163 Matching Annotations
  1. May 2023
  2. Apr 2023
    1. Art is thought that produces a thing. Art is muscle memory that produces a thing. Art is a search that produces a thing. Art is a practice that produces a thing.Art is work that produces a thing.
    1. Informationsreicher Artikel des Guardian über eine neue Anlage von #ExxonMobil zum chemischen Recycling von Plastik im texanischen Baytown-Komplex. Viele Basis-Informationen zu dieser umweltschädlichen Technik und ihrer Verwendung durch die Ölindustrie, um von der wachsenden Produktion von Single Use-Plastik abzulenken. Anlagen zum chemischen Recycling werden vor allem in räumlicher Nähe von Communities, die bereits extrem und der Verschmutzung durch Plastik und Abgase leiden Chemisches Recycling gehört auch zu den Geschäftsfeldern der #OMV-Tochter #Borealis. https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2023/apr/10/exxon-advanced-recycling-plastic-environment

  3. Mar 2023
  4. Feb 2023
    1. Revenue among the giants leapt 16% in 2021, thanks in large part to escalating sales prices across all housing market segments caused by high demand and overall economic inflation.

      profits of construction builders is up

    2. Land, labor, and materials continue to be the biggest costs among Housing Giants, at the logical expense of sales and marketing investments. Despite cost increases, average net profit leapt to 9.1% in 2021 from 7.8% the year before.

      Evidence toward production costs

    1. What we ultimately should care about is being able to use our knowledge to produce something new, whatever that may be. To not merely reproduce you must understand the material. And understanding requires application, a hermeneutic principle that particularly Gadamer worked out extensively. If you really want to measure your level of understanding, you should try to apply or explain something to yourself or someone else.
  5. Dec 2022
    1. in food, what it means is local communities will start to grow their own food. So all the food you eat will be grown completely in say a 50 kilometer radius radius or 100 kilometer radius.

      !- Futures Thinking : Maslow's Hierarchy framing for Food - food production will be relocaized - most food produced within 50 km radius, 100 km maximum - as per commons cosmolocal production, knowledge can be shared between production centers for greater efficacy (Gien)

    2. what I'm proposing it will look like is you have local decision making. Regional sourcing of stuff, see everything that we're actually going to produce industrially is sourced from a radio, say four or 500 kilometers. So two or 300 miles, whatever that is. And on a global scale, we've got a global transfer of information.

      !- aligned to : cosmolocal production - Michaux is speaking exactly of cosmolocal production

    3. first thing's first is we reorder the vital industrial hubs. 00:38:13 Now yes, those industrial hubs will actually have to have decision makers what considers a vital hub. What's a vital activity? Then we need the people to actually operate those in industrial services. So you'll have a population inserted. Around that population, we have our food production and it all has to be local. So you have now a series of localized, decentralized networks that are actually, you'll have a 00:38:39 hub where everything balances, but in a local area.

      !- alignment : Michaux's vision of industrial transformation and many others working in the commons - relocalization, dense local circular economies, community owned for democratization of production - in addition, commons theory of cosmolocal production networks all these relocalized dense production hubs together for information sharing efficacy

  6. Oct 2022
  7. Aug 2022
  8. Jul 2022
    1. the question you were asking was what is mind or consciousness so here we're using the words synonymously um and from a buddhist perspective uh there are 01:11:50 six what we call primary minds and then there's a whole slew of secondary minds and some of the more common systems include 51 in the secondary minds now please understand that mind like 01:12:04 everything else that exists in the world doesn't exist permanently it exists there are a few exceptions okay but essentially everything that exists in the world um is not permanent therefore 01:12:18 it's changing moment to moment therefore everything exists as a continuum including mind so that means there'll be a moment of mind followed by a next moment of mind etc 01:12:31 and the next moment of mind is determined primarily but not solely by the previous moment of mind so from that we can extrapolate a continuum an infinite continuum and mind is an 01:12:43 infinite continuum from perspective of buddhism and that means that we've had that implies suggests rebirth and it suggests we've had ultimate we've had infinite rebirths there's been no beginning 01:12:56 and so this then comes up again with the notion of a beginning creator if you will a so-called you know god there are some some problems here to resolve this um 01:13:07 and so mind is a continuum it's infinite now each moment of mind is made up of a primary mind and a constellation of secondary minds these six primary or the five as you read from nagarjuna the five 01:13:22 sensory minds of seeing hearing smelling tasting touching tactile right these five plus what's sometimes called the mental consciousness and that has live different levels of subtlety on the 01:13:34 grossest level is thinking if we go a little bit deeper a little bit more so little subtler we have dream mind which seems like these senses are active but actually 01:13:46 when we're sleeping the senses are inactive so it's just something coming from our sixth or mental consciousness it seems like the senses are active in dream mind that dream mind is a little more subtle than a wake mind awake 01:13:59 thinking mind and then if we go more subtle we're talking now again about awake mind we we talk about intuition when we're in intuition we're not thinking right it's a non-conceptual 01:14:11 mind uh in that sense and deeper yet our minds we call non-conceptual and non-dual where there's no awareness of a subject or an object so subject object non-duality so 01:14:25 that's kind of the rough sort of you know lay of the land

