116 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. there is a neuron in a seans that responds to temperature and if you take a normal temperature worm 00:36:26 and you put it in high temperature

      for - paradigm shift - evolutionary biology - epigenetic's critical role in inheritance - experimental proof - C. Elegan - Oded Rechavi

    2. Ray emphasized this answer which is very usual well epigenetic inheritance only goes on for a generation or two no

      for - explanation - evolutionary biology - neo-darwinian mistake - view of epigenetic inheritance

      explanation - evolutionary biology - neo-darwinian mistake - view of epigenetic inheritance - Neo-darwinians believe that epigenetic inheritance is only short lived. - However, the Noble brothers contend that if the changes in the environment last for many generations, - the epigenetic change can exceed a threshold and become permanently assimilated into the genome - Such a threshold is plausible because without it, a permanent change encoded into the genome would be maladaptive if the environmental change reverted back to the previous state

    3. what formed the basis all the way from the 1950s to now so over a period 00:25:25 of over 70 years has really to be undone it has to be revised fundamentally root and Branch there can't be compromises about it

      for - quote - 70 years of evolutionary biology has to be undone

    4. your 00:07:20 generation and the generation after it rejected purpose in nature but you guys said no

      for - evolutionary biology - purpose in nature Denis Noble - Ray Noble

  2. May 2024
    1. nature also gave us the appendix, and we’re still trying to figure out what the point of that one is.

      for - adjacency - appendix - evolutionary mystery - possible explanation - metaphor - dead projects

      adjacency - between - appendix - evolutionary mystery - possible explanation - metaphor - dead projects - adjacency relationship - Scientists have no good explanation for the function of the appendix - Perhaps it is evolution has bodily artefacts - that are remnants of evolutionary deadends - which once served a purpose for a particular environmental context - but the context changed and the body part remained, not being harmful nor advantagous - much like when we work on projects that don't reach their conclusion and stop - and have many artefacts that still exist such as documents, files, images, mp4, meeting notes, patent filings, built prototypes, etc but are frozen in time

  3. Mar 2024
    1. science has transformed our understanding of time.
      • It’s not an exaggeration to say that
        • science has transformed our understanding of time.
      • But as well in conjunction with this
        • it has transformed- the concept of who we are.
      • From biology we have learned that
        • there is no such thing as race,
        • we are all fundamentally one species
          • (with contributions from a few other sister species, Denisovans and Neanderthals).
      • And from physics we can say that
        • we are literally the space dust of the cosmos
          • experiencing itself in human form.

      for - language - primacy of - symbolosphere - adjacency - language - science - multi-scale competency architecture - Michael Levin - complexity - social superorganism - major evolutionary transition - worldviews - scientific vs religious - Michael Levin - multi-scale competency architecture

      adjacency - between - deep time - multi-scale competency architecture - Michael Levin - social superorganism - complexity - major evolutionary transition - complexity - adjacency statement - Deep time narrative has potential for unifying polarised worldviews - but citing purely scientific evidence risks excluding and alienating large percentage of people who have a predominantly religious worldview - Language, the symbolosphere is the foundation that has made discourse in both religion and science possible - Due to its fundamental role, starting with language could be even more unifying than beginning with science, - as there are large cultural groups that - do not prioritize the scientific worldview and narrative, but - prefer a religious one.<br /> - Having said that, multi-scale competency architecture, - a concept introduced by Michael Levin - encapsulates the deep time approach in each human being, - which withing Deep Humanity praxis we call "human INTERbeCOMing" to represent our fundamental nature as a process, not a static entity - Each human INTERbeCOMing encapsulates deep time, and is - an embodiment of multiple stages of major evolutionary transitions in deep time - both an individual and multiple collectives - what we can in Deep Humanity praxis the individual / collective gestalt

  4. Feb 2024
    1. Dubbed “litigation terrorism” by Joseph Stiglitz, the Nobel prize-winning economist. ISDS is a corporate tribunal system

      for - litigation terrorism - ISDS - corporate tribunal system - Michael Levin - multi-scale competency architecture - example - adjacency - evolutionary biology - corporate law - climate crisis

      adjacency - between - corporate law - climate crisis - evolutionary biology - cultural evolution - adjacency statement - Biologist Michael Levin's multi-scale competency architecture of evolutionary biology seems to apply here - in the field of corporate law - Corporations can be viewed as one level of a social superorganism in a cultural evolution process - Governments can be viewed similiarly, but at a higher level - The ISDS is being weaponized by the same corporations destroying the global environment to combat the enactment of government laws that pose a threat to their livelihood - Hence, the ISDS has been reconfigured to protect the destroyers of the environment so that they can avoid dealing with their unacceptable externalizations - The individual existing at the lower level of the multi-scale competency architecture(the corporation) is battling to survive against the wishes of the higher level individual (the government) in the same multi-scale competency architecture

    1. other cultures do not think this and that suggests that our sense of self is largely culturally constructed

      for - quote - Sarah Stein Lubrano - quote - self as cultural construction in WEIRD culture - sense of self

      quote - (immediately below)

      • It's just a weird fascination of our weird culture that
        • we think the self is there and
        • it's the best and most likely explanation for human behavior
      • Other people in other cultures do not think this
      • and that suggests that our sense of self is largely culturally constructed

      discussion - sense of self is complex. See the work of - Michael Levin and - https://jonudell.info/h/facet/?max=100&expanded=true&user=stopresetgo&exactTagSearch=true&any=michael+levin - Major Evolutionary Transition in Individuality - https://jonudell.info/h/facet/?max=100&expanded=true&user=stopresetgo&exactTagSearch=true&any=major+evolutionary+transition+in+individuality

  5. Jan 2024
    1. for - multi scale competency architecture - Michael Levin - evolutionary biology - rapid whole system change - adjacency - multi scale competency architecture - rapid whole system change - stop reset go - Deep Humanity - Indyweb - Indranet - major evolutionary transition in individuality - MET - superorganism - cumulative cultural evolution of individuality

      adjacency - between - multi scale competency architecture - rapid whole system change - progress trap - stop reset go - Deep Humanity - Indyweb - Indranet - major evolutionary transition in individuality - MET - superorganism - cumulative cultural evolution of individuality - adjacency statement - The idea of multi scale competency architecture can be extended to apply to the cultural level. - in the context of humanity's current existential poly /meta/ perma crisis, - rapid whole system change - (a cultural behavioural paradigm shift) - is required within a few short years - to avoid the worst impacts of - catastrophic, - anthropogenic - climate change, which is entangled with a host of other earth system boundary violations including - biodiversity loss - fresh water scarcity - - the driver of evolution through major evolutionary transitions in individuality has given rise to the level of cultural superorganisms that include all previous levels - progress and its intended consequences of progress traps play a major role in determining the future evolutionary trajectory of our and many other species - our species is faced with a few choice permutations in this regard: - individually regulate behaviour aligned with a future within earth system boundaries - collectively regulate behaviour aligned with a future within earth system boundaries - pursue sluggish green growth / carbon transition that is effectively tinkering at the margins of rapid whole system change - BAU - currently, there doesn't appear to be any feasible permutation of any of the above choices - There is insufficient worldview alignment to create the unity at scale for report whole system change - individual incumbent state and corporate actors still cling too tightly to the old, destructive regime, - creating friction that keeps the actual rate of change below the required - Stop Reset Go, couched within the Deep Humanity praxis and operationalized through the Indyweb / Indranet individual / collective open learning system provides a multi-dimensional tool for a deep educational paradigm shift that can accelerate both individual and collective upregulation of system change

    1. for - healthy eating - Dr. William Li - nutrition - healthy food - inflammation - angiogenesis

      summary - A good interview about human health and healthy diet. William Li begins by talking about angiogenesis as a key aspect of human health - and how pathology of angiogenesis is at the root of many major diseases. - The interviewer then asks Dr. Li about the connection between another keystone disease, and angiogenesis. - Dr. Li then describes some healthy foods and good dietary practices including extra virgin olive oil.

      adjacency - between - angiogenesis - inflammation - Micheal Levine's work - evolutionary biology - adjacency statement - they all seem related, as evolutionary biology has created legacy subsystems within the human body

    1. book aims of education

      for - book - Aims of Education

      Followup - book - Aims of Education - author: Alfred North Whitehead - a collection of papers and thoughts on the critical role of education in determining the future course of civilization

      epiphany - adjacency between - Lifework and evolutionary nature of the individual - - people-centered Indyweb -- Alfred North Whitehead's ideas and life history - adjacency statement - Listening to the narrator speaking about Whitehead's work from a historical perspective brought up the association with the Indyweb's people-centered design - This is especially salient given that Whitehead felt education played such a critical role in determining the future course of humanity - If Whitehead were alive, he would likely appreciate the Indyweb design because it is based on the human being as a process rather than a static entity, - hence renaming human being to human INTERbeCOMing, a noun replaced by a verb - Indyweb's people-centered design and default temporal, time-date recording of ideas as they occur provides inherent traceability to the evolution of an individual's consciousness - Furthermore, since it is not only people-centered but also INTERPERSONAL, we can trace the evolution of ideas within a social network. - Since individual and collective intelligence are both evolutionary and intertwingled, they are both foundational in Indyweb's design ethos. - In particular, Indyweb frames the important evolutionary process of - having a conversation with your old self - as a key aspect of the evolutionary growth of the individual's consciousness

    1. thus we have a very highly developed system designed to overcome the limitations in ordinary human perception

      for - key insight - adjacency between - dzogchen training - trekcho - cutting through training - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trekch%C3%B6 - togal - https://www.rigpawiki.org/index.php? title=T%C3%B6gal - cognitive science - evolutionary biology - adjacency statement - It is very interesting that we find parallels between - Dzogchen practice and - our consciousness's attempt to overcome the limits of its own perceptions of reality

