433 Matching Annotations
  1. Feb 2024
  2. Jan 2024
    1. so 00:40:49 there would be a mixture and my feeling is if you can't use the tool every single time it gets to be a bit of a hassle that oh today I'm using it tomorrow I'm not using it you you you 00:41:01 you sort of it becomes a cognitive effort to work the tool because you're not working the tool every day it'd be like changing from Mac to Windows every two days it's like oh c how do I do it 00:41:15 how okay it's there and that's not the sort of question you need to ask you don't want to ask yourself that sort of question in the booth you don't have time so you want everything to be very quick

      cognitive effort, switching mode of working, sometimes tool (booth helper), sometimes not.

    1. the other uh the other type of pansexism is what Chris and and um and Carl friston are doing which is 00:48:04 to reformulate basic physics as fundamentally first a uh a proto-cognitive process

      for - definition - proto-cognitive panpsychism

      definition - proto-cognitive panpsychism - this holds that physics itself is an edge phenomena of a much deeper underlying reality which has an element of cognition

    2. if 00:12:01 you're some some alien species that has the ability to literally care about every other being on your planet right in the linear range I mean humans I don't think can do that

      for: - adjacency - between - cognitive cone - bodhisattva -adjacency statement - Bodhisattva could be such a being that Michael Levin refers to

      • If you're some some alien species
      • that has the ability to literally care about every other being on your planet right in the linear range
        • I don't think humans can do that but
      • if there is a creature somewhere that has that level of advance
        • where they can actually have care and compassion for every being and they work towards it
        • they would have a much larger cognitively cone than we do you know more more advanced in that way
    1. thus we have a very highly developed system designed to overcome the limitations in ordinary human perception

      for - key insight - adjacency between - dzogchen training - trekcho - cutting through training - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trekch%C3%B6 - togal - https://www.rigpawiki.org/index.php? title=T%C3%B6gal - cognitive science - evolutionary biology - adjacency statement - It is very interesting that we find parallels between - Dzogchen practice and - our consciousness's attempt to overcome the limits of its own perceptions of reality

  3. Dec 2023
    1. Chess titans have anywhere from 20,000 to 100,000 configurations of pieces, or patterns, committed to memory. They are able to quickly pull relevant information from this mammoth database. With a mere glance, a grandmaster can then figure out how the configuration in front of him is likely to play itself out.

      is this from Ognjen Amidzic's research on chess and memory?

    1. 04:18 All flow triggers are either (a) reducing cognitive load, or (b) increasing dopamine or norepinephrine, that drive focus.

      Rian Doris people to first start reducing cognitive load. People are overwhelmed and feel like they can't take on new habits and tactics. He recommends to remove clutter from one's life. The more clutter we remove, the more time is left for flow.

  4. Nov 2023
    1. about 20 years ago francisco varela introduced a completely new idea in cognitive neurosciences he said that in order to progress in the understanding of the mind 00:08:24 science cannot rely only on the study of cerebral activity but has to create a rigorous method to study human experience
      • for: cognitive neuroscience - shift from study of cerebral function alone, Fransisco Verella, cognitive neuroscience - study of lived experience
  5. Oct 2023
    1. Web components encapsulate all their HTML, CSS and JS within a single file

      Huh? There's nothing inherent to Web Components that makes this true. That's just how the author is using them.

    1. there's a lot of um dissonance confusion that we live as if living a normal life while watching news in our our pocket a kind 00:08:00 of planet in our pocket that says everything's falling apart and yet we go to the shop and we buy our milk and we walk back home as if things were normal so that's kind of the metac 00:08:12 crisis too it's the experience of of confusion that's now baked into our lives as we hear about our world collapsing on the news and on our phones 00:08:25 but often live as if life could carry on forever
      • for: cognitive dissonance, local vs global, polycrisis - cognitive dissonance
    1. 09:00 increases performance increasing neurochemicals & lowering cognitive load - these drive you into flow state, which releases a bunch of other neurochemicals - intrinsic motivation leads into flow, the flow state highers intrinsic motivation, (virtuous cycle)

