184 Matching Annotations
  1. Apr 2024
    1. In Grants Pass v. Johnson, the Supreme Court will decide whether it constitutes cruel and unusual punishment to fine, ticket, or jail someone for sleeping outside on public property if they have nowhere else to go. A ruling in favor of the plaintiffs would make it easier for communities to clear out homeless people’s tent encampments, even if no available housing or shelter exists.
  2. Feb 2024
    1. Property Management

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  3. Nov 2023
    1. hat that's going to mean is that a lot of the things um that again that this wealthy say onethird of our society has normalized will have to change the size of our houses 00:12:01 we shouldn't be building really huge houses anymore I would also go further and say if we are really serious about climate change we need to think about the very large properties that we have which there are many of in our society 00:12:12 that need to be divided to make good quality and reasonable sized houses for say three or four families rather than just one family no more second homes and where second homes are in areas where other 00:12:25 people need to live they are no longer allowed to exist so no more second homes
    1. Locke even grants absolute power to the master over them

      slaves seen as a necessary and embedded part of European life

    2. He argued against hereditary servitude, but the laws governing slavery in the New World allowed for it.
    3. t mentions that Locke strongly opposes slavery, he was involved in forming a colony where owning slaves was allowed.

      hypocritical, and contradiction

    4. ut certain groups like the poor, non-Europeans, and the physically and mentally disabled may lack the conditions to develop rationality.
    5. rationality in liberal theory and how it can create hierarchies


    6. This portrayal made them enemies of mankind and justified wars against them.
    7. He argued that colonization of America provided a solution to this problem, as it was seen as "free" land available for European settlers.

      idea that this is free to use as not being used for the proper purpose?

    8. xcludes women from the political sphere and confines them to the private sphere.
    9. division between the private and political spheres in liberalism, arguing that it allows for hierarchies and domination to go unregulated.

      but the gender inequality isn't based upon property so could be changed without impacting the foundation of the theory

    10. property means that the interests of servants and other propertyless individuals may not be represented in the rules of the contract.


    11. t there is a hierarchical order where some people become property owners while others must work for them.


    12. the laws of nature, which forbid us from harming others or their property, provide a form of order in the state of nature.

      property is accepted into normal life, compared to life

    13. It is important to note that Locke's theory only included certain individuals, propertied European men
    14. colonization in America was important for Locke's conceptualization of the state of nature and his defense of enclosure. Indigenous Americans were portrayed as hunter-gatherers, and only enclosed lands were seen as producing value.
  4. Sep 2023
  5. Aug 2023
    1. Cuthbertson, Anthony. “Musician Uses Algorithm to Generate Every Possible Melody to Prevent Copyright Lawsuits.” The Independent, February 28, 2020, sec. Tech. https://www.independent.co.uk/tech/music-copyright-algorithm-lawsuit-damien-riehl-a9364536.html.

    2. the number of possible melodies is finite and therefore liable to patterns being repeated unintentionally.
    3. Working with programmer Noah Rubin, Damien Riehl built software capable of generating 300,000 melodies each second, creating a catalogue of 68 billion 8-note melodies.
    4. At what point do we have the computing power to create the machine of "Shakespearean monkeys at typewriters" that generates all available combinations of text to end copyright of text? Compare with Melody/Music: https://www.independent.co.uk/tech/music-cop

    1. Oliar, Dotan; Sprigman, Christopher (2008). "There's No Free Laugh (Anymore): The Emergence of Intellectual Property Norms and the Transformation of Stand-Up Comedy". Virginia Law Review. 94 (8): 1848. JSTOR 25470605. Retrieved September 16, 2020. There is also evidence in the [Diller archive…at the Smithsonian in Washington, D.C.] file suggesting that Diller appropriated from other sources [apart from self-creation or using her writing team], including newspaper comic strips and comedy books. For example, a number of Diller's jokes about her dysfunctional marriage to her fictional husband 'Fang' appear to have been inspired by a comic strip, 'The Lockhorns,' that Diller followed obsessively over the course of nearly a decade. The Diller joke files contain hundreds of 'Lockhorns' panels cut out of newspapers and mounted on index cards.
  6. Jun 2023
    1. TypeScript offers special syntax for turning a constructor parameter into a class property with the same name and value. These are called parameter properties

      Doesn't this violate their own non-goal #6, "Provide additional runtime functionality", since it emits a this.x = x run-time side effect in the body that isn't explicitly written out in the source code?