  6. Dec 2023
      • annotate
      • for: evolutionary biology, big history, DH, Deep Humanity, theories of consciousness, ESP project, Earth Species Project, Michael Levin, animal communication, symbiocene

      • title: The Deep History of Ourselves: The Four-Billion-Year Story of How We Got Conscious Brains

      • author: Joseph LeDoux
      • date: Jan. 2023
      • doi: 0.1080/09515089.2022.2160311

      • ABSTRACT

        • The essence of who we are depends on our brains.
        • They enable us to think, to
          • feel joy and sorrow,
          • communicate through speech,
          • reflect on the moments of our lives, and to
            • anticipate,
            • plan for, and
            • worry about our imagined futures.
        • Although some of our abilities are comparatively new, key features of our behavior have deep roots that can be traced to the beginning of life.
        • By following the story of behavior, step-by-step, over its roughly four-billion-year trajectory,
          • we come to understand both
            • how similar we are to all organisms that have ever lived, and
            • how different we are from even our closest animal relatives.
        • We care about our differences because they are ours. But differences do not make us superior; they simply make us different.
      • comment

        • good article to contribute to a narrative of the symbiocene and a shift of humanity to belonging to nature as one species, instead of dominating nature as the apex species
      • question
        • @Gyuri, Could indranet search algorithm have made the connection between this article and the symbiocene artilces in my mindplex had I not explicitly made the associations manually through my tags? It needs to be able to do this
      • Also interesting to see how this materialistic outlook of consciousness
        • which is similiar to the Earth Species Project work and Michael Levin's work on synthesizing new laboratory life forms to answer evolutionary questions about intelligence
      • relates to nonmaterial ideas about consciousness
    1. we need to understand this deep inheritance within us in order to to to understand our emotions our fears our behavior in 00:04:50 the 21st century
      • for: quote - deep inheritance of evolutionary adaptations

      • quote

        • we need to understand the deep inheritance within us in order to understand our emotions, our fears and our behaviors in the 21st century.
      • author: Yval Noah Harari
    2. we are certainly special I mean 00:02:57 no other animal rich the moon or know how to build atom bombs so we are definitely quite different from chimpanzees and elephants and and all the rest of the animals but we are still 00:03:09 animals you know many of our most basic emotions much of our society is still run on Stone Age code
      • for: stone age code, similar to - Ronald Wright - computer metaphor, evolutionary psychology - examples, evolutionary paradox of modernity, evolution - last mile link, major evolutionary transition - full spectrum in modern humans, example - MET - full spectrum embedded in modern humans

      • comment

      • insights

        • evolutionary paradox of modernity
          • modern humans , like all the living species we share the world with, are the last mile link of the evolution of life we've made it to the present, so all species of the present are, in an evolutionary sense, winners of their respective evolutionary game
          • this means that all our present behaviors contain the full spectrum of the evolutionary history of 4 billion years of life
          • the modern human embodies all major evolutionary transitions of the past
          • so our behavior, at all levels of our being is a complex and heterogenous mixture of evolutionary adaptations from different time periods of the 4 billion years that life has taken to evolve.
          • Some behaviors may have originated billions of years ago, and others hundred thousand years ago.
      • Examples: humans embody full spectrum of METs in our evolutionary past

        • fight and flight response
          • early hominids on African Savannah hundreds of thousands to millions of years ago when hominids were predated upon by wild predators
        • cancer
          • normative intercell communication breaks down and reverts to individual cell behavior from billions of years ago
            • see Michael Levin's research on how to make metastatic cancer cells return to normative collective, cooperative behavior
        • children afraid to sleep in the dark
          • evolutionary adaptation against dangerous animals that might have hid in the dark - dangerous insiects, snakes, etc, which in the past may have resulted in human fatalities
        • obesity
          • hunter gatherer hominid attraction to rich sources of fruit. Eating as much of it as we can and maybe harvesting as much as we can and carrying that with us.
            • like squirrels storing away for the winter.
  7. Nov 2023
    1. we've got to leave the bottom left-hand corner and that only gives you three other spaces to go to and I've already noted that one of those spaces may be a place that has a certain utility short-run 00:50:27 but don't try to build your culture there because you can't do it it's a place that you want to be in for a while but then you wanna leave so it really only gives you two places
      • for: major cultural paradigms, modernity - leaving, cultural transition, cultural evolution, MET, Major Evolutionary Transition, kiey insight - 4 major cultural paradigms

      • comment

      • key insight: 4 major cultural paradigms

        • This matrix doesn't quite capture what Ruben is proposing because he later talks about neo-indigenous, which means taking elements of modernity but within an overall indigenous framework, so a hybrid
        • It would be worth exploring implications for an evolutionary framework of Major Evolutionary Transitions (MET)
    1. I'm tempted to say you can look at uh broadscale social organization uh or like Network Dynamics as an even larger portion of that light 00:32:43 cone but it doesn't seem to have the same continuity well I don't you mean uh it doesn't uh like first person continuity like it doesn't like you think it doesn't it isn't like anything to be 00:32:55 that social AG agent right and and we we both are I think sympathetic to pan psychism so saying even if we only have conscious access to what it's like to be 00:33:08 us at this higher level like it's there's it's possible that there's something that it's like to be a cell but I'm not sure it's possible that there's something that there's something it's like to be say a country
      • for: social superorganism - vs human multicellular being, social superorganism, Homni, major evolutionary transition, MET, MET in Individuality, Indyweb, Indranet, Indyweb/Indranet, CCE cumulative cultural evolution, symmathesy, Gyuri Lajos, individual/collective gestalt, interwingled sensemaking, Deep Humanity, DH, meta crisis, meaning crisis, polycrisis

      • comment

        • True, there is no physical cohesion that binds human beings together into a larger organism, but there is another dimension - informational cohesion.
        • This informational cohesion expresses itself in cumulative cultural evolution. Even this very discussion they are having is an example of that
        • The social superorganism is therefore composed of an informational body and not a physical one and one can think of its major mentations as collective, consensual ideas such as popular memes, movements, governmental or business actions and policies
        • I slept on this and this morning, realized how salient Adam's question was to my own work
          • The comments here build and expand upon what I thought yesterday (my original annotations)
          • The main connections to my own sense-making work are:
            • Within our specific human species, the deep entanglement between self and other (the terminology that our Deep Humanity praxis terms the "individual / collective gestalt")
            • The Deep Humanity / SRG claim that the concurrent meaning / meta / poly crisis may be an evolutionary test foreshadowing the next possible Major Evolutionary Transition in Individuality.<br /> - https://jonudell.info/h/facet/?max=100&expanded=true&user=stopresetgo&exactTagSearch=true&any=MET+in+Individuality
              • As Adam notes, collective consciousness may be more a metaphorical rather than a literal so a social superorganism, (one reference refers to it as Homni
              • may be metaphorical only as this higher order individual lacks the physical signaling system to create a biological coherence that, for instance, an animal body possesses.
              • Nevertheless, the informational connections do exist that bind individual humans together and it is not trivial.
              • Indeed, this is exactly what has catapulted our species into modernity where our cumulative cultural evolution (CCE) has defined the concurrent successes and failures of our species. Modernity's meaning / meta / polycrisis and progress traps are a direct result of CCE.
              • Humanity's intentions and its consequences, both intended and unintended are what has come to shape the entire trajectory of the biosphere. So the impacts of human CCE are not trivial at all. Indeed, a paper has been written proposing that human information systems could be the next Major System Transition (MST) that could lead to another future MET that melds biotic and abiotic
              • This circles back to Adam's question and what has just emerged for me is this question:
                • Is it possible that we could evolve in some kind of hybrid direction where we are biologically still separate individuals BUT deeply intertwingled informationally through CCE and something like the theoretical Indyweb/Indranet which is an explicit articulation of our theoretical informational connectivity?
                • In other words, could "collective consciousness be explicitly defined in terms of an explicit, externalized information system reflecting intertwingled individual/collective learning?
            • The Indyweb / Indranet informational laminin protein / connective tissue that informationally binds individuals to others in an explicit, externalized means of connecting the individual informational nodes of the social superorganism, giving it "collective consciousness" (whereas prior to Indyweb / Indranet, this informational laminin/connective tissue was not systematically developed so all informational connection, for example of the existing internet, is incomplete and adhoc)
            • The major trajectory paths that global or localized cultural populations take can become an indication of the behavior of collective consciousness.
              • Voting, both formal and informal is an expression of consensus leading to consensual behavior and the consensual behavior could be a reflection of Homni's collective consciousness
      • insight

        • While socially annotating this video, a few insights occurred after last night's sleep:
          • Hypothes.is lacks timebound sequence granularity. Indyweb / Indranet has this feature built in and we need it for social annotation. Why? All the information within this particular annotation cannot be machine sorted into a time series. As the social annotator, I actually have to point out which information came first, second, etc. This entire comment, for instance was written AFTER the original very short annotation. Extra tags were updated to reflect the large comment.
          • I gained a new realization of the relationship and intertwingularity of individual / collective learning while writing and reflecting on this social annotation. I think it's because of Adam's question that really revolves around MET of Individuality and the 3 conversant's questioning of the fluid and fuzzy boundary between "self" and "other"
            • Namely, within Indyweb / Indranet there are two learning pillars that make up the entirety of external sensemaking:
              • the first is social annotation of the work of others
              • the second is our own synthesis of what we learned from others (ie. our social annotations)
            • It is the integration of these two pillars that is the sum of our sensemaking parts. Social annotations allow us to sample the edge of the sensemaking work of others. After all, when we ingest one specific information source of others, it is only one of possibly many. Social annotations reflect how our whole interacts with their part. However, we may then integrate that peripheral information of the other more deeply into our own sensemaking work, and that's where we must have our own central synthesizing Indyweb / Indranet space to do that work.
            • It is this interplay between different poles that constitute CCE and symmathesy, mutual learning.
            • adjacency between
              • Indyweb / Indranet name space
              • Indranet
              • automatic vs manual references / citations
            • adjacency statement
              • Oh man, it's so painful to have to insert all these references and citations when Indranet is designed to do all this! A valuable new meme just emerged to express this:
                • Pain between the existing present situation and the imagined future of the same si the fuel that drives innovation.
      • quote: Gien

