.• Daily writing stimulates creativity• Daily writing adds up incrementally.• Daily writing helps you figure out what you want to say.

      What specifically does she define "writing" to be? What exactly is she writing, and how much? What does her process look like?

      One might also consider the idea of active reading and writing notes. I may not "write" daily in the way she means, but my note writing, is cumulative and beneficial in the ways she describes in her list. I might further posit that the amount of work/effort it takes me to do my writing is far more fruitful and productive than her writing.

      When I say writing, I mean focused note taking (either excerpting, rephrasing, or original small ideas which can be stitched together later). I don't think this is her same definition.

      I'm curious how her process of writing generates new ideas and creativity specifically?

      One might analogize the idea of active reading with a pen in hand as a sort of Einsteinian space-time. Many view reading and writing as to separate and distinct practices. What if they're melded together the way Einstein reconceptualized the space time continuum? The writing advice provided by those who write about commonplace books, zettelkasten, and general note taking combines an active reading practice with a focused writing practice that moves one toward not only more output, but higher quality output without the deleterious effects seen in other methods.

    1. all creatures have indexes which are 00:05:21 physical connections between form and meanings so footprints are physical index of smells our physical index is smoke is a physical index of fire those 00:05:32 are recognized by every living creature icons are intentional and they're non arbitrary their physical resemblances so a painting is an icon a sculpture is an 00:05:45 icon they show the ability to represent something based on physical resemblance not physical connection and then finally the most complicated is a symbol which has a form and a meaning but more than 00:06:00 that I won't go into all the details but symbols are actually fairly complex but the most important thing to remember on a symbol is they arise by convention by culture they don't arise any other way 00:06:13 also duality of patterning that just means that we take meaningless items to make meaningful items so take CA TS I'll go into this Katz and English C means 00:06:25 nothing a means nothing T means nothing s means nothing Katz mean something so the ability to take things that don't mean anything make things that do mean something such as cymbals this is a crucial component 00:06:38 of language and I'm not the one who discovered that that's been known for a while compositionality is the ability to put things together and make larger meanings so the and boy and big and ran can go 00:06:53 together to get the big boy ran so so these are very important parts and there are different kinds of grammars

      !- chart : basic definitions of language - begins with animal world and extends into human

    1. This method, devised by Japanese economist Noguchi Yukio, utilizes manilla envelopes and the frequency with which you work on certain projects to organize your projects.

      The Noguhchi Filing System is a method developed by Noguchi Yukio, a Japanese economist, that organizes one's projects using envelopes and sorts them based on the frequency upon which you work on them.

    1. categorical reading method

      Not well defined. What do they mean specifically by categorical reading methods? CERIC may be one, but what are others? Are they standardized?

    2. The primary motivation behind categorical reading methods isto dissect each paper's structure and central argument using theabove conceptual model (Figure 1).

      This appears to be the closed definition in the paper for the idea of categorical reading methods. They only provide one example without any comparison or contrast for better contextualization.

      What is a more concrete idea for this particular term?

    3. This method centers on active, categorial reading to deconstruct arguments inthe primary literature by identifying claim, evidence, reasoning, implications, and context (CERIC), which canserve as a critical reading pedagogy in existing courses, reading clubs, and seminars.
      • Claim
      • Evidence
      • Reasoning
      • Implications
      • Context
    1. wissenschaft

      roughly translated as the systematic pursuit of knowledge, learning, and scholarship (especially in contrast with application).

      It was roughly similar to our current "science" but retains a broader meaning which includes the humanities.


    1. Renan's definition of a nation has been extremely influential. This was given in his 1882 discourse Qu'est-ce qu'une nation? ("What is a Nation?"). Whereas German writers like Fichte had defined the nation by objective criteria such as a race or an ethnic group "sharing common characteristics" (language, etc.), Renan defined it by the desire of a people to live together, which he summarized by a famous phrase, "avoir fait de grandes choses ensemble, vouloir en faire encore" (having done great things together and wishing to do more).
    1. They are not meant to prove thatthe student did his or her homework. Rather, they provethat students can make something out of their education.

      Francesco Erspamer's definition of a thesis is proof "that students can make something out of their education."