    1. so we take two uh things that whose size we know could be our thumbs it could be oranges could be poker chips and look at them have one twice as far away as the other first thing to think about is you know as far as our brain and our

      Poker chip example really well explained at the Reality Distortion Kit at the stanford lecture

  6. Sep 2023
    1. But the last question, What of it?, requires considerable restraint on the part of the reader. It is here that the situationwe described earlier may occur-namely, the situation in whichthe reader says, "I cannot fault the author's conclusions, butI nevertheless disagree with them." This comes about, of course,because of the prejudgments that the reader is likely to haveconcerning the author's approach and his conclusions.

      How to protect against these sorts of outcomes? Relation to identity and cognitive biases?

    2. e hard scientist doesis to say that he "stipulates his usage"-that is, he informs youwhat terms are essential to his argument and how he is goingto use them. Such stipulations usually occur at the beginningof the book, in the form of definitions, postulates, axioms, andso forth. Since stipulation of usage is characteristic of thesefields, it has been said that they are like games or have a"game structure."

      Depending on what level a writer stipulates their usage, they may come to some drastically bad conclusions. One should watch out for these sorts of biases.

      Compare with the results of accepting certain axioms within mathematics and how that changes/shifts one's framework of truth.

      • for: bio-buddhism, buddhism - AI, care as the driver of intelligence, Michael Levin, Thomas Doctor, Olaf Witkowski, Elizaveta Solomonova, Bill Duane, care drive, care light cone, multiscale competency architecture of life, nonduality, no-self, self - illusion, self - constructed, self - deconstruction, Bodhisattva vow
      • title: Biology, Buddhism, and AI: Care as the Driver of Intelligence
      • author: Michael Levin, Thomas Doctor, Olaf Witkowski, Elizaveta Solomonova, Bill Duane, AI - ethics
      • date: May 16, 2022
      • source: https://www.mdpi.com/1099-4300/24/5/710/htm

      • summary

        • a trans-disciplinary attempt to develop a framework to deal with a diversity of emerging non-traditional intelligence from new bio-engineered species to AI based on the Buddhist conception of care and compassion for the other.
        • very thought-provoking and some of the explanations and comparisons to evolution actually help to cast a new light on old Buddhist ideas.
        • this is a trans-disciplinary paper synthesizing Buddhist concepts with evolutionary biology
    1. the bodhisattva vial which is which is huge 01:16:56 um it's this it's this commitment it's it's a medical it's the commitment to enlarge your cognitive apparatus to enable bigger goals to enable you to pursue bigger goals with more compassion
      • for: bio-buddhism, bodhisattva vow, compassion
      • comment
        • interesting adjacency between:
          • Buddhism and
          • biology:
        • Adjacency statement
          • The bodhisattva vow is a commitment to enlarge your cognitive apparatus, your cognitive light cone of compassion to enable the pursuit of bigger goals
      • for: bioelectrical networks, cognitive glue, Charles Darwin's Agential materials, bio-buddhism, Michael Levin
      • annotate
    1. ou certainly have a light cone that does not belong to any of your pieces
      • for: individual / collective gestalt, Deep Humanity, superorganism, multi-level superorganism, major evolutionary transition, MET, cognitive light cone, umwelt

      • paraphrase

        • a human being certainly has a light cone that does not belong to any of its pieces (ie cells)
        • at the conscious level of a human being, we have
          • goals
          • preferences
          • hopes
          • dreams
          • narratives
        • humans occupy spaces that do not belong to our individual cells, tissues or organs
          • those smaller parts work in
            • physiological space
            • transcriptional space
            • biomolecular space
        • When we were an embryo we worked in morphogenetic space
      • comment