  7. Apr 2023
    1. Recommended Source

      Under the "More on Philosophies of Copyright" section, I recommended adding the scholarly article by Chinese scholar Peter K. Yu that explains how Chinese philosophy of Yin-Yang can address the contradictions in effecting or eliminating intellectual property laws. One of the contradictions is in intellectual property laws protecting individual rights while challenging sustainability efforts for future generations (as climate change destroys more natural resources.

      Yu, Peter K., Intellectual Property, Asian Philosophy and the Yin-Yang School (November 19, 2015). WIPO Journal, Vol. 7, pp. 1-15, 2015, Texas A&M University School of Law Legal Studies Research Paper No. 16-70, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2693420

      Below is a short excerpt from the article that details Chinese philosophical thought on IP and sustainability:

      "Another area of intellectual property law and policy that has made intergenerational equity questions salient concerns the debates involving intellectual property and sustainable development. Although this mode of development did not garner major international attention until after the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, the Yin-Yang school of philosophy—which “offers a normative model with balance, harmony, and sustainability as ideals”—provides important insight into sustainable development."

  8. Mar 2023
    1. Property 7.2.
    2. rove the existence of a shortest path tree.

      prove the existence of a shortest path tree

    3. Property 7.7.

      The complexity of the memeroized shortest aug path max flow.

    4. Property 7.1
    5. Property 7.3
    6. Property 3.6. A circulation x can be represented as cycle flow along at mostm directed cycles.

      Circulation property. Why is it not along a \(m\) many closed walks?

      This is only true from the view of the flow decomposition algorithm and not the LP.

  9. Feb 2023
    1. Property 6.2.

      augmenting flow is upper bounded by the residual capacity across all \(s-t\) cut.

    2. Property 6.1.

      The capacity of the cut of any flow is less than or equal to the capacity of any cut in the network, in the context of maximum flow problem.

    3. Property 2.4.

      The \(z(0)\) is the objective function whenever the potential for all the vertices are zero, hence it's the objective of the original problem. In this claim we prove that the difference between the problem with zero porential and the problem with some potential and a "reduced costs" is a constant away, and hence, solving the problem with the reduced costs is the same as solving the original.

      Is this some type of primal dual algoithm that we are dong here...

    4. Property 2.5

      Properties of Reduced costs network. A reduced cost label is created via a potential label on the vertices of the graph. 1. The reduced costs on a path equals to the costs itself. 2. The sum of reduced costs along any path is the original cost minus the differences between the destination and the source.

      It's like a line integer over a conservative field in physics you know, the value we get by subtracting the reduced costs over circle and path gives the differences in the potential. Just like a conservative field in physics.

    5. Property 2.2

      Trees of graphs: - A tree on n nodes contains exactly n - 1 node. - A tree has at least two leaf nodes - Every two nodes of a tree are connected by a unique path.

    6. Property 4.1.

      All Assumptions in chapter 4 applies here.

      In the proof below, please observe that, the path \(P_2\) can cross with \(P_3\), therefore it said it's a \(P_2-P_3\) Directed Walk instead of a path, and then arising from here, it applies the none existence of negative directed cycle on the graph!

    7. Property 4.2.

      This is a direct applications of property 4.1.

      Restate it in Clearer Mathematical Terms

      Assuming that \(d(i)\) is the shortest path path length from a source node \(s\) to any other vertices: \(i\), let\(P\) denote the shortest s-i path then the following statements are equivalent: - a directed path P is a shortest path from a to k - \(d(j) = d(i) + c_{i, j}\; \forall (i, j)\in P\)

      We still assume all the assumptions 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4

    1. Ranters, a radical working-class antinomian movement that twogenerations before had openly preached the abolition of privateproperty and existing sexual morality.

      potential influence on pirates?

  10. Jan 2023
    1. if you make a surrogate

      Deed of gift versus NFT digital surrogate ownership

      and then you do an nft it's a different type of ownership

      Old deeds of gifts may not cover the online posting of digital surrogates (and it sounds like the speakers have experience with this problem). And there are certainly needs for clarity around what an NFT "ownership" means relative to the original work.

  11. Oct 2022
  12. Jul 2022
    1. Only humans can create art that is copyrightable. So by extension, if a machine is deemed to be the author of a work, no one can exercise a copyright in that particular artwork. And in the context of NFTs, there's untold numbers of works that are touted as being created by computers that's deemed to be a feature, not a bug.

