150 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
    1. Dichter und sehr gut dokumentierter Überblicksratikel über die Expansionspläne der Öl- und Gasindustrie. Aus unerschlossenen Feldern sollen 230 Milliarden Barrel Öläquivalent gefördert werden - im klaren Widerspruch zum Pariser Abkommen. Durch Ausbeutung neuer Lager werden bis 2025 voraussichtlich 70 Gt CO<sub>2</sub> und damit 17% des Budgets für das 1,5° Ziel ausgestoßen. Eingegangen wird auch auf den Ausstiegsplan des Tyndall Centre. https://taz.de/Run-auf-fossile-Brennstoffe/!5973686/

  2. Nov 2023
    1. Economies that are heavily reliant on oil and gas revenues face some stark choices and pressures in energy transitions.
      • for: stats - oil and gas - steep drop in revenues of fossil fuel producer economies

      • stats: oil and gas - steep drop in revenues of fossil fuel reliant economies

        • per capita net income from oil and natural gas among producer economies will be 60% lower in 2030 in a 1.5 °C scenario.relative to revenues between 2010 and 2022.
      • question

        • many producer economies are not diversifying into clean energy fast enough to compensate for these steep revenue drops
    2. A productive debate about the oil and gas industry in transitions needs to avoid two common misconceptions. The first is that transitions can only be led by changes in demand.
      • for: double bind - oil and gas industry committing to clean energy, oil and gas industry - Mexican standoff - SIMPOL

      • comment

        • The oil and gas industry faces the dilemma of the first mover. Nobody wants to take the risk to commit
        • It's a Mexican standoff but maybe SIMPOL is the solution
      • reference

    3. For producers that choose to diversify and are looking to align with the aims of the Paris Agreement, our bottom-up analysis of cash flows in a 1.5 °C scenario suggests that a reasonable ambition is for 50% of capital expenditures to go towards clean energy projects by 2030, on top of the investment needed to reduce scope 1 and 2 emissions.
      • for: stats - oil and gas industry - required investments in clean energy

      • stats: oil and gas industry - required investments in clean energy

        • 50 % of capital expenditure by 2030 and reduction in scope 1 and 2 emissions
      • comment

        • Wow, is it really possible for the industry to spend 50 % of their budget on clean energy in 7 years? This would be unprecedented, given that greenwashing is all we've ever seen in the past.
    4. Some 30% of the energy consumed in a net zero energy system in 2050 comes from low-emissions fuels and technologies that could benefit from the skills and resources of the oil and gas industry.
      • for: stats - oil and gas industry - repurposing for clean energy

      • stats: oil and gas industry - repurposing for clean energy

        • only 30 % of the energy consumed in a clean energy future within 1.5 Deg C comes from low emission fuels and technologies that benefit from oil and gas industry resources
        • this leaves a huge deficit of 70 %.
      • question

        • How will the transition account for these human and technological resources?
    5. Many producers say they will be the ones to keep producing throughout transitions and beyond. They cannot all be right.
      • for: stats - oil and gas industry - fight for survival

      • stats: oil and gas industry - fight for survival

        • competing oil producers will have to reach an agreement on who has the right to produce the remaining carbon budget
        • 24 million barrels a day are still produced in a 1.5 Deg C scenario but are largely uncombusted
          • 75 % of that will be used in petrochemical and other industry
          • 920 billion cubic meters of natural gas
            • 50% of this for hydrogen production
    6. In a scenario that hits global net zero emissions by 2050, declines in demand are sufficiently steep that no new long lead-time conventional oil and gas projects are required. Some existing production would even need to be shut in. In 2040, more than 7 million barrels per day of oil production is pushed out of operation before the end of its technical lifetime in a 1.5 °C scenario.
      • for: stats - oil and gas industry - steep drop in production

      • stats - oil and gas industry - steep drop in production

        • no new fields can be developed to meet a 1.5 Deg C scenario
        • any new developments face the certain risk of being a stranded asset
        • by 2040, 7 million less barrels of oil are produced each day to meet a 1.5 Deg C scenario
    7. The production, transport and processing of oil and gas results in just under 15% of global energy-related greenhouse gas emissions. This is a huge amount, equivalent to all energy-related greenhouse gas emissions from the United States.
      • for: stats - oil and gas industry operational emissions

      • stats: oil and gas industry - operational emissions

        • 15% of all global emissions are from the production, transport and processing of fossil fuels
    8. Oil and gas producers account for only 1% of total clean energy investment globally.
      • for: stats - oil and gas industry - clean energy investments

      • comment

        • Inclusive transformation
          • Clearly, transforming the dirty fossil fuel industry into clean energy industry requires migrating as much of those 12 million dirty energy jobs as possible. We can't alienate the fossil fuel industry.
          • the barometer to measure this paradigm shift in fossil fuel industry narrative is their investment into clean energy. Over the years, majors have acted like politicians, promising significant clean energy investment, then backsliding. There is no more time for that.
    9. This new IEA report explores what oil and gas companies can do to accelerate net zero transitions and what this might mean for an industry which currently provides more than half of global energy supply and employs nearly 12 million workers worldwide.
      • for: stats - oil and gas industry - profit split, stats - oil and gas industry - reserves split

      • stats: oil and gas industry profit split

        • 50 % to governments
        • 40 % to investments
        • 10% to shareholders and debt
      • stats: oil and gas reserve splits

        • majors: 13 % production, 13 % reserves
        • National Oil Companies: 50% production, 60 % reserves
    10. Oil and gas projects currently produce slightly higher returns on investment, but those returns are less stable.
      • stats - oil and gas vs clean energy returns

      • stats: oil and gas vs clean energy returns between 2010 and 2022

        • 6 to 9 % for oil and gas
        • 6 % for clean energy
      • for: IEA 2023 report - exec summary - Fossil Fuel industry, IEA 2023 report - exec summary - Oil and Gas industry

      • summary

        • this is the IEA summary of the position of the Oil and Gas industry and what they must do in order to transition to a net zero world by 2050 and avert 1.5 Deg C global mean temperature.
        • it contains a lot of useful information and statistics
    11. To align with a 1.5 °C scenario, these emissions need to be cut by more than 60% by 2030 from today’s levels and the emissions intensity of global oil and gas operations must near zero by the early 2040s.
    12. The production, transport and processing of oil and gas results in just under 15% of global energy-related greenhouse gas emissions.

      for: stats - oil and gas industry, stats - fossil fuel industry

      • stats: oil and gas industry
      • stats: fossil fuel industry
        • The fossil fuel industry's production, transport and processing operations accounts for 15% of global energy-related greenhouse gas emissions.
    13. Oil and gas producers account for only 1% of total clean energy investment globally.
      • for: stats - oil and gas industry, stats - fossil fuel industry

      • stats - oil and gas industry

      • stats - fossil fuel industry
        • Oil and gas producers account for approximately 1% of total clean energy investment
        • 60 % of that comes from 4 companies
    14. industry which currently provides more than half of global energy supply and employs nearly 12 million workers worldwide.
      • for: stats - oil and gas industry, stats - fossil fuel industry