        • Since MET implies that these smaller structures of which we are constituted like
          • cells and
          • sub-cellular structures like mitochondria
        • were descended from individual organisms long ago in deep history, those contemporary proxies are occupying their own umwelt
    1. Phenomenal consciousness is only seemingly private because in order to measure it one needs to be in the appropriate cognitive frame of reference. It is not a simple transformation to change from a third-person cognitive frame of reference to the first-person frame, but in principle it can be done, and hence phenomenal consciousness isn’t private anymore.
      • for: relativistic theory of consciousness, question, question - shifting cognitive frames
      • question
        • How is this transformation done?
    1. Recent work has revealed several new and significant aspects of the dynamics of theory change. First, statistical information, information about the probabilistic contingencies between events, plays a particularly important role in theory-formation both in science and in childhood. In the last fifteen years we’ve discovered the power of early statistical learning.

      The data of the past is congruent with the current psychological trends that face the education system of today. Developmentalists have charted how children construct and revise intuitive theories. In turn, a variety of theories have developed because of the greater use of statistical information that supports probabilistic contingencies that help to better inform us of causal models and their distinctive cognitive functions. These studies investigate the physical, psychological, and social domains. In the case of intuitive psychology, or "theory of mind," developmentalism has traced a progression from an early understanding of emotion and action to an understanding of intentions and simple aspects of perception, to an understanding of knowledge vs. ignorance, and finally to a representational and then an interpretive theory of mind.

      The mechanisms by which life evolved—from chemical beginnings to cognizing human beings—are central to understanding the psychological basis of learning. We are the product of an evolutionary process and it is the mechanisms inherent in this process that offer the most probable explanations to how we think and learn.

      Bada, & Olusegun, S. (2015). Constructivism Learning Theory : A Paradigm for Teaching and Learning.

    1. This is problematic if we wish to collect widespread metadata for an entity, for the purposes of annotation and networked collaboration. While nothing in the flat-hash ID scheme stops someone from attempting to fork data by changing even a single bit, thereby resulting in a new hash value, this demonstrates obvious malicious intention and can be more readily detected. Furthermore, most entities should have cryptographic signatures, making such attacks less feasible. With arbitrary path naming, it is not clear whether a new path has been created for malicious intent or as an artifact of local organizational preferences. Cryptographic signatures do not help here, because the original signed entity remains unchanged, with its original hash value, in the leaf of a new Merkle tree.

      Author is conflating multiple things.

    1. And, of course, just to be completely clear, this is valid syntax:let _true = true;_true++;_true; // -> 2

      Of course it is. Why wouldn't it be?

  7. Aug 2023
    1. In finance, the greater fool theory suggests that one can sometimes make money through the purchase of overvalued assets — items with a purchase price drastically exceeding the intrinsic value — if those assets can later be resold at an even higher price.
    1. these are the seven main thrusts of the series
      • for: societal design, designing societies, societal architecture, transforming society, whole system change, SSO, social superorganism, John Boik

      The seven main ideas for societal design: 1. societal transformation - is necessary to avoid catastrophe 2. the specific type of transformation is science-based transformation based on entirely new systems - de novo design - 3. A practical way to implement the transformation in the real world - it must be economical, and doable within the short time window for system change before us. - Considering a time period of 50 years for total change, with some types of change at a much higher priority than others. - The change would be exponential so starting out slower, and accelerating - Those communities that are the first to participate would make the most rapid improvements. 4. Promoting a worldview of society as a social superorganism, a cognitive organism, and its societal systems as a cognitive architecture. 5. Knowing the intrinsic purpose of a society - each subsystem must be explained in terms of the overall intrinsic purpose. 6. The reason for transformation - Transformation that improves cognition reduces the uncertainty that our society's intrinsic purpose is fulfilled. 7. Forming a partnership between the global science community and all the local communities of the world.