        • Pain between an existing present situation and an imagined, improved future is the fuel that drives innovation.
      • date: 2023, Nov 8
    2. this is a cancer uh approach that we work on which is to not to kill those cells but to force them to re reconnect to their neighbors and when they reconnect to the 00:31:24 neighbors they once again become part of the collective that's working on making nice skin nice muscle they stop being metastatic and they they go back
      • for: quote - Michael Levin, quote - MET of individuality, quote - memory wipe, quote - cancer therapy - MET of individuality

      • quote: Michael Levin

        • this is a cancer approach that we work on which is to not to kill those cells but to force them to re reconnect to their neighbors and when they reconnect to the neighbors they once again become part of the collective that's working on making nice skin nice muscle they stop being metastatic and they they go back
      • comment

        • Michael refers to cancer as a "memory wipe" where they have forgotten the normative programmed narrative of bodily / collective / multicellular unity
      • for: social superorganism, MET, major evolutionary transition, MET of individuality, Michael Levin, Roy Baumeister, Adam Omary

      • insight

        • this talk inspired an insight:
          • The contrast occurred to me with this talk especially, due to the respective areas of the two guests and Michael Levin's own interest of whether the signaling and policies within the collectives within a physiological body generalize in any way to larger social collectives that are outside of those physiological bodies. Rob Baumeister, being a social scientist is the perfect person to have such a conversation with.
        • In this case, those policies are composed of informational signals and it would seem the signals currently have nowhere near the cohesion that millions of years of evolution have resulted in within the biological body of a multicelllular organism
      • for: MET, MST, MCT, FET, MET - information, MST - information, Amanda N. Robin, major evolutionary transition, major system transition, facilitating evolutionary transition

      • Title:Major Evolutionary Transitions and the Roles of Facilitation and Information in Ecosystem Transformations

      • Author: Robin et al.
      • Date: 2021

      • Abstract

        • A small number of extraordinary “Major Evolutionary Transitions” (METs) have attracted attention among biologists.
        • They comprise novel forms of
          • individuality and
          • information,
        • and are defined in relation to organismal complexity, irrespective of broader ecosystem-level effects.

        • This divorce between

          • evolutionary and
          • ecological consequences
        • qualifies unicellular eukaryotes, for example, as a MET although they alone failed to significantly alter ecosystems.

        • Additionally, this definition excludes revolutionary innovations not fitting into either MET type

          • (e.g., photosynthesis).
        • We recombine
          • evolution with
          • ecology
        • to explore how and why entire ecosystems were
          • newly created or
          • radically altered
        • as Major System Transitions (MSTs).

        • In doing so, we highlight important morphological adaptations that spread through populations because of

          • their immediate, direct-fitness advantages for individuals.
        • These are Major Competitive Transitions, or MCTs.

        • We argue that often
          • multiple
            • METs and
            • MCTs
        • must be present to produce MSTs.

        • For example, sexually-reproducing, multicellular eukaryotes (METs) with

          • anisogamy and
          • exoskeletons (MCTs)
        • significantly altered ecosystems during the Cambrian.

        • Therefore, we introduce the concepts of Facilitating Evolutionary Transitions (FETs) and Catalysts as

          • key events or agents that are insufficient themselves to set a MST into motion,
          • but are essential parts of synergies that do.
        • We further elucidate the role of information in MSTs as transitions across five levels:

          • (I) Encoded (Genetic);
          • (II) Epigenomic;
          • (III) Learned;
          • (IV) Inscribed; and
          • (V) Dark Information.
        • The latter is ‘authored’ by abiotic entities rather than biological organisms.

        • Level

          • IV has arguably allowed humans to produce a MST, and
          • V perhaps makes us a FET for a future transition that melds
            • biotic and
            • abiotic life
          • into one entity.
        • Understanding the interactive processes involved in past major transitions will illuminate both
          • current events and
          • the surprising possibilities that abiotically-created information may produce.

      Indyweb / Indranet citations - Michael Levin, Roy Baumeister, Adam Omary youtube conversation - specifically, the question about whether a social superorganism of global human civilization / society / culture constitutes a new Major Evolutionary Transition of Individuality - https://hyp.is/rQgvZn2hEe6-TF8HFSS9mg/docdrop.org/video/UfoVTA0ilsY/

    1. for: Major Evolutionary Transitions in individuality, MET, MET in Individuality

      • Abstract
        • The evolution of life on earth has been driven by a small number of major evolutionary transitions.
        • These transitions have been characterized by individuals that could previously replicate independently, cooperating to form a new, more complex life form.
        • For example,
          • archaea and eubacteria formed eukaryotic cells, and
          • cells formed multicellular organisms.
        • However, not all cooperative groups are en route to major transitions.
        • How can we explain why major evolutionary transitions have or haven’t taken place on different branches of the tree of life?
          • We break down major transitions into two steps:
            • the formation of a cooperative group and
            • the transformation of that group into an integrated entity.
          • We show how these steps require
            • cooperation,
            • division of labor,
            • communication,
            • mutual dependence, and
            • negligible within-group conflict.
        • We find that certain ecological conditions and the ways in which groups form have played recurrent roles in driving multiple transitions.
        • In contrast, we find that other factors have played relatively minor roles at many key points, such as
          • within-group kin discrimination and
          • mechanisms to actively repress competition.
        • More generally, by identifying the small number of factors that have driven major transitions, we provide a simpler and more unified description of how life on earth has evolved.
  8. Oct 2023
    1. let's just pick an example of convergent evolution so you see here this is a classic example you have 00:11:24 um the arm or the leg in certain animals the four leg or the arm in the human or the wing of a bird and they're com they consist of all of the same bones more or 00:11:37 less
      • for: example, example - evolutionary convergence, evolutionary convergence - arms of different species
    2. the great Oliver Sacks once said a neuron is a neuron more or less regardless of species neurons do largely similar sorts 00:10:34 of things regardless of what animal you may find them in f
      • for: example, example - evolutionary convergence, evolutionary convergence - neuron. Oliver Sachs
    3. Cambrian is kind of a sensory 00:13:18 it's kind of a a a Renaissance of uh sensory richness and it presents the sensory World in three dimensions which introduces certain challenges to animals and in the case of invertebrates you can 00:13:34 see there was a verb veritable explosion of of invertebrates and in in particular invertebrates with different kinds of eyes
      • example: evolutionary convergence
        • during Cambrian explosion, over a period of 40 million years, a diverse range of species developed with the ability to see
    4. the idea of evolutionary convergence is relatively simple it's the idea that similar environmental conditions can give rise 00:09:05 to similar biological adaptations
      • for: definition, definition - evolutionary convergence, evolutionary convergence

      • definition: evolutionary convergence

        • similar environmental conditions can give rise to similar biological adaptations
      • example: evolutionary convergence
        • during Cambrian explosion, over a period of 40 million years, a diverse range of species developed with the ability to see
        • a number of species have the same arm appendages:
          • human
          • bird
          • bat
  9. Sep 2023
      • for: social tipping point, multi-scale competency architecture, MET, major evolutionary transition of individuality

      • Title: Using emergence to take social innovation to scale

      • Author: Margaret Wheatley and Deborah Frieze
      • publisher: The Berkana Institute
    1. Emergence is how lifecreates radical change and takesthings to scale
      • for: multi-scale competency architecture, MET, major evolutionary transition of individuality
    1. How are the potentially selfish interests of individuals overcome to form mutually dependent cooperative groups? We can then ask whether there are any similarities across transitions in the answers to this problem.
      • for: key question, key question - multi-scale competency architecture, MET, major evolutionary transition
    1. multiscale competency architecture of life
      • for: definition, definition - multiscale competency architecture of life, multiscale competency architecture of life, superorganism, MET, major evolutionary transition, question, question - multiscale competency architecture
      • definition: multiscale competency architecture of life
      • paraphrase

        • The multiscale competency architecture of life is a hypothesis about the scaling of cognition, seeing complex system-level behaviors in any space as the
          • within-level and
          • across-level
        • competition and
        • cooperation
        • among the various
          • subunits and
          • partitions
        • of composite agents (i.e., all agents).
        • The generalization of problem spaces beyond the traditional 3D space of “behavior” into other, virtual problem spaces is essential for understanding evolution of basal cognition.
        • Living things
          • first solved problems in metabolic space, and evolution then pivoted the same kinds of strategies to
          • solve problems in
            • physiological,
            • transcriptional, and
            • anatomical space,
          • before speed-optimizing these dynamics to enable rapid behavior in 3D space.
        • Since every cognitive agent is made of parts, it is essential to have a theory about how
          • numerous goal-seeking agents link together into
          • a new, larger cognitive system that is novel and not present in any of the subunits.
      • comment

      • adjacency between:
        • multiscale competency architecture
        • superorganism
      • adjacency statement

        • The concept of multiscale competency architecture is a useful one for considering and organizing the effects of Major Evolutionary Transitions (METs) over evolutionary timescales.
        • It links and locates the normative scale in which human consciousness exists to the lower scales of cells and subcellular life below, and to society as a social superorganism above.
        • it shows that each human INTERbeing / INTERbeCOMing is not isolated, but is part of a multiscale nexus / gestalt
        • I've incorporated this into my SRG presentation.
      • question

