372 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. They found that students were most satisfied when provided direct feedback from facultycompared to engaging in either discussion boards or peer review activities (

      direct personal feedback is important

    1. Whiteand Weight (1999) also contend that wheninstructors respond within 24 hours this showsstudents the instructor is involved in the class

      research on how 24 period of response shows faculty involvement

    2. who found that learners prefer asynchronoustools such as email to communicate with theirinstructors. It also coincides with the findingsof a study by Chang, Hurst, and McLean(2015) who discovered that 97% of thestudents surveyed preferred to receive coursecorrespondence from online instructors viaemail.

      2015 email was preferred communication type, I wonder age the students were - were they employed during the day?

    3. results of the survey indicated that the vast majority of the students (91%) consider 24 hoursan acceptably responsive return rate time, and the same majority (91%) reported they consider24 hours an acceptably responsive time for them to return emails they receive from their onlineinstructors

      24 hours acceptable response time for 91%

    1. Computer generated or response dependent releases can be allocated for some feedback,

      computer generated feedback - I would ask students to tell me how they implemented feedback

    2. Feedback strategies and sequences such as those suggested to humanize online instructor feedback might move learning from external regulation by the instructor to internal self-regulation by students.

      increasing student usage of feedback - humanize it

    3. Hummel (2006) identifies the need to train instructors in feedback design principles.

      instructor training

    4. reating anchor samples and pre-recorded feedback messages as part of the course design can help speed up the feedback process and relieve the pressure of time.

      I wonder if you can share libraries of comments. or if that is counter productive b/c it's someone else's voice.

    5. Leveraging the power of peers in the feedback process is one humanizing strategy

      value of peer reviewing

    6. Feedback, an essential component of teaching presence in a community of inquiry in online spaces, requires time and commitment.

      Importance of feedback

    7. to the screen-capture, to add personal contact from instructor to student, will depend on the relationship, timing, and student need. This form of feedback is most effective when provided with the draft version of the student’s own work, thus allowing for improvements and changes to be actionable.

      when to show your face with screen cast feedback

    8. Voice with image productions can enhance the clarity and specificity of the feedback message. Voki, a talking avatar, can provide a less threatening response than one in which the instructor is the talking head. Tellagami uses animation to present the selected summary, explanation, or redirection

      AV feedback with avators VOKI, Tellagami

    9. Tools such as Audacity and Garage Band, or mobile device tools such as iTalk, can record an audio clip, embed a static image, and be presented as an mP3 file when uploaded to the LMS or another hosting site such as Soundcloud or AudioBoom.

      audacity garage band Talk Tools for audio feedback

    10. Audio feedback is perceived to be more effective than written feedback since it enhances feelings of involvement, is linked to retention of content, and is perceived by students to originate from a caring teacher (Ice, Curtis, Phillips & Wells, 2007).

      audio feedback over text

    11. Students will see the value in feedback when they know that instructors monitor and track-back to feedback messages.

      how to make students look at feedback.

    12. Uploading and releasing audio/video files in a batch ensures that all students receive feedback simultaneously, thus decreasing anxiety, questions, or comparisons.

      I'm not sure how to do this in canvas.

    13. Creating media based feedback involves preparing a script, setting up a recording session, checking and revising the message, then uploading and sharing the production.

      video feedback

    14. The integration of multiple modes can increase the clarity of the feedback message.

      feedback modes

    15. eedback for one or by one person can be time-consuming in online learning environments. Instructors should harness the power of collaboration by using peer review since “producing feedback is cognitively more demanding than receiving it, as it involves higher levels of reflection and engagement” (Nicol, 2011).

      worth of peer reviews

    16. Early into a course schedule, feedback can be more generic, whole-group focused, with targeted individual feedback to students experiencing difficulty getting acclimatized to course content or processes.

      timing of different types of feedback

    17. Selecting two or three key points (e.g. two stars and a wish; stars & stairs) or connecting to important learning goals will minimize a rambling feedback message or a missed ‘teachable moment.’

      feedback structure 2 stars and a wish

    18. specificity relies on the ‘Goldilocks principle’ – a scale from too narrow, too broad or just right (Brookhart, 2008, p. 33). Apply sufficient detail and focus without doing the work for the student. Show rather than tell.

      Goldilocks principle

    19. Effective feedback compares and contrasts student work against a set of established criterion, goals, or learning targets.

      need for rubric

    20. Preparing a collection of feedback comments for learning tasks in advance, using a rubric or standard set of criteria, can streamline comment creation.

      how to make feedback quicker to do

    21. Effective feedback includes the following attributes: building trust, clearly communicated, user-friendly, specific, focused, differentiated, timely, invites follow-up, and is actionable (Tomlinson & Moon, 2013 p. 62-63).

      Effective feedback building trust clearly communicated user-friendly specific focused differentiated timely invites follow-up is actionable

    22. Feedback is used as a means to improve performance. The process or system of learning and teaching within an online course can be modified or controlled using feedback.

      means to improve performance

    23. Humanizing elements in feedback incorporate the content, strategies, sequence, and tools. Content elements include the focus, function, valence, clarity, and specificity. Feedback strategies incorporate timing, amount, audience, and mode. Considering the sequence for feedback – listening, summarize-explain-redirect-resubmit (SE2R), connecting, creating, and tracking will assist instructors to humanize their actions. A survey of available technologies and tools to create feedback messages with text, graphic, audio, image, and video, and integrated multimodal production technologies is presented. A

      Feedback -Humanizing Elements * Content Focus Function Valence Clarity Specificity * Strategies Time Amount Audience Mode * Sequence Listening Summarize - Explain redirect resubmit - SE2R Connecting Creating Tracking * Tools Text Graphic Audio Image Video Integrated multi-modal

    1. Respond within a given time frame. Let students know when they can expect a response from you via email or in the LMS and stick to it. Students should know that they’ll be able to get answers or assistance in a set amount of time.

      Importance of creating grading expectations and living by them.

    1. Because students are physically separated from the instructorin an online class, communication and timely responses becomeincreasingly important for students and therefore this physical sep-aration also affects student perceptions of the online learning envi-ronment (Delaney et al., 2010

      Importance of timely feedback in online courses

  2. May 2024
    1. nævner Sven Mørch også hvordan unge og unge mennesker har problemer vedat forme deres fremtidige liv

      Kilden synes ikke at omhande unge men forskning om unge. Sørg derfor for at dobbeltchecke at det rent faktisk er kilden (fremfor een af kildens kilder) der pointerer hvad I refererer.