    1. It was after he heard a BBC interview with Marvin Minsky, a founding father of artificial intelligence, who had famously pronounced that the human brain is “just a computer made of meat.” Minsky‘s claims compelled Penrose to write The Emperor‘s New Mind, arguing that human thinking will never be emulated by a machine. The book had the feel of an extended thought experiment on the non-algorithmic nature of consciousness and why it can only be understood in relation to Gödel‘s theorem and quantum physics.↳Minsky, who died last year, represents a striking contrast to Penrose‘s quest to uncover the roots of consciousness. “I can understand exactly how a computer works, although I’m very fuzzy on how the transistors work,” Minsky told me during an interview years ago. Minsky called consciousness a “suitcase word” that lacks the rigor of a scientific concept. “We have to replace it by ‘reflection’ and ‘decisions’ and about a dozen other things,” he said. “So instead of talking about the mystery of consciousness, let‘s talk about the 20 or 30 really important mental processes that are involved. And when you’re all done, somebody says, ‘Well, what about consciousness?’ and you say, ‘Oh, that’s what people wasted their time on in the 20th century.‘ ”↳But the study of consciousness has not gone the way Minsky had hoped. It‘s now a cottage industry in neuroscience labs and a staple of big-think conferences around the world. Hameroff is one of the driving forces behind this current enthusiasm. For years he and Chalmers have run the biennial “Toward a Science of Consciousness” conference that features dozens of speakers, ranging from hardcore scientists to New Age guru Deepak Chopra and lucid dream expert Stephen LaBerge. Hameroff‘s connection to Penrose also goes back decades. He first contacted Penrose after reading The Emperor‘s New Mind, suggesting he might have the missing biological component that would complement Penrose‘s ideas about the physics of consciousness.

      人工智能之父马文·明斯基(Marvin Minsky)曾经提出过一个著名的说法,人类大脑只不过是「一台用肉做的计算机」。


      已故于 2016 年的明斯基代表着另外一种截然不同观点,与彭罗斯对意识根源的探索形成了鲜明对比。在很多年前的一次采访中,明斯基曾经告诉笔者,「虽然我完全搞不懂晶体管的工作原理,但我能准确地理解计算机的工作原理。」

      明斯基曾经将意识称为一种「皮包词语」,正因为它缺乏科学概念所必需的严谨性。「我们必须要用反思(Reflection)或者决定(Decisions)这样的词来替换意识一词,」明斯基说,「这样一来,与其讨论意识的神秘面纱,我们不如讨论一下意识过程中涉及到的 20 到 30 个重要的心理历程。当你真的完成了所有这些工作后,如果还有人问道,『那什么是意识呢?』你就可以回答说,『那玩意不过是 20 世纪时人类浪费时间的一种方式。』」

      中文译文来自微信公众号「利维坦(liweitan2014)」2020 年的推送「意识无法被计算吗?

    2. Penrose‘s theory promises a deeper level of explanation. He starts with the premise that consciousness is not computational, and it’s beyond anything that neuroscience, biology, or physics can now explain. “We need a major revolution in our understanding of the physical world in order to accommodate consciousness,“ Penrose told me in a recent interview. ”The most likely place, if we‘re not going to go outside physics altogether, is in this big unknown—namely, making sense of quantum mechanics.“↳ Nautilus Members enjoy an ad-free experience. Log in or Join now. He draws on the basic properties of quantum computing, in which bits (qubits) of information can be in multiple states—for instance, in the “on” or “off” position—at the same time. These quantum states exist simultaneously—the “superposition”—before coalescing into a single, almost instantaneous, calculation. Quantum coherence occurs when a huge number of things—say, a whole system of electrons—act together in one quantum state.↳It was Hameroff‘s idea that quantum coherence happens in microtubules, protein structures inside the brain’s neurons. And what are microtubules, you ask? They are tubular structures inside eukaryotic cells (part of the cytoskeleton) that play a role in determining the cell‘s shape, as well as its movements, which includes cell division—separation of chromosomes during mitosis. Hameroff suggests that microtubules are the quantum device that Penrose had been looking for in his theory. In neurons, microtubules help control the strength of synaptic connections, and their tube-like shape might protect them from the surrounding noise of the larger neuron. The microtubules‘ symmetry and lattice structure are of particular interest to Penrose. He believes “this reeks of something quantum mechanical.” ↳Still, you‘d need more than just a continuous flood of random moments of quantum coherence to have any impact on consciousness. The process would need to be structured, or orchestrated, in some way so we can make conscious choices. In the Penrose-Hameroff theory of Orchestrated Objective Reduction, known as Orch-OR, these moments of conscious awareness are orchestrated by the microtubules in our brains, which—they believe—have the capacity to store and process information and memory.↳“Objective Reduction” refers to Penrose‘s ideas about quantum gravity—how superposition applies to different spacetime geometries—which he regards as a still-undiscovered theory in physics. All of this is an impossibly ambitious theory that draws on Penrose’s thinking about the deep structure of the universe, from quantum mechanics to relativity. As Smolin has said, “All Roger‘s thoughts are connected … twistor theory, his philosophical thinking, his ideas about quantum mechanics, his ideas about the brain and the mind.”