        • is there research on signaling mechanisms exist between different levels?
          • in another part of the paper, there is discussion of gap junctions as a way to cohere individual cells into group functionality
          • in particular, is there a way for humans consciousness to communicate with lower levels of its body? ie. to tissues, cells or subcellular structures?
        • Could the Bodhisattva vow be extended not only at the level of the social superorganism of groups of individual multicellular beings, but also downwards in the multiscale competency architecture to all the trillions of cells and microbes that inhabit each multicellular planetary body?
          • if it can, it can be interpreted as taking care of your body through
            • healthy exercise
            • healthy sleep
            • healthy diet
            • healthy thoughts and emotions
            • no self-harm
            • self love but not conceit
        • what are the exact biological and evolutionary mechanisms that allow for coherence of individual organisms at the various levels of the multiscale competency architecture and can they be extended to apply to the scale of humans within a social superorganism scale?
        • could love be another word for care drive that applies to all the different scales of the multiscale competency architecture?
        • do feelings of love and compassion propagate downwards through the multiscale competency architecture and find analogous expression in the appropriate spaces?
      • reference
    2. gap junctions
      • for: gap junctions, multicellular cohesion, multicellular unity, MET, major evolutionary transition, group to individual, group glue
      • comment

        • gap junctions play a critical role in cohering a group of cells together
        • hence they might be considered a kind of "cellular glue" which fosters evolutionary fitness by incentifying individual organisms to beneficially socially interact with other individual organisms
      • question

        • do gap junctions play a role in major evolutionary transition (MET)?
      • adjacency between

        • gap junction
        • cancer
        • MET
        • individual to group
      • adjacency statement
        • gap junctions may play a role in major evolutionary transition, enabling individual cells to unite into a group, leading to the evolution of multicellular organisms. Investigate and do literature review to see if this is the case.
    1. ou certainly have a light cone that does not belong to any of your pieces
      • for: individual / collective gestalt, Deep Humanity, superorganism, multi-level superorganism, major evolutionary transition, MET, cognitive light cone, umwelt

      • paraphrase

        • a human being certainly has a light cone that does not belong to any of its pieces (ie cells)
        • at the conscious level of a human being, we have
          • goals
          • preferences
          • hopes
          • dreams
          • narratives
        • humans occupy spaces that do not belong to our individual cells, tissues or organs
          • those smaller parts work in
            • physiological space
            • transcriptional space
            • biomolecular space
        • When we were an embryo we worked in morphogenetic space
      • comment

        • Since MET implies that these smaller structures of which we are constituted like
          • cells and
          • sub-cellular structures like mitochondria
        • were descended from individual organisms long ago in deep history, those contemporary proxies are occupying their own umwelt
    2. all intelligence collective intelligence
      • for: quote, quote - intelligence, major evolutionary transition, MET, quote - collective inteillgence, quote - Michael Levin
      • quote
        • all intelligence is collective intelligence
      • author: Michael Levin

      • comment

        • Major evolutionary transition (MET) are milestones in evolution in which collections of distinct individual life forms unite into one cohesive collection due to improved fitness and begin to replicate as a new individual unit
        • hence the Deep Humanity term individual / collective gestalt, developed to deal with the level of human organisms and the societies and groups they belong to, applies to evolutionary biology as well through the MET where a new higher level individual is formed out of a collective of lower level indivdiuals
    1. Recent work has revealed several new and significant aspects of the dynamics of theory change. First, statistical information, information about the probabilistic contingencies between events, plays a particularly important role in theory-formation both in science and in childhood. In the last fifteen years we’ve discovered the power of early statistical learning.

      The data of the past is congruent with the current psychological trends that face the education system of today. Developmentalists have charted how children construct and revise intuitive theories. In turn, a variety of theories have developed because of the greater use of statistical information that supports probabilistic contingencies that help to better inform us of causal models and their distinctive cognitive functions. These studies investigate the physical, psychological, and social domains. In the case of intuitive psychology, or "theory of mind," developmentalism has traced a progression from an early understanding of emotion and action to an understanding of intentions and simple aspects of perception, to an understanding of knowledge vs. ignorance, and finally to a representational and then an interpretive theory of mind.

      The mechanisms by which life evolved—from chemical beginnings to cognizing human beings—are central to understanding the psychological basis of learning. We are the product of an evolutionary process and it is the mechanisms inherent in this process that offer the most probable explanations to how we think and learn.

      Bada, & Olusegun, S. (2015). Constructivism Learning Theory : A Paradigm for Teaching and Learning.

  10. Aug 2023
    1. While the proximate mechanisms of these anthropogenic changes are well studied (e.g., climate change, biodiversity loss, population growth), the evolutionary causality of these anthropogenic changes have been largely ignored.
      • for: climate change - evolutionary causes, cultural evolution - unsustainability, unsustainability
      • definition: Anthroecological theory (AET)
        • This theory proposes that the ultimate cause of anthropogenic environmental change is multi-level selection for niche construction and ecosystem engineering
    2. We might view human social organization in general in this lens: social organization exists to maximize the extraction of energy from the environment to the group and individual (X), and the efficiency of the conversion of extracted energy into offspring (E). This is identical to the claim that social organization exists to maximize the fitness of the group (Wilson and Sober 1994) and/or the individuals which compose the group (Nowak et al. 2010), given an energetic definition of fitness.
      • for: social organization - evolutionary purpose,
      • paraphrase
        • human social organization exists to maximize
          • the extraction of energy from the environment to the group and individual (X), and
          • the efficiency of the conversion of extracted energy into offspring (E). -This is identical to the claim that
          • social organization exists to maximize the fitness of the group (Wilson and Sober 1994) and/or the individuals which compose the group (Nowak et al. 2010),
        • given an energetic definition of fitness.
    1. our systems are dysfunctional as 00:43:29 is and i would say that is evidenced by the fact that we are under extreme threat
      • for: polycrisis, adapt or die, evolutionary pressure, maladaptive
      • paraphrase
        • the fact that we could be in the early stages of extinction is evidence that there is something deeply dysfunctional about the systems we have designed
      • comment
        • from evolutionary biology perspective, also could argue that
          • we have become maladaptive due to the huge mismatch between
            • rate of genetic biological evolution and
            • rate of human cultural evolution
          • in other words,
            • human (cultural) progress,
            • cumulative cultural evolution,
            • gene-culture coevolution
            • has resulted in progress traps
          • Progress traps leading to our progress traps may be evolutions milestone / marker / indicator to us that
          • we must now evolve to our next stage if we are to even survive
          • in other words, the polycrisis itself may be contextualized as an evolutionary pressure to adapt or die
    2. these are the seven main thrusts of the series
      • for: societal design, designing societies, societal architecture, transforming society, whole system change, SSO, social superorganism, John Boik

      The seven main ideas for societal design: 1. societal transformation - is necessary to avoid catastrophe 2. the specific type of transformation is science-based transformation based on entirely new systems - de novo design - 3. A practical way to implement the transformation in the real world - it must be economical, and doable within the short time window for system change before us. - Considering a time period of 50 years for total change, with some types of change at a much higher priority than others. - The change would be exponential so starting out slower, and accelerating - Those communities that are the first to participate would make the most rapid improvements. 4. Promoting a worldview of society as a social superorganism, a cognitive organism, and its societal systems as a cognitive architecture. 5. Knowing the intrinsic purpose of a society - each subsystem must be explained in terms of the overall intrinsic purpose. 6. The reason for transformation - Transformation that improves cognition reduces the uncertainty that our society's intrinsic purpose is fulfilled. 7. Forming a partnership between the global science community and all the local communities of the world.

    3. all that sense making and problem 00:14:18 solving has been siloed
      • for: whole system approach, system approach, systems thinking, systems thinking - societal design, societal design, John Boik, societal design - evolutionary approach, designing societies - evolutionary approach -paraphrase
        • currently, all societal systems function as silos
        • how does the total system change and achieve new stable states?
        • advocating for designing societal systems so that the cognitive architectures of the different component systems can all serve the same purpose
        • design a fitness evaluation score Rather than tackling problems in individual silos, John is promoting an integrated approach.

      This is wholly consistent with the underpinnings of SRG Deep Humanity praxis that stresses the same need for multi-disciplinary study and synthesis of all the various parts of the SSO.into one unified Gestalt to mitigate progress traps. https://hyp.is/go?url=https%3A%2F%2Fthetyee.ca%2FAnalysis%2F2019%2F09%2F20%2FRonald-Wright-Can-We-Dodge-Progress-Trap%2F&group=world https://hyp.is/go?url=https%3A%2F%2Fthetyee.ca%2FCulture%2F2018%2F10%2F12%2FHumanity-Progress-Trap%2F&group=world

    1. sense of self is a construct a psychological and social construct it's something it's not something that 00:06:42 infants are born with it's actually something that develops as we grow up our caregivers look into our eyes give us a name that we learned to identify with and also basically we learn to see 00:06:59 ourselves as they see us we inte
      • for: self, constructing reality, constructed self, constructed reality, constructing the sense of self, self and other, nonduality, duality, insecurable, comment, question

      • paraphrase

        • sense of self is a construct
        • a psychological and social construct
        • it's not something that infants are born with
          • it's actually something that develops as we grow up
        • our caregivers look into our eyes
          • give us a name that we learned to identify with and
          • also basically we learn to see ourselves as they see us
            • we internalize that which is why we are so preoccupied with what other people think about
          • we learned to use language in certain ways
            • mine
            • you
            • yours
            • his
            • hers and so forth
          • that's all very essential to it
        • so we could say that the sense of self is being a construct
        • it's composed of mostly habitual ways of
          • thinking
          • feeling
          • acting
          • reacting
          • remembering
          • planning and
          • tending
        • it's the way that these mostly habitual processes work together re-enforce each other
        • but does that give us insight into what the fundamental problem is?
      • I think it does and here's what it is as I understand it
        • because the sense of self is a construct
          • because it doesn't refer it
          • doesn't depend on it
          • doesn't point back to a real self that has any self-reality or or self-identity
      • this sense of self by virtue of its lack of essence is inherently uncomfortable

        • we can say it's basically inherently insecure
        • in fact it's not only insecure but it's insecurable
      • comment