    2. A clas-sic, Italo Calvino wrote, is a work which relegates the noiseof the present to a background hum—but without renderingthat hum inaudible.
    1. structured literacy, a type of early reading instruction that calls for the “explicit,” “systematic,” “cumulative” and “diagnostic” teaching of key elements:phonology, which encompasses the ability to distinguish and manipulate soundssound-symbol association (letter–sound relationships) syllables morphology (think: root words and affixes) syntax semantics
  6. Aug 2022
    1. In discussing the various ways Luhmann referenced his notes, Schmidt discusses specific notes created by Luhmann that appeared to produce "larger structural outline[s]."8 It seems, when beginning a major line of thought, Luhmann created a note that resembled "the outline of an article or table of contents of a book."9 Today, many call these outline notes "structure notes," a term which has come to prominence through its usage on the zettelkasten.de forum.
    1. Another prime object in making notes is tohave record in the most convenient or effectiveway of the data or “ facts ” found in sources ofinformation, or the conclusions built from suchfindings. The results reached in pursuit of thisobject may properly be called subject notes.
    2. Oneprimeobject inmakingnotesistohaveaseasilyavailable as possibleappropriate informationor conclusionsaboutthings thataretobe usedas sources ofinformation-especiallydocuments and works.Thenotesmadeorcollected inpursuit ofthisobjectmaybecalledbibliographicalandcritical;or simply,withsufficiently liberalinterpretation of the term,bibliographical
    1. Margo Neale (featured at right) suggests that the Songlines project can be conceived as a Third Archive, a bridge between the First Archive of Indigenous knowledges, kept alive in the songlines that crisscross Australia, and the Second Archive, that of the Western Knowledge system, imported into Australia through colonisation and settlement and transmitted through our education systems and institutions of government, business and civil society.
    1. yntagmatic – that is,patterns of literal succession in the stream of speech – or paradigmatic – that is,relations among units that occupy the same position in the stream of speech.
    1. from Latin<br /> prefix in- meaing "toward"; <br /> with<br /> index, indic- "forefinger, informer, sign"<br /> dicere "to say";<br /> dicare "to make known"

      late Middle English: from Latin index, indic- ‘forefinger, informer, sign’, from in- ‘towards’ + a second element related to dicere ‘say’ or dicare ‘make known’; compare with indicate. The original sense ‘index finger’ (with which one points), came to mean ‘pointer’ (late 16th century), and figuratively something that serves to point to a fact or conclusion; hence a list of topics in a book (‘pointing’ to their location).

      Use over time<br />

  7. Jul 2022
    1. Others have called these“Main Notes” or “Permanent Notes” or “EvergreenNotes”. I called them Point Notes to remind myself thatwhen I write them I should be making a point.

      Part of Allosso's definition of point notes: they should be making a point.

      (No mention of "atomic notes"?)

    2. With practice, your SourceNotes will become more like data and your Points moreanalytical.

      This distinguishing factor is a more useful one than those in other systems.

      Compare this with the idea of Beatrice Webb's "analytic notes" versus "synthetic notes" or "scientific notes" which she describes in My Apprentice (1926).

      see: - https://hypothes.is/a/Fb3Y4Au1Ee2p_sdveWOJKw - https://hypothes.is/a/WGPrOAoOEe2WJV9yx2SVZg - https://hypothes.is/a/2gdRwgoMEe2mdccJDX6zTw

      Web considers "analytic note taking" to be the raw data collection and arrangement (in the same vein of creating databases in the computer science space, which didn't exist when she did her work) upon which historical work is based.

      She views "synthetic notes" as observations of behaviours and writings which probably more closely resembles the idea of "literature notes" (Ahrens) or "source notes" (Allosso). Some of the difference is that she's viewing her notes as a tool for her particular work (sociology) rather than as a broader enterprise which might be used in all fields.

      Webb's synthetic notes are also likely bound up in her idea of Herbert Spencer's "synthetic philosophy" of thinking, which may require some more reading of these sections on my part to better distinguish her specific meaning.

      Webb didn't seem to have a version of "permanent notes" in her conceptualization. Perhaps this is an indication that the evolution of the note really only occurred as it was placed into published writing. This may potentially preclude the reuse of the evolved ideas unless they are separately re-subsumed into one's note collection.

      Ahrens' conceptualization of the zettelkasten has all the writing, revision, and evolution work occurring in the slip box itself so it's always available and reusable. Many modern note taking and writing systems would seem to elide this part. (Is this true in practice? Can we provide examples?)

    3. Engage with the idea and comment or elaborateon it in a Point Note.

      Dan Allosso's definition of a point note.

      This is roughly equivalent to permanent notes or evergreen notes in Ahrens or Matuschak's frameworks respectively. Somehow I like what seems like a broader feel here, thought the name

      Does this version contain within it the idea of growth or evolution over time? Evergreen note in Matuschak's version does, though the word evergreen stemming from the journalism space would indicate an idea that doesn't evolve over time but is simply reusable or republishable with little or no work. The linguistic link to evergreen articles in the journalism space creates cognitive dissonance for me in calling notes evergreen. Evergreen connotes reusability, which is useful, but ideas should have the ability to evolve and procreate with other ideas.

    4. Summarize and paraphrase (and only rarelyquote) this information into a Source Note;

      Dan Allosso's definition of a "source note".

      This seems roughly equivalent to what Ahrens calls a "literature note".

