179 Matching Annotations
  1. Oct 2023
  2. Aug 2023
    1. 那么,如何让发起请求的时候,使用我们小号的私钥呢?我们先来看一下执行 clone 代码时候,仓库源那个以 git 开头的链接是什么意思:


  3. May 2023
    1. Muthu scowled. “I have to write I won’t be rude to myteachers one hundred times.”

      on the matilda movie she has to do that

    2. “That’s because Rukku is gone, Arul! She’s gone because of me.If I hadn’t forced her to leave home—”

      i once saw a serie (flash) where the protagonist blamed herself for everything

    3. He asked how I was doing, and when, as usual, I just said,“Fine,” he wouldn’t let me get away with it.“No,” he said. “You’re not fine, Viji.”I said nothing.

      mom asks me how school was and this is always how it plays out

    4. “I don’t mind if you have no faith in religion, Viji. Just as longas you have faith in the goodness within yourself.

      my mother told me this berfore aswell

    5. I’m not mean about any one religion,” I said. “They’re allequally silly.

      i agree

    6. Soon, I’d setthe whole place yawning.

      this same thing happens when augusto shouts "BREEEK"

    7. Celina Aunty called me into the schoolroom andmotioned me toward one of the empty desks.“Sit,” she ordered. “Write.”“Write?” I said. “Why?”

      right when i was going to sleep my mother made me write and practice to pass a test

    8. I tried a few times but kept choking up, unable to get beyondthe first sentences.

      when i get exited or sad the same happens to me

    9. hen I saw him—scrubbed clean by a nurse, with his hair cutshort and washed and brushed—I could hardly believe it wasMuthu.

      when i take a bath i look 10x prettier aswell

    10. “Life isn’t fair.

      famous quote

    11. Muthu lay in beds near one another. You were each hooked upto a contraption that dripped medicine and food and water into yourveins,

      my cousin has once been in this situation

    12. “Did you use mosquitonets?” “Did you boil the water before you drank it?” “Whatmedication did you try to give her?”

      doctors ask the exact same questions to my mother when i go to a hospital

    13. “Rich boys, for sure,” Arul said. “You have to be rich to wastetime going on escapades at night instead of catching up on precioussleep

      i do homework in the middle of the night

    14. Arul placed his candle beside the others. You watched asintently as when you made your bead necklaces.

      ive done this before

    15. As we walked away, you and Muthu started playing a game,tossing a bit of concrete into the air like a ball and trying to catch itagain before it fell.

      i do this with a tenis ball and i catch it with a punch to practice

    16. The drone of bloodthirsty mosquitoes had wokenme several times during the night, and my arms itched with bites.

      This was a huge problem for me when i didnt have a ventilator, i would have to sleep in the couch but sometimes they followed

    17. My voice came out all panicky. I had avision of a ghost swallowing you whole.

      i had a dream i was escaping a ghost

    18. But I cared. I cared about him as strongly as if we’d known eachother all our lives. I couldn’t imagine our future without him andMuthu in it.

      i also met a girl in 5th grade which i loved, and i cared about her like i met her my whole life, but she left...

    19. But my dad was the best fisherman in our village.

      my father is also a good fisherman

    20. I felt too excited to sleep, so I sneaked out to join him.

      this happened once in a sleepover

    21. “Don’t you ever think about the future?” I challenged him.“No,” Muthu said. “There’s enough to worry about every daywithout worrying about tomorrow.”

      seems like the procrastinator version of me

    22. You set it free, Rukku,” I cut him short. “Now it can goanywhere it feels like. That was really nice of you.”

      i once did that because i thought it would go to space and find aliens

    23. “Life isn’t a competition.”

      this was said by Matthew west

    24. Sullen faced, the boy named Sridar stepped away as Arul joinedus.“How are you, Kumar?” Arul said to the fuzzy-lipped boy.“Look, this is our place,” Kumar replied. “It’s okay for you tocome here, but you can’t bring along every new kid in the city.”“Enough here for us all to share,” Arul said.

      this is just like an event of a movie i watched

    25. I slowly rolled the spicy yellow mixture of rice and vegetablesand meat into little balls with my fingers and licked the sauce offmy hands.

      this is exactly what skellig used to do

    26. “You really never pray?” Arul looked horrified. “Even the wrongGods are better than no God.”

