189 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
  2. Nov 2022
    1. Generally speaking: The more independence a technology gives you, the higher its barrier for adoption.

      I've previously framed this as a greater range of choices (towards independence) requires more work--both work to narrow down one's choices as well as potentially work to build and maintain..

    1. Leeson, R. A. Travelling Brothers: The Six Centuries’ Road from Craft Fellowship to Trade Unionism. London: G. Allen & Unwin, 1979.

      https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/4467218-travelling-brothers

      Suggested by Jerry Michalski on 2022-11-02

  3. Jul 2022
    1. Netflix, together with competitors such as Hulu and Amazon Prime Video, havechanged the way people watch television. Cable television subscriptions peaked in2012 before beginning a gradual decline, and disc sales have dropped faster.5

      With the rise of online streaming came a decrease of cable television usage

    2. As Internet connections grew faster, more users shifted to purchasing software viadownloads rather than on disc. Software companies eventually moved away entirelyfrom the model of selling major releases every few years
    3. The Internet of the early 1990s was growing so rapidly that even experts found it hardto stay on top of its expanding collection of tools, protocols, file transfer sites, telnetservices, and newsgroups. It began to feel like a large library that had no card catalog

      It was great that the internet was expanding, but with its expansion came disorganization.

    1. All the portals suffered from the classic business mistake ofveering from their core mission

      These companies all seemed to stray from their mission to try to be competitive in the market. However, if they had stayed true to their original intentions these companies might have found long-term success.

    2. bandwidth was at a premium, andmany Webmasters felt the Wanderer ate up too many processingand bandwidth cycles as it indexed a site's contents.

      As a bot Wanderer automatically created an index of sites for users to search.

  4. Jun 2022
    1. The ban on a black slave tradetook effect in 1808, but in reality, clandestine trading continued for afew decades (particularly to Brazil).

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  5. May 2022
    1. One of the masters of the school, Hugh (d. 1140 or 1141), wrote a text, the Didascalicon, on whatshould be learned and why. The emphasis differs significantly from that of William of Conches. It isdependent on the classical trivium and quadrivium and pedagogical traditions dating back to St.Augustine and Imperial Rome.

      Hugh of St. Victor wrote Didascalicon, a text about what topics should be learned and why. In it, he outlined seven mechanical arts (or technologies) in analogy with the seven liberal arts (trivium and quadrivium) as ways to repair the weaknesses inherit in humanity.

      These seven mechanical arts he defines are: - fabric making - armament - commerce - agriculture - hunting - medicine - theatrics


      Hugh of St. Victor's description of the mechanical art of commerce here is fascinating. He says "reconciles nations, calms wars, strengthens peace, and turns the private good of individuals into a benefit for all" (doublcheck the original quotation, context, and source). This sounds eerily familiar to the common statement in the United States about trade and commerce.

      Link this to the quote from Albie Duncan in The West Wing (season 5?) about trade.

      Other places where this sentiment occurs?

      Is Hugh of St. Victor the first in history to state this sentiment?

    1. As trades skills are identified as a critical capability for OP NewNet and other parts of PLAN E, they require drastic expansion. Historically, tradespeople have not often been included in climate or security policy formulation. However, because of the criticality of tradespeople to the mission and issues of fairness, the hyper-response will integrate more tradespeople into PLAN E leadership and planning roles

      A leverage point to mobilize the trades, appeal to labor uniions approached along with cooperatives in a synergistic appeal.

    1. When a project is defined in a few words, nobody knows what it means. "Build a calendar view" or "add group notifications" sound sensible, but what exactly do they entail?

      Team membres don't have enough information to make trade-offs.

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  6. Feb 2022
  7. Jan 2022
    1. From 1787 to 1788, Americans would write and ratify a new Constitution that, in a concession to Lower South planters who demanded access to the trans-Atlantic trade, forbade a ban on the foreign slave trade for at least the next 20 years. But Congress could — and, in 1794, did — prohibit American ships from participating. In 1807, right on schedule, Congress passed — and President Thomas Jefferson, a slave-owning Virginian, signed — a measure to abolish the importation of enslaved Africans to the United States, effective Jan. 1, 1808.

      As a concession to the south, the Constitution provided a 20 year clause before allowing a ban on the foreign slave trade. In 1807, Congress passed a measure to abolish the importation of enslaved Africans to the united states, which went into effect on January 1, 1808. Of course this didn't stop illegal trade which continued until at least the start of the Civil War.