    1. Once I was started on the career of a social investigator,the manuscript books became a record of other people’scharacter and conversation; of their gestures and acts; infact, of human behaviour; and, as such, these entries havean interest of their own.

      and a sentence or two later

      Hence, in describing the technique of a social investigator—for instance, the use of the “ interview ” and “ watching organisations at work ” [...]

      Beatrice Webb's definition of synthetic notes (particularly from the perspective of a sociologist) includes recording of conversations, actions, gestures, interviews, and general behavior.



    1. the definingcharacteristic of knowledge workers is that they arethemselves changed by the information theyprocess.’ So, the workers interviewed saw theirvalue to an organisation being to understand a bodyof knowledge and generate new information fromthis understanding which changed either theorganisation or its customer in a direct way.

      a more refined and nuanced definition of knowledge workers than Peter Drucker's 1973 definition.

    1. In design terms, this begins with the learning experience (LX) of students — but often extends toward the teaching experience (TX), and even the user experience of technologists, instructional designers and administrators. Collectively, I call these the "pedagogical experience" (PX) of an e-learning tool.

      Designing pedagogical experience (PX) encompasses both the learning experience (LX) of the students as well as the teaching experience (TX) of the instructor.

      Educational technology should take both parts of the overall experience into account. Too many focus on one side or the other: the ease of use for the teacher at the expense of the student or the ease of use for the student at the expense of the teacher. Balancing the two can be difficult, but designers should be watching both.

    1. Dagger anatomy, for the quiz: the quillon is the guard that separates the hilt of a knife from its blade, and the choil is the notch where the blade meets the quillon.

      the guard that separates the hilt of a knife or dagger from its blade ::: quillon

      the notch where the blade of a knife meets the quillon ::: choil

  8. Jun 2022
    1. the research says is that students often

      the research says is that students often don't use the right learning strategy because they react negatively to effort in fact it even is so well demonstrated that it has its own name it's called the ==misinterpreted effort hypothesis== it says that students tend to see a learning strategy feel that it is more effortful more challenging and as a result they will veer away from that because they feel that that effort means that they're either doing it wrong or that the technique is bad they consider more effortful learning with being a bad thing

      Students will perceive learning strategies that require more effort and work on their part to be less productive in the long term, often when the opposite is the case. This phenomenon is known as the misinterpreted effort hypothesis.

      Link to: - research in Ahrens that rereading and reviewing over material seems easy, but isn't as effective as directly answering questions and performing the work to produce one's own answer. - https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0010028519302270

    1. Collegial pedagogy, a term introduced by Lissa Soep and Vivian Chávez, describes a dynamic where both teacher and learner stand mutually invested in a shared project, where neither party could complete the work without the other. They need each other to get it right. “Collegiality is a relationship of shared collective responsibility.”
    1. Our creativity thrives on examples

      This pulls into question our zeal for innovation. Most thought is created and honed against other pre-existing thought.

      Some of the fun of note taking is not only rewriting an idea in one's own words for potential understanding, but expanding upon it to extend the ideas, sometimes based on our pre-existing world view and knowledge. The rest is linking this idea into place with our other knowledge and then combining an permuting it with that knowledge to create new knowledge.

      This seems to be a building block of the broader idea of "combinatorial creativity".

      link to: - Annie Murphy Paul's contention that imitation > innovation - Lee Vinsel's The Innovation Delusion: How Our Obsession with the New Has Disrupted the Work That Matters Most

      can imitation lead to innovation?

      innovation is the use of combinatorial creativity to make new things... rarely, if ever?, is true innovation made from whole cloth, there is always(?) something used as a base which is extended.

    1. what we call “intuition” is based on the unconscious application of this very mental faculty.

      Intuition is a form of combinatorial creativity that has fuzzy edges and potentially incoherent physical links between ideas.

    1. The Antinet’s permanent-address scheme, with its shifting nature, gives the system a unique personality. The Antinet’s unique personality stands as one of the most integral aspects of the system. A key component that enables insightful communication with a human being is the human’s personality–the person’s unique way of communicating with you based on their unique perspectives and interpretations. The Numeric-alpha addresses provide the Zettelkasten with a unique personality. Over time, unique structures form due to Numeric-alpha addresses. This is important because it allows one to communicate with the Antinet, transforming it into a communication experience with a second mind, a doppelgänger, or a ghost in a box, as Luhmann called it. (5)5 This is the entity Luhmann referred to when he titled his paper, Communicating with Noteboxes. Numeric-alpha addresses make all of this possible.

      Scheper seems to indicate that it is the addressing system alone which provides the "personality" of a zettelkasten, whereby he's actively providing personification of a paper and pencil system by way of literacy. We need to look more closely, however at the idea of what communication truly is to discern this. A person might be able to read an individual card and have a conversation with just it, but this conversation will be wholly one sided, and stops at the level of that single card. We also need the links between that individual card and multiple others to fill in the rest of the resulting potential conversation. Or we will rely on the reader of the card extending the idea or linking it to others of their ideas (and that of the zettelkasten), to grow the system and thereby its "personality".