      heard that before

    27. It sounded like our father, O. R. T. Narayan,something something—all in English, not Tamil like Amma’sprayers.

      i recognize this prayer and i used to preach it in the USA

    28. Still, I felt thankful. Thankful we had at least that much. Mostof all, thankful that you were following me without a fuss, withKutti at your heels.

      on skellig whisper was at her heels

    29. “Give me something,” she whined. “I have to look after mybrother. See him?” She gestured at a small boy—stark naked—whowas sleeping behind her.

      this situation happened to my family when we went to egypt

    30. She sat with you, showing you ways to tie pretty knots and braidstrands together.

      i tried to learn that when i was in a school on the USA

    31. I looked behind us to see whom he was shooing.“You!” he yelled. “Get that dog away from my shop!”“It’s a good dog . . .” I began, but the man shook his fist at us.Kutti growled. I picked him up and held his squirming bodytight.

      there is a movie where dogs are prohibited in a hotel but someone manages to sneak one in

    32. “No banana?”“No, sorry.”“Papaya?” you suggested.“No.”“Guava?”“No. No pomegranate, no jackfruit, no oranges, no sapotes, nosweet limes. No nothing.”

      seems like my fridge

    33. “Want to come for a swim?” Muthu grinned at you. “The water’snice and cool.”

      i like swimming

    34. I couldn’t help petting him. His coat was smooth. He wiggledand sniffed my hand.

      same, cant help petting my dog no matter what

    35. “Get away from that puppy, Rukku. It might bite.”

      My dog loves to bite

    36. Homesicknesspinched my heart for a moment. I thought of the rare weekendswhen Appa was away and Amma had enough energy to join us so wecould cook a meal together.

      how i felt when going to the nr

    37. The smell of roasting chillis tickled my nose

      the smell of crabs makes me feel that way

    38. The conductor looked at me and then at you, and stuck a handin his pocket and pulled out a hard green sweet that had melted outof shape.

      i have been to ubers that have this function

    39. But I should have known she’d never tell.

      On Breaking Bad the mother would never tell, despite desperately wanting to tell her husband's secret

    40. he set packages wrapped in newspaper onthe cracked kitchen counter. “Presents for my girls.”

      My father also gave me a wrapped present once

    41. She didn’t finish her sentence. She didn’t need to. She’d told mea million times how scared she was that if you set foot in a hospital,the doctors might lock you away in “a mental institution.”

      On a book i read a person died because they were too scared to go to the doctor for the same reason.

    42. We’d just finished our dinner when we heard Appa’s heavyfootsteps. The sound of him staggering up the stairs to ourapartment told us all we needed to know.

      This situation is similar, when my father arrives his footsteps are heavy so i know he arrived.

  4. Apr 2023
    1. For many people, “Camelot” is more familiar as a metaphor than as a musical — it depicts a noble effort to create a just society, often associated with the Kennedy administration, because Jacqueline Kennedy, in an interview shortly after President John F. Kennedy’s assassination, mentioned her husband’s fondness for the show, and quoted a final lyric: “Don’t let it be forgot, that once there was a spot, for one brief shining moment, that was known as Camelot.”

      The Kennedy administration became culturally associated with Camelot because Jacqueline Kennedy mentioned her husband's affinity for the show in an interview with Theodore H. White for LIFE Magazine following his death and quoted the show's closing lyric: “Don’t let it be forgot, that once there was a spot, for one brief shining moment, that was known as Camelot.”

      Somewhat curious that there's T. H. White of The Once and Future King and a separate Theodore H. White who interviewed Jackie Kennedy following her husband's death with mentions of Camelot.

  5. Mar 2023
    1. Some people argue that the Welch’s t-test should be the default choice for comparing the means of two independent groups since it performs better than the Student’s t-test when sample sizes and variances are unequal between groups, and it gives identical results when sample sizes are variances are equal. In practice, when you are comparing the means of two groups it’s unlikely that the standard deviations for each group will be identical. This makes it a good idea to just always use Welch’s t-test, so that you don’t have to make any assumptions about equal variances.
    1. A new breach involving data from nine million AT&T customers is a fresh reminder that your mobile provider likely collects and shares a great deal of information about where you go and what you do with your mobile device — unless and until you affirmatively opt out of this data collection. Here’s a primer on why you might want to do that, and how.
  6. Jan 2023
  7. www.investopedia.com www.investopedia.com
    1. T-Test: What It Is With Multiple Formulas and When To Use Them

      https://www.investopedia.com/terms/t/t-test.asp A t-test is an inferential statistic used to determine if there is a significant difference between the means of two groups and how they are related. T-tests are used when the data sets follow a normal distribution and have unknown variances, like the data set recorded from flipping a coin 100 times.