      Generative Art, the kind in most NFTs, is not subject to copyright

    2. if you buy an NFT that doesn't have any sale terms whatsoever,

      NFTs without sales terms are not protected by law

      what have you purchased? The answer is probably nothing. At least nothing that the law can protect.

  13. Jun 2022
    1. Property Management System

      Displeased with the property management system you have in place? It's not just you. The outdated legacy systems are frustrating a lot of hoteliers. Because it supports all other systems you use and is mission-critical, a hotel's PMS is its most vital piece of software. Consider the PMS as the central hub of your hotel, as this is where all of the bookings and room assignments are kept. We'll outline a shortlist of the top market vendors below. These are the players with cutting-edge engineering, consumer-grade usability, excellent customer support, potent features, and, perhaps most importantly, a variety of affordable integrations to take your business to the next level.

  14. May 2022
  15. Apr 2022
  16. Feb 2022
    1. Ulrich Elling. (2022, January 12). While #Omicron BA.1 leads the race, the little sister BA.2 is catching up in numbers. They are rather different with likely functional implications. BA.2 might be more immune evasive in RBD, less in NTD. And due to reduced mutation load in NTD maybe different fusion properties? Https://t.co/kEACjzQDs3 [Tweet]. @EllingUlrich. https://twitter.com/EllingUlrich/status/1481214901997682692

  17. Jan 2022
    1. New Developments, Frontline Golf, Sea Views, Frontline Beach and more

      Great Marbella Estates is a group of professionals with years of experience in the real estate market, the important mission we pursue is helping our clients to meet and get their right property.

      Our team has access to all the properties available for sale in the Costa del Sol and direct contact with the new development constructors and developers.

      We are people who understands people, we ourselves has bought properties before and know all the challenges involved first hand.

  18. Dec 2021
    1. That being said, often rental properties don’t generate significant amounts of net income after deducting mortgage interest and other expenses including property tax, insurance and repairs.

      Does that mean you don't pay much taxes at least while you're paying mortgage on the property? Maybe but remember that you can only claim the mortgage interest not the mortgage principal.

    2. Much of the taxes paid are refundable and can be recovered if you pay yourself a dividend, which must then be declared on your personal taxes.

      Look into how this works

  19. Nov 2021
    1. Raspberry Pi Trading

      At the moment, this company is wholly owned by the Raspberry Pie Foundation.

      For clarity, tell us the distinction between the foundation, which you run, and the trading company that Eben Upton presides over, and how they work in conjunction with each other. The Raspberry Pi Foundation is a UK-registered charity with an educational mission and Raspberry Pi Trading Limited is a wholly owned subsidiary of the Foundation. That means that the Foundation is the shareholder of the trading company, which is an independent, commercial business. That distinction is really important because there are limits on what charities can do commercially. For example, a charity couldn't sell computers that are used in industry, which is a huge part of the Raspberry Pi computer business now. I lead the foundation and I also serve as a director on the board of the trading company. As you said, Eben Upton leads the trading company. [source]

      So it will be interesting to see how much control the Foundation has if/when the trading company goes public.

    1. Looking for a property?

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  20. Oct 2021
  21. Sep 2021
    1. Steven Brust's (quoted in my novel Walkaway): "Ask what's more important, human rights or property rights. If they say 'property rights ARE human rights' they're on the right." https://craphound.com/category/walkaway/
  22. Jul 2021
    1. it is also clear that there would be no need for copyleft licences to govern the exercise of copyright in software code by third-party developers at all if copyright did not guarantee rightsholders such a high degree of exclusive control over intellectual creations in the first place

      This is simply not true. The unique character of software under the conventions that most software is published (effectively obfuscated, albeit not for the purpose obfuscation itself, but for the purposes of producing an executable binary) means that reciprocal licenses like the GPL are very much reliant on the existing copyright regime. Ubiquitous and pervasive non-destructive compilation would be a prerequisite for a world where copyright's role on free software were nil.