      Thus the personality is part that of the collection of cards using their addresses and the links between them. This personality, however, isn't immediate. It might grow over time reaching some upper limit at the length of time of the user's life, but much of its personality is contingent upon the knowledge of the missing context of the system that is contained in or by its creator. Few zettelkasten will be so well composed as to provide full context. (cross reference: https://hyp.is/5gWedOs7Eeyrg2cTFW4iCg/niklas-luhmann-archiv.de/bestand/Zettelkasten/zettel/ZK_2_NB_9-8_V).

      The question we might want to look at: Is there a limiting upper bound (a la a Shannon Limit) to the amount of information that a zettelkasten might contain or transmit, even beyond the life of an initial creator? Could it converse with itself without the assistance of an outside actor of some sort? What pieces are missing that might help us to define communication or even life itself?

    1. cue reliability

      The degree to which inferences based on a cue are consistent with inferences based on other cues in the environment.

    2. ipsilateral

      Belonging to or occurring on the same side of the body.

    3. alpha band activity

      Brain wave activity that may inhibit areas of the cortex not in use or coordinate and communicate between networks.



    1. self-efficacy

      An individual's belief in his or her capacity to execute behaviors necessary to produce specific performance attainments.

    1. components

      Needs definition.

    2. Visual evoked potentials (VEPs

      Electrical potentials recorded from scalp overlying visual cortex that have been extracted from the electroencephalogram by signal averaging.

    1. hemizygous

      Describes an individual who has only one member of a chromosome pair or chromosome segment rather than the usual two

    2. parvocellualr

      Visual processing necessary for perceiving movement, depth, and small differences in brightness.

    3. magnocellular (MC)

      visual processing necessary for perceiving color and form (fine details).

    1. stimulus-onset-asynchrony

      Amount of time between the start of one stimulus and the start of another stimulus.

    2. response conflict

      In choice reaction tasks, the interference of an irrelevant stimulus or stimulus feature such that choice reaction time to produce the correct response is slowed (APA Dictionary of Psychology).

    3. staircase method

      A variation of the method of limits in which stimuli are presented in ascending and descending order. When the observer's response changes, the direction of the stimulus sequence is reversed. This method is efficient because it does not present stimuli that are well above or below threshold (APA Dictionary of Psychology).

    4. Orientation discrimination

      The ability to perceive the orientation of an object (clockwise or counterclockwise, in this case).

    1. Power within is related to a person’s “sense of self-worth and self-knowledge; it includes an ability to recognize individual differences while respecting others” [1] (p. 45). Power within involves people having a sense of their own capacity and self-worth [2]. Power within allows people to recognise their “power to” and “power with”, and believe they can make a difference [1].

      I've seen definitions of the others before but not "power within".

  9. May 2022
    1. deflection

      Phenomenon in which voltage measured by EEG changes from positive to negative or negative to positive very quickly.

    2. canonical regions

      Needs definition.

    3. conceptual apraxia

      A neurological condition in which the afflicted individual makes content and tool selection errors.

    4. N400 effec

      Component of ERPs that is part of the normal brain response to words and other meaningful stimuli.

    5. inferotemporal cortex

      Brain region involved in visual object recognition, consisting of the middle and inferior temporal gyri.

    6. retrosplenial

      Heavily interconnected brain region that may be involved in mediating between perceptual and memory functions, especially in the spatial domain.

    7. posterior parietalcortex

      Brain region implicated in spatial attention and eye movements (PPC).

    8. ventral visual stream

      Visual pathway associated with object recognition ("what" pathway).



    1. axis I disorders

      Non-personality disorder mental health conditions (DSM-IV).

    2. vernier duration

      Needs definition.

    3. Simon task

      Measures the difference in accuracy or reaction time between trials in which stimulus and response are on the same side (congruent) and trials in which they are on opposite sides (incongruent), with responses being generally slower and less accurate in the incongruent condition.

    4. spatial frequencies

      Measure of how often any repeating structure across position in space repeats per distance unit.

    5. slant estimation

      Needs definition. Probably another visual task of some sort.

    6. contrastsensitivity

      The ability to perceive subtle differences in shading and patterns.

    7. visual backward masking

      Presentation of a visual stimulus ("mask") immediately following presentation of a different visual stimulus ("target") resulting in a failure to consciously perceive the first stimulus (my guess would be that they measure the participants' ability to see the first stimulus after seeing the second stimulus).

    8. visual acuity

      A measure of the eye's ability to distinguish shapes and object details at a given distance.

    1. Communication “is the smallest possible unit of a social system,namely that unit to which communication can still react through communication.”40
      1. Luhmann, Die Gesellschaft der Gesellschaft , 82.
    1. The student doesn’t have a strong preference for any of these archetypes. Their notes serve a clear purpose that’s often based on a short-term priority (e.g, writing a paper or passing a test), with the goal to “get it done” as simply as possible.