    2. Dette format var særligt værdifuldt

      Det er lidt diffust hvad jeres substantielle kapitel handler om.

      Undertitlerne indikerer at kapitlet omhandler jeres valg af teori og metode, men hvor jeg i et sådant kapitel ville forvente en fremadrettet præsentation af planer og intentioner med jeres valg af tilgang til projektet, synes teksten indholdsmæssigt i højere grad at rumme en reflektion af erfaringer med anvendelsen af teori og metoder. Hvis kapitlet er ment som præsentation fremadrettet så virker det distraherende at det er skrevet i datid, og bør nok begrænses til at omhandle planer (ikke også erfaringer).

      Omvendt, hvis det er et evaluerende kapitel, så vil det nok være en god idé at indikere det tydeligere i dets overskrifter, og tydeligere knytte jeres vurderinger om succes (eksempelvis det direkte citerede om at det var "særligt værdifuldt") direkte på jeres teorier og metoder og planer.

    3. gavnligt for os

      Hvordan har det været gavnligt? Vi savner empiriske eksempler.

    4. I forlængelse med de to teorier blandede vi også Sven Mørchs teorier om ungdom ind

      Der er mange henvisninger til metoden og hvordan I har brugt den, men der er ingen koblinger mellem metoden og teorien og empiriske eksempler fra jeres interviews. Overvej at skrive kapitlet med større fokus på empiriske eksempler.

    5. designproces

      Det lader tid at designprocessen er central for jeres projekt. Overvej om D&K kunne være mere relevant end STS

    6. TRIN-modellen

      TRIN-modellen er ikke en metode

    7. gruppens dynamikker og de enkelte medlemmers holdninger påvirker hinanden

      Er gruppedynamikker relevant for en app, som ikke umiddelbart har et socialt formål?

    8. fokuseret og målrettet mod de oplysninger, vi ønsker at opnå

      Et semi-struktureret interview kan også opnå disse informationer, men åbner op for uddybning. Man kunne måske begrunde yderligere ved at pointere, at en væsentlig motivation for at lave interviews er at sammenligne psykolog og psykiater.

    9. Til sidst planlægger vi også at udvikle en detaljeret model

      Hvorfor til sidst, hvis I tænker at modellen kan understøtte appen?

    10. som en integrerende platform, der fungerer som en "skuffe" ellerhub

      lyder interessant.

      Uddyb: Det virker til at I har fat i noget super relevant her, men I når ikke hen til hvad det rent faktisk er.

    11. også kører detigen og igen

      Undersøges det også hvordan en app kunne hjælpe på dette specifikke problem? Har I kigget på state of the art på området? Der er mange apps der i forvejen forebygger burnout.

    12. verskuelig kalender ogmedicin app

      Kunne man undersøge problemstillinger relateret til stress og planlægning? At finde belæg for at planlægning hjælper på ADHD-relateret stress?

    13. at fastholde og engagere publikummet effektivt

      Ja, et slideshow kan siges at være effektivt til at fastholde og engagere et publikum, hvilken kan være relevant.

      I bør dog beskrive her ikke at det kan være effektivt men hvorfor effektiv engagement af jeres publikum er relevant for jeres opgave.

    14. Derfor vil vipræsentere enten et fysisk produkt eller en visuel model for appens og dens funktioner.

      Mit (Ians) forrige projekt designede også en app ift. SoMe addiction, og hertil kan jeg anbefale værktøjet "Figma" til at illustrere den.

    15. stressniveauet stiger

      Vil det sige at jeres projekt specifikt tager udgangspunkt i stressrelaterede problemstillinger ift. ADHD og digitalisering? Og vil det sige at jeres app løsning allerede er begrænset til en hjælper til mindfuldness frem for stress?

    16. hvordan vi tænker den her app kanvære et dagligt redskab de frit kan benytte sig af.

      Det kunne være en ide at adskille de taksonomiske niveauer, så der ikke i redegørelsen kommer for meget spekulans ind i indholdet.

    17. teknologisk redskab

      Er fokus skiftet fra at handle om data til teknologiske redskaber generelt?

    18. Kappelgaard, 2020

      Pas på om jeres kilde er Petersen eller Kappelgaards fortolkning af Petersen!

    19. Semesterbindingen

      Interessant, at der snakkes så meget om design når D&K ikke indgår i den eksplicitte semesterbinding

    20. da hans ideer og teorier om accelerationssamfundet er gældende

      Det er tautologisk at I anvender en teori fordi den "er gældende": Beskriv hvorfor teorien er gældende.

      ...eller undlad at skrive at teorien er gældende, hvis ikke I vil sige noget mere med sætningen.

    21. Dette gørfokusgruppeinterviews særligt velegnede til at undersøge komplekse sociale fænomener og tilat afprøve nye ideer i en interaktiv kontekst

      Uddyb hvordan det er relevant for jeres opgave at I inddrager jer selv og derved fremhæver kompleksiteter i gruppedynamik.

      Og uddyb hvilke nye ideer i den interaktive kontekst af et fokusgruppeinterview der er relevant for jeres opgave.

      Eller hvis pointerne her ikke er direkte tilknyttet behov i jeres opgave, men er mere generelle betragtninger, så overvje om det er relevant at medtage i jeres tekst. Fordi alt hvad I vælger at inddrage har betydning - det har også betydning hvad I inddrager men så ikke følger op på eller hægter en pointe på.

    22. ikke at implementere er en app som man skal betale for

      Måske overveje og komme ind på hvilken alternativ økonomisk model I sigter efter (f.eks. helt lavpraktisk at I foretrækker at bidrage med jeres egen arbejdskraft og viden pro bono - dvs. uden at tage jer betalt for det), fremfor blot at nævne hvad I ikke vil sigte efter.

    23. I vores samarbejde med psykologen fik vi at vide

      Bedre med belæg - f.eks. henvisning til et bilag hvor informationen kommer frem.

    24. Ordforklaring: Neurotypisk, Neurodivergent &Neurodiversitet

      Reference til ordbogsopslag har en særlig stil i APA

    25. Caldwell, M. (2024, January 5). Doomscrolling, ADHD, and Justice sensitivity. ADDept

      Ligner en journalistisk populærvidenskabelig artikel. Bedre hvis I kan finde belæg i de underliggende *videnskabelige artikler som den refererer til.