  23. Jun 2021
    1. Same feature in TypeScript¶ It's worth mentioning that other languages have a shortcut for assignment var assignment directly from constructor parameters. So it seems especially painful that Ruby, despite being so beautifully elegant and succinct in other areas, still has no such shortcut for this. One of those other languages (CoffeeScript) is dead now, but TypeScript remains very much alive and allows you to write this (REPL): class Foo { constructor(public a:number, public b:number, private c:number) { } } instead of this boilerplate: class Foo { constructor(a, b, c) { this.a = a; this.b = b; this.c = c; } } (The public/private access modifiers actually disappear in the transpiled JavaScript code because it's only the TypeScript compiler that enforces those access modifiers, and it does so at compile time rather than at run time.) Further reading: https://www.typescriptlang.org/docs/handbook/2/classes.html#parameter-properties https://basarat.gitbook.io/typescript/future-javascript/classes#define-using-constructor https://kendaleiv.com/typescript-constructor-assignment-public-and-private-keywords/ I actually wouldn't mind being able to use public/private modifiers on instance var parameters in Ruby, too, but if we did, I would suggest making that be an additional optional shortcut (for defining accessor methods for those instance vars) that builds on top of the instance var assignment parameter syntax described here. (See more detailed proposal in #__.) Accessors are more of a secondary concern to me: we can already define accessors pretty succinctly with attr_accessor and friends. The bigger pain point that I'm much more interested in having a succinct shortcut for is instance var assignment in constructors. initialize(@a, @b, @c) syntax¶ jsc (Justin Collins) wrote in #note-12: jjyr (Jinyang Jiang) wrote: I am surprised this syntax has been repeatedly requested and rejected since 7 years ago. ... As someone who has been writing Ruby for over 10 years, this syntax is exactly that I would like. I grow really tired of writing def initialize(a, b, c) @a = a @b = b @c = c end This would be perfect: def initialize(@a, @b, @c) end I'm a little bit sad Matz is against this syntax, as it seems so natural to me. Me too!! I've been writing Ruby for over 15 years, and this syntax seems like the most obvious, simple, natural, clear, unsurprising, and Ruby-like. I believe it would be readily understood by any Rubyist without any explanation required. Even if you saw it for the first time, I can't think of any way you could miss or misinterpret its meaning: since @a is in the same position as a local variable a would normally be, it seems abundantly clear that instead of assigning to a local variable, we're just assigning to the variable @a instead and of course you can reference the @a variable in the constructor body, too, exactly the same as you could with a local variable a passed as an argument. A workaround pattern¶ In the meantime, I've taken to defining my constructor and list of public accessors (if any) like this: attr_reader \ :a, :b def new( a, b) @a, @b = a, b end ... which is still horrendously boilerplatey and ugly, and probably most of you will hate — but by lining up the duplicated symbols into a table of columns, I like that I can at least more easily see the ugly duplication and cross-check that I've spelled them all correctly and handled them all consistently. :shrug: Please??¶ Almost every time I write a new class in Ruby, I wish for this feature and wonder if we'll ever get it. Can we please?
    1. Yeah, "virtual attribute" seems like dated terminology to me, so conceptually just a method.
    2. I see a 'virtual attribute' as something we're forced to implement when using frameworks, ORMs and the like. Something that lets us inject our code into the path of whatever metaprogramming has been put in place for us. In a simple PORO like this, I don't see how it has meaning; it's just a method. :)

      Hmm, good point. Maybe so. Though I think I'm fine with calling it a virtual property here too. :shrug:

    3. has_sauce is a "virtual attribute", a characteristic of the model that's dependent on the underlying toppings attribute.
  24. basarat.gitbook.io basarat.gitbook.io
    1. Having a member in a class and initializing it like below:class Foo { x: number; constructor(x:number) { this.x = x; }}is such a common pattern that TypeScript provides a shorthand where you can prefix the member with an access modifier and it is automatically declared on the class and copied from the constructor. So the previous example can be re-written as (notice public x:number):class Foo { constructor(public x:number) { }}
    1. Personal Property Has Not and Should Not Depend On TTPs For most of human history the dominant form of property has been personal property. The functionality of personal property has not under normal conditions ever depended on trusted third parties. Security properties of simple goods could be verified at sale or first use, and there was no need for continued interaction with the manufacturer or other third parties (other than on occasion repair personel after exceptional use and on a voluntary and temporary basis). Property rights for many kinds of chattel (portable property) were only minimally dependent on third parties – the only problem where TTPs were neededwas to defend against the depredations of other third parties. The main security property of personal chattel was often not other TTPs as protectors but rather its portability and intimacy. Here are some examples of the ubiquity of personal property in which there was a reality or at least a strong desire on the part of owners to be free of dependence on TTPs for functionality or security: Jewelry (far more often used for money in traditional cultures than coins, e.g. Northern Europe up to 1000 AD, and worn on the body for better property protection as well as decoration) Automobiles operated by and house doors opened by personal keys. Personal computers – in the original visions of many personal computing pioneers (e.g. many members of the Homebrew Computer Club), the PC was intended as personal property – the owner would have total control (and understanding) of the software running on the PC, including the ability to copy bits on the PC at will. Software complexity, Internet connectivity, and unresolved incentive mismatches between software publishers and users (PC owners) have substantially eroded the reality of the personal computer as personal property. This desire is instinctive and remains today. It manifests in consumer resistance when they discover unexpected dependence on and vulnerability to third parties in the devices they use. Suggestions that the functionality of personal property be dependent on third parties, even agreed to ones under strict conditions such as creditors until a chattel loan is paid off (a smart lien) are met with strong resistance. Making personal property functionality dependent on trusted third parties (i.e. trusted rather than forced by the protocol to keep to the agreement governing the security protocol and property) is in most cases quite unacceptable.