      The typical student note taking method of transcribing, using (or often not using at all), and keeping notes is doomed to failure.

      Many students make the mistake of not making their own actual notes. By this I don't mean they're not writing information down. In fact many are writing information down, but we can't really call these notes. Notes by definition ought to transform something seen or heard into one's own words. Without the transformation, these students think that they're taking notes, but in reality they're focusing their efforts on being transcriptionists. They're attempting to capture something for later consumption. This is a deadly trap! By only transcribing, they're not taking advantage of transforming information by putting ideas down in their own words to test their understanding. Often worse, even if they do transcribe notes, they don't revisit them. If they do revisit them, they're simply re-reading them and not actively working with them. Only re-reading them will lead to the illusion that they're learning something when in fact they're falling into the mere-exposure effect.

      Students who are acting as transcriptionists would be better off simply reading a textbook and taking notes directly from that.

      A note that isn't revisited or revised, may as well be a note not taken. If we were to consider a spectrum of useful, valuable, and worthwhile notes, these notes would be at the lowest end of the spectrum.

      link to: https://hypothes.is/a/QgkL6IkIEeym7OeN9v9New

    1. notes don’t need to be comprehensive or precise
    2. The lengthand format don’t matter—if a piece of content has been interpretedthrough your lens, curated according to your taste, translated intoyour own words, or drawn from your life experience, and stored in asecure place, then it qualifies as a note.

      Forte's definition of a note.

    3. your Second Brain is a privateknowledge collection designed to serve a lifetime of learning andgrowth, not just a single use case

      Based on Tiago Forte's definition of a second brain the primary distinction from a commonplace book is solely that it is digital.

      Note here that he explicitly defines a second brain as being private. Historically commonplace books were private affairs though there are examples of them being shared from person to person as well as examples that have been printed.

    1. zany noun plural zanies Definition of zany (Entry 2 of 2) 1 : a subordinate clown or acrobat in old comedies who mimics ludicrously the tricks of the principal : merry-andrew 2 archaic : a person who fawns over another person : a servile follower : toady … must have known the falsehood of the slander which they encouraged their zanies to propagate.— William Gifford 3a : one who acts the buffoon to amuse others b : nut, kook

      I love this older definition of a zany.


      Vintage alphabet with images of food, flora, fauna, household items, various sundry items, and a murder clown. pic.twitter.com/MqWYKcmjzt

      — Michelle Krell Kydd (@glasspetalsmoke) May 25, 2021
      <script async src="https://platform.twitter.com/widgets.js" charset="utf-8"></script>
    1. The idea of Public Service Internet platforms is one of those alternatives, where “users manage their data, download and re-use their self-curated data for reuse on other platforms [… which] minimise and decentralise data storage and have no need to monetise and monitor Internet use” (Fuchs & Unterberger, 2021, p. 13).
    2. emancipatory communication seeks “to circumvent the politics of enclosure and control enacted by states, regulators, and corporations” (Milan, 2019 , p. 1)
    1. A*$#M981'&#4$'&$+"#$\ff\$#4'+'-&$-.$+"#$)*+,+%-."/01"&2314"**1+"Y$1&$]1)+^$H1*$=&4#)*+--4$+-$7#$]1$*,*+#C$-.$)=8#*$*#)('&2$+-$.10'8'+1+#$+"#$9#).-)C1&0#$-.$0#)+1'&$10+'-&*V^g



    1. : low land that is covered wholly or partly with water unless artificially drained and that usually has peaty alkaline soil and characteristic flora (as of sedges and reeds)


      often heard in the phrase forests and fens

  10. Apr 2022
    1. the brain stores social information differently thanit stores information that is non-social. Social memories are encoded in a distinctregion of the brain. What’s more, we remember social information moreaccurately, a phenomenon that psychologists call the “social encodingadvantage.” If findings like this feel unexpected, that’s because our culturelargely excludes social interaction from the realm of the intellect. Socialexchanges with others might be enjoyable or entertaining, this attitude holds, butthey’re no more than a diversion, what we do around the edges of school orwork. Serious thinking, real thinking, is done on one’s own, sequestered fromothers.

      "Social encoding advantage" is what psychologists refer to as the phenomenon of people remembering social information more accurately than other types.

      Reference to read: “social encoding advantage”: Matthew D. Lieberman, Social: Why Our Brains Are Wired to Connect (New York: Crown, 2013), 284.

      It's likely that the social acts of learning and information exchange in oral societies had an additional stickiness over and beyond the additional mnemonic methods they would have used as a base.