      • question
        • I agree with David's analysis but also have a question for him:
          • what about the biological, evolutionary definition of the self of a living organism. Is there a contradiction here?
          • reference
            • Major Evolutionary Transitions occur when a group of individuated living organisms achieve greater fitness by mutualism and begin to reproduce together as a new unit
              • How do we harmonize the claim of a psychologically constructed self with this evolutionary formation of new biological SELF units through MET?
  11. Jul 2023
    1. The consequences of our current choices bear not juston us. They bear on the continued evolutionary unfoldingof life in the universe. This marks the scale of our currentresponsibility
      • for: human impacts, MET, major evolutionary transition, progress trap, human responsibility to life, CCE, cumulative cultural evolution, playing God
      • comment
        • Very true, in fact our species is in the unprecedented position that
        • human activity, and specifically our cumulative cultural evolution (CCE) now determines the biological / genetic evolutionary future not only of our own species, but of all life on earth.
        • In other words, of evolution itself! -This is an awkward position as we have nowhere near the wisdom to play God and determine the future direction of evolution!
      • References
    1. Julian Huxley
      • Julian Huxley's biology work was to lay the seed of
        • how one individual organism transforms over many generations
          • into a new higher-level individual organism
        • he called this the "movement of individuality"
        • It has also come to be known as
          • major transitions
          • major evolutionary transition (MET)
          • evolutionary transitions in individuality
        • grandson of Thomas Huxley
        • brother of Aldous Huxley (Brave New World)
        • wrote The Individual in the Animal Kingdom (1912)
        • advocated for closed, independent systems with harmonious parts
        • endorsed gradients of individuality
        • "closure is never complete, the independence never absolute, the harmony never perfect"
  12. Apr 2023
    1. I reject both pure Rousseau-ism, i.e. humans would be good and equal if not for unequal structures, and Hobbesian-ism, i.e. people are bad and are only kept good by forceful institutions. What matters most I believe, is the right balance between cooperation and competition, both are real, at the individual and collective level, and we as humans are a mixed and complex bag.
      • Michel begins the essay by doing away with simple, absolute assumptions about society.
        • We are each and collectively a mixture of
          • cooperative and
          • competitive tendencies
      • This echoes the evolutionary description of an individual as a distinct living system that is demarcated from its environment so is
        • in competition with other individuals for resources in order to survive as an individual organism
        • at the same time that it cooperates with other types of individuals that can enhance its individual and collective (species) survival
      • In other words
        • competition and collaboration are often entangled phenotypes necessary for evolutionary fitness
  13. Mar 2023
    1. It has been suggested that - the human species may be undergoing an evolutionary transition in individuality (ETI).

      there is disagreement about - how to apply the ETI framework to our species - and whether culture is implicated - as either cause or consequence.

      Long-term gene–culture coevolution (GCC) i- s - also poorly understood.

      argued that - culture steers human evolution,

      Others proposed - genes hold culture on a leash.

      After review of the literature and evidence on long-term GCC in humans - emerge a set of common themes. - First, culture appears to hold greater adaptive potential than genetic inheritance - and is probably driving human evolution. - The evolutionary impact of culture occurs - mainly through culturally organized groups, - which have come to dominate human affairs in recent millennia. - Second, the role of culture appears to be growing, - increasingly bypassing genetic evolution and weakening genetic adaptive potential. -Taken together, these findings suggest that human long-term GCC is characterized by - an evolutionary transition in inheritance - from genes to culture - which entails a transition in individuality (from genetic individual to cultural group). Research on GCC should focus on the possibility of - an ongoing transition in the human inheritance system.

    2. The human species may be undergoing an evolutionary transition in individuality (ETI) [1–6]. The evolutionary transitions framework explains how new levels of biological organization (such as multicellularity, or eusociality) emerge from subsidiary units (such as cells or individuals) through the formation of cooperative groups [6–10]. First proposed by Maynard Smith & Szathmáry [3], evolutionary transitions are thought to unfold via a shift in the dominant level of selection from competitive individuals to well-integrated functional groups [8,11]. These transitions exhibit a common set of patterns, including new divisions of labour, the loss of full individual autonomy and reproductive control, and the rise of new routes of information transmission [6,7,10].

      Definition : Evolutionary Transition in Individuality - This is a very good definition of ETI - A new individual is a new level of biological organization - The new individual emerges out of an integration of subsiduary units as competitive individuals synergize and form well-integrated functional groups

    1. It’s possible, the researchers suggest, that the appearance of human culture represents a key evolutionary milestone.
      • key observation
        • human culture may represent a key evolutionary milestone
        • culture may be the next evolutionary transition state
          • pre-single self organisms like mitochondria increased fitness by sharing the environment with other life forms and formed the single cell
          • then multi-cellular organisms set the stage for the next big evolutionary paradigm
          • splitting into plants and animals
          • sexual reproduction
          • transition to land
        • we are possibly undergoing the next major evolutionary transition
        • in which we will still evolve genetically,
        • but genetics may not determine human survival as much as culture does
    1. The only possible opening for a statement of this kind is that I detest writing. The process itself epitomizes the European concept of "legitimate" thinking; what is written has an importance that is denied the spoken. My culture, the Lakota culture, has an oral tradition, so I ordinarily reject writing. It is one of the white world's ways of destroying the cultures of non-European peoples, the imposing of an abstraction over the spoken relationship of a people.
      • Quote
      • The only possible opening for a statement of this kind is that I detest writing. The process itself epitomizes the European concept of "legitimate" thinking; what is written has an importance that is denied the spoken. My culture, the Lakota culture, has an oral tradition, so I ordinarily reject writing. It is one of the white world's ways of destroying the cultures of non-European peoples, the imposing of an abstraction over the spoken relationship of a people.

      • Comment

      • One critique of this statement is that it wasn't only European cultures that created written language. It has a rich non European history.
      • also, from an evolutionary perspective, written language use a major variable Facilitating Evolutionary Transition (FET) for a Major Evolutionary Transition (MET) of our species.

      • https://jonudell.info/h/facet/?max=100&expanded=true&user=stopresetgo&exactTagSearch=true&any=Major+Evolutionary+Transition

  14. Feb 2023
    1. people’s desire for sweet and fatty tasting foods.
      • example
        • people’s desire for sweet and fatty tasting foods
        • In ancestral times,
          • sugar and fat typically signaled positive nutritional value (Ramirez, 1990).
          • Consequently, people’s sensory systems are designed
          • to detect the presence of sugar or fat in food,
          • and the brain’s gustatory centers produce desirable taste sensations
          • when those foods are consumed.
          • This would have served our ancestors well,
          • facilitating the choice of beneficial and nutritious foods.
        • in modern times
          • Many foods found in post-industrialized societies
          • contain processed sugars, hydrogenated oils, and other additives that enhance the taste of the food
          • without adding any nutritional benefits.
          • Foods laden with corn syrup, for example,
          • typically contain high numbers of calories
          • and their regular consumption can result in obesity, diabetes, and other problems.
        • Thus, the mismatch between
        • the features of ancestral versus modern foodstuffs
        • can lead adaptive sensory mechanisms
        • to produce maladaptive physiological consequences.
        • The desire for sweet and fat foods
        • promotes health problems,
        • even when this desire operates in a perfectly normal manner
        • and would produce health benefits
        • in the environment for which it was designed
    2. Some of the challenges people face today, however, diverge quite a bit from those faced by their ancestors. Such divergences can lead adaptive psychological mechanisms to “misfire” – to respond in ways that might have been adaptive in the past, but that no longer produce adaptive consequences today.
      • Some of the challenges people face today,
      • diverge quite a bit from those
      • faced by their ancestors.
      • Such divergences can ,- lead adaptive psychological mechanisms to “misfire”
      • to respond in ways that might have been adaptive in the past,
      • but that no longer produce adaptive consequences today.
    3. Psychological adaptations have been designed over thousands of generations of human evolution. The adaptations humans possess today, then, were designed to operate in the Environment of Evolutionary Adaptedness, a composite of the social and physical challenges as they have existed for hundreds of thousands of years
      • Psychological adaptations have been designed over thousands of generations of human evolution.
      • The adaptations humans possess today, then,
      • were designed to operate in the Environment of Evolutionary Adaptedness,
      • a composite of the social and physical challenges as they have existed for hundreds of thousands of years (Bowlby, 1969; Cosmides & Tooby, 1992).
      • As such, they may or may not be well-adapted
      • for life in contemporary society
    4. Each reflects the operation of psychological mechanisms that were designed through evolution to serve important adaptive functions, but that nevertheless can produce harmful consequences.
      • Each of these 4 problems
        • anxiety disorder
        • domestic violence
        • racial prejudice
        • obesity
      • reflects the operation of psychological mechanisms
      • that were designed through evolution
      • to serve important adaptive functions, - but that nevertheless can produce harmful consequences.
    1. he wiring up of a civilisation of billions of people, which is itself some steps into a major transition towards complex sociality, faces similar questions
      • See references on = John Boik's evidence-based approach to build a social superorganism and Peter Nonacs, Amanda Robin and Kayla Denton's research on = Major System Transition and especially the variables that play the support role of = Facilitating Evolutionary Transition (FET), which include = Major Evolutionary Transition (MET) and = Major Competitive Transition (MCT)

      https://jonudell.info/h/facet/?max=100&expanded=true&user=stopresetgo&exactTagSearch=true&any=major%2Bevolutionary%2Btransition

    2. somewhere, somehow, through evolutionary iteration, a bunch of individual, independent, single-celled organisms stumbled upon governance principles that made them fitter together. Such “fundamental organizational changes in the history of life”1, known as major evolutionary transitions, had happened before — the eukaryotes that became multicellular are themselves held to be the result of symbiosis, and that’s not even the beginning — and have happened since.