      在 2017 年的一次采访中,彭罗斯告诉笔者,「为了理解并认知意识,我们首先要经历一次对于物理世界的巨大认知变革。至于那个可以研究意识本质的领域,如果我们不打算完全脱离物理学范畴的话,那么该领域最有可能一直存在于那个巨大的谜题中,换句话说,我们首先要解开量子物理的谜题。」

      彭罗斯将量子计算的基本特性吸收到他的理论中,即每一比特的信息,即量子位(Qubit)可以同时表现为多种状态,比如同时既是「激活」的,又是「未激活」的。在一次几乎是瞬间完成的计算之前,这些量子态(Quantum States)并未聚合(Coalescing),而是同时存在的,即叠加态(Ssuperposition)。而量子相干性(Quantum Coherence)只有在大量事件在量子态下同时发生的时候才会出现——比如某系统中的大量电子相互作用。



      不过,想要对意识产生任何影响,你需要的不仅仅是随机且持续发生的量子相干性事件。这个过程首先要经过某种方式重组,或者重新经过精心的编排,人类正是因为这一重组过程才能做出有意识的选择。在彭罗斯与哈默洛夫提出的协同客观崩现(Orchestrated Objective Reduction,简称「Orch-OR」)理论中,他们认为人类大脑中的微管会精密编排、操纵这些有意识的瞬间,而正是这样的瞬间给了人脑处理信息并存储记忆的能力。

      所谓「客观崩现」的概念则要涉及到彭罗斯对量子引力——即叠加态如何应用于不同的多个时空几何结构——方面的观点,他也把该理论视为目前物理学尚未发现的理论。然而所有这一切都是一个不可能被验证的、野心勃勃的假说,这个假说不过是借鉴了彭罗斯在量子力学领域和相对论领域对宇宙深层结构的思考。正如斯莫林说过的另一句话:「罗杰的所有观点都是相互勾连的扭量理论(Twistor Theory),无论是他的哲学思想、那些关于量子力学的观点,还是关于人类大脑与心灵的观点。」

      中文译文来自微信公众号「利维坦(liweitan2014)」2020 年的推送「意识无法被计算吗?

  8. Jul 2023
    1. Why are we drawn to people who are clearly not 00:20:59 in the business of public service but want to abuse us and often show us that they are strong men who are oriented towards conquering and dominating rather than serving us? And that puts the mirror back on us. And the answer, I think, is partly to do with evolutionary psychology.
      • key observation
        • we often vote for "strong men" who are not in the business of public service but are oriented towards conquering and dominating due to a cognitive bias developed from tens of thousands of years of evolution.
        • in ancient times, a physically strong man to lead us often increased our chances of survival.
        • This is no longer true today, but that cognitive bias is still with us because evolution takes a long time.
        • Hence, this cognitive bias to select strong men is maladaptive today.
    1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b1_RKu-ESCY

      Lots of controversy over this music video this past week or so.