    26. hvor vi primært vil forsøge atbeskrive den kognitive funktionsnedsættelse og forhåbentlig afkræfte mange afmisforståelserne

      Lyder meget relevant at medtage - personligt vil jeg meget gerne læse det afsnit og forventer at blive klogere!

    27. hvilkeudfordringer er der i unge voksnes hverdag og hvordan kan et teknologisk redskab bidrage tilen god tilværelse for dem med ADHD?

      Dette synes at være den nuværende problemformulering. Til en anden gang kunne det være fremhævet tydeligere - eksempelvis ved ligesom de tidligere nævnte problemormuleringer at fremhæve med kursiv, eller måske endnu bedre at nævne den først og evt. kraftigt fremhævet med fed.

    28. ansvarsfraskrivelse

      Som jeg forstå det, handler ansvarsfraskrivelse om at fralægge sig et mere formelt ansvar. Da I ikke har et formelt ansvar overfor folk med ADHD, er det formodentligt mere korrekt at omtale motivationen her som respekt.

    29. interessant var atsammenligne deres forskelligheder og ligheder

      god idé! Det kunne måske være en idé ikke kun at samenligne hvad de siger men også hvad deres forskellige faogområder kvalificerer dem til at sige - dvs. de kan sige det samme men den ene kan have faglig rygdækning for det mens den anden måske blot gisner om noget udenfor sit faglige felt.



  3. Apr 2024
    1. friendly digital helper is a good idea in digital products for children. Designing a virtual helper, cool and cute character that will help children to navigate through the product, can make the user experience smoother and more interactive.
    2. You can use this insight as a base for online educational platforms for children. For example, include design elements that show progress and achievements.
    1. What are some of the best practices for kids’ UX design?
    2. What are some top UX design principles when designing for kids?Some important UX design principles when designing for kids are as follows. Simplicity and clarity Interactive and engaging elements Age-appropriate content Safety and privacy Consistent feedback and rewards

      There's 5 in this list and there was 4 in the other - I think Safety and Privacy is the one additional but it's also in my proposal because I am concerned about it too.

    3. The needs of children, when it comes to digital designs, vary from those of adults. However, several UX principles, design patterns, and preferences hold for kids and adults. The overarching goal of any design, i.e., to create valuable and usable solutions for a user, stays the same for all audiences.
  4. Mar 2024
    1. 3. Importance of feedback For a positive user experience, feedback plays a significant role. If the users get appropriate and quick feedback from a physical or digital design, they can gain interest, leading to a good user experience. The importance of immediate feedback gets even more pronounced in the case of kids when their attention span is less than that of adults.

      Feedback and how important it is.

  5. Jan 2024
    1. Thank you all for the detailed feedback. I want to emphasize we value your feedback. We believe it is a huge advantage for us to be able create GitLab transparently here in the community, with your contributions, whether they be ideas and analysis here or in actual code. Thank you for your excitement and passion.
    2. @josephmarty mentioned desired outcomes as a focus. That is great. We encourage all types of feedback. Whether you want to highlight a problem, a desired outcome, have a design or implementation. Whatever you have, we welcome the ideas and encourage ongoing conversation.
  6. Dec 2023
    1. This 1% of humanity uses its awesome power to manipulate societal aspirations and the narratives around climate change. These extend from well-funded advertising to pseudo-technical solutions, from the financialisation of carbon emissions (and increasingly, nature) to labelling extreme any meaningful narrative that questions inequality and power.
      • for: quote - Kevin Anderson, quote - elite positive feedback carbon inequality loop, climate crisis - societal aspirations, elites - societal aspirations, societal aspirations, key insight - societal aspirations

      • quote

        • This 1% of humanity uses its awesome power to manipulate
          • societal aspirations and
          • the narratives around climate change.
        • These extend from
          • well-funded advertising to
          • pseudo-technical solutions,
          • and financialisation of carbon emissions (and increasingly, nature) to
          • labelling extreme any meaningful narrative that questions inequality and power.
      • comment

      • key insight - societal aspirations
        • it is the societal aspiration of the logic of capitalism and the free market that continues to create the next generation of the 1%
        • How can the luxury industry NOT BE high carbon intensity? It's an oxymoron. High carbon is baked into the definition of luxury, and it is luxury goods and services which accelerate climate breakdown.
        • The elites have a strong feeling of entitlement. They feel they DESERVE to reward themselves with a luxury lifestyle. That aspiration and reward structure multiplied by 80 million (1% of 8 billion) is a major variable driving the climate crisis
    1. I tell my researchers look for the 00:57:41 positive feedbacks these are not good feedbacks these are self-reinforcing feedbacks where you get a cycle of of causation that causes it to reinforce itself those 00:57:52 positive feedbacks which may cross several systems like climate economic pandemic Health Systems those positive feedbacks are where you're getting the synchronization if you can find those 00:58:04 then you're making real Headway on the synchronization effect
      • for: adjacency - synchronization - clues - positive feedbacks, key insight - synchronisation - positive feedbacks

      • adjacency between

        • positive feedback
        • synchronization
      • adjacency statement
      • key insight
        • look for where the positive feedbacks are occurring within the system
        • that will tell you where the synchronization is occurring within the system
  7. Nov 2023
    1. Agreed that this is very well done; however to attribute "mindless consumerism" solely to economic design is an oversimplification. It overlooks the significant role of trauma, mental health, spiritual poverty, etc. In many ways mindless consumerism has become 'medicine' for the masses to dull their pain and deep sense of isolation (all of which is welcomed under the current system as it feeds capitalism).
      • for: feedback - Weall - system change explainer video

      • comment

        • good observation by Claire Elizabeth Wiliiams
  8. Oct 2023
    1. 04:00 shame as feedback and driving growth (most powerful emotion)

      • also see how anxiety can be used and leveraged for growth (as a whisper that aids, rather than destroying)
  9. Jul 2023
  10. Jun 2023
  11. May 2023
    1. native writers received feedback on content in the form of questions and qualified criticism, while non-native writers mainly received feedback on grammatical correctness and clarity in the form of recasts and questions. Furthermore, tutors tended to use more overtly directive forms of feedback for both native and non-native writers, including recasts and criticism.

      feedback native and non-native tutees receive.

  12. Apr 2023
  13. Mar 2023
    1. legally obligated to retain them for longer time periods

      Would be great to also see in months/years how long that is :)

    2. retained for a limited time

      Can you define the time limitation here? Days or months would be preferable :)

    3. See the full history of changes to these Terms.

      Link is dead.