      The Western cultural tradition doesn't value the social coding advantage because it "excludes social interaction from the realm of the intellect" (Paul, 2021). Instead it provides advantage and status to the individual thinking on their own. We greatly prefer the idea of the "lone genius" toiling on their own, when this is hardly ever the case. Our availability bias often leads us to believe it is the case because we can pull out so many famous examples, though in almost all cases these geniuses were riding on the shoulders of giants.

      Reference to read: remember social information more accurately: Jason P. Mitchell, C. Neil Macrae, and Mahzarin R. Banaji, “Encoding-Specific Effects of Social Cognition on the Neural Correlates of Subsequent Memory,” Journal of Neuroscience 24 (May 2004): 4912–17

      Reference to read: the brain stores social information: Jason P. Mitchell et al., “Thinking About Others: The Neural Substrates of Social Cognition,” in Social Neuroscience: People Thinking About Thinking People, ed. Karen T. Litfin (Cambridge: MIT Press, 2006), 63–82.

    2. a phenomenon that psychologists call “thecaricature advantage”: the fact that we recognize a caricatured face even morereadily than we recognize a true-to-life depiction. While a caricature does distortits subject’s actual appearance, it does so in a systematic way, exaggerating whatis unique or distinctive about that individual—thereby making him or her evenmore instantly identifiable.

      Exaggerating the features of people and objects in systematic ways helps people to more easily assimilate both knowledge about them as well as the ability to distinguish between them in an effect which psychologists call the "caricature advantage."

      Link this to using caricature as a mnemonic technique for strengthening one's memory of objects and people.

    3. In the course of teaching hundredsof first-year law students, Monte Smith, a professor and dean at Ohio StateUniversity’s law school, grew increasingly puzzled by the seeming inability ofhis bright, hardworking students to absorb basic tenets of legal thinking and toapply them in writing. He came to believe that the manner of his instruction wasdemanding more from them than their mental bandwidth would allow. Studentswere being asked to employ a whole new vocabulary and a whole new suite ofconcepts, even as they were attempting to write in an unaccustomed style and anunaccustomed form. It was too much, and they had too few mental resources leftover to actually learn.

      This same analogy also works in advanced mathematics courses where students are often learning dense and technical vocabulary and then moments later applying it directly to even more technical ideas and proofs.

      How might this sort of solution from law school be applied to abstract mathematics?

    1. Infrastructure is a socio-technical system rather than a technical product.

      This is great to see as so often infrastructure is considered to be only within a purely technical layer.

    2. Infrastructure is dynamic.

      Also key: A common view of infrastructure as more permanent structures like "roads and bridges", or even digital networks, shapes understanding away from infrastructure as a more dynamic socio-technical system.

    1. A filing system is indefinitely expandable, rhizomatic (at any point of timeor space, one can always insert a new card); in contradistinction with the sequen-tial irreversibility of the pages of the notebook and of the book, its interiormobility allows for permanent reordering (for, even if there is no narrative conclu-sion of a diary, there is a last page of the notebook on which it is written: its pagesare numbered, like days on a calendar).

      Most writing systems and forms force a beginning and an end, they force a particular structure that is both finite and limiting. The card index (zettelkasten) may have a beginning—there's always a first note or card, but it never has to have an end unless one's ownership is so absolute it ends with the life of its author. There are an ever-increasing number of ways to order a card index, though some try to get around this to create some artificial stability by numbering or specifically ordering their cards. New ideas can be accepted into the index at a multitude of places and are always internally mobile and re-orderable.

      link to Luhmann's works on describing this sort of rhizomatic behavior of his zettelkasten

      Within a network model framing for a zettelkasten, one might define thinking as traversing a graph of idea nodes in a particular order. Alternately it might also include randomly juxtaposing cards and creating links between ones which have similarities. Which of these modes of thinking has a higher order? Which creates more value? Which requires more work?

    1. One can “‘di-minish” a biographee, but not an eidolon.

      ei·do·lon /īˈdōlən/ noun: eidolon; plural noun: eidola; plural noun: eidolons : an idealized person or thing. : a specter or phantom.

      Origin early 19th century: from Greek eidōlon, from eidos ‘form’.



    1. , as a key historical technology ofinvention. I intend this last term in the precise sense in which Derrida(1989) understands it, that is, as an oscillation between theperformative and the constative, with the former working to disruptitself (the performative) and the latter (the constative) – or whatmight be termed the unsettling operation of invention.

      Derrida's definition of invention

    1. ostension (or teaching by showing in person)
    2. We also have good studies of reporta-tiones, or the notes taken from oral events, such as sermons or lectures.25
    3. But it is more difficult in a world of manuscriptsthan in the era of printing to evaluate what constitutes a note—that is, a piece ofwriting not meant for circulation but for private use, say, as preparatory toward afinished work

      Based on this definition of a "note", one must wonder if my public notes here on Hypothes.is are then not notes as they are tacitly circulated publicly from the first use. However they are still specifically and distinctly preparatory towards some future finished work, I just haven't yet decided which ultimate work in which they'll appear.