      • stats - oil and gas industry

      • stats - fossil fuel industry
        • supplies approximately 50% of all total global energy
        • employs 12 million people directly
        • Since 2018, annual revenues average 13 trillion USD
        • revenue split
          • 50 % to governments
          • 40% to investment
          • 10% to shareholders and debt
        • Major oil companies account for 13 % of all reserves
        • National Oil Companies (NOC) account for
          • over 50% of all production
          • close to 60% of all reserves
    1. Today, the U.S. is spending hundreds of millions to address the crisis of methane emissions. But as Tony Ingraffea says, this should have happened a decade ago (https://lnkd.in/eaFpkTrj) and it didn't because of a single person.And none of this is in the past. Ernest Moniz is the single person in the entire world most responsible for legitimizing the hoax of #carboncapture. And carbon capture is only reason that the global oil&gas cartel has been given a green light to #drilldrilldrill.These lies matter, and they are devastating our world
      • for: big oil cover up, big oil - MIT, big Oil Ernest Moniz, methane emissions coverup, PBS - The Power of Big Oil, climate change - big oil lobby, quote - Ernest Moniz, quote Edmund Carlevale, quote - methane emissions coverup

      • quote

        • Today, the U.S. is spending hundreds of millions to address the crisis of methane emissions. But as Tony Ingraffea says, this should have happened a decade ago (https://lnkd.in/eaFpkTrj) and it didn't because of a single person.
        • And none of this is in the past. Ernest Moniz is the single person in the entire world most responsible for legitimizing the hoax of #carboncapture.
        • And carbon capture is only reason that the global oil&gas cartel has been given a green light to #drilldrilldrill. -These lies matter, and they are devastating our world.
      • author: Edmund Carlevale
      • date: Nov 16, 2023

      • reference

    1. Neue Daten der "Global Oil and Gas Exit List" zeigen, dass die Adnoc, die Öl- und Gasgesellschaft der Vereinigten Arabischen Emirate, die weitreichendsten Expansionspläne aller Ölfirmen hat. Die rolle des Adnoc-Chefs Sultan Al Jaber als Präsident der #COP28 sei "lächerlich". Seit 2021 sind weltweit 140 Milliarden Dollar in die Exploration neuer Öl- und Gasfelder geflossen. 96% der 700 im Explorationsgeschäft tätigen Firmen explorieren weiter, 1000 Firmen arbeiten an neuen Pipelines, LNG Terminals und anderer Infrastruktur zur Distribution von Öl und Gas. https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2023/nov/15/cop28-host-uae-oil-plans-data

    1. Der Artikel im Guardian stellt eine neue Studie dar, aus der hervorgeht, wie viel von der bereits existierenden Infrastruktur zur Förderung fossiler Brennstoff stillgelegt werden muss, um das 1,5° Ziel zu erreichen. Dabei geht die Autoren davon aus, dass man CO2 nicht realistisch wieder aus der Atmosphäre entfernen kann, und dass das 1,5° Ziel also nur zu erreichen ist, wenn nicht zu viel emittiert wird. Diese Studie fordert das Gegenteil der Planungen der fossilen Industrien, über der über die der Guardian gerade berichtet hatte. Der Artikel ist auch bemerkenswert, weil er auf eine Reihe weiterer wichtiger Studien zu fossilen Lagerstätten verweist.

    1. Die Pläne der Kohle-, Öl- und gasproduzierenden Staaten zur Ausweitung der Förderung würden 2030 zu 460% mehr Kohle, 83% mehr Gas und 29% mehr Ölproduktion führen, als mit dem Pariser Abkommen vereinbar ist. Der aktuelle Production Gap Report der Vereinten Nationen konzentriert sich auf die 20 stärksten Verschmutzer-Staaten, deren Pläne fast durchgängig in radikalem Widerspruch zum Pariser Abkommen stehen. https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2023/nov/08/insanity-petrostates-planning-huge-expansion-of-fossil-fuels-says-un-report

      Report: https://productiongap.org/

  3. Oct 2023
    1. The giant reserves were then exploited by the behemoths we now know as Getty Oil, ConocoPhillips, Sinclair and Exxon.
      • Conooco before joining with Phillips was a Standard Oil break up and Rockefeller company.
      • Sinclair foundation was funded by Rockefellers
      • Exxon is one of the major Standard Oil off shoots.

      So while the article spends much time attacking Koch, the Rockefellers profited massively from this well before the Koch's came by to scoop up local US supply.

  4. Sep 2023
    1. Im bisher größten Prozess der schwedischen Rechtsgeschichte stehen zwei Manager der Firma Lundin-Oil vor Gericht. Sie sollen veranlasst haben, dass die sudanesische Regierung durch Säuberungsaktionen die Voraussetzungen für Ölförderung schaffte. Dabei kamen ca 12.000 Menschen ums Leben. Ein Partner von Lundin-Oil im Sudan war die OMV. https://taz.de/Historischer-Prozess-gegen-Oelkonzern/!5955113/

  5. Aug 2023
    1. when you when you sort of take a step back and look at that part of the distraction and the 00:14:47 chaos that Trump and these GOP trolls deliver it's it's a wonderful Boon for the oil and gas industry and the Koch brothers and the guys that fund these campaigns and the federal Federalist 00:14:59 Society you know that's owning the Supreme Court they want to keep doing business as usual and the easiest way to do that is to have this big chaotic GOP that ignores climate change and to play 00:15:11 into what they want is the mainstream media not focusing more on climate change let alone making those two connections and a lot of mainstream media is scared to make that connection because oil companies are paying the bills 00:15:23 and CNN and every other network
      • for: polycrisis, Trumpism, Chaos, distraction, climate crisis, climate communication, complexity, adjacency climate change fossil fuel industry, adjacency climate change big oil, adjacency climate change politics big oil, quote adjacency climate change fossil fuel industry, quote adjacency climate change big oil
      • key insight
        • claim
          • One big reason that big oil is funding GOP to keep the chaotic Trump story as the main headline is to foster distraction from climate change impacts
          • big news story in the US is Donald Trump and the election, climate change impacts of extreme weather is minimized
          • the distraction of politics from a chaotic GOP is perfect distraction for the masses to ignore climate change and for big oil to continue BAU
      • paraphrase
      • quote
        • when you take a step back and look at that part of the distraction and the chaos that Trump and these GOP trolls deliver
        • it's it's a wonderful Boon for the oil and gas industry and the Koch brothers and the guys that fund these campaigns and the federal Federalist Society that's owning the Supreme Court
        • they want to keep doing business as usual and the easiest way to do that is
          • to have this big chaotic GOP that ignores climate change and
          • to play into what they want
            • the mainstream media not focusing more on climate change let alone making those two connections
          • a lot of mainstream media is scared to make that connection because oil companies are paying the bills of CNN and every other network
      • author
        • Noel Casler
    1. CCS likely has an important role in stopping emissions from some industrial process, particularly cement and possibly steel. But that is very different from using it to support an oil and gas industry that needs to be phased out within 10 to 15 years at the latest, if we are to meet our Paris commitments.
      • for: greenwashing
  6. Jul 2023
  7. Jun 2023
    1. Calhoon of ClimateWells acknowledges the worry that oil operators will simply drill new wells in other places, canceling out any emissions reduction benefit from plugging older ones. In the carbon credit market, this notion is called “leakage,” meaning that the emissions are not prevented but essentially moved.