    4. dedicated using Creative Commons

      Creative Commons …what?

      There’s quite a few Creative Commons licenses, some Free Culture, some not, one or two even public-domain-ish.

      I assume you mean CC0-1.0, but that is not clear at all.

  14. Feb 2023
    1. They write a bunch of crap down that they wish they’d be able to do (secretly knowing they never will) and then their task manager gets overwhelming and they drop it because there is too much noise. This is why systems like Bullet Journal thrive in a digital world. When something is too hard to migrate to a new page or notebook, you just said it’s not worth doing and you let it go. Bullet Journal is a no-first system.

      Bullet journaling works well in a noisy world because it forces people to confront what they're eventually not going to do anyway and gets them to drop it rather than leaving it on an ever-growing list.

      Carrying forward to do lists manually encourages one to quit things that aren't going to get done.

    1. We welcome your feedback on the accessibility of this site. If you have specific questions or feedback about this site's accessibility or need assistance using specific features, please contact us. If you have found an inaccessible area on the site, please specify the web page or element, and provide any other relevant information to help us locate the problem.  In the event a page cannot be made accessible, we will work with you to make a text version of the content available. Please contact us via telephone or email to request a specific electronic format. Additionally, please provide us with your contact information, the format you require, the web page address, and the location of the content. We welcome your questions about this accessibility statement and comments on how to improve our website's accessibility.  
    1. One can find utility in asking questions of their own note box, but why not also leverage the utility of a broader audience asking questions of it as well?!

      One of the values of social media is that it can allow you to practice or rehearse the potential value of ideas and potentially getting useful feedback on individual ideas which you may be aggregating into larger works.

  15. Jan 2023
    1. For a while, I forgot how fun it is to talk to users People seem to intuitively help you if you build something useful for them. And they come up with better ideas than you do.

      Peter Hagen, 2022-08-24 https://twitter.com/peterhagen_/status/1562535573134254080

      One can dramatically increase their potential combinatorial creativity not only by having their own ideas run into each other, for example in a commonplace book or card index/zettelkasten, but by putting them out into the world and allowing them to very actively interact with other people and their ideas.

      Reach, engagement and other factors may also help in the acceleration, but keep in mind that you also need to have the time and bandwidth to listen and often build context with those replies to be able to extract the ultimate real value out of those interactions.

    1. Expansion is led by focus. By taking time to edit, carve up, and refactor our notes, we put focus on ideas. This starts the Great Wheel of Positive Feedback. All hail to the Great Wheel of Positive Feedback.

      How can we better thing of card indexes as positive feedback mechanisms? Will describes it as the "Great Wheel of Positive Feedback" which reminds me a bit of flywheels for storing energy for later use.

  16. Dec 2022
    1. It is crucial to establish the key feedbacks regulating, or destabilizing, each safety variable, and how they interact on different timescales. To quantitatively assess and combine these feedbacks, an established but under-used approach of calculating and combining feedback “gain” factors (Lashof, 1989) can provide a useful framework.

      !- Feedback Gain Factors : used to assess and combine feedbacks - this helps establish the key feedbacks regulating or destabilizing safety variables

  17. Nov 2022
    1. Mark: The Japanese hypertext scholar Kumiyo Nakakoji talks about amplified representational talkback, which is a general design phenomenon. An architect, an artist, or a writer puts something on paper and then looks at it. You look at it, and then it seems different from what you had in mind, and you either correct what you’ve written, or you see that what you’ve written is right and correct your bad idea. That kind of representational talkback is fundamental to all sorts of all creative processes, from the sciences to the arts.
  18. Sep 2022
    1. he expressed confusion about digital pedagogy

      It is common nowadays after the COVID outbreak

  19. Jul 2022
    1. Thanks for your making your first contribution to Cucumber, and welcome to the Cucumber committers team! You can now push directly to this repo and all other repos under the cucumber organization! In return for this generous offer we hope you will: Continue to use branches and pull requests. When someone on the core team approves a pull request (yours or someone else's), you're welcome to merge it yourself. Commit to setting a good example by following and upholding our code of conduct in your interactions with other collaborators and users. Join the community Slack channel to meet the rest of the team and make yourself at home. Don't feel obliged to help, just do what you can if you have the time and the energy. Ask if you need anything. We're looking for feedback about how to make the project more welcoming, so please tell us!
    1. now we go back to jakub von ogskul and we find him critiquing exactly the 00:09:20 same thing for exactly the same reasons 30 years after john dewey there on the left he has picked out the reflex arc pointing out that it is a linear throughput which leaves no room 00:09:34 for subjectivity no room for intentional action no room for meaning to arise if you if the middle is only animated by inputs then it's a puppet 00:09:47 he replaces this with a model on the right that will whose terms will not be entirely clear to you as you read the article but i want you to notice one thing about it it's circular it's not a linear 00:09:59 throughput it's circular he starts by noting the embeddedness of the body in the world and the fact that the activity of the 00:10:13 body is meaningful at all times and not separable into inputs and outputs his replacement of the linear throughput with this circular model that he elaborates in various ways 00:10:25 is remarkably prescient of the basic cybernetic insight that will arise after the second world war in which it's all feedback systems positive feedback systems negative feedback systems 00:10:37 homeostatic systems um reciprocity is always involved the fact that you do something and something is done to you at the same time that that we dance in the world 00:10:50 rather than standing apart from it and recording a movie of it so his um uncovery of this basic cybernetic principle with which one might approach the body and its being in the world is 00:11:02 remarkably prescient but these profound ideas of vulnerable are often hidden because he's well frankly so charming well he's a problematic character as we'll see lately 00:11:14 but he tells a good story and he does cool experiments

      30 years after Dewey's paper, Uexkull affirms the same finding as Dewey in his article: A Stroll Though the Worlds of Animals and Men (1934).

      In his article, Uexkull compares two diagrams, a linear input/output and a circular with subjectivity in the middle. Uekull anticipates the fundamental cybernetic concept of positive and negative feedbacks - you do something to the world and the world does something back to you.