    4. Genetic criti-cism seeks to reconstruct the creative process of great authors by examining thesuccession of working papers from reading notes to drafts and editorial changes.
    5. “Note-taking” is a general term that covers various kinds of writing in responseto listening, reading, or thinking, often in more or less direct preparation for theproduction of a composition or report (oral or written).

      Ann Blair's definition of note taking

    1. You might find that reviewing in Anki is harder than normal study. This means it’s working – Anki’s goal is to show you mostly the material you’re struggling with and the material you’re most likely to forget, so it will feel harder than an average study session where you study hard and easy material in more equal amounts. However, the difficulty and the number of cards you appear to be forgetting might make you feel like it’s not working. Give spaced repetition a few weeks and see how well you remember your content then; that’s the only way to really know how well it’s going. (This phenomenon is well-known and has a name, desirable difficulty.)

      Desirable difficulty is a learning task which one has a desire to know, but which is sufficiently difficult enough to be challenging. Spaced repetition systems, if properly filled with topics in which one has an interest, will surface the least well known material for revision and should provide a sufficient level of difficulty for learning.

      see also: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Desirable_difficulty

  11. Mar 2022
    1. First, what do I mean by meta-stable? It’s in reference to an article by Scott H Young - 7 Rules for Staying Productive Long-Term. In it, Scott describes a concept in physics where something is stable but small perturbations can cause it to break, and not able to go back to its starting position after a small push. The example he gives is a pendulum, perfectly balanced at the top; when pushed will not return to its starting point. Contrast this with a pendulum’s other stable point, the bottom. When pushed, it’ll return to that starting point easily.

      Something is meta-stable if small perturbations won't cause it to break or be able to go back to its starting point.

      example: pendulum

    1. Paired-pulse facilitation

      A form of short-term, activity-dependent synaptic plasticity common to most chemically transmitting synapses, manifested as an enhancement in the amplitude of the second of two rapidly evoked excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs).

    2. fiber volley amplitudes

      Needs definition.

    3. extracellular field excitatory post-synaptic potentials (fEPSPs)

      EPSPs that are generated by transient imbalances in ion concentrations in the spaces outside the cells, that result from cellular electrical activity.

    4. Schaffer collateral

      Axon collaterals given off by CA3 pyramidal cells in the hippocampus.

    5. theta bursts

      short bursts of stimulation that more closely mimic the natural rhythms of activity in the neurons of the brain at high frequencies, with the bursts themselves being applied 5 times per second.

    6. radial arm maze task

      A maze task that measures spatial memory and learning in rats.

    7. vascularization

      The process of growing blood vessels into a tissue to improve oxygen and nutrient supply.

    1. But it’s also the calculation a woman makes before responding to the e-mail of the failson who was just promoted ahead of her, or the calculation I make when a white executive comments on my Twitter feed but not my published columns.

      Noting the rise in the use of the word failson.

    1. archaea what strata me which looked at how ancient civilizations understood

      archaeoastronomy : the study of ancient or traditional astronomies in their cultural context, utilizing archaeological and anthropological evidence.

      sometimes also spelled archeoastronomy

    1. A writer collective is a set of editorial and financial structures designed to give writers the autonomy and upside that they get from writing alone, and the support and security they get from working for a media company. 

      If the "whole is greater than the sum of its parts" who benefits from the excess value and how is that economically broken up in a fair manner?

    1. Lemmata from the main text are underlined in red, and the commentary is provided after.

      : lemmata ; a heading indicating the subject or argument of a literary composition, an annotation, or a dictionary entry.

    1. schadenfreude

      Pleasure derived by someone from another person's misfortune.

    2. inf rahumanization

      The tacitly held belief that one's ingroup is more human than an outgroup, which is less human.

    3. derogation

      The perception or treatment of someone or something as being of little worth.



    1. 1. Multiple strong symbols are not allowed○ Each item can be defined only once2. Given a strong symbol and multiple weak symbols, choose the strong symbol○ References to the weak symbol resolve to the strong symbol3. If there are multiple weak symbols, pick an arbitrary one

      linker 如何解决重复符号定义的问题?

    1. Indigenous astronomy focuses on the empirical, scientificlayers of this knowledge, and Traditions refer to the social practices,cultural activities, and methods of transmitting and applying thisknowledge.
    2. Star knowledge is the body of knowledge aboutthe celestial realm and how it relates to a people, their land and theirculture.
    3. UNESCO broadly defines Indigenous Knowledge as ‘theunderstandings, skills and philosophies developed by [Indigenous]cultures and societies with long histories of interaction with theirnatural surroundings’.
    4. In the western Torres Strait, an astronomer is called a ZugubauMabaig, which literally translates as ‘star person’.
    5. These ways of knowinghave inherent value and are leading Western scientists to betterunderstand celestial phenomena and the history and heritage thisconstitutes for all people.