      Given that you need to drill new wells for some shale in the US every couple of years or so, this is a fair statement.

    1. Pakistan hat zum ersten Mal mit chinesischen Yuan für russisches Erdöl bezahlt, das aufgrund der westlichen Sanktionen gegen Russland zu einem verbilligten Preis an die verbliebenen Abnehmerländer geliefert wird. Die Zahlung stellt das bisherige globale System der Bezahlung von Öl infrage, bei der immer der amerikanische Dollar als Währung verwendet wird. Standard-Artikel mit vielen Informationen zu den geo- und finanzpolitischen Hintergründen https://www.derstandard.at/story/3000000174993/alternative-zum-dollar-pakistan-zahlt-erstmals-oel-in-yuan

  8. May 2023
  9. Apr 2023
    1. How to Clean a Typewriter


      Rubbing alcohol or WD-40 for cleaning out light rust, oil, dirt and grime.

      Use Rem-Oil for oiling typewriters

      Toothpaste and toothbrush is great for cleaning crinkle paint on typewriters.

    1. Das Interview mit dem UAE-Ölminister, #Adnoc-Chef und #COP28-Präsidenten Sultan Al Jaber ist ein Paradebeispiel dafür, wie die Fossil-Branche den Kampf gegen die durch sie verursachte Klimakatastrophe hijackt. Dazu gehört es auch - verkörpert durch diesen Minister, der gleichzeitig Firmenchef ist - das hochpolitische Öl- und Gasgeschäft als Business-as-usual auszugeben.

  10. Mar 2023
      • Title: Climate Homicide: Prosecuting Big Oil for Climate Deaths

      • Author:

        • David Arkush
        • Donald Braman
      • Abstract

      • Paraphrase
        • Prosecutors regularly bring homicide charges against individuals and corporations
          • whose reckless or negligent acts or omissions
          • cause unintentional deaths,
          • as well as those whose misdemeanors or felonies cause unintentional deaths.
        • Fossil fuel companies learned decades ago that
          • what they
            • produced,
            • marketed, and
            • sold
          • would generate “globally catastrophic” climate change.
        • Rather than alert the public and curtail their operations,
          • they worked to
            • deceive the public about these harms and
            • to prevent regulation of their lethal conduct.
        • They funded efforts to
          • call sound science into doubt and
          • to confuse their
            • shareholders,
            • consumers, and
            • regulators.
          • poured money into political campaigns to elect or install
            • judges,
            • legislators, and
            • executive officials hostile to any
              • litigation,
              • regulation, or
              • competition
            • that might limit their profits.
        • Today, the climate change that they forecast
          • has already killed thousands of people in the United States,
          • and it is expected to become increasingly lethal for the foreseeable future.
        • Given the
          • extreme lethality of the conduct and
          • the awareness of the catastrophic risk
            • on the part of fossil fuel companies,
            • should they be charged with homicide?
        • Could they be convicted?
        • In answering these questions,
          • this Article makes several contributions to
            • our understanding of criminal law and
            • the role it could play in combating crimes committed at a massive scale.
        • It describes
          • the doctrinal and
          • social predicates of homicide prosecutions
        • where corporate conduct endangers much or all of the public.
        • It also identifies important advantages of
          • homicide prosecutions
          • relative to
            • civil and
            • regulatory remedies,
          • and it details
            • how and
            • why
          • prosecution for homicide may be the most effective legal remedy available in cases like this.
        • Finally, it argues that,
          • if our criminal legal system cannot focus more intently on climate crimes soon
          • we may leave future generations with significantly less for the law to protect.
    1. 10.1038/s41558-022-01576-2

      Der Aufsatz und die ihm zugrundeliegende Publikation kritisieren, dass die 1,5°-pathways des IPCC den Kohleausstieg vor dem Öl- und Gassausstieg fordern. Damit tragen die ärmeren Länder die Hauptlast. Gerechter und besser umzusetzen wäre ein schnellerer Ausstieg aus Öl und Gas, der vom globalen Norden eine schnellere Transformation verlangen würde.

  11. Jan 2023
    1. you've had problems in your area where you tried to get legislation and the oil and gas industry came in and fought you right in my state same thing every piece 00:44:08 of pro-climate legislation at the national level the regional level the local level Municipal level the oil and gas industry and the coal industry they come in and fight it tooth and nail and 00:44:21 they use their legacy network of political influence and wealth to stop progress the rest of us have to reform these International institutions so that the people of this world and including 00:44:34 the young people of this world can say we are now in charge of our own destiny we're going to stop using the sky as an open sewer we're going to save the future and give people hope we can do it 00:44:47 and remember that political will is itself a renewable resource

      !- oil and gas legislation : industry lawyers at every level

  12. Aug 2022
  13. Jun 2022
    1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bWkwOefBPZY

      Some of the basic outline of this looks like OER (Open Educational Resources) and its "five Rs": Retain, Reuse, Revise, Remix and/or Redistribute content. (To which I've already suggested the sixth: Request update (or revision control).

      Some of this is similar to:

      The Read Write Web is no longer sufficient. I want the Read Fork Write Merge Web. #osb11 lunch table. #diso #indieweb [Tantek Çelik](http://tantek.com/2011/174/t1/read-fork-write-merge-web-osb110

      Idea of collections of learning as collections or "playlists" or "readlists". Similar to the old tool Readlist which bundled articles into books relatively easily. See also: https://boffosocko.com/2022/03/26/indieweb-readlists-tools-and-brainstorming/

      Use of Wiki version histories

      Some of this has the form of a Wiki but with smaller nuggets of information (sort of like Tiddlywiki perhaps, which also allows for creating custom orderings of things which had specific URLs for displaying and sharing them.) The Zettelkasten idea has some of this embedded into it. Shared zettelkasten could be an interesting thing.

      Data is the new soil. A way to reframe "data is the new oil" but as a part of the commons. This fits well into the gardens and streams metaphor.

      Jerry, have you seen Matt Ridley's work on Ideas Have Sex? https://www.ted.com/talks/matt_ridley_when_ideas_have_sex Of course you have: https://app.thebrain.com/brains/3d80058c-14d8-5361-0b61-a061f89baf87/thoughts/3e2c5c75-fc49-0688-f455-6de58e4487f1/attachments/8aab91d4-5fc8-93fe-7850-d6fa828c10a9

      I've heard Jerry mention the idea of "crystallization of knowledge" before. How can we concretely link this version with Cesar Hidalgo's work, esp. Why Information Grows.