      In addition to some of the double entendre meanings of "we take care of our own", I'm most appalled about the tacit support of the mythology that small towns are "good" and large cities are "bad" (or otherwise scary, crime-ridden, or dangerous).

      What are the crime statistics per capita about the safety of small versus large?

      Availability bias of violence and crime in the big cities are overly sampled by most media (newspapers, radio, and television). This video plays heavily into this bias.

      There's also an opposing availability bias going on with respect to the positive aspects of small communities "taking care of their own" when in general, from an institutional perspective small towns are patently not taking care of each other or when they do its very selective and/or in-crowd based rather than across the board.

      Note also that all the news clips and chyrons are from Fox News in this piece.

      Alternately where are the musicians singing about and focusing on the positive aspects of cities and their cultures.

    1. In the first half of the 2021-22 school year, the average K-12 student accessed 74 different education technology products, platforms or services while the average K-12 teacher interacted with 86 different tools in the course of their work.
  9. May 2023
    1. https://pressbooks.pub/illuminated/

      A booklet prepared for teachers that introduces key concepts from the Science of Learning (i.e. cognitive neuroscience). The digital booklet is the result of a European project. Its content have been compiled from continuing professional development workshops for teachers and features evidence-based teaching practices that align with our knowledge of the Science of Learning.

    1. High power, and to some extent status, creates psychological distance from others (13).Power thus leads to higher cognitive construal level, allowing the powerful to follow theirdispositions

      "Cognitive construals are described by Coley and Tanner (2012, 2015) as deeply held cognitive frameworks. They are interpretations of the world that, while useful in some contexts, can be broadly misapplied."

  10. Apr 2023
    1. Wow, this is me. A friend once analogized it to being like a light source. I am a laser, deeply penetrating a narrow spot, but leaving the larger field in the dark while I do so. Other people are like a floodlight, illuminating a large area, but not deeply penetrating any particular portion of it.

      This way of thinking should be treated with care (caution, even), lest it end up undergirding a belief in a false dichotomy.

      That can be a sort of "attractive people are shallow and dumb and unattractive people are intelligent and deep"-style mindtrap.

    1. It sounds like the non-enthusiast “reimplement everything in my favorite language” answer is that Go’s FFI is a pain, even for C.

      Relative to the experience that Golang developers are used to, yes, it's a pain.

      But that isn't to say it's any more or less painful on an absolute scale, esp. wrt what comprises typical experiences in other ecosystems.

    1. I am extremely gentle by nature. In high school, a teacher didn’t believe I’d read a book because it looked so new. The binding was still tight.

      I see this a lot—and it seems like it's a lot more prevalent than it used to be—reasoning from a proxy. Like trying to suss out how competent someone is in your shared field by looking at their GitHub profile, instead just asking them questions about it (e.g. the JVM). If X is the thing you want to know about, then don't look at Y and draw conclusions that way. (See also: the X/Y problem.) There's no need to approach things in a roundabout, inefficient, error-prone manner, so don't bother trying unless you have to.

  11. Mar 2023
    1. the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change released its “synthesis” report summarizing the findings of its sixth assessment (the last occurred in 2014). The findings are painfully familiar: the world is falling far short of its emission goals, and without rapid reductions this decade, the planet is likely to shoot to beyond 1.5 or even 2 degrees Celsius of warming this century (we are at 1.1 degrees now). We seem to be stuck in a doom-loop news cycle where scientific reports create headlines, and earnest climate commentators insist the new report represents a true “wake-up call” for action, and then . . . emission keep rising. They hit a record once again in 2022. The world of climate politics appears to exist in two completely different worlds. There is a largely liberal and idealist world of climate technocrats where science informs policy, and there is the real, material capitalist world of power.
      • A good observation
        • about the cognitive dissonance of the situation
    1. Common sense is actually a pretty bad indicator of truth. Because of cognitive biases and preconceived opinions, ideas that sound right are often wrong. “Common sense is actually nothing more than a deposit of prejudices laid down in the mind prior to the age of eighteen,” Einstein presumably said.
    1. Yes, this can be managed by a package-lock.json

      This shouldn't even be an argument. package-lock.json isn't free. It's like cutting all foods with Vitamin C out of your diet and then saying, "but you can just take vitamin supplements." The recommended solution utterly fails to account for the problem in the first place, and therefore fails to justify itself as a solution.