  20. bafybeibbaxootewsjtggkv7vpuu5yluatzsk6l7x5yzmko6rivxzh6qna4.ipfs.dweb.link bafybeibbaxootewsjtggkv7vpuu5yluatzsk6l7x5yzmko6rivxzh6qna4.ipfs.dweb.link
    1. Therefore, any feedback signal, even if negative, boostsyour effectiveness, and therefore self-confidence, in continuing your activity, adding to the sense offlow. (

      When we create an intervention and we can see that it actually bends the curve the required amount, that feedback gives us the confirmation we need to sustain the flow

    2. What these communities have in common is that they collectively produce very useful—and typically high-quality—applications and information, but this without any financialcompensation or legal organization. In other words, these communities consist purely of volunteerscontributing on an informal basis to a common project. From the perspective of traditionaleconomics and organizational theory, this is paradoxical (Heylighen, 2007): why would anyoneprovide such valuable services to others without being either paid or ordered to do so? Severalauthors have investigated the motives that incite people to contribute to such communities (Ghosh,2005; Lerner & Tirole, 2002; Weber, 2004). These include curiosity, altruism, free expression, needfor belonging, desire for status and recognition, and the hope for future financial rewards for privateconsultancy after being publicly recognized for one’s expertise. More interesting for our purposethan these individual motivations, though, are the structures and processes that encourageindividuals to take part in such a collective enterprise, i.e. the underlying mobilization system.A first analysis (Heylighen, 2007) points at two fundamental mechanisms: feedback andstigmergy. By contributing a question, comment, answer, program, photo or any other input,participants hope to get a reaction from the other community members, because that would givethem an indication of whether they are on the right path, or need to make some correction. Suchfeedback provides valuable information that allows participants to get better in whatever they areinterested in. For example, a programmer who contributed a piece of code will benefit if a userpoints out a bug in that code, suggests a way to extend it, or simply confirms that the job was welldone.Stigmergy is a mechanism of spontaneous coordination between actions, where the result ofan individual’s work stimulates a next individual to continue that work (Parunak, 2006; Bolici,Howison, & Crowston, 2009; Heylighen, 2011a). For example, a paragraph contributed to aWikipedia article may incite a later reader of that paragraph to add a reference or further detail,which in turn may elicit further contributions from others.

      Feedback and stigmergy are two key motivations for contributing to online communities.

    1. fly·wheel/ˈflīˌ(h)wēl/ Learn to pronounce nounnoun: flywheel; plural noun: flywheels; noun: fly-wheel; plural noun: fly-wheelsa heavy revolving wheel in a machine that is used to increase the machine's momentum and thereby provide greater stability or a reserve of available power during interruptions in the delivery of power to the machine.

      A potential word to describe some of my theory for evolution, DNA, and complexity

      Used often in business to describe increasing momentum

  21. Jun 2022
    1. Some researchers have found that these discrepancies create enough "haptic dissonance" to dissuade some people from using e-readers. People expect books to look, feel and even smell a certain way; when they do not, reading sometimes becomes less enjoyable or even unpleasant. For others, the convenience of a slim portable e-reader outweighs any attachment they might have to the feel of paper books.
    1. send off your draft or beta orproposal for feedback. Share this Intermediate Packet with a friend,family member, colleague, or collaborator; tell them that it’s still awork-in-process and ask them to send you their thoughts on it. Thenext time you sit down to work on it again, you’ll have their input andsuggestions to add to the mix of material you’re working with.

      A major benefit of working in public is that it invites immediate feedback (hopefully positive, constructive criticism) from anyone who might be reading it including pre-built audiences, whether this is through social media or in a classroom setting utilizing discussion or social annotation methods.

      This feedback along the way may help to further find flaws in arguments, additional examples of patterns, or links to ideas one may not have considered by themselves.

      Sadly, depending on your reader's context and understanding of your work, there are the attendant dangers of context collapse which may provide or elicit the wrong sorts of feedback, not to mention general abuse.

    1. Learning targets describe the knowledge and skills students should be able to demonstrate by the end of the lesson. Learning targets are broken down into success criteria so students can self-assess and track their learning progress.

      I think one of the things I fail to understand is that learning targets (or objectives at any level) are for measuring progress by the student as well as the instructor. I can be part of the feedback loop with relatively low effort on my part once the initial investment is made.

  22. May 2022
    1. He notes that authors of such projects should consider the return on investment. It take time to go through community feedback, so one needs to determine whether the pay off will be worthwhile. Nevertheless, if his next work is suitable for community review, he’d like to do it again.

      This is an apropos question. It is also somewhat contingent on what sort of platform the author "owns" to be able to do outreach and drive readers and participation.

    1. We are here to help you get your designs implemented on codes pixel perfectly


    1. Reduce  review time to half

      Loving this website anyways!

      Any thoughts guys??

    2. he fastest way to review developed websites. Add a link, drop comments, show CSS edits live to give precise feedbacks.

      Does any one know how this works?

    1. بازخورد از MVP

      صحبت با کاربر(مستقیم دوستانه چت بازخورد و...) روش مرتب سازی کارت!!! موضوعات رو نوشتیم میدیم بهش داخل گروه ها ساماندهی کنه. از دید کاربر اسمی براش جذاب نبود! کاربردی تر کند! تعدادبیشتر

      تست کاربرد پذیری!!! Leanability Efficiency بهره وری Memorability یادسپاری Erros خطاها Satisfaction رضایت مندی

  23. Apr 2022
    1. Participants expected the instructors to be actively engaged with learners, providing them with clear guidance, expectations, and requirements. This finding confirms that students expected consistent and timely feedback from the instructor (Vonderwell, 2003)

    1. Researchers are also experimenting with “haptic” signals: physical nudgesdelivered via special gloves or tools that help mold a novice’s movementpatterns into those of an expert.



    1. A summary, feedback or critique is then provided, often by the e-moderator but in some cases it may be provided by the learners themselves.

      Flexibilidade e dinâmicas de grupo!

  24. Feb 2022
    1. Even without any feedback, we will be better off ifwe try to remember something ourselves (Jang et al. 2012).
    2. Dweck shows convincingly thatthe most reliable predictor for long-term success is having a “growthmindset.” To actively seek and welcome feedback, be it positive ornegative, is one of the most important factors for success (andhappiness) in the long run. Conversely, nothing is a bigger hindranceto personal growth than having a “fixed mindset.” Those who fearand avoid feedback because it might damage their cherishedpositive self-image might feel better in the short term, but will quicklyfall behind in actual performance (Dweck 2006; 2013).

      Carol Dweck shows that the most reliable predictor for long-term success is what she calls having a "growth mindset" or the ability to take feedback and change.