      Cross reference Jerry's Brain: https://app.thebrain.com/brains/3d80058c-14d8-5361-0b61-a061f89baf87/thoughts/4bfe6526-9884-4b6d-9548-23659da7811e/notes

  14. Mar 2022
    1. Russia has said it may close its main gas pipeline to Germany if the West goes ahead with a ban on Russian oil.

      This could be a blessing and a boon to climate change transition to a fossil fuel free world.

    2. Deputy Prime Minister Alexander Novak said a "rejection of Russian oil would lead to catastrophic consequences for the global market", causing prices to more than double to $300 a barrel.

      Could the world be convinced to payfor this price?

    3. Germany and the Netherlands

      What would convince them? We need rapid sensemaking!

    1. Because of the invasion in Ukraine, “people are reminded of the problem, but then they resort to sort of quick fixes, which are not really for the long term,” says Rolf Wüestenhagen, director of the Institute for Economy and the Environment at the University of St. Gallen in Switzerland.

      Tradeoff higher gas prices with accelerated climate change and sanctioning Putin.

    1. Each highlighted statement expresses political talking points aligned to induce trump-like support.

      Trump introduced new marketing and strategy, formulated using concepts and metrics mastered by Reality TV and Hollywood and then paired with advertising propaganda and "selling" techniques to create a "Brand". This is after-all Donald Trump, this is what he does, has done and is the only way he has found to make money. Trump built the "brand" (just barely) while teetering on self destruction.

      His charismatic persona became "the glue" that allowed creative narratives to stick to certain types of people in-spite of risk. Trump learned OTJ how to capture a specific type of audience.

      The mistake people make about Trump is assuming his audience to be "Joe Six-Pack", redneck's with limited education! This assumption does not have merit on its own.<br /> * There is a common "follower" theme among his audience that is exploited by those who: * Bought the "licensing rights" to the master-class Trump "how-to" course.

    1. Putin does not need to turn the taps completely off to punish the West. Oil markets are so tight that just a modest decrease in supplies from Russia could have a large impact on prices."Even if Russia cut supplies by 10% to 20%, the price response would compensate Russia for the loss of supply," said Rabobank's Fitzmaurice.

      ...Hence, even cutting a small amount to the West would “hurt” it, but not Putin.

  15. Oct 2021
    1. Canada is not an accident or a work in progress or a thought experiment. I mean that Canada is a scam — a pyramid scheme, a ruse, a heist. Canada is a front. And it’s a front for a massive network of resource extraction companies, oil barons, and mining magnates.

      Extraction Empire

      Globally, more than 75% of prospecting and mining companies on the planet are based in Canada. Seemingly impossible to conceive, the scale of these statistics naturally extends the logic of Canada’s historical legacy as state, nation, and now, as global resource empire.

      Canada’s Indian Reserve System served, officially, as a strategy of Indigenous apartheid (preceding South African apartheid) and unofficially, as a policy of Indigenous genocide (preceding the Nazi concentration camps of World War II).

  16. Aug 2021
  17. Jul 2021
  18. Jun 2021
  19. Apr 2021
    1. This new ability of individuals to make a living directly from their audiences isn’t just transforming journalism. It’s also been the case for adult performers on OnlyFans, musicians on Patreon, B-list celebrities on Cameo. In Hollywood, too, power has migrated toward talent, whether it’s marquee showrunners or actors. This power shift is a major headache for big institutions, from The New York Times to record labels. And Silicon Valley investors, eager to disrupt and angry at their portrayal in big media, have been gleefully backing it. Substack embodies this cultural shift, but it’s riding the wave, not creating it.

      This has always been the case, especially in Hollywood. The problem becomes that everyone thinks they can become rich and famous too. Talent shows like American Idol show us that this is rarely the case. Building a platform for oneself is not an easy thing to do, even if you've got the talent.

    2. Though Substack paid advances to a few dozen writers, most are simply making money from readers. That includes most of the top figures on the platform, who make seven-figure sums from more than 10,000 paying subscribers — among them Mr. Sullivan, the liberal historian Heather Cox Richardson, and the confrontational libertarian Glenn Greenwald.

      I keep hearing the same "top names" who are making seven figure sums. Where are the middling names and what are they making?

      Why is everyone touting the top and ignoring the snake oil being sold to those at the bottom who think this is going to pan out the same way for them?

  20. Mar 2021
    1. The NFT grift works like this: Tell artists there’s a gusher of free money! They need to buy into crypto to get the gusher of free money. They become crypto advocates, and make excuses for proof-of-work and so on. A few artists really are making life-changing money from this! You probably won’t be one of them.

      This is the structure of so many confidence games.

  21. Oct 2020
    1. She reached behind her to her bookshelf, which held about a dozen blue bottles of something called Real Water, which is not stripped of “valuable electrons,” which supposedly creates free radicals something something from the body’s cells.

      I question her credibility to market claims like this. I suspect she has no staff scientist or people with the sort of background to make such claims. Even snake oil salesmen like Dr. Oz are pointedly putting us in hands way too make a buck.

  22. Jul 2020
  23. May 2020
  24. Dec 2019
  25. Sep 2019
    1. But sustained Saudi outage of several million daily barrels would rattle markets, because of the lack of other players big enough to step in and provide enough supply to cover the shortfall longer term. Even if Saudi officials were successful in restoring all or most of the lost production, the attack demonstrates a new vulnerability to supply lines across the oil-rich Gulf. Tankers have been paying sharply higher insurance premiums, while shipping rates have soared in the region after a series of maritime attacks on oil-laden vessels, which the U.S. has blamed on Iran.
  26. Jun 2019
    1. Smil notes that as of 2018, coal, oil, and natural gas still supply 90% of the world's primary energy. Despite decades of growth of renewable energy, the world uses more fossil fuels in 2018 than in 2000, by percentage.
  27. May 2019
    1. John Robert, a microbiologist in New Mexico did an experiment on whether the beard contained bacteria. Results from the experiment that beards contain a lot of bacteria as dirty as a toilet. That’s a lot of bacteria and it’s a bit unsettling. He advised men with a beard should wash hands frequently and wash beard if they want to have a clean and healthy beard. Also, take care not to get food on your beard when you eating. If you exercise outside for a long time under the hot weather, there will be massive secretion of oil and have a lot of dust in your beard. If you haven’t clean your beard in the time it’s very easy to damage your sink. In particular, the bacteria on the surface of the face will take advantage of this, causes folliculitis and sebaceous adenitis, even cause swelling of the lips and face.

      Is Growing A Beard Easy To Nourish Germ?

  28. Oct 2018
    1. To complete the requirement of daily vitamins for dogs, use Fidobuddy – Dog vitamins supplement. It rich in omega fatty acids and vitamins A, D3 and E. It is helpful to improve immunity, maintain good vision, reduce allergy and promote brain health.