      Barry provides a brief summary of what the word "mind" means from a Buddhist philosophy perspective and says that there are six primary minds and 51 secondary minds.

      The 6 primary minds are the 5 senses plus mental consciousness, which itself consists of the coarse thinking (conceptual) mind, the intuitive mind (these two could be roughly mapped to Daniel Kahnaman's fast and slow system respectively), as well as the dreaming mind.

      Barry also conveys an interpretation of reincarnation based on the concept that the mind is never the same from one moment to the next, but is rather an ever changing continuum. The current experience of mind is GENERALLY most strongly influenced by the previous moments but also influenced by temporally distant memories. This above interpretation of reincarnation makes sense, as the consciousness is born anew in every moment. It is also aligned to the nature of the Indyweb interpersonal computing ecosystem, in which access to one's own private data store, the so-called Indyhub, allows one to experience the flow of consciousness by seeing how one's digital experience, which is quite significant today, affects learning on a moment to moment basis. In other words, we can see, on a granular level, how one idea, feeling or experience influences another idea, experience or feeling.

    1. i think there's a lot of latent potential in this coordination mechanisms layer um especially i think there's a bunch of really good ideas around um things like futarki and other struck 00:17:59 i'm not necessarily sure that that particular construction will work but i think we need to a lot of experiments with those kinds of governance structures to see if there could be ways of governing systems algorithmically 00:18:11 and and with a way of aggregating a lot of our perspectives and thoughts and values um in a much more systematic way than sort of like uh very brittle representative democracy that like doesn't really scale to to 00:18:23 millions of people um and i think you know in terms of a lot of the mechanisms and structures that that we want to build um there's a lot more theory that is needed there's a lot more implementations that 00:18:35 are needed there's a lot more rigorous study and assessment of of performance and so on that is needed so um really encourage you to kind of pick out any of these

      Indyweb could be a good option for coordination layer.

    2. i really think this last one the coordination systems how do you get large groups of people to organize much better 00:16:44 that holds some of the most promise

      Indyweb / SRG / Global Boundaries combination for the large scale transformation and coordination framework.

    1. i framed this this r d program that is it's conceptual at the 00:07:18 time it's not funded yet you know i'm hoping that we can secure funds but i frame it as a partnership between this global science community and local communities 00:07:29 so it's very so dialogue with the public and within the science community and among interested stakeholders is extremely important in this um i i i 00:07:42 you know to me science has a role in in such a r d program because science is really the you know the where we would turn to answer some really difficult questions like if you wanted to build a simulation 00:07:56 model of how environmental or environmental or economic uh outcomes might be given you know a b c and d well then you know that's a that's a technical those are technical questions 00:08:08 um if you're if you're asking how can we measure how can what kind of metrics are reasonable for environmental and social well-being 00:08:23 those are largely scientific questions you know the math can be complicated for example but the questions of you know how do what do we want what do people want 00:08:36 how how how do they want their light you know how do they want to live their lives in in society those are questions for you know for the public and for communities especially 00:08:49 um i i the the intention of the r d program is not to develop one size fits all solution you know to trial it in a local community and then spread it everywhere that's not at all 00:09:02 the idea the idea is that this is an ongoing learning process a true partnership between uh local communities and the science and the science community and there would be just a million sorts 00:09:15 of you know experiments that one might might might run uh to to improve the kinds of societal systems that we have 00:09:27 or that were you know that we're proposing uh develop a new system try it out see how it works gather data you know do another experiment uh all within the partnership of at with 00:09:39 local communities at the local community level i think maybe you know i since i know this stuff

      This project is a collaboration between the global scientific community and local communities to improve societal systems. It's not a one-size-fits-all process, but many different experiments.