      Personal property did not depend on trusted third parties

      For most of human history personal property did not depend on Trusted Third Parties (TTP). To the extent that TTPs were needed, was to defend property from depredataions of other third parties.

      Jewelry, automobile keys, house keys — these all show that humans had a preference for having sovereign access to their property, without relying on third parties.

      This preference remains with us today and you can see it manifest itself in people's anger when they discover that part of their product is not owned by them.

    2. The main security property of personal chattel was often not other TTPs as protectors but rather its portability and intimacy.

      The security properties of personal chattel was not a Trusted Third Party (TTP), but their portability and intimacy.

  25. May 2021
    1. Although I believe people have a right to secure and private communication, I disagree with those who extrapolate from this that we have a right to anonymous property transfer. It’s totally in the public’s legitimate interest to keep track of who owns what, and to settle which transfers of ownership are legitimate, for instance by disallowing coerced ones.

      I found this thought helpful. I had feelings like this but could not articulate them before.

  26. Apr 2021
    1. food courts

      Superb construction, exclusive design, and modern architecture are some of the unique features of the project Gulshan One129 project recently launched by Gulshan Homz. From office space to commercial food court space in Noida, the mall caters to all your requirements. Each retail shop is excellently designed for better visibility and space utilization. If you are looking for a commercial property in Noida sector 129, book your space now and get the possession on or before June 2021.

  27. Mar 2021
    1. A semantic field denotes a segment of reality symbolized by a set of related words. The words in a semantic field share a common semantic property
    1. Whether a soil above the 250 isoline is prone to frostheave depends on its soil moisture regime and tex-ture class. Family texture classes are assigned bysoil moisture regime to the three frost action classesin exhibit 618–5 in the National Soil Survey Hand-book. Climates that have little snow cover overwinter, ample fall and winter precipitation, andseveral freeze and thaw cycles increase the inci-dence of frost heave damage
    1. Alalu baayam la donn.

      Il a hérité des biens de son père.

      alal+u (alal) ji -- property, fortune. 💰

      baay+am (baay) bi -- dad (his). 👨‍👦

      la -- he (?).

      donn v. -- to inherit.


  28. Feb 2021
    1. In this idealised utopia we obviously want to place value on sharing and curation as well as original creation, which means giving a small fraction of the payment to the re-publisher as well.We should note monetisation of all this content is optional. Some websites would allow their content to be transcluded for free, while others might charge hefty fees for a few sentences. If all goes well, we'd expect the majority of content on the web to be either free or priced at reasonable micro-amounts.

      While this is nice in theory, there's a long road strewn with attempts at micropayments on the web. I see new ones every six months or so. (Here's a recent one: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLqrvNoDE35lFDUv2enkaEKuo6ATBj9GmL)

      This also dramatically misses the idea of how copyright and intellectual property work in many countries with regard to fair use doctrine. For short quotes and excerpts almost anyone anywhere can do this for free already. It's definitely nice and proper to credit the original, but as a society we already have norms for how to do this.

