87 Matching Annotations
  1. Nov 2023
    1. In Delhi wurden die Schulen ein weiteres Mal wegen der akuten Luftverschmutzung geschlossen. Hauptursache ist Kohleverbrennung. Der Grenzwert für die besonders gefährlichen PM 2,5-Partikel wurde um das 35fache überschritten. In den vergangenen 7 Jahren stiegen in Indien die Emissionen pro Einwohner um 29%. 2020 starben ca 1,67 Millionen Menschen in Indien durch Luftverschmutzung. https://www.liberation.fr/environnement/pollution/inde-delhi-suffoque-encore-et-toujours-sous-la-pollution-les-ecoles-ferment-pour-deux-jours-20231103_WQ22QAO745BQ5GOGW7JPNB4SXY/

  2. Sep 2023
  3. Aug 2023
  4. Jul 2023
    1. Air pollution from burning coal, driving cars, and using fire to clear land, among other activities, is the fourth-leading cause of death worldwide, killing about 5.5 million people each year.
      • Air pollution impacts
        • 5.5 million people die each year of air pollution from
          • burning coal
          • driving cars
          • burning fires to clear land
            • and forest fires
    1. "When their antennae become clogged with pollution particles, insects struggle to smell food, a mate, or a place to lay their eggs, and it follows that their populations will decline,"
      • quote
        • "When their antennae become clogged with pollution particles,
        • insects struggle to
          • smell food,
          • smell a mate, or
          • smell a place to lay their eggs,
        • and it follows that their populations will decline,"
      • Author
        • Prof Mark Elgar
  5. May 2023
  6. Apr 2023
  7. Jan 2023
    1. finally the boundary on air pollution on aerosols a boundary which we today have scientific evidence that it actually has 00:07:02 impacts on regulating the state of the atmosphere and the hological cycle pushing the monsoon systems in the southern hemisphere particularly into less rainfall

      Fifth boundary : air pollution

  8. Sep 2022
    1. Notably absent from the debris was plastic from nations with lots of plastic pollution in their rivers. This was surprising, says Egger, because rivers are thought to be the source of most ocean plastic. Instead, most of the garbage-patch plastic seemed to have been dumped into the ocean directly by passing ships.This suggests that “plastic emitted from land tends to accumulate along coastal areas, while plastic lost at sea has a high chance of accumulating in ocean garbage patches”, Egger says. The combination of the new results and the finding that fishing nets make up a large proportion of the debris indicates that fishing — spearheaded by the five countries and territories identified in the study — is the main source of plastic in the North Pacific garbage patch.

      !- leverage point : ocean plastic pollution

  9. Aug 2022
    1. Every 60 seconds the equivalent of a lorry-load of plastic enters the global ocean. Where does it end up? Right now, researchers simply don’t know. But in a bid to help find out, an ESA-led project developed floating transmitters whose passage can be tracked over time, helping in turn to guide a sophisticated software model of marine plastic litter accumulation.

      Huh? The plastic ends up in the Garbage Patches - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Pacific_garbage_patch

      This is a surprising and disappointing oversight by ESA.

  10. Jun 2022
    1. What happens in Indonesia when a textile manufacturer illegally dumps dye waste!

      This is an example of the manufacturer / consumer dualism created by the Industrial Revolution. Since manufacturers have become a separate layer that no longer exist as part of the community, as artisans once did, along with globalized capitalism, the consumer does not know the life history of the product being consumed. The sensory bubble limits what a consumer can directly know.

      One answer is to promote a trend back to local and artisan production. Relocalizing production can empower consumers to inspect producers of the products they consume, holding them accountable.

      Another answer is to develop globalized trust networks of producers who are truly ethical.

      Cosmolocal production has networks by the commons nature can promote such values.

  11. Mar 2022
    1. two-thirds of common large moth species have declined over the last 40 years in some parts of world. One of main reasons for the decline is light pollution (an increase in artificial light in moth habitats).