      Other references for METs: https://jonudell.info/h/facet/?max=100&expanded=true&user=stopresetgo&exactTagSearch=true&any=major%2Bevolutionary%2Btransition

      • Each = MET is a transition from many to a unified individual
      • or from one superorganism level to a higher order superorganism level
    1. f we want to go from something like a prokaryotic cell to a pod of killer whales 00:16:32 there has to be sort of increases in physiological morphological and in many cases behavioral complexity and all of these require say more knowledge or a diversity of 00:16:45 information and this information has to be stored and it has to be accessible to the organism as well so we can put this information into 00:16:57 various levels and so what we have done is we've kind of taken the the previous work by blanca and uh just taken it or added a little bit to the levels in our 00:17:11 own way
      • = adding additional layers to the levels of Blanca et al.
      • 5 different levels of information:
        • level 1:- information stored in genome: DNA
        • level 3 - information stored in brains or biological ways
        • level 4:- inscribed
          • iconic information - for example wofl's scent maark
          • instructional information - symbolic representation of information in written language - abiotic setting
        • level 5 - dark information - abiotic computer programs using neural networks - we don't actually know exactly how they calculate the solution
  15. Sep 2022
    1. for some unknown reason nature tends to prefer crabs the idea of a crab or morphological crab has evolved on the planet several times in the last few hundreds of millions of years in other words for some unknown reason this right 00:03:07 here seems to be kind of successful so when we talk about crabs we don't just actually talk about one species in reality this particular morphology applies to a lot of different species so for example this kind of a crab that you see is kind of different in terms of a 00:03:20 lot of components including genetics from for example a hermit crab it just so happens that for some reason nature tends to re-evolve crabs over and over similarly we know that the idea of flight evolved in the panelists several 00:03:33 times as well and this of course includes the idea of wings they seem to exist in for example insects they also exist in reptiles they also exist in birds so this also seems to be an evolutionary advantage that repeats 00:03:45 itself many times and more recently there was actually a study from just a few days ago where the scientists discovered that well the idea of saline or the stuff that snails have but also the stuff that's in our mouth so basically our saliva is also 00:03:57 exceptionally successful in terms of evolution a lot of different species including mammals independently evolved all kinds of different slime because it just seems to work so well on the planet and it seems to serve so many different 00:04:09 purposes

      !- When paleontological evidence shows that certain species or phenotypes recur over and over in evolutionary history (like crabs, slime or wings), it suggests they are adaptive to recurring environments.

    1. Far beyond simply altering human evolution, this evidence suggests that human cultural inheritance is of global evolutionary significance.

      !- impact : human cultural evolution - is of global evolutionary significance

    2. human long-term GCC is characterized by an evolutionary transition in inheritance (from genes to culture) which entails a transition in individuality (from genetic individual to cultural group).

      !- for : Cultural Evolution - the findings of this paper point to culture is displacing genetic adaptive potential as the main driver of evolution. This is a very profound finding!

  16. Aug 2022
  17. Jul 2022
    1. FollowingSimondon’s social theory [37] and our previous work [10 ], social systems are themselves individualsthat harbour in them preindividual forces of transformation. Therefore we do not see in the currentorganization of personhood, inasmuch as it seems unassailable, a final unchangeable state of affairs.

      !- references : evolutionary biology * Evolutionary biologists have developed similar ideas to explain how throughout history, groups of individual organisms that clustered together and discovered better fitness as a result of symbiotic relationships began to reproduce as a whole new entity. Hence the collective became the new individual * Robin et al. paper: https://hyp.is/go?url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.frontiersin.org%2Farticles%2F10.3389%2Ffevo.2021.711556%2Ffull&group=world * Robin et al. video presentation: https://hyp.is/go?url=http%3A%2F%2Fdocdrop.org%2Fvideo%2F6J-J72GoqhY%2F&group=world * Stuart West video: https://hyp.is/go?url=http%3A%2F%2Fdocdrop.org%2Fvideo%2FVUfNEHl44hc%2F&group=world

    1. What caused life's Major evolutionary transitions?
      • Title: What caused life's Major Evolutionary Transitions (MET)?
      • Author: Stuart West
      • Date:
    1. t what is an individual 01:13:07 okay so why why the why in the world would i why would we ask this question and why would i spend you know multiple pages in this paper even discussing like of course we know what 01:13:20 an individual is right or or maybe not like like that actually turns out to be a difficult question what is an individual and it's important to this and it's important to this discussion of societal 01:13:33 systems because who are we who what you know what is the purpose of a societal system what is it what is it who is it supposed to serve you know so you have to ask really like 01:13:45 it's it's good to ask if we're going to build a societal system who wh who is it that it's supposed to service you know like who are we what do we want you know it's part of 01:13:57 figuring out what do we want what do we value who are we start there you know i would say so so we've already kind of touched on these themes but 01:14:09 this idea of rugged individualism you know like from a certain perspective and a certain you know from a limited sort of time frame perspective sure there's there's a rugged individualism that exists right and it can be useful in 01:14:22 certain certain situations but by and large that's not what life is doing you know that's not what the the they're um we are we are 01:14:36 it's really even difficult to say like where if i'm a rugged individual where do i actually start and where do i end you know like where is where is me this you know even physically it's hard to say 01:14:48 because this physical me is really i think more bacterial cells than it is um human cells right so so uh like i'm a sieve i'm a i'm a process through which things are 01:15:02 flowing through i'm a i'm an ecosystem myself with bacteria and viruses and human cells and all of those components are necessary for me to survive today and for for 01:15:14 humans to survive you know over eons were like a mix we're a bag of of human-like things and bacterial-like things and viral-like things and 01:15:26 and we're porous and we're part of the carbon cycle and we're part of the nitrogen cycle and then you and then when you say like okay well how could you be a rugged individual individual when you're really 01:15:38 this this porous smorgasbord of things right

      What is an individual? This is a very fundamental question that John asks, especially from the evolutionary biological perspective as life has evolved over billions of years and what were once separate individuals, came together in Major Evolution Transitions (MET) to form a NEW grouping of what were former individuals to form a new cohesive, higher order individual. Life is therefore COMPOSITIONAL. When these groups of individuals increase fitness by clustering together and mutually benefit from each other, they then reproduce together as a cluster.

      Watch this informative video by Oxford researcher explaining MET: https://hyp.is/go?url=http%3A%2F%2Fdocdrop.org%2Fvideo%2FVUfNEHl44hc%2F&group=world and watch Amanda Robbin's video on research on the same question from an information systems perspective: https://hyp.is/go?url=http%3A%2F%2Fdocdrop.org%2Fvideo%2F6J-J72GoqhY%2F&group=world based on her paper: https://hyp.is/go?url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.frontiersin.org%2Farticles%2F10.3389%2Ffevo.2021.711556%2Ffull&group=world

      Stop Reset Go and Deep Humanity praxis adopts the same view that the individual human being is a process, a nexus of many different flows of the natural world....and consciousness is part of the that - 4E - Embedded, Enacted, Embodied and Extended. We are more appropriately called a human INTERbeing, and even more appropriately a human INTERbeCOMing (since we are more process than static thing) both from material and information flow perspective.

      Our consciousness is at a specific level, associated with a body with sensory bubble that constrains it to this particular scale of experience - not microscopic and not planetary. It gives us a unique lens into the other scales of the individual that are purely cognitive, and only indirectly sensed via instrumentation that extends our naked senses. That siuatedness and perspectival knowing gives us a uniquely, distorted view of reality.

    1. the conquest of the Americas was also a second human transition: an escape from agriculture to profit-driven enterprise: “Western Europeans began colonizing large areas of the rest of the world, creating the first globalized economy.” Lewis and Maslin call this the “Columbian exchange,” when humans, animals, plants, and microbes established themselves in places they had never been before. Energy from new foods, and information from printing, helped drive this new transition. Farming resumed in the Americas to feed and clothe the Europeans, using the labour of African slaves.

      Second Transition: Columbian Exchange

      In evolutionary biology, there are also another type of transition, Major Evolutionary Transitions (MET). Robin et. al propose that the introduction of writing (inscribed language) was a major information improvement that played an important role leading to a major system transition (MST).

      Major Evolutionary Transitions and the Roles of Facilitation and Information in Ecosystem Transformations https://hyp.is/go?url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.frontiersin.org%2Farticles%2F10.3389%2Ffevo.2021.711556%2Ffull&group=world https://hyp.is/go?url=http%3A%2F%2Fdocdrop.org%2Fvideo%2F6J-J72GoqhY%2F&group=world

  18. Jun 2022
    1. the brain didn't actually evolve to see the world the way it is. We can't. Instead, the brain evolved to see the world the way it was useful to see in the past. 00:11:53 And how we see is by continually redefining normality. So, how can we take this incredible capacity of plasticity of the brain and get people to experience their world differently? Well, one of the ways we do it in my lab and studio is we translate the light into sound, and we enable people to hear their visual world. And they can navigate the world using their ears. 00:12:22 Here's David on the right, and he's holding a camera. On the left is what his camera sees. And you'll see there's a faint line going across that image. That line is broken up into 32 squares. In each square, we calculate the average color. And then we just simply translate that into sound. And now he's going to turn around, close his eyes, and find a plate on the ground with his eyes closed. 00:12:47 (Continuous sound) (Sound changes momentarily) (Sound changes momentarily) (Sound changes momentarily) (Sound changes momentarily) (Sound changes momentarily) Beau Lotto: He finds it. Amazing, right? So not only can we create a prosthetic for the visually impaired, but we can also investigate how people literally make sense of the world. But we can also do something else. We can also make music with color. 00:13:20 So, working with kids, they created images, thinking about what might the images you see sound like if we could listen to them. And then we translated these images. And this is one of those images. And this is a six-year-old child composing a piece of music for a 32-piece orchestra. And this is what it sounds like. (Electronic representation of orchestral music) 00:14:06 So, a six-year-old child. Okay? Now, what does all this mean? What this suggests is that no one is an outside observer of nature, okay? We're not defined by our central properties, by the bits that make us up. We're defined by our environment and our interaction with that environment, by our ecology. And that ecology is necessarily relative, historical and empirical.

      remapping patterns normally experienced in on sensory modality to other sensory modality. This work is like that of Neuroscientist David Eagleman, ie. his vest that translates sound patterns into tactile patterns on a vest and allowing deaf person to "hear" words through feeling corresponding tactile signals.