  29. Nov 2020
    1. the adjective strong or the adverb strongly may be added to a mathematical notion to indicate a related stronger notion; for example, a strong antichain is an antichain satisfying certain additional conditions, and likewise a strongly regular graph is a regular graph meeting stronger conditions. When used in this way, the stronger notion (such as "strong antichain") is a technical term with a precisely defined meaning; the nature of the extra conditions cannot be derived from the definition of the weaker notion (such as "antichain")
  30. Oct 2020
    1. Computer software, for example, can be protected by copyright, patent, trade secret and trademark.

      did not know that

    1. James Bronterre O’Brien, told the people:‘Knaves will tell you that it is because you have no property, you are unrepresented. I tell you on the contrary, it is because you are unrepresented that you have no property …’16

      great quote

  31. Sep 2020
    1. To make sure your ES modules are immediately usable by tools that work with CommonJS such as Node.js and webpack, you can use Rollup to compile to UMD or CommonJS format, and then point to that compiled version with the main property in your package.json file.
  32. Jul 2020
  33. May 2020
  34. Apr 2020
    1. To understand the High Line’s effect on surrounding property prices, we analysed publicly available valuation data from NYC’s Department of Finance, and cross-referenced it with property sales data for blocks and individual plots (a detailed methodology is available 👉 here). This meant we could track how the values of surrounding properties have changed since the High Line’s arrival.What’s interesting is that if we group the properties in bands roughly one kilometre wide from the High Line you start to see that between 2007 (when construction started) and 2018 (when the data ends), properties closer to the High Line experienced a greater value increase on average than those further away. So the mean property value uplift for houses within 1km of the High Line was actually 92% more than the Manhattan mean. Or to put it another way — if you owned an apartment in that 1km, you earned on average about $67,000 a year from the uplift alone. 🤑

    1. The patent right is but the right to exclude others, the very definition of “property.” That the property right represented by a patent, like other property rights, may be used in a scheme violative of antitrust laws creates no “conflict” between laws establishing any of those property rights and the antitrust laws.
  35. Mar 2020
    1. That page spreads confusion by using the misleading term “intellectual property rights”, which falsely presumes that trademark law and patent law and several other laws belong in one single conceptual framework. Use of that term is harmful, without exception, so after making a reference to someone else's use of the term, we should always reject it.
  36. Feb 2020
    1. Yet some things that we value are not private property—for example, the air we breathe and most of the knowledge we use cannot be owned, bought, or sold.
    2. Yet some things that we value are not private property—for example, the air we breathe and most of the knowledge we use cannot be owned, bought, or sold.
    1. Image Credit: Detail from "The School of Athens" by Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino (c. 1509–1511).

      Euclid's common notions appear to be grounds for many of Marx's arguments in Ch. 1, but also throughout the book.

      Near the beginning of Ch. 1 of the Elements Euclid lists them [PDF]:

      • Things that are equal to the same thing are also equal to one another (the Transitive property of a Euclidean relation).
      • If equals are added to equals, then the wholes are equal (Addition property of equality).
      • If equals are subtracted from equals, then the differences are equal (Subtraction property of equality).
      • Things that coincide with one another are equal to one another (Reflexive property).
      • The whole is greater than the part.

      Regarding the fifth, also see Aristotle, Metaphysics 8.6 [=1045a]; Topics 6.13 (=150a15-16);

      On the concept of the "whole-before-the-parts" (along with the "whole of the parts" and the "whole in the part"), also see Proclus, El. Theol., prop. 67.

  37. Dec 2019
    1. claim the gratitude of his child so completely

      Rather than entertain the negative consequences of his creation, Victor imagines creating a race that will worship him.

    2. It was with these feelings that I began the creation of a human being

      "Creation" points toward popular literary themes, and to the Bible. It also calls into question property rights. John Locke (1632-1704) argued in Two Treatises of Government that applying one's labor to nature made that creation one's property. Shelley seems to call into question the relation of scientific research to the idea of ownership.

  38. Nov 2019
    1. There used to be an imperfect but useful pathway for research to move from the academy to the corporate world through tech transfer.

      Used to be? It feels to me like it didn't really exist as a codified pathway until the early 2000's at best. Universities only seem to be mastering the entire flow in the past several years. Prior to that most professors took the intellectual property and did almost what they wanted with it and didn't provide any ancillary financial streams to the university out of which the work grew.