      Artificial Light pollution endangering moth species

  12. Feb 2022
  13. Nov 2021
    1. The negative impact of loud noises on learning (i.e. impairing reading comprehension and memory, decreas-ing motivation, and other factors) is widely accepted in the literature (see e.g. Clark and Stansfeld, 2007). ‘Undoubtedly, it is a general hindrance to cognitive development in contem-porary urban environments, affecting any mode of learning, including home schooling. Therefore, the evidence presented in Figure 3 is alarming as it shows a high proportion of households suffering from noise, which appears to be more intense in many high-income coun-tries such as the Netherlands, Germany, France, Luxembourg and Denmark, while it is milder in Poland, Italy, Bulgaria, Estonia and Croatia. The data also show that noise pollution affects disproportionately low-income households. For example, in the Netherlands 37.4% of house-holds below the poverty line reported suffering from noise compared to 25.5% of households above the poverty line. In Denmark, the difference is even larger for poor and non-poor house-holds (32.3% vs 16.1%). Yet there are also a few cases defying the general pattern such as Greece, Romania and Lithuania, where the incidence of households suffering from noise is more frequent among non-poor households.0510152025303540NetherlandsGermanyDenmarkMaltaFranceLuxembourgBelgiumPortugalCyprusUnited KingdomEU28SwedenAustriaSpainFinlandCzechiaGreeceRomaniaLatviaIrelandSloveniaSlovakiaHungaryLithuaniaPolandItalyBulgaria

      noise pollution

  14. Aug 2021
  15. Jul 2021
  16. Jun 2021
  17. Mar 2021
  18. Jan 2021
    1. The “social cost of carbon” (SCC), “social cost of nitrous oxide” (SCN), and “social cost of methane” (SCM) are estimates of the monetized damages associated with incremental increases in greenhouse gas emissions.

      In addition to setting standard "social costs" for greenhouse gases, it would be useful to set social costs for non-greenhouse gas co-pollutants such as PM2.5. While focusing on GHG emissions is useful, it results in an underestimation of the true social cost of fuel combustion.

  19. Dec 2020
    1. As the number of industries increases as well as vehicles, it impact air which we breath. Diseases caused by pollution are severe and WHO states that 9 out of 10 people in the world breathe in polluted air. Allergy solutions are many but the key to keep pollution allergy at bay is to ensure the air quality is high. Outdoor allergies caused by pollution cannot be controlled instantly but with certain measures the risk can be reduced.

  20. Oct 2020
    1. 1.1. Monitors For the purposes of AQS, a monitor does not refer to a specific piece of equipment. Instead, it reflects that a given pollutant (or other parameter) is being measured at a given site. Identified by: The site (state + county + site number) where the monitor is located AND The pollutant code AND POC – Parameter Occurrence Code. Used to uniquely identify a monitor if there is more than one device measuring the same pollutant at the same site. For example monitor IDs are usually written in the following way: SS-CCC-NNNN-PPPPP-Q where SS is the State FIPS code, CCC is the County FIPS code, and NNNN is the Site Number within the county (leading zeroes are always included for these fields), PPPPP is the AQS 5-digit parameter code, and Q is the POC. For example: 01-089-0014-44201-2 is Alabama, Madison County, Site Number 14, ozone monitor, POC 2.

      How monitors (specific measures of specific criteria) are identified in AQS data.

  21. Aug 2020
  22. Jul 2020
  23. May 2020
  24. Oct 2019
  25. May 2019
    1. Henderson is littered with at least 17.6 tons of (mostly plastic)

      we should avoid using plastics as much as possible.

  26. Apr 2019
  27. Nov 2018
    1. Contenant immédiat108 Le contenant immédiat dans lequel est emballé un produit du cannabis, à l’exception d’une plante de cannabis ou des graines provenant d’une telle plante, doit satisfaire aux exigences suivantes :a) il est opaque ou translucide;b) il empêche la contamination du cannabis;c) dans le cas du cannabis séché ou d’un accessoire qui en contient, il permet de garder le cannabis au sec;d) il est doté d’un dispositif de sûreté offrant au consommateur une assurance raisonnable qu’il n’a pas été ouvert avant la réception;e) il satisfait aux exigences relatives aux emballages protège-enfants prévues aux paragraphes C.01.001(2) à (4) du Règlement sur les aliments et drogues;f) il contient une quantité de produit n’excédant pas l’équivalent de 30 g de cannabis séché, déterminée selon ce que prévoit le paragraphe 2(4) de la Loi.

      Voici les exigences de Santé Canada.