  29. Sep 2018
    1. FidoBuddy is one of the products of Fidomate that consists of best in class pure salmon oil for dogs which is rich in omega fatty acids and essential Dogs Vitamins like vitamins A, D3 and E. Fidobuddy is vitamin supplement which fulfills the requirement of vitamins for dogs.

  30. Aug 2018
  31. Nov 2017
  32. 44uc8dkwa8q3f5b66w13vilg-wpengine.netdna-ssl.com 44uc8dkwa8q3f5b66w13vilg-wpengine.netdna-ssl.com
    1. I personally never seen it as a problem with my patients, but the only people I know who are taking like 20 grams of fish oil are in head trauma recovery programs. People say, "Oh, you should worry about bleeding or bruising." I haven't seen that as a significant problem.

      High doses Fish Oil. Omega 3

  33. Aug 2017
  34. wayback.archive-it.org wayback.archive-it.org
    1. Booms, busts and bitumen The economic implications of Canadian oilsands development Published Nov. 13, 2013 This report, jointly published by Equiterre and the Pembina Institute, examines how the rapid pace of oilsands development is creating economic risks and regional disparities that could have long-term implications for Canada's economic prosperity.  The report also provides pragmatic recommendations to address these concerns, such as improving the management of one-time resource wealth and eliminating preferential tax treatment for the oil and gas sector.

      This is the institute's major 2013 report on oil sands development, with recommendations to address concerns about the environment, the economy, and tax implications.

    1. Our Approach Leading the transition to a clean energy future is no small task, and it requires advancing solutions to today’s energy challenges from various angles. The Pembina Institute has spent close to three decades working to reduce the environmental impacts of Canada’s energy production and use in several key areas: driving down energy demand by encouraging energy efficiency and transportation powered with cleaner energy sources; promoting pragmatic policy approaches for governments to avoid dangerous climate change, such as increasing the amount of renewable energy plugged into our electricity grids; and — recognizing that the transition to clean energy will include fossil fuels for some time — advocating for responsible development of Canada’s oilsands and shale gas resources.

      Interesting mix of goals for the Pembina Institute. It would be interesting to see how they weight each approach - what kind of connections do they have to oil sands development?

    1. Community

      Interesting list of community connections here. I wonder how many actual links to these organizations they have, or if this is simply a link list.

  35. Jul 2017
    1. The Oil Sands Community Alliance (OSCA) has the mandate to pursue innovative solutions to build thriving communities and enable the responsible growth of Canada’s oil sands. The OSCA uses a collaborative approach that facilitates engagement, builds relationships, and creates measureable socio-economic benefits. Our name emphasizes a broader interest and a longer-term approach to thinking about socio-economic impacts on the community. Through our association, resource developers partner with local, provincial or federal government agencies, communities, and other industries to address mutual issues. OSCA’s structure encourages a more strategic use of funds and activities through a more highly co-ordinated approach across operations and geographic regions to address issues. We know that partnerships are the best way to facilitate local capacity building, mobilize resources more quickly, leverage investment and co-ordinate multiple activities to respond to complex issues. This OSCA identifies issues from the perspective of those potentially impacted by projects; predict and anticipate change; and develop strategies to proactively respond to the consequences of development. The advantages of this approach are significant: Identify issues early for better planning of social and physical infrastructure; Inform and involve internal and external stakeholders and  assist in building trust and mutually beneficial outcomes; Improve the quality of  life of employees and enhance the attraction and retention of skilled workers; Increase capacity of community organizations, by partnering and implementing innovative approaches; and Better meet community principles and standards. The OSCA is focused on four core areas: aboriginal, community well-being, infrastructure and workforce. Within these committees, key issues will be prioritized through baseline research and stakeholder consultation.

      None of this really addresses WHO they are, and what kind of activities they're working on.

    1. E&P: CEOs, COOs, VPs, Directors, Managers, Engineers & Team Leads Of     Production     Reservoir Engineering     Operations     Engineering     Resource Management     Unconventional Reserves     Geology & Geophysics     Strategy & Planning     Asset Development     Strategy     Technology     Completions     Technology     SAGD

      Industry conference for water treatment and re-use in oil sands development. Interestingly, site includes a list of suggested occupations to attend the conference.

  36. wayback.archive-it.org wayback.archive-it.org
    1. Our goal is to advance responsible oilsands development, which we define as: capping the impacts of oilsands development within the limits of what science shows the ecosystem can support; shrinking the environmental footprint of oilsands development for every barrel produced; and ensuring a meaningful portion of the benefits of oilsands development are used to support Canada's transition to a clean energy future.

      Goals of the organization, with regards to the oilsands. Interestingly, they are not anti-oil sands, but promoting responsible development.

    1. Commentary   Media Releases Feb. 25, 2014 OP-ED: More pieces to B.C.'s LNG puzzle than you think By Kevin Sauvé Feb. 25, 2014 OP-ED: Seeing the full picture on pipelines and the oilsands By Clare Demerse Feb. 24, 2014 BLOG: Calling all leaders in energy efficiency By Ed Whittingham Feb. 20, 2014 BLOG: Closing the downtown–suburban divide By Cherise Burda Feb. 20, 2014 BLOG: Piecing together B.C.’s LNG fiscal framework By Matt Horne

      Pembina has a highly-visible section for blog posts on its main page. Contributors are mainly directors and other staff members.

    1. Looking for rig work? Rig Tech Service Rig Drive Member Login E-mail * Password * Request new password

      Representation for Canadian oil drilling contractors. Provides services for works in oil industries, as well as major oil companies.

    1. Industries usually measure economic impact by approximating a dollar value to represent their purchasing power.The oil and gas industry measures economic impact by counting active rigs. A drilling rig requires many oilfield support services to drill a well. And after the well is complete, other oilfield services go to work to bring the well into production and to maintain it.

      One of the primary activities of the Canadian Association of Oilwell Drilling Contractors seems to be in counting oil rigs, a a measure of economic impact.

    1. Keystone XL Pipeline

      This is an American organization with publications and opinion pieces on the Aberta Keystone XL Pipeline and other oil sands development.

    1. Skip to content Events 2014 C-Suites Awards Gala – Feb 5 Human Resources Best Practices for Energy Services Companies – March 18 C-Suite Awards The 2014 C-Suites Gala 2014 Award Winners 2013 Award Winners 2012 Award Winners 2011 Award Winners The 100 & Energy Service 50 Apply Event Articles Magazine Current Issue Columns Promoted Content Back Issues Media Releases Subscriber Address Change About Comment Policy Contact Us Where to get Alberta Oil Advertise Jobs Follow Alberta Oil On:

      Trade magazine on Alberta oil industry. Articles have named authors.