    1. It isn't a good long term solution unless you really don't care at all about disk space or bandwidth (which you may or may not).

      Give this one another go and think it through more carefully.

  12. Feb 2023
    1. i'll ask now maurice to tell us a bit about his work
      • = Maurice Benayoun
      • describes his extensive history of cognitive science infused art installations:
      • cognitive art,
      • VR art,
      • AR art and
      • art infused by AI (long before the AI artbots became trendy)
      • title = What can cognitive science bring to art and museums?

      • Comment = Maurice Benayoun has applied cognitive science, VR and AR too many at installations throughout his life.

    2. to guide you through this 00:06:24 model very quickly was first published in 2004 it's a lot cited in the field of empirical aesthetics it tries to explain how we process artworks by claiming that there are perceptual analyzers followed by 00:06:38 implicit memory integrations or familiarity aspects then explicit classifications where the perceiver in his perception perceives the style or the content 00:06:51 and then followed by later stages that we called cognitive mastering
      • Cognitive science model of what happens in the brain of a perceiver of art
      • The model was first published in 2004 it's cited often in the field of empirical aesthetics
      • it tries to explain how we process artworks by claiming that:
        • there are perceptual analyzers followed by
        • implicit memory integrations or familiarity aspects then
        • explicit classifications where the perceiver in his perception perceives the style or the content
        • followed by later stages that we called cognitive mastering
    3. cognitive scientists can also provide museums and artists with a specific understanding of how the interaction between artworks and viewers can operate 00:02:34 so to discuss potential applications of cognitive sciences to museums and art
      • cognitive science can provide museums and artists with a specific understanding
      • of how the interaction between artworks and viewers can operate
      • this meeting explores potential applications of cognitive sciences to museums and art
    1. Collecting does not transform us and always postpones learning and transformation to the future. Collecting creates debt that we promise to pay back in some future that never arrives.

      There's some truth and falsity here...

    1. belief perseverance
      • belief perseverance
      • definition
        • a cognitive bias in which people encountering evidence that runs counter to their beliefs will, instead of reevaluating what they’ve believed up until now, tend to reject the incompatible evidence
    2. Confronting facts that don’t line up with your worldview may trigger a “backfire effect,”
      • Confronting facts that don’t line up with your worldview
      • may trigger a “backfire effect,”

      • Comment

        • in contentious issues, merely presenting facts may more deeply entrench there other's held beliefs
    3. It can feel like an attack on you if one of your strongly held beliefs is challenged.
      • It can feel like an attack on you
      • if one of your strongly held beliefs is challenged.