  28. Aug 2018
  29. Jun 2017
  30. Oct 2016
    1. The river’s tent is broken: the last fingers of leaf Clutch and sink into the wet bank.

      The "magic" is now gone from a "magical" place that once inspired poets to write about love and beauty- now it's empty and becoming polluted.

  31. Sep 2016
    1. In the major cities, Colombia has the same environmental challenges, especially air pollution caused by vehicle emissions, faced by any industrialized nation. This problem is particularly critical in Bogotá. Deforestation from logging efforts and soil and water quality damage from overuse of pesticides have taken a toll on the countryside as well.

      A lot of polution in urban areas and pesticides

  32. Nov 2015
    1. MARPOL VI regulations in 2015.

      Relates to Prevention of Air Pollution from Ships http://www.imo.org/en/OurWork/Environment/PollutionPrevention/AirPollution/Pages/Air-Pollution.aspx "The main changes to MARPOL Annex VI are a progressive reduction globally in emissions of SOx, NOx and particulate matter and the introduction of emission control areas (ECAs) to reduce emissions of those air pollutants further in designated sea areas.

      Under the revised MARPOL Annex VI, the global sulphur cap will be reduced from current 3.50% to 0.50%, effective from 1 January 2020, subject to a feasibility review to be completed no later than 2018. The limits applicable in ECAs for SOx and particulate matter were reduced to 0.10%, from 1 January 2015. "

    1. If there were only water amongst the rock Dead mountain mouth of carious teeth that cannot spit

      The Mountain passage continues Eliot’s theme of Nature and the effects of human pollution upon it. This instance has a more distinct visual of man’s impact on the world that surrounds us. It focuses not so much on contrasting dirty vs. clean imagery, but on the disfiguration of nature. The “Dead mountain” suggests human intervention as it and the surround lines seem to bring to mind imagery of mining within the mountains. In the line on 385, it evokes this with the line: “In this decayed hole among the mountains”. This could be a reference to how we would mine mountains by either blowing them up or digging holes right through them. This hole could be a result of this human intervention.

      Image Description Image Description

      The pollution of nature is seen on the line preceding the dead mountains. Eliot notes how there is no “water among the rock”. It suggests that by our tampering with nature we have driven the key element of life from this area: water. Without water, the life around the mountain will die, leading to Eliot calling it a “dead mountain”. This pattern can be seen a few times in the poem, the idea of a dead land not able to contain life. In line 23 and 24, Eliot states how “[…] the dead tree gives no shelter, the cricket no relief, And the dry stone no sound of water”. The broken mountain can give no protection to life. The dry rocks have no water, as the mountain’s “carious teeth that cannot spit”. Even with out rain there is still “dry sterile thunder” that cannot hurt the land due to it already being dead. As Eliot says, “There is not even solitude in the mountains”. When humans try to change nature, it can lead to disastrous consequences that destroy the land from even the simple pleasures of life and nature. This is not only disastrous for nature but come back to haunt humans as well.

    2. Under the brown fog of a winter dawn, A crowd flowed over London Bridge, so many, I had not thought death had undone so many.

      Image Description

      This passage continues Eliot’s motif of nature throughout the poem. However it does not present nature as pristine. The imagery of a cold winter fog is mixed in with a dirty brown fog, offering a strong contrast between nature and pollution. The “Brown Fog” seems to be a reference to the industrial revolution in Victorian London. During the time industrial pollution was rampant, especially due to the now iconic imagery of the smoke towers of factories around the city. It seems to suggest how humans cause pollution through our industry and our numbers. The brown fog is a result of the dirty smoke mixing in with the clean air, producing a dirty haze. However, we would only notice this contrast because it’s mixing with clean nature.

      In life we only seem to notice the effects of pollution when they begin to mix in and change the clean nature, giving us a way to contrast the dirty from the clean. Eliot is well aware of this and uses this to his advantage. He pairs the words and imagery together of “the brown fog” (the dirty) with “a winter dawn”, with winter evoking sterile white, clean imagery. Eliot’s poem works in a similar way. The contrast of Eliot’s techniques, poetic and non-poetic, stands out more when thrown in together. The broken pieces of the poem would not be as noticeable if they were separated into their own short little poems. However the fragmented nature of the poem is more noticeable when it is mixed together, contrasting much like clean nature highlights pollution.