  39. Jul 2019
  40. Feb 2019
    1. On Evaluating Adversarial Robustness

      大神 Goodfellow 参与的 paper 怎能不收藏呢?对抗样本始终是一个相当难啃的骨头。。。。

      事实证明,正确评估针对对抗性案例的防御是非常困难的。尽管最近大量的工作试图设计出能够抵抗自适应攻击的防御措施,但很少有人成功;提出防御的大多数论文很快就被证明是错误的。作者认为一个很大的因素是执行安全评估的难度。在这篇论文中,作者讨论了方法论基础,回顾了普遍接受的最佳实践,并提出了评估对抗性示例的防御的新方法。这是一个开放性工作,贡献者包括Ian Goodfellow、Nicholas Carlini等人。

    2. Towards a Deeper Understanding of Adversarial Losses

      研究了各种对抗生成训练的 losses,还可以 know which one of them makes an adversarial loss better than another。

  41. Jan 2019
    1. Image Transformation can make Neural Networks more robust against Adversarial Examples


  42. Dec 2018
    1. This resource, while written from the perspective of economists, explores how intellectual property laws (and historically uneven enforcement of the laws) have increased the divide between developing countries and wealthy, industrialized developed countries.

    1. That said, for a thoughtful survey of how the commons, cultural and otherwise, might thrive inside of, or along with, with current conditions I recommend Peter Barnes’s book, Capitalism 3.0: A Guide to Reclaiming the Commons. One of Barnes’s points is that our debates about the future often imagine only two actors: the government and private business. Barnes suggests a third set, common property trusts (as, for example, the kind of land trusts devised by the Nature Conservancy). There is much to say about common property trusts but for now the point is simply that we already have a mix of cultural modes and should continue to have them going forward with, I hope, the commons recognized and strengthened.

      One of the areas I find challenging in addressing Creative Commons culture is how Creative Commons relates to capitalistic culture (or rejects it). Creative Commons can be compatible with open market, but it can also challenge some of the fundamental tenants of it. Throughout the units, as I tried to imagine applications of Creative Commons, or making licensing decisions as a creative and academic, I found that I had questions about artists and how they can earn a living in this model, and how this model supported and challenged my role as a librarian in academe.

  43. Nov 2018
    1. Analyzing the Noise Robustness of Deep Neural Networks


    2. Interpreting Adversarial Robustness: A View from Decision Surface in Input Space


    3. Spurious samples in deep generative models: bug or feature?

      此文引言还算引人入胜的。全文似乎就为了阐述一件事情:Spurious samples are not simply errors but a feature of deep generative nets. 但我怎么觉得这是一句废话呢?不然你以为 generate model 是根据什么 generate samples 的呢?

    4. Adversarial Attacks and Defences: A Survey


    5. Is Robustness the Cost of Accuracy? -- A Comprehensive Study on the Robustness of 18 Deep Image Classification Models

      这文帅了~ 信息丰富 超多的图~ 让人眼前一亮~


    6. Obfuscated Gradients Give a False Sense of Security: Circumventing Defenses to Adversarial Examples
      SUMMARY (From)

      The researchers found that defenses against adversarial examples commonly use obfuscated gradients, which create a false sense of security but, in fact, can be easily circumvented. The study describes three ways in which defenses obfuscate gradients and shows which techniques can circumvent the defenses. The findings can help organizations that use defenses relying on obfuscated gradients to fortify their current methods.

      • There are three common ways in which defenses obfuscate gradients:
      • shattered gradients are nonexistent or incorrect gradients caused by the defense either intentionally (through non-differentiable operations) or unintentionally (through numerical instability);
      • stochastic gradients are caused by randomized defenses;
      • vanishing/exploding gradients are caused by extremely deep neural network evaluation.

      • There are number of clues that something is wrong with the gradient including:

        • one-step attacks performing better than iterative attacks;
        • black-box attacks working better than white-box attacks;
        • unbounded attacks not reaching 100% success;
        • random sampling finding adversarial examples;
        • increasing distortion bound not leading to increased success.
      • Demonstrating that most of the defense techniques used these days are vulnerable to attacks, namely:
        • 7 out of 9 defense techniques accepted at ICLR 2018 cause obfuscated gradients;
        • new attack techniques developed by researchers were able to successfully circumvent 6 defenses completely and 1 partially.
      • The paper won the Best Paper Award at ICML 2018, one of the key machine learning conferences.
      • The paper highlights the strengths and weaknesses of current technology.
      • To construct defenses with careful and thorough evaluation so that they can defend against not only existing attacks but also future attacks that may be developed.
      • By using the guidance provided in the research paper, organizations can identify if their defenses rely on obfuscated gradients, and if necessary, switch to more robust methods.
    7. Seamless Nudity Censorship: an Image-to-Image Translation Approach based on Adversarial Training