  37. wayback.archive-it.org wayback.archive-it.org
    1. Who we are The Alberta Energy Regulator ensures the safe, efficient, orderly, and environmentally responsible development of hydrocarbon resources over their entire life cycle. This includes allocating and conserving water resources, managing public lands, and protecting the environment while providing economic benefits for all Albertans. The Alberta Energy Regulator (AER) succeeds the Energy Resources Conservation Board and will take on regulatory functions from the Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Resource Development that relate to public lands, water, and the environment. In this way, the AER will provide full-lifecycle regulatory oversight of energy resource development in Alberta - from application and construction to abandonment and reclamation, and everything in between. For 75 years, Alberta’s oil and gas regulator has adapted to meet innovations in technology, new industry activity, and changing social expectations. The Alberta Energy Regulator builds on this foundation and prepares the province to take on the next era in energy regulation.

      Alberta government regulatory body.

    1. What’s the Problem with the Tar Sands?

      No information about who is writing these articles. Sadly, the crawl did not capture the "About" page, and this website no longer exists.

    1. OSFC is supported by a broad coalition of organizations and interests. We may represent many interests, but when it comes to getting the facts out about the promise and potential of responsible oil sands development – about the jobs it makes possible, and the footprint that continues to shrink by the day – well, that’s something every one of us can get behind.

      This is clearly a pro-oil development resource, which is rather vague about who is actually providing the information. Not many citations, either.

  38. May 2017
    1. Trans-Mountain oil pipeline

      This is a very controversial oil pipeline that runs from Edmonton to Vancouver. This pipeline was built in the 1950s by Kinder Morgan in order to bring oil from Alberta to British Columbia when large oil deposits were discovered. This pipeline had a lot of political drive behind not only from the Canadian government but also the United States who wanted easier oil access on the west coast. The United States was in the middle of the Korean War and wanted to have more secure oil contact. The pipeline had a lot of resistance from other environmentalist groups because it ran through areas that would later be named national parks. However today, there is another pipeline that is being proposed by Kinder Morgan that runs almost parallel to the pre-existing one. The intent of the new pipeline is to bring more oil to the west coast of Canada in order to keep up with the growing oil market in Asia. The new pipeline was approved by British Columbia in January 2017 but the decision immediately faced resistance from the public. Many people are skeptical of a new pipeline because of Kinder Morgan's track record with spills in the past. A journalists from Vancouver writes "British Columbians will continue to fight this decision in the courts and on the streets well past next spring's election." This pipeline is a good example compared to the Mackenzie Valley Pipeline that is in a similar situation right now. There has been a new pipeline proposed there as well that is supported by the oil companies but many citizens and environmental groups are resisting it. "British Columbia nod to pipeline expansion." Oil & Gas News, January 16, 2017. Global Reference on the Environment, Energy, and Natural Resources (accessed May 7, 2017). http://find.galegroup.com/grnr/infomark.do?&source=gale&idigest=6f8f4a3faafd67e66fa023866730b0a1&prodId=GRNR&userGroupName=bucknell_it&tabID=T004&docId=A477938750&type=retrieve&PDFRange=%5B%5D&contentSet=IAC-Documents&version=1.0. "Kinder Morgan - EHS - Pipeline Safety." HOUWWWP1. Accessed May 07, 2017. http://www.kindermorgan.com/pages/ehs/pipeline_safety/default.aspx.

    1. Alyeska oil pipeline
      The oil discovered in the Prudhoe Bay oil field in the North Slope region of Alaska in 1968 was the “largest oil field discovered in North America.” In 1969, a Trans-Alaska pipeline to transport oil from the North Slope was proposed by the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System. The Trans-Alaska Pipeline System was comprised of three major oil corporations. Despite many other ideas and suggestions to transport this oil, the oil industry reached a consensus in favor of the pipeline proposal of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (Busenberg, 2013). Construction of the Alyeska oil pipeline, also known as the Alaska pipeline or trans-Alaska pipeline, began in 1975. This pipeline was built by the Alyeska Pipeline Service Company, a group that was made up of seven different oil companies. In certain regions, the pipeline is buried underground, but where there is permafrost, the pipeline is constructed above the ground. The pipeline crosses over 800 river and streams and passes through three mountain ranges. The first oil was delivered from Prudhoe Bay to Valdez on June 20, 1977. This oil had to travel through the 789 mile long pipeline to reach its destination (Alaska Public Lands Information Centers, n.d.). See below for a link to “Pipeline! The story of the building of the trans-Alaska pipeline” video posted on YouTube by the Alaska National Parks service. 
      

      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WmO6loYsm4Q

      References

      Alaska Public Lands Information Centers. (n.d.). The Trans-Alaska Pipeline. Retrieved from Alaska Public Lands Information Centers: https://www.alaskacenters.gov/the-alyeska-pipeline.cfm

      Busenberg, G. J. (2013). The Trans-Alaska Pipeline System. In G. J. Busenburg, Oil and Wilderness in Alaska (pp. 11-43). Georgetown University Press.

    2. The Medvezhye pipeline

      The Medvezhye Pipeline is a pipeline built on the Medvezhye oil and gas field (Shabad). This naturally occurring gas field is located in Northern Siberia. Officials hoped the institution of the pipeline would provide industrial Russian communities with oil by the late 1970s. Siberia also signed contracts with Italy, France, and West Germany and agreed to provide natural gas in exchange for pipes. The pipeline was built in a sub-Arctic region with harsh weather and frozen ground and many worried that the pipeline would not be constructed according to schedule. The Medvezhye pipeline was constructed on warming, unstable permafrost. The pipeline was commissioned in 1972 and is Russia’s third most highly producing pipeline (Seligman). In 1977, a study was performed to measure pipe deformation due to warming permafrost conditions. No deformation was found due to the pipe’s thickness. As of 2011, the pipeline’s managers, Victoria Oil and Gas PLC, reported that the pipeline had 400 million barrels of oil in place (Victoria Oil and Gas). In continued monitoring and development of the pipeline, Victoria Oil and Gas also performed studies to determine possible new drilling and well sites, production infrastructure, and downstream hydrocarbon emissions effects. Victoria Oil and Gas also studied oil export from the pipeline to Siberia and other parts of Russia. Today, the pipeline is still a major source of oil and gas for Russia. A map of the Medvezhye oil and gas field can be found below. http://images.energy365dino.co.uk/standard/126082_7a87a50d3cd24d7da925.jpg

      References: Selgiman, Ben J. "Long-Term Variability of Pipeline±Permafrost Interactions in North-West Siberia." PERMAFROST AND PERIGLACIAL PROCESSES, 22nd ser., 11, no. 5 (2000). Accessed May 05, 2017.

      Shabad, Theodore. "Siberia Pipeline Crews Advance." The New York Times. September 21, 1971. Accessed May 06, 2017. http://www.nytimes.com/1971/09/21/archives/siberia-pipeline-crews-advance-western-europe-to-buy-gas-delays-are.html?_r=0.

      "Victoria Oil and Gas." West Medvezhye Operational Update | Victoria Oil and Gas. July 07, 2011. Accessed May 06, 2017. http://www.victoriaoilandgas.com/investors/news/west-medvezhye-operational-update.