      This seems related to the idea of endergonic reactions and the growth of complexity as well as the idea of the meaning of life.

      What do these systems all have in common? What are their differences? What abstractions can we make from them?

      Relate this to https://hypothes.is/a/pdWppIX5EeyhR0NR19OjCQ

  25. Dec 2021
    1. If you made embed-able forums for web pages and sites, you could inadvertently boost signups, and boost plugin downloads. It'd be awesome to have a third party host for user profiles linkable to my site and forum. Even if you linked facebook or something, for fast signup, server data, etc...

    1. Once we introduce evaluation into our learning spaces, we change the way we interact with student work.

      Evaluation is not the same as feedback. Evaluation is almost always directed at unsolicited advice. Feedback may praise or criticize, but usually seeks value in something.

  26. Nov 2021
    1. In addition to the daily limits, there are follow ratios that go into effect once you’re following a certain number of accounts:Every Twitter account can follow up to 5,000 accounts. Once you reach that number, you may need to wait until your account has more followers before you can follow additional accounts. This number is different for each account and is automatically calculated based on your unique ratio of followers to following.

      Hello. I am a paying subscriber, now, after all these years… I may or may not have become a paying subscriber just to justify this particular feedback after all this time.

      Ultimately, though, I’m giving you a real substantial bullet point to put on that very wispy-looking full features list of Twitter Blue!

    1. Twitter Blue Publisher network

      Hey Twitter,

      I love that you chose to show support for Lists by sharing the list of Blue publishers, this way. This is a decision I want to celebrate!

      However, this hyperlink isn’t particularly useful in that the user has no ability to actually follow the list. Aside from manually bookmarking it on a browser (since you can’t if you let the deeplink open the native app,) there is no way to save it!

    1. This is actively being worked on - for those interested you can follow the progress in https://github.com/snapcore/snapd/pull/10836
    2. After 5 years there's still no fix. This is so annoying. I'm now getting rid of all snap packages and installing deb variants instead. Finally I'll purge snap and if these weird decisions keep on going I'll also move to another distro. Common Canonical. Seriously?
    1. During the time between becoming a DisCONaut and full (legal) membership, it's assumed that the DisCONaut is there for the long run. The new DisCOnaut has become part of an established collective with its unique group culture and, while new members will change that culture, all changes have to fit in well with what has already been built. If no major or unsolved issues arise, the nine-month mark means that the new DisCONaut becomes a full member and the appropriate legal and/or contractual procedures are undertaken.

      I feel like this paragraph addresses my earlier concern about not being able to be paid during that period! Maybe surface this way earlier. I'd say, always lead with the care! It's what brought me in at least :)

    2. marriage

      I do wince a bit at this "marriage" metaphor, I guess also because it immediately brings monogamy to top of mind for me, but I do like the idea of positioning this (this love and commitment to the other people in the coop) in opposition to the super icky "baby" startup metaphor.

    3. In DisCO.coop we recommend that full membership is only awarded after nine continued months of working and being in the collective. This means nine months from the moment the new DisCONaut started dating, independent of their timeline options.

      I understand and agree with the sentiment of putting in the time to grow relationships to the point where everyone feels comfortable. I also think that it is important when we talk about growing communities to move "at the speed of trust."

      But at the same time, I do worry about the feasibility of a 9 month mostly unpaid work period for much of the world's work force. Being able to work for 9 months without getting compensated isn't a luxury most can take (and thats in addition to having likely been a contributor for an amount of time), and will require many to either work a second job while doing this or come from a background that gives them enough of a financial cushion to ride on during this period.

      I guess my suggestion would be that we should think about how this dating process can happen simultaneously to the earlier contributor stages so that certain lessons or learnings can be gleaned without extending the process out too long.

    4. Into the Dating Phase! click to enlarge and animate

      Formatting is kind of weird here and some text appears next to the image.

    5. The Commitment Statement

      Vibe with this idea, but wondering if it could be taken a step further to make it like a recommitment process. Like, resigning the document comes after some calls with other members where we talk through things and adjust the document to fit how needs/commitment has changed, rather than default to renewing the already established statement. Just a thought.

    6. It is also important to have a second, more thorough interview prior to signing the Commitment Statement.

      There are a few places in this document where I can't quite tell if the text is bolded or if I'm just seeing things. Something to keep in mind! We should probably test if DisCO sites in general meet web accessibility standards.

    7. need

      feels a little harsh, not particularly consent drive, maybe "are asked"

    8. Clarity that vibe trumps all other considerations, meaning, if there's a bad fit evident from things like poor or indirect communication, or evident discomfort with the style and rhythms of the existing group, that usually signals a weird vibe. Weird vibe = no DisCO Dating [39].

      I don't think this needs to be elucidated in this doc, but I think it might be a good idea to create a "dating pool" where folks that are interested in working with a DisCO are added and shared (as they're comfortable) with the DisCO community at large. One person may not vibe with a specific DisCO or meet the conditions needed at that time, but may be a great fit for another DisCO.

    9. co-dependent

      I feel like codependency has a bad rap and may raise some eyebrows. Interdependent?

    10. A DisCO Ley Line is, basically, an agreed-on transfer of invested credits between one DisCO and another.

      This concept is brought up many times before here, but this is the first time we have it explained direct and succinctly. I would move this up higher in the doc.

      Also important to note here, if this is a wiki that is hosted on multiple pages, you're probably going to want to repeat certain phrases/sentences so that people reading individual pages can get the gist without having to hunt through.

      Finally, the "basically" here feels a little casual in a way that I think makes the tone inconsistent.

    11. unlike value tracking for contributors, it's not expected to be either latent or unfulfilled.

      I think this sentence helps convince people that are interested in DisCOlarships, but may disuade people interested in contributing. the "expectation" for the credits to be unfulfilled. Question that pops to mind, why track my hours if there is an expectation that nothing will ever come of it?

    12. Similarly, this work is initially considered to be Invested Lovework. You can read more about those terms in this section. For now "invested" means "unpaid" and "Lovework" means "voluntary work".

      This particular phrasing makes this paragraph sound like doublespeak.

    13. Whether it's a DisCO worker-coop, DisCO.NP or any other type of DisCO application, DisCOlarships are announced by the hosting DisCO through its social media channels, newsletters or community calls. Before entering into DisCOlarship, the hosting DisCO needs to ensure it has the human and conceptual capacity.