      这么多人对这篇文章经验的实验效果表示赞叹和好奇~ 我也去瞻仰一番去。。。

    8. Generating Natural Adversarial Examples


    9. Are adversarial examples inevitable?


      现在关于对抗性的 paper 都要不可避免的谨慎对待啊~

    10. Defensive Dropout for Hardening Deep Neural Networks under Adversarial Attacks

      貌似就是利用 dropout 来防御对抗样本~ 然而前两天才看了 Goodfellow 在 cs231n 2017 Spring 上的报告提到说,一切用传统正则化技巧企图防御的手段都是失效的~当然包括 dropout~ 比如可以看看 Nicholas Carlini 的文章。

      贴上Goodfellow讲座的 Slice 和笔记:https://iphysresearch.github.io/cs231n/cs231n_Guest%20Lecture.%20Adversarial%20Examples%20and%20Adversarial%20Training.html

  44. Oct 2018
    1. how do we help students navigate privacy issues in learning spaces augmented with social/digital media. There was a specific request for examples to walk students through this. Here is what I do.

      I'm a little unnerved by the semi-legal nature of the "Interactive Project Release Form" but I think it's a great model (whether really legally enforceable or just a class constitution-type document).

  45. Aug 2018
  46. Apr 2018
    1. Thus the grass my horse has bit; the turfs my servant has cut; and the ore I have digged in any place, where I have a right to them in common with others, become my property, without the assignation or consent of any body. The labour that was mine, removing them out of that common state they were in, hath fixed my property in them.

      It would be very interesting to discuss this and the surrounding passages in light of the armed standoff that occurred in either Oregon or Washington about a year ago regarding the use of federal lands for grazing purposes by the local ranchers.

    2. Whatsoever then he removes out of the state that nature hath provided, and left it in, he hath mixed his labour with, and joined to it something that is his own, and thereby makes it his property. It being by him removed from the common state nature hath placed it in, it hath by this labour something annexed to it, that excludes the common right of other men: for this labour being the unquestionable property of the labourer, no man but he can have a right to what that is once joined to, at least where there is enough, and as good, left in common for others.

      Useful passage to point out the tension between "Civic virtue and the responsibility to the greater good (see end of passage) vs. individual property rights. Useful to frame discussions re: natural parks, utilitarian vs. preservationist perspectives on environmental policies, taxation policies & burdens, entitlements etc etc.

  47. Apr 2017
    1. The ability to establish ownership claims to digital assets — of well-understood forms of intellectual property such as music, movies and books but also for emergent and increasingly critical ones such as computer code, digital art, user-generated data and metadata — will transform many of the 21st century’s largest negative externalities into a new asset class capable of powering the next economic revolution.
    2. What is needed is a trustworthy, secure, and enduring property system that is flexible enough to incorporate digital properties into any community’s broader property rights traditions
    3. a property is an asset plus a property title
    4. A valid ownership claim functions as a “bundle of rights” for a specific property and can include such rights as:the right to exclusive possessionthe right to exclusive use and enclosurethe right to transfer ownership (conveyance)the right to use as collateral to secure a debt (hypothecation)the right to subdivide (partition)
  48. Feb 2017
  49. Nov 2016
    1. Castro’s commitment to fighting racism in Cuba wasn’t as much an explicit mission as it was a convenient byproduct of adopting the Soviet model of governance — when you start to eliminate private property, mechanisms of systemic racism are rendered impotent.

      I love this paragraph.

  50. Sep 2016
    1. d  Provider  has  a  limited,  nonexclusive  license  solely  for  the  purpose  of  performing  its  obligations  as  outlined  in  the  Agreeme

      Here we are good and much better than, say, Genius:

      When you post User Content to the Service or otherwise submit it to us, you hereby grant, and you represent and warrant that you have the right to grant, to Genius an irrevocable, perpetual, non-exclusive, transferable, fully paid, worldwide license (with the right to sublicense through multiple tiers) to use, reproduce, publicly perform, publicly display, modify, translate, excerpt (in whole or in part), create derivative works of, distribute and otherwise fully exploit all Intellectual Property Rights in and to such User Content for purposes of providing, operating and promoting the Service or otherwise conducting the business of Genius.