  8. Dec 2022
  9. Nov 2022
    1. Pg. 52, 53, & 54

      • Dietrich Bonheoffer, the 1st German lutheran Pator and theologians opposed Adolf Hitler's anti-semitic legislation called the Aryan Clause on April 7, 1933
      • Reich church damded loyalty oath from all German Protestants who held church offices
      • Bonheoffer refused and took lead in the alternative, confessing church movement
      • he helped many jews escape the Germans as well as training other church leaders to do the same
      • In June 1939 Bonhoeffer went to the U.S for the sake of his safety
      • Bonheoffer specializes in theology
      • He felt a calling to be involved in church and national affairs
      • Bonheoffer worried that he is leaving god behind because he is not following his calling by staying to the U.S
      • He was not allowed to return to Germany and this worried him
      • June 20th, he feels uneasy and wishes to return home because God is giving him a sign "The reasons one gives for an action to others and to one's self are certainly inadequate... In the last resort one acts from a level which remains hidden from us. So we can only ask God to judge and forgive us.. it is now in his hands" (Cahalan, 54)
      • July 9, 1939 he returns to Germany and resumes his efforts to resit hitlier and the Reich
      • He wanted to assassinate Hitler (pg. 54)
      • April 5, 1943 he was arrested for his activity in the underground resistance movement
  10. Oct 2022
    1. [T.S.] Eliot stood—as he once famously said of himself—for conservatism in politics, classicism in literature, and Catholicism, or rather Anglo-Catholicism, in religion. He looked back into the past, the mediaeval past, as a confirmed laudator temporis acti and in the mediaeval past he looked back not only to John Donne among the metaphysical poets, nor only to William Shakespeare among the Elizabethan dramatists, but before them to the great Dante among Italian poets and behind Dante, though not so obviously, to St. Thomas Aquinas among the scholastic theologians. (From "T.S. Eliot's Metaphysics" by Peter Milward, Culture and Civilization 2009.)
    1. However, its tails are thicker than the normal distribution’s, meaning observations are more likely to fall beyond two standard deviations from the mean than under the normal distribution.

      This is what Dr. Herring meant by "fatter tails."

      Below is why.

  11. Aug 2022
  12. Jun 2022
    1. In the 1920s and ’30s, the NRA was at the forefront of legislative efforts to enact gun control. The organization’s president at the time was Karl T. Frederick, a Princeton- and Harvard-educated lawyer known as “the best shot in America”—a title he earned by winning three gold medals in pistol-shooting at the 1920 Summer Olympic Games. As a special consultant to the National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws, Frederick helped draft the Uniform Firearms Act, a model of state-level gun-control legislation.
  13. May 2022
    1. DICER1 syndrome encompasses a variety of benign and malignant manifestations including multinodular goitre

      Gene: DICER1 PMCID: PMC8451242 PMID: 34552563 Pathogenic Inheritance Pattern: Autosomal Dominant MultipleDiseaseEntities Disease Entity: DICER1 syndrome, multinodular goitre, cystic nephroma, anaplastic renal sarcoma, Wilms tumour, differentiated thyroid carcinoma, gynandroblastoma, ciliary body medulloepithelioma, embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma, pineoblastoma, pituitary blastoma, kidney cyst, pulmonary cyst, Sertoli-Leydig Cell Tumor. Mutation: Germline MultipleGeneVariants Variant & Clinvar IDs: c.3452_3453del (485534), c.316del (no ClinVar ID), c.171_172insAC (no ClinVar ID), c.3434del (no ClinVar ID), c.988C>T (933007), c.5388dup (no ClinVar ID) Zygosity: None provided. Case: At time of operation, the goitre patients living in Denmark were ages 21, 12, 21, 8, 14, and 16. Four underwent total thyroidectomies, and two underwent partial thyroidectomies. The patient originally aged 21 previously had a kidney cyst at age 14 and a pulmonary cyst at an unknown age. The patient aged 14 at time of partial thyroidectomy later manifested a Sertoli-Leydig Cell Tumor at age 15. All six patients were female. CasePresentingHPO: None provided. CasePreviousTesting: thyroidectomy gnomAD: ENSG00000100697.10, https://gnomad.broadinstitute.org/gene/ENSG00000100697 Mutation Type: Frameshift, Nonsense

    1. DICER1 syndrome is an autosomal-dominant, pleiotropic, tumor-predisposition disorder arising from pathogenic germline variants in DICER1, which encodes an endoribonuclease integral to processing microRNAs (1).