      Dialogue is a critical component of this process.

      Tipping Point Festival and SRG strategy is well aligned with Science-driven societal transformation ethos: second order science combined with local communities as the building block of civilization AND cosmolocal networking (https://clreader.net) via Indyweb interpersonal computing.

    2. the two questions that we hopefully would uh try to answer with with this r d program is and and one of this i already 00:56:53 mentioned but out of all conceivable designs for societal systems so so so this isn't about capitalism versus socialism or something like that there's like i would think there's an unlimited 00:57:05 potential we're creative we're creative people there would be a million varieties of of societal systems and integrated societal systems that we might come up with 00:57:17 and some of those probably would work very well and some of them probably would work very poorly um so among those what what might be among the best and not the the single best that's not the purpose either it's not just to find one thing that works is 00:57:30 to find like a you know more of a a variety a process of things a mix mishmash of things that community the communities can choose to implement that you know 00:57:43 works well for them and that suits them and that works well for their neighbors and works well forever it works well for the whole really

      Two questions to answer:

      1. out of all the conceivable societal systems possible, which are suited to a community? This is not one size fits all.

      This requires careful consideration. There cannot be complete autonomy, as lack of standards will make things very challenging for any inter-community cooperation.

      Cosmolocal framework (https://clreader.net) as well as Indyweb Interpersonal computing could mediate discussion between different community nodes and emerge common ground

    3. maybe i should say having a having a checkoff list like you know there should be this level of education there should be this level of 00:52:40 [Music] health people should live this long and so we have our fitness and we're gonna uh we've decided in advance even before the system is running we've 00:52:53 now have a list of things we're gonna check off we're gonna score each one we're gonna come up with some kind of integrated fitness score from that and that's how we're going to move forward we're always going to refer to this fit this you know this fitness model and 00:53:07 the fitness vector and these and these kind of hard-coded values for what's good and what's bad so so in the world of artificial intelligence and in the world of active inference you know that 00:53:19 really doesn't go very far that doesn't work that doesn't work very well because what happens is we didn't you didn't think ahead you like you some something happens tomorrow and whoever came up with that list of 00:53:32 uh you know those values or that model didn't really include the fact that maybe spaceships from mars were gonna land and cause a new disruption and then we have to deal with that problem now too before we deal with 00:53:45 anything else so that wasn't in the you know that wasn't in the plan and now what do we do you know so there's right so so this is you know this is really where active inference plays into 00:53:58 that's one way that active inference plays into this is how do you evaluate and act in a world that is full of uncertainties right 00:54:10 the unknown unknown the unknown unknown is the temperature dynamics but you know it's going to be temperature and so how can you plan for what you know it will be in a distributional sense 00:54:23 right and make stabilization on that awesome right right so so yeah so you so you realize you know already you realize maybe that this is not a proposal to build a say like a model of uh of uh you know 00:54:37 like how society makes decisions you know that's that's not that's not it it is what is the process by which society cognates 00:54:50 and you know what kind of what kind of infrastructure and tools and and and you know mechanics can we use that would facilitate that but it's not to build a thing 00:55:01 it's to build it's to realize that we are in we are engaged moment to moment in a cognitive process society as individuals are and how can we 00:55:14 do that together as a society so that we're you know we we balance exploration with exploitation um you know so that we we learn about our environment we grow we learn 00:55:27 we explore we we make good decisions based on available evidence and based on knowledge based on cultural knowledge you know like all those things right so so this is a this is 00:55:39 the the the you know i think organisms are a process they're not a thing anyway right cognition is a process and societal decision making is a process 00:55:54 and really society is a process you know there's there's not too many things in this world there's mostly processes living processes intelligent processes so that's that's the that's the hope 00:56:05 that's where this is trying to go is to like with that in mind with that with that broad understanding or broad concept in mind how do we uh how do we 00:56:16 think about you know how we how we come together as society how we cooperate how we coordinate how we make decisions how we how we learn how we explore what do we what do we monitor what kind 00:56:29 of information do we seek you know what kind of experiments do we do all that kind of stuff great

      Third Proposition:

      The superorganism's efforts to learn, decide and adapt can be interpreted as being driven by its intrinsic pupose.