      Another interesting note is how directly after the mention of a brown fog, Eliot mentions, “a crowd flowed over London Bridge, so many, I had not though death had undone so many”. The rapid growth of humans seems to be creating a different form of pollution. While their actions effect nature, the growth of the population could be affecting the city itself. Perhaps its meant to suggest the larger crowds dirtying the city like the fog dirties the air. Perhaps the crowd pollutes the city by another means? The line “I had not though death had undone so many” makes the crowd seem like walking corpses. However, Elliot might be suggesting that the crowds are only behaving like corpses. As the city grows, so does society and they way people act in a big city is far different from a small town. Society makes the crowd behave a certain way, polluting their individualism into something the fits in line more with society. Elliot sees them as being “undone” because they have been polluted by society.

      Image Description

    3. April is the cruellest month, breeding Lilacs out of the dead land, mixing Memory and desire, stirring Dull roots with spring rain. Winter kept us warm, covering          5 Earth in forgetful snow, feeding A little life with dried tubers.

      Dead land, dull roots, dried tubers. These are all images of dead or dying nature. However, in the winter this is not visible. Because in the winter, everything is covered in forgetful snow. The snow covers the land and hides all the broken and dead images under its snow-white blanket. White is the color of innocence. As long ans the land is covered in snow pollution seems to be non existent or at least forgotten for some time.

      However, as soon as the snow melts, the cruel reality shows its face again. That is why April is described as the cruelest of all months. It is the month that confronts mankind with the damages it has done to nature. Over the winter men could forget about pollution, because they could not see it as well as in the other seasons, when it was not covered by “forgetful snow”. Now that it melts the dull roots, and the dead land become visible again. Image Description Memory and desire get mixed. The memory of pollution and the desire that it was not there. But it is and April shows it, when it start waking up the dying land. The “spring rain” washes away the “forgetful snow” and confronts people with their hidden secrets. Nothings stays hidden forever.

      The poem, therefore, starts with a relevation of pollution by the melting snow. As the poem goes on it explores and examines this relevation of pollution further.

  33. Oct 2015
    1. The river sweats Oil and tar

      Eliot explores the themes of nature and non-nature, focusing specifically within the themes on the motif of pollution. Pollution exists as the link between nature and non-nature. In this case the “river” signifies nature whilst “Oil and tar” signify non-nature. It is only through spoiling nature, that “Oil and tar” become pollution. Image Description Eliot successfully captures the industrial state of America during the 1920s through the motif of pollution. Due to the huge boom in industry, more and more waste was subsequently created. Eliot effectively forms a commentary on the negative ways in which society therefore spoils nature through the waste and by-products it creates. Image Description The image of pollution spreading throughout water is particularly effective as it suggests how pollution formed by society becomes almost uncontainable after it has been created. As “Oil and tar” continue to spread further down the river, pollution too continues to spread, spoiling nature and leaving it in a state of ruin.

      Additionally through Eliot’s choice of oil and tar as the materials to represent pollution he emphasises the extreme nature and impact that society has upon nature. As the process of removing oil and tar from water is particularly challenging, Eliot suggests the severe significance of the pollution created by society, even perhaps proposing its irreversible nature.

      The motif of pollution runs throughout the poem however it could also be said that the poem itself is polluted. The poem being a combination of fragments appears almost jumbled together, each stanza different to another. Pollution in the form of waste or rubbish is jumbled together in a similar way, each fragment within the poem can therefore be interpreted as a different piece of waste that collectively forms pollution.

    2. What is that sound high in the air Murmur of maternal lamentation Who are those hooded hordes swarming Over endless plains, stumbling in cracked earth

      Throughout the piece Eliot seems to frame the modern world and its denizens against the natural world. It is possible that the "hooded hordes" described in this segment depict the brutal force of the transition into modernity, thundering through nature in the name of progress and at the expense of the natural world. The impact of those hordes on nature is apparent in the other lines that allude to nature's decline - rivers sweating oil and tar, the brown fog, the hole in the mountain. At the same time, the image of those hordes - cloaked, faceless, swarming - suggests that the very process of relentless advancement in itself can be destructive, contributing to adversity and degradation of the swarming hordes in addition to their environment.