      West Medvezhye and Surrounding Areas.

    3. trans-Alaska pipeline

      The Trans-Alaska Pipeline Project began construction on March 27, 1975. The pipeline was constructed in response to the discovery of oil under the Purdhoe Bay (Alaska Public Lands Information Centers). The project was controversial because environmentalists worried about earthquakes and the effects on elk migrations (Wells). The pipeline is almost 800 miles long and includes pumping stations that connected other pipelines. The pipeline was constructed by the Alyeska Pipeline Service Company, which was created by seven oil companies (Wells, Alaska Public Lands Information Centers). The pipeline is mostly below ground, except in areas of permafrost. The sections of pipe that were built above ground were built in a zigzag pattern to account for expansion due to temperature changes (Wells). In unseasonably warm areas, the pipeline is supported by two thicker “heat pipes.” The pipeline was completed on May 31, 1977 (Alaska Public Lands Information Centers). The pipeline first contained oil on June 20, 1977. The pipeline carries about 1.8 million barrels of oil per day. In March of 1989, an oil tanker leaked over 260,000 barrels of oil into the Prince William Sound. This was the second largest oil spill in the United States. The spill covered 1300 miles of land and 11,000 miles of ocean. Images of the pipeline can be seen below. http://aoghs.org/transportation/trans-alaska-pipeline/

      References:

      "Trans-Alaska Pipeline History." American Oil & Gas Historical Society. June 21, 2016. Accessed May 05, 2017. http://aoghs.org/transportation/trans-alaska-pipeline/.

      "The Trans-Alaska Pipeline." The Trans-Alaska Pipeline. Accessed May 05, 2017. https://www.alaskacenters.gov/the-alyeska-pipeline.cfm.

    4. Norman Wells

      Norman Wells is a small trading community located along the Mackenzie River in the Northwest Territories (Life in Norman Wells). Norman Wells was founded due to its natural resources. The oil seepages observed at the riverbank by Alexander Mackenzie were assumed to be oil spills; however, these oil deposits were an example of a non-renewable resource in Norman Wells. Reefs and sediments that once were in the ocean create oil, which seeps to the surface of riverbanks. Alexander Mackenzie first noticed the oil seepages in the 1700s, and three land claims were staked in 1914. The town of Norman Wells prospered after this discovery and Imperial Oil staked land claims in 1918 and drilled for oil. The oil production was small, but enough to supply local towns with oil. Today, Imperial Oil and the Canadian Government share ownership of the Norman Wells oil field and employ about 90 people from Norman Wells (Quenneville). In 1994, a Sahtu Land Claim Agreement was signed, giving the Hare, Sahtu Dene, Mountain Dene, and Metis ethnic groups ownership of some land parcels in Norman Wells (Life in Norman Wells). Today, Norman Wells contains two oil pipelines and is an area of commerce and tourism with a population of roughly 800 people. Norman Wells contains its own airstrip with flights that leave daily. Tourists visit Norman Wells to experience its diverse wildlife, including birds, moose, caribou, Dall’s sheep, grizzly bears, and a variety of fish. Images of Norman Wells can be found below: http://www.normanwells.com/lifestyle/gallery/canada-day-2010

      References: "Life in Norman Wells." Normanwells. 2010. Accessed May 03, 2017. http://www.normanwells.com/lifestyle/life-norman-wells.

      Quenneville, Guy. "Imperial Oil to suspend Norman Wells production due to continuing pipeline shutdown." CBCnews. January 26, 2017. Accessed May 03, 2017. http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/north/imperial-oil-norman-wells-suspend-production-pipeline-1.3954051.

  39. enst31501sp2017.courses.bucknell.edu enst31501sp2017.courses.bucknell.edu
    1. spills

      In 1989, a transport tanker ship called Exxon Valdez hit the shore and spilled over 250,000 barrels of crude oil, causing the worst-ever oil spill in Alaska. This resulted in the death of 5,000 otters, 300 harbor seals, 200,000 birds of nintey different species, and hundreds of fish and other animals. Additionally, it caused a dramatic demise in multiple plant and marine species and ecosystems. Cleanup efforts of the oil spill cost Exxon around $2 billion, which is a small price to pay for an event that altered an entire ecosystem for years to come. For something that is considered necessary for the United States oil supply and economy, the resulting consequences have the potential to obliterate the Alaskan environment and change the Arctic Ocean ecosystems forever. Major oil spills such as this are one of the major concerns for extracting oil in the ANWR.

      Environmental Issues: Essential Primary Sources. "DOI Trans-Alaska Pipeline Authorization Act." GREENR. http://find.galegroup.com/grnr/infomark.do?&source=gale&idigest=6f8f4a3faafd67e66fa023866730b0a1&prodId=GRNR&userGroupName=bucknell_it&tabID=T016&docId=CX3456400114&type=retrieve&contentSet=EBKS&version=1.0.

  40. Apr 2017
  41. enst31501sp2017.courses.bucknell.edu enst31501sp2017.courses.bucknell.edu
    1. no longer allowed

      Further reading on the updated technology and tactics used in modern day drilling, graphs and figures included.

      Pelley, Janet. "Will Drilling for Oil Disrupt the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge?" Environmental Science & Technology 35, no. 11 (June 1, 2001). Accessed March 26, 2017. doi:10.1021/es0123756. http://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdf/10.1021/es0123756

    2. William Cunningham,

      William Cunningham is an Emeritus Professor at the University of Minnesota where he taught for 36 years in the Departments of Botany and Genetics and Cell Biology as well as the Conservation Biology Program, the Institute for Social, Economic, and Ecological Sustainability, the Center for Environmental Learning and Leadership, and the McArthur Program in Global Change. He received his Ph.D. in Botany from the University of Texas in 1963 and spent two years at Purdue University as a postdoctoral fellow. At various times, he has been a visiting scholar in Sweden, Norway, Indonesia, and China, as well as several universities and research institutions in the United States. Dr. Cunningham has devoted himself to education and teaching development at the undergraduate level in biology. He began his educational career in structural biology but for the last 10-15 years has concentrated on environmental science, teaching courses such as Social Uses of Biology; Garbage, Government, and the Globe; Environmental Ethics; and Conservation History. Within the past four years, he has received both of the two highest teaching honors that the University of Minnesota bestows: The Distinguished Teaching Award and a $15,000 Amoco Alumni Award. He has served as a Faculty Mentor for younger faculty at the university, sharing the knowledge and teaching skills that he has gained during his distinguished career.

      Cunningham, William. "Arctic National Wildlife Refuge." Environmental Encyclopedia 1 (2011). Accessed March 26, 2017.