      This is aligned to the Indyweb philosophy of a system architecture that promotes conversation, knowledge at the edge and high efficacy collective learning.

      Living beings,and groups of living beings are processes and not (static) things - a perspective aligned with SRG and Indyweb. The process quality of being a living human INTERbeing quickly becomes apparent after one starts using the Interpersonal Indyweb computing ecosystem. In particular, the Indyhub allows the Indyvidual to consolidate all their digital and virtual interactions in one place, which allows for the first time, the ability to witness one's own individual learning on a granular level and literally see the process of your own individual learning in realtime.

  9. Jun 2022
    1. automate the repetitive parts of cooking so they can focuscompletely on the creative parts.

      The creative parts of cooking are all done way before setting out the mise en place. Restaurant cooking is all about process for speed grinding it out. It's about efficiency. Few line cooks or chefs in a professional kitchen are exercising any sort of creativity, it's nearly 100% skill and production in the most repetitive way.

      Anyone who tells you different is selling you something.

    1. Sven Beckert’s research on the “cotton empire” has also shown thecrucial importance of slave labor in the extraction of cotton when theBritish and Europeans seized control over worldwide textile pro-duction between 1750 and 1860.
  10. May 2022
    1. The third example involves local manufacture and supply. The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has highlighted the risks associated with reliance on long globalized supply chains, which are energy- and resource-intensive and therefore help power the hyperthreat. Increasing local manufacturing and supply capacities helps deflate the hyperthreat and reduces risks associated with stockouts of critical items. Circular economies, which incorporate closed-loop manufacturing and recycling systems, can now be viewed as critical to achieving planetary security.

      cosmolocal production (design global, manufacture local or what's light is shared, what's heavy is produced) can also help alleviate hyperthreat supply chain vulnerabilities, democratize production and increase local wealth at the same time (Ramos, Edes, Bauwens & Wong, 2021)

  11. Apr 2022
  12. Mar 2022
    1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lnFHwl2Dbr0

      • System should be as frictionless as possible.
      • Capture in one location. (She says as few as possible, but this is too wishy-washy: she's got a "Readwise page" and a "Links page".)
      • There needs to be levels of processing.
        • Split out based on future value.
      • Everything has resources. How to capture metadata and be able to cite it?

      Everything needs to have a "Why"? What is the context for capturing? What is the reason? How will it be used in the future? Why was it interesting?

      She also describes how she collects notes in various formats (books, online articles, Kindle, Twitter, etc.) It primarily involves using Notion along with a variety of other sub-applications including Instapaper for sharing to Notion.

      Dramatically missing from this presentation is the answer to the question "why" collect all this stuff? How is she using it in the future? What is the overall value? She touches on writing the why for herself as she's taking notes, but I get the impression that she's not actively practicing what she preaches, and I suspect that many don't. This leaves me with the impression that she's collecting with no end goal, which for many may be fine.

      She's got a gaping hole in the processing section which likely needs a video unto itself and which would probably go a long way toward answer the "why" question above.

      In looking at her other videos, I see she's using the phrase "second brain" and words like productivity. There seems to be a high level of disconnect between those using "second brain" and the "why do this?" question other than the simple idea of "productivity" which seems to be a false trap that gets people into the mindset of being a collector for collections' sake.

      Almost hilariously she's got videos with titles like: - "I'm a productivity guru and I hate it." - "Productivity YouTube is brainwashing you"

      She's titled the final portion of the video "Outro" which is actually displayed on the video UI. This might be useful for production purposes but should be changed or omitted for actual consumption.

      The title "How I Remember Everything I Read" is pure clickbait here. It's more aptly titled, "How I Take and Save Notes". Where's the how I use this after? or how I review over it all to actually remember it/memorize it? There's nothing here to support this end of things which is the promise given in the title.

  13. Feb 2022
    1. I learned from using those Macs early on that form is always malleable. This became even more apparent when the web came into the picture. Think about it: there’s no way to make a web page or a blog that is not an act of playing with its form at the same time as you're creating its content. So it just seemed natural: the world was always telling me that you worked on those two things – the container and its contents – together.

      There is a generation of people who grew up at the edge of the creation of computers and the web where they were simultaneously designing both the container and its contents at the same time. People before and after this typically worked on one or the other and most often on the contents themselves without access to the containers.