    3. That corpse you planted last year in your garden,

      A corpse flower is a certain sort of flower. With this meaning, the sentence could be read literally as a question about the flowers the person planted. However, there is a double meaning in this line. Corpse can also mean “dead body”. A dead body is a impurfying entity. A possible interpretation of this line would, therefore, be that mankind even pollutes their self-created nature by burying dead bodies in their gardens.

      Gardens are a symbol of men wanting to dominate and control nature. They appear several times in the poem. There is the Hyacinth garden, there are the gardens with the frosty silence and other gardens in the Unreal City. In the form of these gardens, men create their own nature, within their range of control. Gardens are orderly and beautiful and predictable. Nature outside of gardens, real nature, however, is anything but predictable. It can be harsh and cruel and deadly. These features are taken from it, when creating gardens. Gardens are some kind of “fake nature”, that only present the good features of nature. They are not threatening. They should be beautiful and pure.

      Pollution, however, does not make a exception for them. Mankind is, therefore, even polluting their own creation. They are not only polluting the wild, untamable nature outside of their control, but also their very own gardens. Pollution is slowly turning all kinds of nature, no matter whether inside or outside of society, into a Wasteland.

      The dead body is, furthermore, polluting not only nature but society as well. Gardens are part of domesticity, the household of a person. By burying a dead body in ones household, this household or domestic realm of a person gets polluted and contaminated.

      This line is also connected to the very opening of the poem: “April is the cruelest month”. In April the first flowers start to sprout, the snow that covers everything in forgetfulness and hides the secrets and sins of everyone, is melting and leaves behind the cruel reality. Pollution becomes visible in April, because there is no longer snow to cover it and everything that had be buried comes back to the surface.

    1. The river sweats                Oil and tar
    2. The road winding above among the mountains Which are mountains of rock without water If there were water we should stop and drink Amongst the rock one cannot stop or think
    3. In this decayed hole among the mountains In the faint moonlight, the grass is singing

      Perhaps another example of human impact on the natural world?

    4. Who are those hooded hordes swarming Over endless plains, stumbling in cracked earth

      I feel like this subtly captures the natural world vs. modern world hints we discussed last class.

  34. Jun 2015
    1. The preservation and protection of the wetlands and watercourses from random, unnecessary, undesirable and unregulated uses, disturbance or destruction is in the public interest and is essential to the health, welfare and safety of the citizens of the state. It is, therefore, the purpose of sections 22a-36 to 22a-45, inclusive, to protect the citizens of the state by making provisions for the protection, preservation, maintenance and use of the inland wetlands and watercourses by minimizing their disturbance and pollution; maintaining and improving water quality in accordance with the highest standards set by federal, state or local authority; preventing damage from erosion, turbidity or siltation; preventing loss of fish and other beneficial aquatic organisms, wildlife and vegetation and the destruction of the natural habitats thereof; deterring and inhibiting the danger of flood and pollution; protecting the quality of wetlands and watercourses for their conservation, economic, aesthetic, recreational and other public and private uses and values; and protecting the state's potable fresh water supplies from the dangers of drought, overdraft, pollution, misuse and mismanagement by providing an orderly process to balance the need for the economic growth of the state and the use of its land with the need to protect its environment and ecology in order to forever guarantee to the people of the state, the safety of such natural resources for their benefit and enjoyment and for the benefit and enjoyment of generations yet unborn.

      Purpose of the Inland Wetland agency.

      A. minimizing disturbance and pollution

      B. maintaining/improving water quality

      C. prevention of erosion, turbidity (soil in water), and siltation.

      D. prevention of loss of beneficial aquatic life/habitat.

      E. deterring/inhibiting floods and pollution

      F.protection for economic,aesthetic, and recreational use.

      G. protecting water resources from drought, overdraft, pollution, misuse, and mismanagement.

      H. balance between need for economic growth and protection of environment.

  35. May 2015
    1. India has some of the most polluted cities (air quality wise)

      Air pollution by indoor cooking and lighting is a major health risk. With half the world's population relying on open fireplaces, this is truly a problem of global scale... I found an inspiring company that works on both increasing the accessibility to electricity and a less harmful alternative to conventional open fireplaces. You might be interested in this. You can read about their vision here: http://www.biolitestove.com/pages/mission