      Gene Name: DICER1 PMCID: PMC5443331 PMID: 28323992 HGNCID: not found Inheritance Pattern: autosomal dominant Disease Entity: thyroid cancer and familial multinodular doiter Mutation: germline loss-of-function mutation Zygosity: not provided Variant: c.1870C>T; p.Arg624a, c.1870C>T; p.Arg624a, c.1870C>T; p.Arg624a, c.1870C>T; p.Arg624a, c.3726C>A; p.Tyr1242a, c.3675C>G; p.Tyr1225a, c.3675C>G; p.Tyr1225a Family Information: 145 individuals with a DICER1 germline mutation and 135 controls from 48 families Case: family members used; both males and females used and no significant differences seen among sex; ages range from 20-40 with carriers being significantly younger than controls; no significant differences seen among ethnicity but participants located from the US, UK, and Great Britain CasePresentingHPOs: thyroid cancer or MNG diagnosis common to those with a DICER! mutation but with no chemotherapy or radiation treatment yet CasePreviousTesting: tested levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroxine, thyroxine-binding globulin, and serum albumin; thyroid palpation; thyroid ultrasound; Sanger or next-generation sequencing assays gnomAD: n/a Mutation Type: missense

  14. Apr 2022
    1. Payne, R. P., Longet, S., Austin, J. A., Skelly, D. T., Dejnirattisai, W., Adele, S., Meardon, N., Faustini, S., Al-Taei, S., Moore, S. C., Tipton, T., Hering, L. M., Angyal, A., Brown, R., Nicols, A. R., Gillson, N., Dobson, S. L., Amini, A., Supasa, P., … Zawia, A. A. T. (2021). Immunogenicity of standard and extended dosing intervals of BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine. Cell, 184(23), 5699-5714.e11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2021.10.011

    1. Edward Nirenberg 🇺🇦 [@ENirenberg]. (2021, November 30). This is also not limited to the vaccine- any infection we encounter will do the same thing. It’s how we evolved to get around a massive genetic and bioenergetic challenge and it’s brilliant and it’s happening all the time regardless of any vaccines we get. [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/ENirenberg/status/1465698637434933254

    1. In this case, for a test to be statistically significant, p-value must be lower than 0.05.

      statistical significance should be less than 5%

      tf your confidence that the results are not due to chance is 95%

    1. We are 99% confident that the true average “attitude” difference betweenliving environments is between 1.32 and 7.88. At a significance level of 0.01we can say that living in a minority environment is associated with higherscore

      99% confident that the true average (result) is between these two numbers;

      at 1% (0.01) significance, we can scientifically assume there is a causal relationship

  15. Mar 2022
    1. Bellesi, S., Metafuni, E., Hohaus, S., Maiolo, E., Marchionni, F., D’Innocenzo, S., La Sorda, M., Ferraironi, M., Ramundo, F., Fantoni, M., Murri, R., Cingolani, A., Sica, S., Gasbarrini, A., Sanguinetti, M., Chiusolo, P., & De Stefano, V. (2020). Increased CD95 (Fas) and PD-1 expression in peripheral blood T lymphocytes in COVID-19 patients. British Journal of Haematology, 191(2), 207–211. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjh.17034

    1. Eric Topol. (2022, February 28). A multimodal #AI study of ~54 million blood cells from Covid patients @YaleMedicine for predicting mortality risk highlights protective T cell role (not TH17), poor outcomes of granulocytes, monocytes, and has 83% accuracy https://nature.com/articles/s41587-021-01186-x @NatureBiotech @KrishnaswamyLab https://t.co/V32Kq0Q5ez [Tweet]. @EricTopol. https://twitter.com/EricTopol/status/1498373229097799680