    1. Wendat society was not ‘economically egalitarian’ in that sense.However, there was a difference between what we’d considereconomic resources – like land, which was owned by families,worked by women, and whose products were largely disposed of bywomen’s collectives – and the kind of ‘wealth’ being referred to here,such as wampum (a word applied to strings and belts of beads,manufactured from the shells of Long Island’s quahog clam) or othertreasures, which largely existed for political purposes.

      Example in literature of wampum being described as wealth existing for political purposes.

  8. Dec 2021
    1. When we simply guess as to whathumans in other times and places might be up to, we almostinvariably make guesses that are far less interesting, far less quirky– in a word, far less human than what was likely going on.

      Definitely worth keeping in mind, even for my own work. Providing an evidential structure for claims will be paramount.

      Is there a well-named cognitive bias for the human tendency to see everything as nails when one has a hammer in their hand?

    2. Women’s gambling: women in many indigenous NorthAmerican societies were inveterate gamblers; the women ofadjacent villages would often meet to play dice or a gameplayed with a bowl and plum stone, and would typically bet theirshell beads or other objects of personal adornment as thestakes. One archaeologist versed in the ethnographic literature,Warren DeBoer, estimates that many of the shells and otherexotica discovered in sites halfway across the continent had gotthere by being endlessly wagered, and lost, in inter-villagegames of this sort, over very long periods of time.36
      1. DeBoer 2001

      Warren R DeBoer. 2001. ‘Of dice and women: gambling and exchange in Native North America.’ Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 8 (3): 215–68.

      Might it be possible that these women were actually gambling information relating to their "gathering" or other cultural practices? By playing games with each other and with nearby groups of people, they would have been regularly practicing their knowledge through repetition.

      How might we provide evidence for this? Read the DeBoer reference for potential clues.

    3. Dreams or vision quests: among Iroquoian-speaking peoplesin the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries it was consideredextremely important literally to realize one’s dreams. ManyEuropean observers marvelled at how Indians would be willingto travel for days to bring back some object, trophy, crystal oreven an animal like a dog that they had dreamed of acquiring.Anyone who dreamed about a neighbour or relative’spossession (a kettle, ornament, mask and so on) couldnormally demand it; as a result, such objects would oftengradually travel some way from town to town. On the GreatPlains, decisions to travel long distances in search of rare orexotic items could form part of vision quests.34
      1. On ‘dream economies’ among the Iroquois see Graeber 2001: 145–9. David Graeber. 2001. Toward an Anthropological Theory of Value: The False Coin of Our Own Dreams. New York: Palgrave.

      These dreams and vision quests sound suspiciously familiar to Australian indigenous peoples' "dreaming" and could be incredibly similar to much larger and longer songlines in North American cultures.

    4. Most contemporaryarchaeologists are well aware of this literature, but tend to getcaught up in debates over the difference between ‘trade’ and‘gift exchange’, while assuming that the ultimate point of both isto enhance somebody’s status, either by profit, or by prestige,or both. Most will also acknowledge that there is somethinginherently valuable, even cosmologically significant, in thephenomenon of travel, the experience of remote places or theacquisition of exotic materials; but in the last resort, much ofthis too seems to come down to questions of status or prestige,as if no other possible motivation might exist for peopleinteracting over long distances; for some further discussion ofthe issues see Wengrow 2010b.

      David Wengrow 2010b. ‘The voyages of Europa: ritual and trade in the Eastern Mediterranean, c.2300–1850 .’ In William A. Parkinson and Michael L. Galaty (eds), Archaic State Interaction: The Eastern Mediterranean in the Bronze Age. Santa Fe: School for Advanced Research Press, pp. 141–60.

      Read this for potential evidence for the mnemonic devices for information trade theory.

    5. But we often find such regional networks developinglargely for the sake of creating friendly mutual relations, or having anexcuse to visit one another from time to time;33 and there are plentyof other possibilities that in no way resemble ‘trade’.

      There is certainly social lubrication of visiting people from time to time which can help and advance societies, but this regular visiting can also be seen as a means of reinforcing one's oral cultural history through spaced repetition.

      It can be seen as "trade" but in a way that anthropologists have generally ignored for lack of imagination for what may have been actually happening.