    3. economic opportunity

      This article claims that it would take several decades to extract the oil in the ANWR, where at its peak in 2025 would account for 3% of domestic oil consumption. The benefit of drilling in the ANWR would be to sell the oil for a total of ~$613 billion, which experts claim this number could dramatically increase. Kotchen and Burger argue that the profit could be used for funding for renewable energy technology, but also acknowledge the fact that to allow this drilling would just satisfy our addiction to oil. This provides a non-environmentalist perspective on the benefits of drilling in the ANWR.

      Kotchen, Matt J., and Nicolas Burger. "Oil and the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge." Resources for the Future, October 6, 2008. Accessed March 23, 2017. http://www.rff.org/blog/2008/oil-and-arctic-national-wildlife-refuge

    4. foreign oi

      This article considers other ongoing world events (specifically, the Gulf War) in order to pressure Congress’s pending approval of drilling in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. At this point in time, there had been a joint drilling executed by BP and Chevron, but the results were declared a corporate secret and were not released to policy makers, other oil companies, or the public. A major reason why the drilling was being pushed was to have a lesser reliance on foreign oil.

      Balzar, John. "Arctic Wildlife Refuge may be Casualty of Persian Gulf Crisis." Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File), Aug 26, 1990. Accessed March 25, 2017. https://search.proquest.com/docview/1461028582?accountid=9784

  42. Mar 2017
    1. Sachs Harbour

      Sachs Harbour is located in the Inuvik region of the Northwest Territories, Canada and is situated on the southwestern coast of Banks Island in the Inuvialuit Settlement Region. According to the 2011 census, the population was 112 people. The principle languages spoken in the town are Inuvialuktan and English. The economy is primarily based upon hunting and trapping, but tourism also plays a small role. Residents also engage in ice fishing- harvesting fish from the Amundsen Gulf and Beaufort Sea. Banks Island is ecologically significant for being home to the largest goose colony in North America and is home to three quarters of the world’s population of muskoxen. Barren-ground caribou and polar bears are also seen on the island. On April 26, 2006, the world’s first documented wild-born grizzly-polar bear hybrid was shot near the town. The town has a Visitor Reception Centre that presents the Aulavik National Park and Inuvialuit culture to visitors to the Banks island and serves as a center for community activities. The town is of historical significance for a number of ships sent out to the Arctic Bay by the British Admiralty to find the lost expedition of James Franklin that became trapped in the ice for three years and was abandoned by its crew. One ships primary investigator and captain was Robert McClure who was able to identify the fabled North West Passage- a waterway across the top of North America that would allow passage to Asia from Banks Island. Only few have made this passage since due to icy and dangerous waters, but as the earth warms there may be a day when this passage becomes common. Sachs Harbour is in the Arctic tundra climate zone, which is characterized by long and extremely cold winters. Since many of the activities of the residents in the community revolve aroundfishing hunting,and travel, many residents have considerable knowledge of weather conditions, permafrost, and erosion patterns. Because of climate changes in recent years, many local residents fear that their knowledge of weather patterns may not be as useful as the weather becomes harder to predict. Since the climate has been changing, the sea ice is breaking up earlier than usual taking seals farther south in the summer. Seals are a main food source for the town. Climate change is bringing many other changes to the island’s ecology as well; salmon appeared for the first time in nearby waters between 1999 and 2001, new species of birds are migrating- including robins and barn swallows, and more flies and mosquitos have been appearing. Additionally, there is estimated to be 4 to 12 billion barrels of commercially recoverable oil in the Beaufort Sea and between 13 and 63 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. As the climate continues to warm it will be easier to access these resources, which could potentially damage the ecology of the island if not managed properly.

      Citations Babaluk , John A., James D. Reist, James D. Johnson, and Lionel Johnson. " First Records of Sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka) and Pink Salmon (O. gorbuscha) from Banks Island and Other Records of Pacific Salmon in Northwest Territories, Canada." Http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca. June 2000. Accessed March 9, 2017. http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/arctic/Arctic53-2-161.pdf.

      Callow, Lin. "Oil and Gas Exploration & Development Activity Forecast." Http://www.beaufortrea.ca. March 2013. Accessed March 2017. http://www.beaufortrea.ca/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/NCR-5358624-v4-BREA_-_FINAL_UPDATE_-_EXPLORATION_AND_ACTIVITY_FORECAST-__MAY_2013.pdf.

      Canada, Government Of Canada Statistics. "Census Profile." Census Program. May 31, 2016. Accessed March 09, 2017. http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2011/dp-pd/prof/details/page.cfm?Lang=E&Geo1=CSD&Code1=6101041&Geo2=PR&Code2=61&Data=Count&SearchText=Sachs Harbour&SearchType=Begins&SearchPR=01&B1=All&GeoLevel=PR&GeoCode=6101041&TABID=1.

      "Observed Climate Change Impacts in Sachs Harbour, Canada." Observed Climate Change Impacts in Sachs Harbour, Canada. Accessed March 09, 2017. http://www.greenfacts.org/en/arctic-climate-change/toolboxes/observed-climate-change-impacts.htm.

    2. The importance of fuel spills should not be underestimated, particularly if the fuel gets into water.
      Oil spills are potentially catastrophic events for the local environment. Published in 1977, Mr. Berger would have recently seen Alaska’s decision to reverse its ruling on drilling in the Kachemak Bay after a relatively minor spill.1 Oil spills on land, such as those from a pipeline, can be tremendously damaging and kills all currently growing tissue.2 Across water, the potential for the spill to spread is greatly increased, and any damage is exacerbated by the Arctic climate, where its slow rate of degradation would allow it to remain for as long as 50 years.3 The spills are most dangerous on the surface, where they prove especially deadly to birds, and there is concern that a spill could quickly diffuse over a large area, increasing the radiation absorbed and greatly facilitating ice melt. Given the event of a catastrophic failure, the pipeline would have the potential to leak tens of thousands of barrels, not including smaller leaks and the time necessary to detect and repair them. Furthermore, attempts to prevent the spill from reaching the water using temperate containment techniques may be more damaging than helpful due to the use of heavy equipment and the risk this poses to the permafrost.4 In 1967, the Torrey Canyon Oil Spill illustrated the dangers posed by a spill. A supertanker ran aground off the coast of England, spilling between 857,600 and 872,300 barrels of oil, contaminating 300 miles of coastline and killing 25,000 birds as well as various seals and other marine life.5 Therefore, any spill is detrimental to the environment, and if it allowed to reach water, these effects will only be compounded.
      
      1. Panitch, Mark. "Kachemak Bay: Oil Spill Leads Alaska to Reverse Drilling OK." Science 193, no. 4248 (1976): 131. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1743047.
      2. Wein, Ross W., and L. C. Bliss. "Experimental Crude Oil Spills on Arctic Plant Communities." Journal of Applied Ecology 10, no. 3 (1973): 671-82. doi:10.2307/2401861.
      3. Campbell, W. J., and S. Martin. "Oil and Ice in the Arctic Ocean: Possible Large-Scale Interactions." Science 181, no. 4094 (1973): 56-58. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1735934.
      4. Shelton, R. G. J. "Effects of Oil and Oil Dispersants on