  14. Jan 2022
  15. Dec 2021
    1. Production-grade tools are tools that are battle-tested to be secure, reliable, intuitive, and polished enough to be load-bearing components of real-world workflows.

      likely attested elsewhere, but he credits https://www.inkandswitch.com/muse/

  16. Nov 2021
    1. Both dematerialization of production and immaterialization of consumption are important for a transition towards policy goals such as sustainable development, circular economy, and climate change mitigation and adaptation. However, observations of dematerialization or immaterialization do not necessarily ensure that the total use of natural resources has decreased. If economic growth is faster than dematerialization or immaterialization, its increasing effect can override the decreasing effects of dematerialization and immaterialization on the total use of natural resources. In the ASA approach, the effect of economic growth is called the gross rebound effect. If the gross rebound effect exceeds the effect of dematerialization or immaterialization, the total use of material resources and related environmental impact still increases.

      This is very salient to properly characterizing transition in the right direction.

  17. Oct 2021
  18. Sep 2021
  19. Aug 2021
  20. Jul 2021
    1. It’s fun but when would we ever use things like this in actual code?When it’s well tested, commented, documented, and becomes an understood idiom of your code base.We focus so much on black magic and avoiding it that we rarely have a chance to enjoy any of the benefits. When used responsibly and when necessary, it gives a lot of power and expressiveness.
    1. reduce the production time

      Promotes economies of scale- cost advantage due to the scale of operation. As the cost per unit of output decreasing it causes the scale to increase.

  21. Jun 2021
  22. May 2021
    1. Substack insists that advances are determined by “business decisions, not editorial ones”. Yet it offers writers mentoring and legal advice, and will soon provide editing services.

      Some evidence of Substack acting along the lines of agent, production company, and studio. Then taking a slice of the overall pie.

      By having the breadth of the space they're able to see who to invest in over time, much the same way that Amazon can put smaller companies out of business by knocking off big sales items.

  23. Apr 2021
  24. Mar 2021
    1. Gita Gopinath. (2021, March 26). Here is a snapshot of the largest producers of vaccines. Much more supply is in the pipeline but all countries will need to share. It is essential to vaccinate the most vulnerable in the world now for the benefit of everyone. The pandemic is not over until it is over everywhere https://t.co/udBMkw6Pnl [Tweet]. @GitaGopinath. https://twitter.com/GitaGopinath/status/1375557532224225282

    1. Sentry supports un-minifying JavaScript via Source Maps. This lets you view source code context obtained from stack traces in their original untransformed form, which is particularly useful for debugging minified code (e.g. UglifyJS), or transpiled code from a higher-level language (e.g. TypeScript, ES6).
  25. Feb 2021
  26. Dec 2020
  27. Nov 2020
    1. The following options are ideal for development:
    2. Some of these values are suited for development and some for production. For development you typically want fast Source Maps at the cost of bundle size, but for production you want separate Source Maps that are accurate and support minimizing.
  28. Sep 2020
    1. dependencies are the packages your project depends on. devDependencies are the packages that are needed during the development phase. Say a testing framework like Jest or other utilities like Babel or ESLint.
  29. Aug 2020
  30. Jul 2020
  31. Jun 2020
  32. May 2020
  33. Apr 2020
    1. ``Debugging is parallelizable''. Although debugging requires debuggers to communicate with some coordinating developer, it doesn't require significant coordination between debuggers. Thus it doesn't fall prey to the same quadratic complexity and management costs that make adding developers problematic.

      contrast this to physical manufacturing: Gereffi's typology of manufacturing Manufacturing today is rarely evolved to the modular stage for complex projects (such as code), and yet it proceeds across oceans, machinery, and---more frequently---across languages. Programming standardizes the languages of production while allowing the languages of collaboration to be multiple. These multiples are the parallel clusters around the world hacking away at their own thing. They are friends, they are scientists, they are entrepreneurs, they are all of the above.