    6. The founding text of twentieth-century ethnography, BronisławMalinowski’s 1922 Argonauts of the Western Pacific, describes howin the ‘kula chain’ of the Massim Islands off Papua New Guinea, menwould undertake daring expeditions across dangerous seas inoutrigger canoes, just in order to exchange precious heirloom arm-shells and necklaces for each other (each of the most importantones has its own name, and history of former owners) – only to holdit briefly, then pass it on again to a different expedition from anotherisland. Heirloom treasures circle the island chain eternally, crossing

      hundreds of miles of ocean, arm-shells and necklaces in opposite directions. To an outsider, it seems senseless. To the men of the Massim it was the ultimate adventure, and nothing could be more important than to spread one’s name, in this fashion, to places one had never seen.

      Not to negate the underlying mechanism discussed here, but there's also a high likelihood that this "trade" was in information attached to these objects being used as mnemonic devices.

      Read further into the anthropology of these items, their names and histories.

    7. Already tens of thousands of years ago, one can find evidence ofobjects – very often precious stones, shells or other items ofadornment – being moved around over enormous distances. Oftenthese were just the sort of objects that anthropologists would laterfind being used as ‘primitive currencies’ all over the world.

      Is it also possible that these items may have served the purpose of mnemonic devices as a means of transporting (otherwise invisible) information from one area or culture to another?

      Can we build evidence for this from the archaeological record?

      Relate this to the idea of expanding the traditional "land, labor, capital" theory of economics to include "information" as a basic building block

  9. Sep 2021
  10. Jul 2021
  11. Jun 2021
    1. In short: storing the token in HttpOnly cookies mitigates XSS being used to get the token, but opens you up to CSRF, while the reverse is true for storing the token in localStorage.
    2. Therefore, since each method had both an attack vector they opened up to and shut down, I perceived either choice as being equal.
  12. May 2021
  13. Apr 2021
    1. (This is for VI 5) I was wondering where/what city Cathay was, and it turns out to be an alternative name for China.Lop is also a city that at the time, belonged to the khan of the Mongols, but the description specifically mentions European traders. This makes me believe that this map was depicting part of the silk road. This is also connected to the reading we did this week, because the city of Lop was owned by the Mongols, and trade between these cities was most likely encouraged by the relative safety of the Mongol era.

    1. also in these mountains, there is an abundance of bread, wine, oil and all kinds of good fruits.

      Because of an abundance of such luxury goods, trade also followed and therefore was a valuabe part for economics especially when trade was booming. Because it specialized in luxury things like oil and wine, this area likely carried great wealth. One hardship of trying to trade in this area are the mountains itself, with travel technology dim it could take weeks or months to get through mountains.

    1. The spices coming from India are brought to this city of Chos [Al-Qusayr, Egypt]. Then, they are taken to Babylon [Al-Fustat, Egypt] and Alexandria.

      The Indian trade route was as still influential due too the high demand of silk and spice. Usually the trade was through port hopping from merchants. As most at this time period merchants were scared of the sea so they would costal hop. That's how India got brought trade to Al Qusayr and to Al Fustat..

  14. Mar 2021
    1. Decerf, B., Ferreira, F. H. G., Mahler, D. G., & Sterck, O. (2020). Lives and Livelihoods: Estimates of the Global Mortality and Poverty Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic. IZA Discussion Paper, 13549.