      One of the places where it feels like we need to explicitly address audience: is this a tool for other DisCOs to learn how to define their relationships, or for people interested in working within the existing DisCO ecosystem. If the former, this feels too prescriptive.

    14. DisCOlarships are one way to advanced from a Casual to Committed DisCO relation. As such, they are considered a Casual Relationship leaning towards committed relationships with DisCOs in general (if not to the particular DisCO hosting the DisCOlarship).

      Idk what it is, but I get a weird feeling about how explicit the lines are being drawn around casual and committed relationships. I think it's related to the earlier comment about feeling like the text is overemphasizing the DisCOs agency in defining the relationship.

      I think part of it is also the fact that the casualization of labor is a really sore point for a lot of workers right now, as we emerge as a new "precariat" class. While its understandable that a lot of this work may be considered volunteer work and thus unpaid, continually noting that this is a casual relationship with no obligation for pay definitely makes me recall toxic work relationships in my past and I imagine will do the same for other workers.

    15. A DisCOlarship involves regular "visits" to a DisCO to learn its practices and get to know DisCONauts in the real world.

      How necessary is this "in the real world" part of the training? If it feels like an absolute must, it could be helpful to elucidate why.

    16. In other DisCOs, contributors can help with whatever productive work is taken by the particular DisCO. So, for example, in a worker-owned DisCO community garden, contributors could drop in to help with the gardening when convenient and that value will be tracked for future inclusion, should they want to become dating members and, eventually, committed. In a DisCO.NP dedicated to creating mesh networks for community WiFi, the contributors can help set up the infrastructure for their own Internet connections and, having learned in the process, can apply that knowledge (and attendant credits) toward future work in that particular DisCO.NP.

      In this section, we have three examples of potential "contributor relationships." While I think exploring different possibilities is important, this is quite a lengthy document and I think we need prioritize word efficiency.

      This isn't to say "don't include these examples," it's to say: if we're including all these examples, we should make it immediately clear to the reader why that example is being given and why that use case is so different from the others provided that it deserves to be included

    17. Why do we track the value of casual contributions?

      I definitely agree in the reasoning behind tracking casual contributions, but when you get to the part about DisCO Ley Lines, I think and underlying problem becomes way more salient:

      value tracking, especially in the case of tracking for the purposes of some sort of recognition by a large third party is a sure fire way of "abstracting" an individuals labor. How do we address this feeling of "heaven is high, emperor is far away" when talking about value tracking, especially in relation to DisCOs unrelated to the DisCO Mothership? That line in particular makes this document less transferrable as a tool for teaching people interested in starting their own DisCOs because it is specifically addressing people's labor in relation to the Mothership.

      TL;DR maybe remove the Ley Lines bullet

    18. (these terms are further explained in this section: Ways to Account for Work).

      I think it's important to provide at least a quick summation of what people will find in that section here so that people don't feel obligated to hunt and peck at sections to understand what you mean.

    19. it is much easier to record contributions according to grade and measure. If you're not familiar with those terms, it basically means "quantity and quality".

      why not just say "quantity and quality" here?

    20. The DisCO.NP may contract services when lacking the capacity - See Undercapacity and contracting outside the DisCO.NP. The DisCO.NP may also choose to engange with other DisCOs in work relationships and value transactions - see DisCOverses and Intra-DisCO Value Flows.

      On this read, I'm putting myself in the shoes of someone that is interested in working as a contributor. These sentences feel way more relevant to the DisCO itself. Not to say this doesn't belong in this page, but I think we may need to work on shaping the tone of this document to more clearly delineate who. the audience is at each point of the text.

    21. Contributors must know that they don't have priority over Committed or Dating members of the DisCO.NP, and that they won't be compensated (whether immediately or ever) for any of their contributions.

      This paragraph paired with the above paragraphs about DisCO.NPs not having any obligation to use the contributions of the contributors feels like we may be going a little too hard in emphasizing the casualness of the relationship, and the current framing makes it feel like the DisCO has way more say in the relationship than the contributor. Frankly, these paragraphs read a little bit like a contract saying "the DisCO is under no obligation to x, y, or z" which I don't think is the tone that you want to strike. Obviously, we don't want to mislead people into thinking "ah, I'm interested in working with this org, so I'm entitled to x, y, and z" but I think a balance can be struck that shows people that they indeed have agency within this relationship, but that the DisCO also reserves the same amount of agency. I think the "Applying the dating metaphor..." paragraph does this really well, so maybe it's about taking these "precautionary" sections and bundling them down lower in the page and working hard to strike a caring town within that section.

    22. they are value tracked.

      I think this needs more elaboration.

    23. The DisCO.NP, however, is not in any way obliged to accept the contribution. Using two of the examples above, if the contributed artwork or code isn't up to standard, the DisCO.NP will not use it. Quality Control and Post-Hoc evaluation is very important in DisCO — if we are to provide viable alternatives to the mainstream economy, we need to ensure we do stuff right, according to the individual criteria of each DisCO LAB.[24] Applying the dating metaphor, if "we’re really not made for each other", we'll move on with no hard feelings. Casual relationships are consent-based and depend on clear communication. A casual contributor doesn't really have to do anything for the DisCO.NP, in terms of building our support structure and using the DisCO's workflow tools, for instance. Contributors can get in touch whenever they feel like it and vice versa. The bulk of the care work for the collective, including all admin and project management tasks, is undertaken by the DisCONauts.

      I would move this final paragraph to be the second paragraph as it feels more directly related to the first, where as the other two feel like they touch on a very specific facet of the contributor-NP relationship.

    24. This one possible DisCO Journey. In others people may remain in one circle, or go through a DisCOlarship and start their own separate DisCO, etc.

      I think that the fact that there is no "one true way" for this process to go makes it hard to visualize this with a single graphic and including this, may give people the wrong impression if they're just scrolling through. At the same time, visualizing infinite paths will definitely confuse people.

      Maybe something less representational/more abstract rather than "informative."

    25. To recap: We have distinguished two main states: Casual and Committed. "Casual" means little responsibility. These are no-strings-attached relationships for mutual benefit. There are two types of Casual Relationship: Supporters (Very casual interactions) and Contributors (More active interactions and actual contributions to the DisCO.NP and its mission). "Committed" signifies a stated commitment of responsibility to the DisCO.NP and its members. Those wanting to progress from Casual to Committed have two options: DisCOLarships (practical DisCO training with no firm expectation of joining the DisCO). DisCO Dating: Intense mentoring program for applicants to join the DisCO in which they are being mentored.