  34. Sep 2019
    1. But sustained Saudi outage of several million daily barrels would rattle markets, because of the lack of other players big enough to step in and provide enough supply to cover the shortfall longer term. Even if Saudi officials were successful in restoring all or most of the lost production, the attack demonstrates a new vulnerability to supply lines across the oil-rich Gulf. Tankers have been paying sharply higher insurance premiums, while shipping rates have soared in the region after a series of maritime attacks on oil-laden vessels, which the U.S. has blamed on Iran.
  35. Aug 2019
  36. Jan 2019
    1. In the context of disaster, social media and other ICTare enablingthe manifestation of a “knowledge commons” [11], a shared information space for victims, onlookers, and the convergent digital volunt

      Cites Elinor Ostrom's work on collective action and commons

      Evokes Benkler et al's work on peer production and commons.

  37. Dec 2018
    1. The norms for using a CSCW system are often actively negotiatedamong users.

      Community norms are well-discussed in the crowdsourcing and peer production literature.

      See: Benkler, Mako and Kittur, Kraut, et al

  38. Nov 2018
    1. At a time of once-in-a-generation reform to healthcare in this country, the leaders of HM can’t afford to rest on their laurels, says Dr. Goldman. Three years ago, he wrote a paper for the Journal of Hospital Medicine titled “An Intellectual Agenda for Hospitalists.” In short, Dr. Goldman would like to see hospitalists move more into advancing science themselves rather than implementing the scientific discoveries of others. He cautions anyone against taking that as criticism of the field. “If hospitalists are going to be the people who implement what other people have found, they run the risk of being the ones who make sure everybody gets perioperative beta-blockers even if they don’t really work,” he says. “If you want to take it to the illogical extreme, you could have people who were experts in how most efficiently to do bloodletting. “The future for hospitalists, if they’re going to get to the next level—I think they can and will—is that they have to be in the discovery zone as well as the implementation zone.” Dr. Wachter says it’s about staying ahead of the curve. For 20 years, the field has been on the cutting edge of how hospitals treat patients. To grow even more, it will be crucial to keep that focus.

      Hospitalists can learn these skills through residency and fellowship training. In addition, through mentorship models that create evergrowing

  39. Aug 2018
    1. A related series of studies have sought to unpack the dynamics of collabo-ration and to understand which features of peer productions support the cre-ation of higher quality content. This topic has been studied especially closelyin the case of Wikipedia, where particular organizational attributes, routines,norms, and technical features impact the quality of individual contributionsas well as the final, collaborative product.

      Benkler provides examples of studies that examined quality of content as a function of community norms, participant motives, and newbie abuse by experienced editors.

      Has Wikipedia learned anything from these studies? Have they adopted any recommended strategies for improvement? What are the design implications for addressing these issues.

      More here from INFO 5501 reading responses:


    2. A more fruitfulapproach considers variation in peer production success to understand whenand where it works better and worse.

      Benkler's examples of quality studies of large peer groups seems focused on community evaluation of the output rather than what constitutes a high-performing community (process) or a quality values (norms).

      Note: He cover process and norms several paragraphs later.

    3. Just as peer produced goods vary in their nature and form, there is alsoenormous variation between and within projects in terms of the dimensionsalong which quality might be evaluated. In the case of Wikipedia, scholarshave assessed the encyclopedia in terms of factual accuracy, scope of coverage,political bias, expert evaluation, and peer evaluation – often drawing differentconclusions about the quality of Wikipedia or particular articles.

      The quality of Wikipedia articles can vary considerably. Studies point to uneven socioeconomic/cultural/gender/language representation with the ranks of editors.

      The consensus view is that Wikipedia topics are driven by editor interests which results in variations in coverage.

    4. Although this hasconstituted an inconvenient fact in peer production practice, it also reflects animportant opportunity for future research. By focusing only on the projectsthat successfully mobilize contributors, researchers interested inwhenpeerproduction occurs or the reasonswhyit succeeds at producing high qualityoutputs have systematically selected on their dependent variables. An impor-tant direction for peer production research will be to study these failures.

      Failed peer production projects offer potentially interesting insights and should be studied.

    5. Infollowing these three paths, scholars have begun to consider variation withinpeer production projects to understand when and why peer production leadsto different kinds of high quality outputs

      Recent quality studies have explored projects that: • have not attracted sufficiently large communities to wash out bias/inaccuracies, • large communities that have not functioned to create quality information, • different measures/definitions of quality

    6. Both for-profit andnon-profit organizations that have incorporated peer production models havethrived in the networked environment, often overcoming competition frommore traditional, market- and firm-based models.