      Donald Hoffman also advocates for evolutionary fitness as what gives meaning to our perceptions of the world.

    2. There's no inherent meaning in information. It's what we do with that information that matters.

      This is a profound statement that needs to be fully explored. This touches upon the theory of Charles Saunders Peirce and his Semiotics, as well as Jakob Von Uexkull and his Umwelt theory. Information becomes meaningful within an evolutionary framing of fitness.

  19. May 2022
    1. This is the vision of OP Sapiens Star—that human’s evolution is not finished, and that the hyperthreat provides the impetus for a quantum leap into a new way of being. Through achieving a galactically significant mission—saving Earth’s ecological integrity—the Homo sapiens species “stars” within the universe. Humans go from being a menace and fighting one another to being heroic, creative, and tolerant.    

      This can be interpreted as an instantiation of the hero's journey, in the context of research that combines evolution with ecology as in the research paper: Major Evolutionary Transitions and the Roles of Facilitation and Information in Ecosystem Transformations (Robin et al., 2021).From this lens, cumulative cultural evolution (CCE) was first made possible through spoken language, then accelerated through written language. The authors claim that another Major System Transition (MST).is emerging, which they posit to be abiotic in nature involving Artificial Intelligence.

      Faced with a self-induced civilization-scale threat, we may ask whether a major cultural evolution may be necessary to avoid catastrophe and whether it may constitute another MST. Could a rapid higher level global understanding of the epistemological dualism of self and other which undergirds normative alienation, othering and conflict, both with others of our own species, of other species and with the planetary system itself play a major role in the transition?

  20. Apr 2022
  21. Nov 2021
    1. many of you were brought up with the 00:03:57 idea of Enlightenment reason critical thinking an Enlightenment reason had a number of properties and it turns out that most of them are not true 00:04:10 Enlightenment reason is useful in many situations we'll talk about why it's useful and why it's been popular and so on but it's inadequate grossly inadequate for understanding what hew 00:04:22 means for human beings to understand the world and to think so what we're going to do is talk about real reason which is coming out of the neural and sciences and what the properties are so 00:04:36 there's a certain myth that comes out of enlightenment reason it says you know I think therefore I am says Descartes reason is conscious you know what you think it's just not true for most of 00:04:50 your thought it's unconscious mainly about 98% consciousness is a tip of the iceberg you know how do you get 98% there are two ways one if you look at 00:05:03 what you're conscious of versus what your brain is doing the roll is about fifty to one your brain is doing 50 times as much as you're conscious of and there's another way to look at it if you 00:05:15 take a sentence and you say what can the next sentence be in a paragraph and what do you have to fill in to understand all the possible next sentences the answer is that you need to fill in 50 times as 00:05:29 much as it's in that sentence roughly so it's about 98% unconscious you're not even aware that you're filling this in but you're not moreover consciousness could not in 00:05:42 principle in principle be you know you you couldn't have reason being conscious because most of your reason is done in parallel circuitry but consciousness is 00:05:55 linear so you have massively parallel circuitry but you're tracing out a linear path through it and that is means you can only be aware of a tiny portion of what you're thinking now

      Refuting Descartes and Enlightenment myths. Lakoff justifies how neuroscience findings of the processing of the unconscious mind leads him to the statement that 98% of our thoughts are unconscious.

      What emerges into conscious knowing then is a small percentage of what the rest of the processing brain "knows".

      The conscious mind therefore has no direct access to that 98% of what is going on to surface the 2% it is aware of. If we extend knowledge into processes that are beyond simply neural processes, however, this knowledge gap becomes even more pronounced.

      Since human physiology of modern hominins is the evolutionary terminus point of billions of years of evolution, with at least 3 different prior Major Evolutionary Transitions (MET) embedded within our various body structures, our "conscious mind" is the governor over a thriving, cohesive planetary population of billions of cells and trillions of microbes of whose ongoing metabolic processes we are completely ignorant of.

      Witness the development of disease within our bodies. The con-specific is unaware of it often until late stage symptoms appear and warrants a doctor's visit..

    1. So to sum things up what caused life's major evolutionary transitions the answer is cooperation major transitions begin when a group of organisms join forces to better survive and reproduce if cooperation continues long enough a new super organism may Emerge one that can then go [on] to reproduce and evolve as a whole and 00:07:42 The pathway that led [to] animals along with humankind [at] least three major transitions have been identified resulting in four layers of Life within your own body

      Within this human body, we embed 4 different stages of Major Evolutionary Transitions (MET).

      Our human body is the product of billions of years of evolution, embodying various outputs from each major stage of a Major Evolutionary Transition (MET). We are a multi-cellular being, a colony. Yet,at the same time, we have living elements that at one time in history, were independent living beings which were NOT part of a multi-cellular colony!

      In the deep history of the evolution of the human body, genes, mitochondria, eukaryotes were all once autonomous living entities, each a biological self with its own boundary separating inner from outer. Virus's helped to catalyze their mutualism over deep time.

      Now, over billions of years of evolution, they are all integrated together by the extra-cellular matrix and laminin protein into our multi-cellular human body, replicating as one super, super, super organism.

      Finally, inscribed language has allowed us to undergo another kind of transition, a major system transition (MST) where human beings now dominate the entire biosphere, for better and for worse.

    2. in 00:05:44 1998 researchers set up a mini Ecosystem with small mouths protists and single-celled algae the protists could easily swallow individual algal cells But had trouble eating cells that happen to stick together after reproducing in less than just 20 generations the algae evolved multicellular cooperation they form groups of eight tightly connected cells that could not [be] eaten by the protists [a] 00:06:10 similar experiment on single-celled yeast in 2011 Showed that [just] 32 days after multi-celled colonies evolved clear division of labor also evolved giving rise to unique cell types specializing in different tasks these two experiments show us how multi-celled organisms may have first evolved, but what about mitochondria and their permanent merger with eukaryotes In a long-term study ending in 2008 a protist that normally eats Bacteria was seen swallowing a species of algae 00:06:41 Apparently on accident that it was not able to digest Inside the protists the algae was able to grow and reproduce when the protists reproduced as well both daughter cells contained algae after several years and many many generations researchers found that when Bacteria was scarce Protists containing algae were much more likely to survive than those without They avoided starvation by feeding off the waste products the algae produced This was the start of a [Brand-new] relationship 00:07:14 Strikingly similar to what we find between [our] [cells] and the mitochondria [that] live inside

      Fascinating experiments that support MET.

    3. Each new layer of Life is the result of what scientists call a major evolutionary transition? What was the cause of these transitions the answer is? Cooperation a Major Transition starts when free living creatures team up to form a cooperative group in the early stages of cooperation Participants are free to come and go as they [please] [if] a group sticks together long enough however 00:04:51 Division of labor will often evolve different participants begin specializing in different tasks as time goes on Individuals may become so specialized that they can no longer survive on their own [if] the entire group becomes locked into cooperation Depending fully on one another to survive and reproduce a new super organism has been forged and they made your evolutionary transition is complete 00:05:16 From this point on the entire group will evolve together as one Models describing natural situations that might promote the evolution of major transitions have been put forth by scientists such as John Maynard Smith [fior] Sonck Mary stuart West and w d hamilton using these models Researchers have been able to Mimic natural scenarios in the lab Allowing us to directly witness the beginnings of major transitions [evolved]

      This is the key to Major Evolutionary Transition - a population of free living individual creatures discover that in teaming up, there is a greater resultant evolutionary fitness, mutualism symbiotic relationship emerges. It becomes so strong over time that the many become a self-replicating one.

      The biological self is always defined by a boundary between inner and outer, but in this act of mutualism, the many biological selves join to form a new higher order biological self.

      In this way, a multi-cellular species like ours is somewhat like one of those nested Russian dolls.

      Indeed, Amanda Robins hypothesizes

      https://hyp.is/NyrixELGEeyYWN_d76UNMg/docdrop.org/video/6J-J72GoqhY/

      that our species has undergone what she and Peter Nonacs calls Major System Transition (MST). The cultural artifact of inscribed language has made possible a superorganism / supraorganism that has spread across the globe.

    4. Today we tend to shrug this off as common knowledge, but think how amazing this is you are a Colony

      This is a great vid for showing how we are a multi-level being. Within this human body, we embed 4 different stages of Major Evolutionary Transitions (MET).

      Our human body is the product of billions of years of evolution, embodying various outputs from each major stage of a Major Evolutionary Transition (MET). We are a multi-cellular being, a colony. Yet,at the same time, we have living elements that at one time in history, were independent living beings which were NOT part of a multi-cellular colony!

      We have genes, that were once autonomous living entities, mitochondria within cells, which at one time were autonomous entities, and cells, which were also once autonomously existent eukaryotes. All three exist in transmuted form that is now integrated into our body.

    1. our fourth point is that for something like eukaryotes and others where there is no immediate major system 00:25:30 transition we're really sort of saying is that they perhaps are critical to such a transition but not at the time necessarily that they have evolved so in essence we want to amp we want to bring in a new 00:25:43 term which we call facilitating evolutionary transition so it makes it is part of a major system transition but it clearly needs other 00:25:55 evolutionary events to go along with it and the final sort of point is that there are perhaps catalysts that are involved in this process and one of the major catalysts that may 00:26:12 have had effects throughout evolutionary history are viruses so viruses may have been key actors to help the transition from 00:26:23 rna to dna they may have uh produced or helped produce the nucleus in eukaryotes and we'll talk about a little bit later about the key role that viral genes play 00:26:36 in making sexual reproduction possible and even in placental mammals the evolution of a placenta so without viral genes being moved across 00:26:47 horizontally species some of these major transitions could never have happened so now we have sort of the complete integrated process of of our diagram and again the question 00:27:02 that we're really focusing on oftentimes is that last one yes when how and why do we get to a major system transition and how do nets mechs uh 00:27:15 fets and catalysts all play a role in these various transitions

      Viruses have played a key role in a number of different METs. This is an important insight that can contextualize the covid-19 pandemic.