      High level, I think it may make more sense to lead with "TL;DR"s rather then ending with them so that as people are browsing through the wiki, they can quickly decide if they're on the right page or not.

    26. 1 DisCOLarships: Where individuals regularly "visit" the DisCO.NP to learn about DisCO culture and structure in the real world, get to know the people, etc. There are minimal responsibilities and the DisCOLar is free to start their own DisCO afterward or join the same DisCO they have trained in. 2 The DisCO Dating Phase: Where potential members make a firm commitment to go through the DisCO.NP's mentoring and training program in order to become committed members or DisCONauts. There are considerable, consented-upon responsibilities on the part of the DisCO Dating Member and the DisCO-NP itself during this process.

      The difference between these two options is not immediately clear.

      Is it that the DisCOLar path is oriented towards creating new DisCOs and the dating is oriented towards joining the mothership?

    27. Beyond Contributors, there is another type of casual relationship with a lesser level of responsibility: Supporters.

      This sentence feels too specific in a section that is talking about "casual relationships" in a more general sense.

    28. There are two additional "bridging states" between the Casual/Committed poles, which we will also discuss.

      I don't know that this sentence is necessary, as all of the types of relationships will fall on this spectrum.

    29. within a DisCO Non-Profit

      I feel like this may be too prescriptive. IMO, these roles and responsibilities feel like they'd apply to basically any DisCO.

    30. On the downside, DisCOs are also more complex in the initial stages, although once their learning curve has been overcome, we'd argue that they function more smoothly and are more resilient organizations.

      I don't know that this is inherent to DisCOs as individual organizations! I think that this might appear to be the case given that we're still building out the core of the philosophy while also trying to create organizations that work by these ideals while existing as an explicitly counter-hegemonic endeavor. All that to say, I think you may be selling DisCOs short by including this in there, but understand why it's included right now. My main reason for bringing it up is, we don't want to give people the impression that this is the hardest path possible because it will likely result in slower adoption of these principles.

    31. first, as a description of a legal entity that holds the ability to maintain tangible functions like contracts and agreements, and more intangible ones like commonly held values. Secondly, “trust” is used in the sense of the ability for team members to operate with a specific relationship to one another, according to defined principles and common goals.

      Personally, given your mission, I think it would make more sense to flip these two. You all are human/community first, tech+contractual obligation second and I think this sentence could better reflect that.

  27. Oct 2021
    1. Ruthlessly seek negative feedback. When getting feedback, @tferriss requests the reader highlight: • Anywhere boring • Anything confusing • Anywhere your mind starts to wander Then he asks two questions - what is the: • 10% I must keep • 20% I should cut immediately
  28. Sep 2021
    1. Recent studies found when teachers gave trainee pharmacists frequent low-stakes questions with feedback, students performed better on tests and were more satisfied with the course.  

      references for this?

  29. Aug 2021
    1. There are two ways for someone to be in this quadrant. The unhealthy way, as a people pleaser, with associated resentment and chaos. In a healthy way, everything feels very clear. It’s easy to fit feedback into their mental model, and adjustments feel natural and build on what they are currently working on. This comes from having a good idea themselves about what is happening and how they think they can improve.

      good point on the people-pleaser mindset, also worth considering with ADHD/ASD employees - try and foster more curiosity than chaos

    2. Coachability is made up of two factors: someone’s receptiveness to feedback, and how highly actionable they are (what they do with it).
    3. How do your reports respond to feedback? As managers, it’s our job to grow the people we work with. This is how we build a bench, and scale ourselves and the organization. Of course, this is easy to say and hard to do, and we’ve all encountered a spectrum of people: those with whom it’s easy to accelerate and have a real and lasting impact on, and those where the lasting impact is the relief we feel once we no longer work with them.

      this is also why it is important to have a good culture of frequent feedback. Since it is key to growing the organization, feedback can't be saved for quarterly reviews only.

  30. Jun 2021
    1. We just cannot know all that life will throw at us, and if we want our grading contract to be fair and equitable for everyone, we need to reexamine it, reflect on how it has been working for each of us, and perhaps adjust it. 

      This idea of re-evaluating at regular time points can be a very useful and powerful tool in more areas than just writing.

      Society as a whole needs to look carefully at where it is do do this same sort of readjustment as well.

      It's the same sort of negative feedback mechanism which is at work in the scientific method and constantly improving the state-of-the art.

    2. your goal cannot be to follow orders in order to get a higher grade, instead you are free to listen, consider things, ignore ideas, or ask more honest questions of your readers. You are now free to make your own decisions on your writing. 

      Labor-based grading in writing allows students to listen and adjust to comments which gives them greater freedom and autonomy in both their learning process as well as their writing.

      Ideally, in a system like this, a shorter feedback loop of commentary and readjustment may also help to more carefully hone their skills versus potentially hitting a plateau after which it's more difficult to improve.

    1. @dwhly bug? cannot annotate this video which has caption but in Greek?

  31. May 2021
    1. No it doesn't. I've simply told SvelteKit to ignore the type error from credentials missing. If there's some other issue or missing feature it's not blocked by this. That being said, I wouldn't mind getting this change in
    1. სარგებელი

      • დროის ეკონომია — უფრო მარტივია და სწრაფია ჩანაწერის გაკეთება, ვიდრე უკუკავშირის დაწერა;
      • თვალსაჩინო — ვიდეო-უკუკავშირში შეგიძლიათ მარტივად მიუთითოთ მოსწავლეს დავალების კონკრეტულ მონაკვეთზე, დაწერილი უკუკავშირი მოსწავლემ შეიძლება არასწორად გაიგოს/ ვერ გაიგოს;
      • დემონსტრაცია — შეგიძლიათ თავიდან აუხსნათ თემის ნაწილი, რომელიც მოსწავლემ ვერ გაიგო;
      • გამეორება — პირისპირ, ზეპირ უკუკავშირთან შედარებით, ვიდეო-უკუკავშირს მოსმენა მოსწავლეს რამდენჯერმა შეუძლია, როცა უნდა და რამდენ ჯერაც უნდა, არა მარტო გაკვეთილზე;
      • კომფორტული — სავარაუდოდ, მეტი შანსია მოსწავლეებმა უყურონ ვიდეო-უკავშირს, ვიდრე დაწერილ უკუკავშირს;
  32. Apr 2021