      But is this a matter of quality or satisficing a need with a free, easily accessible public platform?

    7. Recent work hasbegun to probe more deeply into different dimensions along which qualitycan be conceptualized and measured. This new scholarship has given rise toa more nuanced understanding of the different mechanisms through whichhigh quality resources arise, and founder, in peer production.

      Benkler notes that output "quality" was the focus of early research and has evolved to exploring how it is "conceptualized and measured." Defining and understanding information quality is also connected to my crowdsourcing work.

      However, I'm curious if quality studies also look at the process, in addition to the output.

    8. Peer production successfully elicits contributions from diverse individu-als with diverse motivations – a quality that continues to distinguish it fromsimilar forms of collective intelligence

      Benkler makes a really bold statement here about how peer production differs from collective intelligence. Not sure I buy this argument.

      Brabner on crowdsourcing:

    9. Resolving the tensions between different motivations and incentives presentsa design challenge for peer production systems and other collective intelli-gence platforms. The complex interdependence of motivations, incentive sys-tems, and the social behaviors that distinct system designs elicit has led Krautand Resnick (2012) to call for evidence-based social design and Benkler (2009,2011) for cooperative human system design.

      Benkler cites research where incentives clash re: "material and prosocial rewards". Also, motivations can be temporally-based which demands flexibility in the incentive system as participants' reasons to contribute change and habits/practices/norms become entrenched.

    10. Evidence from this newer body of research shows that motivations are di-versewithincontributors and that different contributors have different mixesof motivations.

      Because motives are diverse and often entangled between intrinsic and extrinsic motives, as well as within/between different groups of participants, designing incentive systems is tricky. Recent research has found that impacts/effects of one type of incentive can't be separated from impacts/effects on other motivational drivers.

    11. The most important insight provided by some of this newer workis that contributors act for different reasons, and that theories based on a sin-gle uniform motivational model are likely to mischaracterize the motivationaldynamics.

      Field and lab experiments have found that motives are not uniform, are complex, vary due to contextual factors, involve social signaling, and have some temporal qualities.

    12. In particular, these neweraccounts have focused on social status, peer effects, prosocial altruism, groupidentification, and related social psychological dimensions of group behavior

      Again, tracking with organizational studies, intrinsic and extrinsic social psychological characteristics have been the focus of more recent work exploring motivations.

      See: https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/1H0_DTmOspYZ3EwDJGVkBU2RaFeiibr6w?ogsrc=32

    13. hat said, a growing number of stud-ies also suggest that these motives interact with each other in unpredictableways and, as a result, are vulnerable to “crowding out” when the introduc-tion of extrinsic incentives undermines intrinsic motivation

      As in the organizational studies of peer production, motivation studies have been conducted increasingly through ethnographic observational and field studies.

      Benkler notes that the varied rationales and patterns for participating in peer production are not singular, and "interact with each other in unpredictable ways."

      Intrinsic motivations (internal rewards) tend to give way to extrinsic motivations (external rewards or consequence avoidance)

    14. Other foundational research on motivation in peer production by Lernerand Schankerman (2010) and others has explored why organizations, firmsand governments, rather than individual users, choose to participate in opensource software.

      More recent motivational studies have focused on organizations' motives for engaging in FLOSS projects as a means to innovate, build knowledge/learning capacity, diversify sources and collaborate.

    15. Despite their differences in emphasis,scope, and genre, all of these surveys support the claim that motivations inpeer production are diverse and heterogeneous.

      Survey studies are widely used in peer production research.

      Observational/ethnographic have also been used to study participants. Results also reflected that motives were varied but also seem to indicate that participants self-selected their projects, collaborators, and specific production roles.

    16. Frequently cited motivations in foundational work by theseauthors, von Hippel and von Krogh (2003), von Krogh (2003), and others in-cluded: the use value of the software to the contributing developer; the hedo-nic pleasure of building software; the increased human capital, reputation,or employment prospects; and social status within a community of peers.Other early accounts analyzing examples of peer production beyond FLOSSsuggested additional motivations. For example, Kollock (1999) emphasizedreciprocity, reputation, a sense of efficacy, and collective identity as salientsocial psychological drivers of contribution to online communities and fo-rums.

      Per Benkler, social psychology constructs (individual behavior, feelings, and thoughts within a social context) offer better descriptions for understanding peer production motivations than economic theory.