    2. you are looking at major 00:12:17 evolutionary transitions so one can start with the idea that initially what has to happen is individuals kind of have to tolerate each other so in other words competitors 00:12:31 have to be willing to form into those simple groups and those groups have to have some kind of benefit for their existence and continuance then berkshire said well the next step 00:12:44 in this transition is what can go from formation to maintenance so if you go from a simple group to society again there are there are rules there are maybe individuals that belong to certain 00:12:56 societies and rather than sort of a fission fusion kind of uh coming together going apart these societies maintain themselves these groups maintain themselves over 00:13:08 longer periods of time and there are more benefits and there may in fact be more conflicts that have to be worked out to keep the societies to maintain the societies 00:13:19 finally there would be the step into this group transformation again what what what kuala and strassmann might have called organismality so now that the groups subsume their kind of 00:13:32 individual goals into a collective goal for all of them and again the idea here is that that that one has to happen is conflict has to be somehow managed and reduced 00:13:44 such that the groups can actually transform into this coherent whole single individual and some of the key points in in in burke's sort of 00:13:55 pathway to to to transformation is that the first two steps are can truly be bidirectional in other words uh societies can go back to being simple groups and simple groups can go 00:14:10 back to being competitive just competitors so in other words those aren't sort of absorbing states but the argument is that once once you sort of get to that group transformation that last blue arrow you 00:14:23 have transformed in a way that it is hard or impossible to really go backwards and what burke argued is that that process those those various steps and 00:14:34 particularly that last transformative step is strongly driven often by inclusive fitness kin selection so in other words going back to that continuum 00:14:46 of the types of groups that they can form fraternal groups are much more likely to to transform into these higher level organisms than 00:14:58 uh egalitarian groups

      The transition from competing individuals to a coherent unity is a fascinating journey.

      Applied to human society at a time of the Anthropocene, these principles of evolutionary biology may be salient to apply to the superorganism/supra-organism of humanity undergoing a process of rapid whole system change.

    3. so what kuller and strasman then basically were trying to kind of in a way define or look at was how you transition from being a group 00:11:28 to an actual individual organism so at what point at what point do the individuals sort of meld into something that you would call just one individual what they call 00:11:41 organismality

      The shift from individual to unified group due to evolutionary fitness bestowed by fitness emerges a new stable replicable unit and marks a Major Evolutionary Transition (MET).

    1. Professional musicians, concert pianists get to know this instrument deeply, intimately. And through it, they're able to create with sound in a way that just dazzles us, and challenges us, and deepens us. But if you were to look into the mind of a concert pianist, and you used all the modern ways of imaging it, an interesting thing that you would see 00:11:27 is how much of their brain is actually dedicated to this instrument. The ability to coordinate ten fingers. The ability to work the pedal. The feeling of the sound. The understanding of music theory. All these things are represented as different patterns and structures in the brain. And now that you have that thought in your mind, recognize that this beautiful pattern and structure of thought in the brain 00:11:52 was not possible even just a couple hundred years ago. Because the piano was not invented until the year 1700. This beautiful pattern of thought in the brain didn't exist 5,000 years ago. And in this way, the skill of the piano, the relationship to the piano, the beauty that comes from it was not a thinkable thought until very, very recently in human history. 00:12:17 And the invention of the piano itself was not an independent thought. It required a depth of mechanical engineering. It required the history of stringed instruments. It required so many patterns and structures of thought that led to the possibility of its invention and then the possibility of the mastery of its play. And it leads me to a concept I'd like to share with you guys, which I call "The Palette of Being." 00:12:44 Because all of us are born into this life having available to us the experiences of humanity that has come so far. We typically are only able to paint with the patterns of thoughts and the ways of being that existed before. So if the piano and the way of playing it is a way of being, this is a way of being that didn't exist for people 5,000 years ago. 00:13:10 It was a color in the Palette of Being that you couldn't paint with. Nowadays if you are born, you can actually learn the skill; you can learn to be a computer scientist, another color that was not available just a couple hundred years ago. And our lives are really beautiful for the following reason. We're born into this life. We have the ability to go make this unique painting with the colors of being that are around us at the point of our birth. 00:13:36 But in the process of life, we also have the unique opportunity to create a new color. And that might come from the invention of a new thing. A self-driving car. A piano. A computer. It might come from the way that you express yourself as a human being. It might come from a piece of artwork that you create. Each one of these ways of being, these things that we put out into the world 00:14:01 through the creative process of mixing together all the other things that existed at the point that we were born, allow us to expand the Palette of Being for all of society after us. And this leads me to a very simple way to go frame everything that we've talked about today. Because I think a lot of us understand that we exist in this kind of the marvelous universe, 00:14:30 but we think about this universe as we're this tiny, unimportant thing, there's this massive physical universe, and inside of it, there's the biosphere, and inside of that, that's society, and inside of us, we're just one person out of seven billion people, and how can we matter? And we think about this as like a container relationship, where all the goodness comes from the outside to the inside, and there's nothing really special about us. 00:14:56 But the Palette of Being says the opposite. It says that the way that we are in our lives, the way that we affect our friends and our family, begin to change the way that they are able to paint in the future, begins to change the way that communities then affect society, the way that society could then affect its relationship to the biosphere, and the way that the biosphere could then affect the physical planet 00:15:21 and the universe itself. And if it's a possible thing for cyanobacteria to completely transform the physical environment of our planet, it is absolutely a possible thing for us to do the same thing. And it leads to a really important question for the way that we're going to do that, the manner in which we're going to do that. Because we've been given this amazing gift of consciousness.

      The Palette of Being is a very useful idea that is related to Cumulative Cultural Evolution (CCE) and autopoiesis. From CCE, humans are able to pass on new ideas from one generation to the next, made possible by the tool of inscribed language.

      Peter Nonacs group at UCLA as well as Stuart West at Oxford research Major Evolutionary Transitions (MET) West elucidates that modern hominids integrate the remnants of four major stages of MET that have occurred over deep time. Amanda Robins, a researcher in Nonacs group posits the idea that our species of modern hominids are undergoing a Major Systems Transition (MST), due specifically to our development of inscribed language.

      CCE emerges new technologies that shape our human environments in time frames far faster than biological evolutionary timeframes. New human experiences are created which have never been exposed to human brains before, which feedback to affect our biological evolution as well in the process of gene-culture coevolution (GCC), also known as Dual Inheritance theory. In this way, CCE and GCC are entangled. "Gene–culture coevolution is the application of niche-construction reasoning to the human species, recognizing that both genes and culture are subject to similar dynamics, and human society is a cultural construction that provides the environment for fitness-enhancing genetic changes in individuals. The resulting social system is a complex dynamic nonlinear system. " (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3048999/)

      This metaphor of experiences constituting different colors on a Palette of Being is a powerful one that can contextualize human experiences from a deep time framework. One could argue that language usage automatically forces us into an anthropomorphic lens, for sophisticated language usage at the level of humans appears to be unique amongst our species. Within that constraint, the Palette of Being still provides us with a less myopic, less immediate and arguably less anthropomorphic view of human experience. It is philosophically problematic, however, in the sense that we can speculate about nonhuman modalities of being but never truly experience them. Philosopher Thomas Nagel wrote his classic paper "What it's like to be a bat" to illustrate this problem of experiencing the other. (https://warwick.ac.uk/fac/cross_fac/iatl/study/ugmodules/humananimalstudies/lectures/32/nagel_bat.pdf)

      We can also leverage the Palette of Being in education. Deep Humanity (DH) BEing Journeys are a new kind of experiential, participatory contemplative practice and teaching tool designed to deepen our appreciation of what it is to be human. The polycrisis of the Anthropocene, especially the self-induced climate crisis and the Covid-19 pandemic have precipitated the erosion of stable social norms and reference frames, inducing another crisis, a meaning crisis. In this context, a re-education of embodied philosophy is seen as urgent to make sense of a radically shifting human reality.

      Different human experiences presented as different colors of the Palette of Being situate our crisis in a larger context. One important Deep Humanity BEing journey that can help contextualize and make sense of our experiences is language. Once upon a time, language did not exist. As it gradually emerged, this color came to be added to our Palette of Being, and shaped the normative experiences of humanity in profound ways. It is the case that such profound shifts, lost over deep time come to be taken for granted by modern conspecifics. When such particular colors of the Palette of Being are not situated in deep time, and crisis ensues, that loss of contextualizing and situatedness can be quite disruptive, de-centering, confusing and alienating.

      Being aware of the colors in the Palette can help us shed light on the amazing aspects that culture has invisibly transmitted to us, helping us not take them for granted, and re-establish a sense of awe about our lives as human beings.

  22. Jun 2021
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  27. Jan 2021
    1. Johnson: Earlier I interviewed you about patrilocal residence patterns and how that alters women’s sexual choices. In contrast, matrilocal societies are more likely to be egalitarian. What are the factors that lead to the differences between these two systems?Hrdy: I think in societies where women have more say, and that does tend to be in societies that are matrilocal and with matrilineal descent or where, as it is among many small scale hunter-gatherers, you have porous social boundaries and flexible residence patterns. If I had to say what kind of residence patterns our ancestors had it would have been very flexible, what Frank Marlowe calls multilocal.

      Matrilocality, matrilinearity and egailitarianism.

  28. Nov 2020
    1. Previously, we and others have shown that the inclusion of an antitoxin and the careful balancing of toxin and antitoxin expression levels across relevant conditions can mitigate this effect, resulting in a kill switch that is evolutionarily stable over biologically relevant periods
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