  16. Feb 2022
  17. Jan 2022
    1. Paolucci, S., Cassaniti, I., Novazzi, F., Fiorina, L., Piralla, A., Comolli, G., Bruno, R., Maserati, R., Gulminetti, R., Novati, S., Mojoli, F., Baldanti, F., Bruno, R., Mondelli, M., Brunetti, E., Matteo, A. D., Seminari, E., Maiocchi, L., Zuccaro, V., … Ferrari, A. (2021). EBV DNA increase in COVID-19 patients with impaired lymphocyte subpopulation count. International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 104, 315–319. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.12.051

    1. Townsend, L., Dyer, A. H., Naughton, A., Kiersey, R., Holden, D., Gardiner, M., Dowds, J., O’Brien, K., Bannan, C., Nadarajan, P., Dunne, J., Martin-Loeches, I., Fallon, P. G., Bergin, C., O’Farrelly, C., Cheallaigh, C. N., Bourke, N. M., & Conlon, N. (2021). Longitudinal Analysis of COVID-19 Patients Shows Age-Associated T Cell Changes Independent of Ongoing Ill-Health. Frontiers in Immunology, 12. https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fimmu.2021.676932

    1. In his article, Gorbachev says that perestroika was meant for the people and that its goal was to emancipate human beings to give people ownership of their lives and of their country. This stood out to me because the believed it was right to give people freedom which is a great point.

  18. Dec 2021
    1. Heitmann, J. S., Bilich, T., Tandler, C., Nelde, A., Maringer, Y., Marconato, M., Reusch, J., Jäger, S., Denk, M., Richter, M., Anton, L., Weber, L. M., Roerden, M., Bauer, J., Rieth, J., Wacker, M., Hörber, S., Peter, A., Meisner, C., … Walz, J. S. (2021). A COVID-19 peptide vaccine for the induction of SARS-CoV-2 T cell immunity. Nature, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-04232-5

  19. Nov 2021
    1. I have used the Oxford text of T. W. Allen, 2nd edition, and followed itexcept in a very few places

      The source of the translation of the Odyssey by Richmond Lattimore is the 2nd edition of the Oxford text of T. W. Allen.

  20. Sep 2021
    1. John Burn-Murdoch. (2021, August 23). NEW: in the last couple of weeks there have a lot of new studies out assessing vaccine efficacy, many of which have touched on the question of waning immunity. Unsurprisingly, these have prompted a lot of questions. Time for a thread to summarise what we do and don’t know: [Tweet]. @jburnmurdoch. https://twitter.com/jburnmurdoch/status/1429878189011111936

  21. Jul 2021
  22. Jun 2021
    1. Parry, H. M., Tut, G., Faustini, S., Stephens, C., Saunders, P., Bentley, C., Hilyard, K., Brown, K., Amirthalingam, G., Charlton, S., Leung, S., Chiplin, E., Coombes, N. S., Bewley, K. R., Penn, E. J., Rowe, C., Otter, A., Watts, R., D’Arcangelo, S., … Moss, P. (2021). BNT162b2 Vaccination in People Over 80 Years of Age Induces Strong Humoral Immune Responses with Cross Neutralisation of P.1 Brazilian Variant. SSRN Electronic Journal. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3816840

  23. May 2021
  24. Apr 2021
  25. Mar 2021
    1. In the late 1960s and early ’70s, he liked to tweak his critics by wearing a T-shirt that read “Minor Regional Novelist.”

      I want a shirt like this!

    1. Buss, Lewis F., Carlos A. Prete, Claudia M. M. Abrahim, Alfredo Mendrone, Tassila Salomon, Cesar de Almeida-Neto, Rafael F. O. França, et al. ‘Three-Quarters Attack Rate of SARS-CoV-2 in the Brazilian Amazon during a Largely Unmitigated Epidemic’. Science 371, no. 6526 (15 January 2021): 288–92. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abe9728.

  26. Feb 2021
    1. When T-Cells are activated they release cytokines (yes, that cytokine), which trigger additional T-Cells to be made, which then release even more cytokines. One type of T-cells that are created are called cytotoxic T-cells. Cytotoxic T-cells are the cells that are able to roam the body and mercy kill infected cells who are chemically calling out to be killed and ideally to stop the increased production of viruses like COVID-19.
  27. Jan 2021
    1. Learners’ practices, for example, should develop from low-level procedures such as sharing initial ideas to mid-level comparing and evaluatingsequences and eventually toward high-level challenging/debating and synthesizingroutines.