    1. The issue is kind of regression/trade-off for keep bundles get loaded same as the declaration order. The only thing this part added is the new BundleBind! command. Sure we should try fix issue by not introduce new feature/concept as possible as we can, but when the concept/complexity is just add a simple command without any argments to the configuration, and the benefit is clean, simple and efficient implementation, IMHO it is worth. That's why I finally chose this solution.
    1. That said, I wish more people would talk both sides. Yes, every dependency has a cost. BUT the alternatives aren't cost free either. For all the ranting against micropackages, I'm not seeing a good pro/con discussion.
    1. And trust us, we’ve been playing with different APIs for two years and this was the easiest and fastest outcome.
  15. Feb 2021
    1. This column and last month's article are about design. Design, by nature, is a series of trade-offs. Every choice has a good and bad side, and you make your choice in the context of overall criteria defined by necessity. Good and bad are not absolutes, however. A good decision in one context might be bad in another.
    2. If you don't understand both sides of an issue, you cannot make an intelligent choice; in fact, if you don't understand all the ramifications of your actions, you're not designing at all. You're stumbling in the dark.
    3. My point is that you should not program blindly. You must understand the havoc a feature or idiom can wreak. In doing so, you're in a much better position to decide whether you should use that feature or idiom. Your choices should be both informed and pragmatic.
    1. Space: Suppose we had infinite memory, then cache all the data; but we don't so we have to decide what to cache that is meaningful to have the cache implemented (is a ??K cache size enough for your use case? Should you add more?) - It's the balance with the resources available.
    2. You have to guess when the data is not likely to be needed in memory. It can't be too short that the cache is useless, and too long that you'll get a memory leak.
  16. Jan 2021
    1. Progress is made of compromises, this implies that we have to consider not only disadvantages, but also the advantages. Advantages do very clearly outweigh disadvantages. This doesn’t mean it perfect, or that work shouldn’t continue to minimize and reduce the disadvantages, but just considering disadvantages is not the correct way.
    2. Snap gets rid of dependency mess. Good. Snap offers in one place FOSS and proprietary app’s. Here I am suspicious. It may be an advantage for a commercial app-store and for some users. But this advantage may lead to loss of comfort and flexibility for the many users that rely first on FOSS.
    1. As you already noticed, the extension does not go in an manipulate the hrefs/urls in the DOM itself. While it may seem scary to you that an extension may manipulate a URL you're navigating to in-flight, I think it's far scarier to imagine an extension reading and manipulating all of the HTML on all of the pages you go to (bank accounts, utilities, crypto, etc) in order to provide a smidgeon of privacy for the small % of times you happen to click a link with some UTM params.
  17. Dec 2020
    1. "Up there the winters are harder yet than here, and still longer. We have only dogs to draw our sleds, fine strong dogs, but bad-tempered and often half wild, and we feed them but once a day, in the evening, on frozen fish.... Yes, there are settlements, but almost no farming; the men live by trapping and fishing ... No, I never had any difficulty with the Indians; I always got on very well with them. I know nearly all those on the Mistassini and this river, for they used to come to our place before my father died. You see he often went trapping in winter when he was not in the shanties, and one season when he was at the head of the Riviere aux Foins, quite alone, a tree that he was cutting for firewood slipped in falling, and it was the Indians who found him by chance next day, crushed and half-frozen though the weather was mild. He was in their game preserve, and they might very well have pretended not to see him and have left him to die there; but they put him on their toboggan, brought him to their camp, and looked after him. You knew my father: a rough man who often took a glass, but just in his dealings, and with a good name for doing that sort of thing himself. So when he parted with these Indians he told them to stop and see him in the spring when they would be coming down to Pointe Bleue with their furs-François Paradis of Mistassini,' said he to them, will not forget what you have done ... François Paradis.' And when they came in spring while running the river he looked after them well and every one carried away a new ax, a fine woollen blanket and tobacco for six months. Always after that they used to pay us a visit in the spring, and father had the pick of their best skins for less than the companies' buyers had to pay. When he died they treated me in the same way be cause I was his son and bore the same name, François Paradis. With more capital I could have made a good bit of money in this trade-a good bit of money."

      In by "skins" is he referring to animal skins? Their only source of transportation was dog drawn sleds? What kind of dogs were these to endure such winters? Amazing how the natives were treated so poorly by colonizers and how nicely the natives care for them when they see them struggling even after how they have been treated

    1. Across from the delta of the river Baldach lie the sea of the Indies and Persian. This is where they search for pearls which are taken to the city of Baldach. The fishermen say their enchantments before diving into the deep to make the fish flee.

      This is the region now known to us as the Persian Gulf. It is interesting that the thing it is known for, according to the map maker, is pearls. Today the region is known for oil production. A bit of searching shows me the region has been known for pearls for thousands of years, however, so it is interesting to see how this association has shifted in modern times. Because our society prizes oil, that is what we have learned the region is famous for, but older societies prized things like pearls more.