      Cited studies in this passage are from:

      CSCW (Beenen, HICSS (Forte and Bruckman), ACM (Nov) GROUP (Panciera) Psychology (Rafarli and Ariel) Social Psychology (Cheshire) CMC (Cheshire and Antin) Law (Benkler) Open Source (Coleman and Hill) MIS (von Krogh et al)

    17. A second quality of peer production that challenged conventional economictheories of motivation and cooperation was the absence of clear extrinsic in-centives like monetary rewards. Traditional economic explanations of behav-ior rely on the assumption of a fundamentally self-interested actor mobilizedthrough financial or other incentives. In seeking to explain how peer produc-tion projects attract highly skilled contributors without money, much of theliterature on peer production has focused on questions of participant moti-vation.

      Peer production contrasts with other forms of labor in its varied non-monetary/economic incentives. Early research on participant motives was grounded in longstanding economic theory/frameworks about self-interested actors.

      The economic approach makes sense, however. Without prior work in peer production, attempting to apply/extend other labor frameworks would be an appropriate evaluation technique.

    18. A newer wave of work has stepped back from this approachand sought to explain how multiple motivational “vectors” figure in the cre-ation of common pool resources online – an approach that underscores a coreadvantage of peer production in its capacity to enable action without requir-ing translation into a system of formalized, extrinsic, carrots and sticks.

      Recent studies of motivation to participate in peer production consider a broader range of decentralized incentives.

      See Kraut et al (2012): http://wendynorris.com/kraut-et-al-2012-building-successful-online-communities-evidence-based-social-design/

    19. Future workcan also begin to address questions of whether, how, and why peer produc-tion systems have transformed some existing organizational fields more pro-foundly than others. An empirically-informed understanding of when andwhere organizational practices drawn from peer production provide efficientand equitable means to produce, disseminate, and access information can pro-vide social impact beyond the insights available through the study of any in-dividual community

      Future directions, suggested by Benkler.

    20. By structuring design changes as exper-iments, these studies make credible causal claims about the relationship oforganizational structure and project outcomes that previous work struggledto establish. By intervening in real communities, these efforts achieve a levelof external validity that lab-based experiments cannot

      The paper suggests that field experiments and intervention studies could offer new insights.

    21. Similar cross-organization studies in other areas of peer production, orstudies comparing across differenttypesof peer production, have remainedchallenging and rare. One difficulty with comparative work across organiza-tions, in general, is designing research capable of supporting inference intothe causes of organizational success and failure

      Benkler also points to a lack of "publicly-available large-scale comparative datasets for types of peer production projects outside of FLOSS" for a reason few comparative studies have been attempted.

    22. Although some of the earliest theories of the organization of peer pro-duction celebrated the phenomena as non-hierarchical, more recent work hasquestioned both the putative lack of hierarchy and its purported benefits (e.g.,Kreiss et al., 2011).

      Later foundational work focused on hierarchies within the various community structures — in contrast to the early perception that peer production was non-hierarchical/anarchistic.

      Benkler suggests that peer production uses a different form of governance and a lighter-weight hierarchical structure than other types of organizations -- not that these groups are anti-hierarchical.

      Cites Keegan's work on gate-keeping in peer production.

    23. More recent work on organizational aspects of peer production has begunto question the “stylized facts” that prevailed in earlier research.

      The second wave of peer production research includes exploration of community attributes and the work they produce, comparative analysis, and theoretical articulations.

    24. This research built on earlier work showing that contrib-utors to bulletin boards, newsgroups, forums, and related systems adopteddurable “social roles” through their patterns of contribution (e.g., Fisher et al.,2006) – an approach that was subsequently applied to Wikipedia by Welseret al. (2011) and McDonald et al. (2011)

      Curious why Benkler didn't cite Q&As and group blogs as peer production cases, e.g., Metafilter, DailyKos, etc., which operate quite differently than the examples listed here.

    25. A large body of descriptive work has also sought to characterize organi-zational dimensions of Wikipedia and the practices of its contributors.

      The cited Wikipedia literature intersect a number of focus areas including qualitative studies od participation, production process, governance, onboarding and socializing activities, leadership and quantitative/inductive studies of the organization.

      Again, is the number and depth of citations here simply a result of Benkler's interest/knowledge area? Or is there something fundamentally different between FLOSS and Wikipedia?