      The surface to in-depth learning. Related to Expansive framing written by Andrews et al.

    2. identify invariant (i.e., constant) characteristics of subsequent transfer domains

      The "bone" of the body. In the design of social annotation activities, what are the bones?

  28. Dec 2020
  29. www.investopedia.com www.investopedia.com
    1. Essentially, a t-test allows us to compare the average values of the two data sets and determine if they came from the same population.

      Comparing datasets to see if they came from the same population.

  30. Oct 2020
  31. Sep 2020
    1. Come, Shamhat, 1 will fix your destiny,

      It shows the confident.

    2. [who] knew ... , was wise in all matters!

      Was the author meant Gilgamesh?

    1. Le Bert, N., Tan, A. T., Kunasegaran, K., Tham, C. Y. L., Hafezi, M., Chia, A., Chng, M. H. Y., Lin, M., Tan, N., Linster, M., Chia, W. N., Chen, M. I.-C., Wang, L.-F., Ooi, E. E., Kalimuddin, S., Tambyah, P. A., Low, J. G.-H., Tan, Y.-J., & Bertoletti, A. (2020). SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell immunity in cases of COVID-19 and SARS, and uninfected controls. Nature, 584(7821), 457–462. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2550-z

  32. Aug 2020
    1. Mateus, J., Grifoni, A., Tarke, A., Sidney, J., Ramirez, S. I., Dan, J. M., Burger, Z. C., Rawlings, S. A., Smith, D. M., Phillips, E., Mallal, S., Lammers, M., Rubiro, P., Quiambao, L., Sutherland, A., Yu, E. D., Antunes, R. da S., Greenbaum, J., Frazier, A., … Weiskopf, D. (2020). Selective and cross-reactive SARS-CoV-2 T cell epitopes in unexposed humans. Science. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abd3871

    1. Ferretti, A. P., Kula, T., Wang, Y., Nguyen, D. M., Weinheimer, A., Dunlap, G. S., Xu, Q., Nabilsi, N., Perullo, C. R., Cristofaro, A. W., Whitton, H. J., Virbasius, A., Olivier, K. J., Baiamonte, L. B., Alistar, A. T., Whitman, E. D., Bertino, S. A., Chattopadhyay, S., & MacBeath, G. (2020). COVID-19 Patients Form Memory CD8+ T Cells that Recognize a Small Set of Shared Immunodominant Epitopes in SARS-CoV-2. MedRxiv, 2020.07.24.20161653. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.07.24.20161653

  33. Jun 2020
  34. May 2020
    1. Grifoni, A., Weiskopf, D., Ramirez, S. I., Mateus, J., Dan, J. M., Moderbacher, C. R., Rawlings, S. A., Sutherland, A., Premkumar, L., Jadi, R. S., Marrama, D., de Silva, A. M., Frazier, A., Carlin, A., Greenbaum, J. A., Peters, B., Krammer, F., Smith, D. M., Crotty, S., & Sette, A. (2020). Targets of T cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus in humans with COVID-19 disease and unexposed individuals. Cell, S0092867420306103. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2020.05.015

  35. Apr 2020
  36. Oct 2019
    1. Let's make the example even easier. function convertDate<T extends string | undefined>(isoDate?: string): T { return undefined } 'undefined' is assignable to the constraint of type 'T' Means: What you return in the function (undefined), matches the constraints of your generic type parameter T (extends string | undefined). , but 'T' could be instantiated with a different subtype of constraint 'string | undefined'. Means: TypeScript does not consider that as safe. What if you defined your function like this at compile time: // expects string return type according to generics // but you return undefined in function body const res = convertDate<string>("2019-08-16T16:48:33Z") Then according to your signature, you expect the return type to be string. But at runtime that is not the case! This discrepancy that T can be instantiated with a different subtype (here string) than you return in the function (undefined) is expressed with the TypeScript error.
    1. In the body of the function you have no control over the instantiation by the calling context, so we have to treat things of type T as opaque boxes and say you can't assign to it. A common mistake or misunderstanding was to constraint a type parameter and then assign to its constraint, for example: function f<T extends boolean>(x: T) { x = true; } f<false>(false); This is still incorrect because the constraint only restricts the upper bound, it does not tell you how precise T may really be.