  18. Nov 2020
  19. Oct 2020
    1. Yes, you cannot fully express a modern app through templates without sacrificing flexibility and code reusability.
    2. It might seem like a small thing but for me it is more than a valid reason to add an extra of 0.15–0.25 seconds to my app’s time-to-interactive.
    3. I guess when making decisions about the stack of the compiler, they made a tradeoff — how high the overhead is vs the benefits the community gets in exchange.
    4. But is overhead always bad? I believe no — otherwise Svelte maintainers would have to write their compiler in Rust or C, because garbage collector is a single biggest overhead of JavaScript.
    1. I n 1790, Haiti’s enslavers saw the Declaration of t he Rights of Man (Article 1: “Men are born and remain free and equal in rights”) as a green light f or t heir i ndependence drive and for t heir demands for new trade relations t o increase their wealth. F ree and affluent bira-cial activists numbering almost 3 0,000 (slightly less t han the White population) started driving for t heir civil r ights. Close to half a mil-lion enslaved Africans, who were producing about half t he world’s sugar and coffee i n the most profitable European colony in the world, heard these curious cries f or r ights and liberty among the i sland’s f ree people. On August 22, 1791, enslaved Africans revolted, i nspired in more ways t han one by Vodou priest Dutty Boukman. They emerged as t he fourth faction in the civil war between White royalists, White independence seekers, and free biracial a ctivist
  20. Sep 2020
    1. Consider this, you that are here present, that yet remain in an unregenerate state. That God will execute the fierceness of his anger, implies that he will inflict wrath without any pity… you will be a vessel of wrath fitted to destruction; and there will be no other use of this vessel but only to be filled full of wrath: God will be so far from pitying you when you cry to him, that ’tis said he will only laugh and mock (Proverbs 1:25-32)…

      This is a very I stress very condensed version of these verses in Proverbs. I grew up Southern Baptist, My granddaddy was a preacher in NC, for 75 years. So I know all about church on Wednesday AND Sunday and whatever other day seemed fitting. I myself broke away from that and creating my own religious freedom by becoming Lutheran.. If you know anything about Lutherans they are pretty closely inlined with Catholicism. So Granddaddy was NOT happy. And I myself may or may not have received a scare tactic sermon... But let me finish proverbs for you the next verse or two from this if you will. After consulting all 3 of my bibles, yes all three different versions; the famous KJV, the NIV, and the NASB, it clearly states: Proverbs 1;33 "But whoever listens to me will live in safety and be at ease, without fear of harm". Imagine if he would have finished his sermon with these words.

      I imagine this made life even harder on them economically; being afraid to trade and do business with neighbors who may not be living up to the preacher's standards. Think about all of the trade relationships that may have been severed.

  21. Aug 2020
    1. More information about limitations and exceptions to copyright

      Under more information about limitations and exceptions to copyright add section titled Case Studies: Case studies provide valuable information relating to the state of affairs in various countries, as well as the opposing views when debating copyright issues.

      • South Africa: a case study of politics and the global economics of limitations and exceptions to copyright. The current debate in South Africa regarding proposed amendments to the Copyright Bill allows showcases the different sides of the debate, and how legal frameworks, e.g. the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa also informs decision making.
      1. US Government Threatening To Kill Free Trade With South Africa After Hollywood Complained It Was Adopting American Fair Use Principles, by Mike Masnick, 4 November 2019.
      2. South Africa’s Copyright Amendment Bill – one year on, by Denise Nicholson, 30 March 2020. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
      3. South Africa’s Copyright Amendment Bill Returned to Parliament for Further Consideration, Mike Palmedo, 22 June 2020. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
      4. See the light and pass the Copyright Amendment Bill, by Mugwena Maluleke, Tebogo Sithathu, Jack Devnarain, Tusi Fokane, Ben Cashdan and Jace Nair, 24 June 2020. © Mail & Guardian Online.
      5. South African President’s Reservations to Copyright Bill Not Supported by Law, by Sean Flynn, 13 July 2020. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

      For a comprehensive list of materials relating to the South African Copyright Amendment Bill processes, see Copyright and Related Issues: USTR GSP trade threats re: Bill, list compiled and amended by Denis Nicholson

  22. Jul 2020
    1. One way around this is simply linking to each SVG with an <img> tag, instead of embedding the actual SVG in the DOM. This way, the virtual DOM only needs to track one node per image, instead of hundreds for each SVG. Inline SVG [above] vs linked SVG. But in doing so we’ve crippled our ability to manipulate our SVGs. No longer can we add stroke, move shapes, remove nodes or change fill. In short, if you want :hover to change the fill color, you’re back in the stone age.
    1. You know the trade-off. Use the img tag to display an SVG, and you get clean markup — at the cost of styling the SVG using its properties like fill, stroke, SVG filters and more.
  23. Jun 2020
  24. May 2020
    1. This is exactly the approach that Chef has chosen. They built Omnibus, an automation system which spawns an army of VMs for building platform-specific packages. It works, but it's heavyweight and a big hassle. You need a big build machine for that if you want to have reasonable build time. And be prepared to make 20 cups of coffee.