      The phrase "ways of knowing" is fascinating and seems to have a particular meaning across multiple contexts.

      I'd like to collect examples of its use and come up with a more concrete definition for Western audiences.

      How close is it to the idea of ways (or methods) of learning and understanding? How is it bound up in the idea of pedagogy? How does it relate to orality and memory contrasted with literacy? Though it may not subsume the idea of scientific method, the use, evolution, and refinement of these methods over time may generally equate it with the scientific method.

      Could such an oral package be considered a learning management system? How might we compare and contrast these for drawing potential equivalencies of these systems to put them on more equal footing from a variety of cultural perspectives? One is not necessarily better than another, but we should be able to better appreciate what each brings to the table of world knowledge.

    1. aryballos

      An aryballos (Greek: ἀρύβαλλος; plural aryballoi) was a small spherical or globular flask with a narrow neck used in Ancient Greece. It was used to contain perfume or oil, and is often depicted in vase paintings being used by athletes during bathing.—Wikipedia

    1. To signify that an angle is acute, Jeffreys taught them, “make Pac-Man withyour arms.” To signify that it is obtuse, “spread out your arms like you’re goingto hug someone.” And to signify a right angle, “flex an arm like you’re showingoff your muscle.” For addition, bring two hands together; for division, make akarate chop; to find the area of a shape, “motion as if you’re using your hand asa knife to butter bread.”

      Math teacher Brendan Jeffreys from the Auburn school district in Auburn, WA created simple hand gestures to accompany or replace mathematical terms. Examples included making a Pac-Man shape with one's arms to describe an acute angle, spreading one's arms wide as if to hug someone to indicate an obtuse angle, or flexing your arm to show your muscles to indicate a right triangle. Other examples included a karate chop to indicate division or a motion imitating using a knife to butter bread to indicate finding the area of a shape.

    2. Washington State mathteacher Brendan Jeffreys turned to gesture as a way of easing the mental loadcarried by his students, many of whom come from low-income households,speak English as a second language, or both. “Academic language—vocabularyterms like ‘congruent’ and ‘equivalent’ and ‘quotient’—is not something mystudents hear in their homes, by and large,” says Jeffreys, who works for theAuburn School District in Auburn, a small city south of Seattle. “I could see thatmy kids were stumbling over those words even as they were trying to keep trackof the numbers and perform the mathematical operations.” So Jeffreys devised aset of simple hand gestures to accompany, or even temporarily replace, theunfamiliar terms that taxed his students’ ability to carry out mental math.

      Mathematics can often be more difficult compared to other subjects as students learning new concepts are forced not only to understand entirely new concepts, but simultaneously are required to know new vocabulary to describe those concepts. Utilizing gestures to help lighten the cognitive load of the new vocabulary to allow students to focus on the concepts and operations can be invaluable.

  12. Feb 2022
    1. https://brainbaking.com/post/2021/10/are-digital-gardens-blogs/

      We definitely need better definitions of digital gardens (public or otherwise) to delineate them from blogs, zettelkasten, wikis, social media, and other forms of information exchange.

      Wouter Groeneveld describes some of his thoughts here.

      Link to notes from https://collect.readwriterespond.com/are-digital-gardens-blogs/

    2. Public digital gardens are overrated. They are very hard to navigate. Time and time again, I get lost in the jungle of mystical links, in the check-ins drowned in the bookmarks and the quotes. Fancy IndieWeb sites that boast 5 separate RSS feeds to “help” navigate the labyrinth do not make it better. I’ve tried following multiple interesting people that pump loads and loads of seemingly cool looking stuff into their site. It always ends in confusion. Yes, sometimes I discover a link to another published article (external to the garden, by the way!) that is interesting. As admiring as the garden is, the things they grow there are almost always puzzling.

      Wouter Groeneveld here is mixing up a digital garden and a blog with social media enhancements. I personally wouldn't expect a digital garden to necessarily have features like checkins, bookmarks, etc. Ideally it would be a mix of of a zettelkasten with atomic ideas and notes and a wiki structure with somewhat longer articles and ideas strung together.

      From this definition, my personal website definitely isn't a "digital garden" but a blog with a variety of social media features built in. Looking at some smaller subsets of my website, one might consider it to be a digital garden.

      An additional piece of digital gardening also has to do with actually tending the garden, which I generally don't do in my website the way I do in my Obsidian vault. My vault is more like a digital garden which has many streams of data coming into it and being regularly tended.

      This is another example of the broader space of these ideas being mixed together in a hodgepodge without clear definitions of what each are.

    1. barrel cortex

      A region of the somatosensory cortex that is identifiable in some rodents.

    2. metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR)

      Indirect, slowly acting (metabotropic) excitatory (glutamate) receptors that have some sort of effect on LTP. Needs explanation.

    3. CA1

      CA1 sub-region of the hippocampus.