      • Comment

        • question
          • what causes a strongly held belief?
          • what makes use feel a threat?
          • why does it generate fear in some but not others?
    1. people’s desire for sweet and fatty tasting foods.
      • example
        • people’s desire for sweet and fatty tasting foods
        • In ancestral times,
          • sugar and fat typically signaled positive nutritional value (Ramirez, 1990).
          • Consequently, people’s sensory systems are designed
          • to detect the presence of sugar or fat in food,
          • and the brain’s gustatory centers produce desirable taste sensations
          • when those foods are consumed.
          • This would have served our ancestors well,
          • facilitating the choice of beneficial and nutritious foods.
        • in modern times
          • Many foods found in post-industrialized societies
          • contain processed sugars, hydrogenated oils, and other additives that enhance the taste of the food
          • without adding any nutritional benefits.
          • Foods laden with corn syrup, for example,
          • typically contain high numbers of calories
          • and their regular consumption can result in obesity, diabetes, and other problems.
        • Thus, the mismatch between
        • the features of ancestral versus modern foodstuffs
        • can lead adaptive sensory mechanisms
        • to produce maladaptive physiological consequences.
        • The desire for sweet and fat foods
        • promotes health problems,
        • even when this desire operates in a perfectly normal manner
        • and would produce health benefits
        • in the environment for which it was designed
    2. Some of the challenges people face today, however, diverge quite a bit from those faced by their ancestors. Such divergences can lead adaptive psychological mechanisms to “misfire” – to respond in ways that might have been adaptive in the past, but that no longer produce adaptive consequences today.
      • Some of the challenges people face today,
      • diverge quite a bit from those
      • faced by their ancestors.
      • Such divergences can ,- lead adaptive psychological mechanisms to “misfire”
      • to respond in ways that might have been adaptive in the past,
      • but that no longer produce adaptive consequences today.
    3. Psychological adaptations have been designed over thousands of generations of human evolution. The adaptations humans possess today, then, were designed to operate in the Environment of Evolutionary Adaptedness, a composite of the social and physical challenges as they have existed for hundreds of thousands of years
      • Psychological adaptations have been designed over thousands of generations of human evolution.
      • The adaptations humans possess today, then,
      • were designed to operate in the Environment of Evolutionary Adaptedness,
      • a composite of the social and physical challenges as they have existed for hundreds of thousands of years (Bowlby, 1969; Cosmides & Tooby, 1992).
      • As such, they may or may not be well-adapted
      • for life in contemporary society
    4. we describe a conceptual framework for understanding adaptive sources of dysfunction – for identifying and combating “adaptations gone awry.”
      • we describe a conceptual framework
      • for understanding adaptive sources of dysfunction
      • for identifying and combating “adaptations gone awry.”
    5. Each reflects the operation of psychological mechanisms that were designed through evolution to serve important adaptive functions, but that nevertheless can produce harmful consequences.
      • Each of these 4 problems
        • anxiety disorder
        • domestic violence
        • racial prejudice
        • obesity
      • reflects the operation of psychological mechanisms
      • that were designed through evolution
      • to serve important adaptive functions, - but that nevertheless can produce harmful consequences.
    6. What do anxiety disorders, domestic violence, racial prejudice, and obesity all have in common?
      • question
        • What do
          • anxiety disorders,
          • domestic violence,
          • racial prejudice, and
          • obesity
      • all have in common?
      • answer
        • maladaptive cognitive biases!
    7. mismatches between current environments and ancestral environments
      • cognitive biases may cause dysfunction due to mismatches between:
        • current environments and
        • ancestral environments
    8. from aggression and international conflict to overpopulation and the destruction of the environment, people display a capacity for great selfishness and antisocial behavior. Can an evolutionary perspective – with its inherent focus on the functionality of human behavior – help explain the occasionally self-destructive and maladaptive side of human nature?
      • from aggression and international conflict to overpopulation and the destruction of the environment,
      • people display a capacity for great selfishness and antisocial behavior.
      • Can an evolutionary perspective
      • with its inherent focus on the functionality of human behavior
      • help explain the occasionally self-destructive and maladaptive side of human nature?
    9. Relative to the evolutionary past, social relationships in modernized western societies tend to involve a much wider variety of relationships, along with relatively less immediate connection with close, kin-based support networks
      • Relative to the evolutionary past,
      • social relationships
      • in modernized western societies
      • tend to involve
      • a much wider variety of relationships,
      • along with relatively less immediate connection
      • with close, kin-based support networks
    10. From an evolutionary perspective, social anxiety is designed primarily to help people ensure an adequate level of social acceptance and, throughout most of human history, this meant acceptance in a tightly-knit group based primarily of biological kin
      • From an evolutionary perspective, - social anxiety is designed primarily
      • to help people ensure
      • an adequate level of social acceptance and,
      • throughout most of human history,
      • this meant acceptance
      • in a tightly-knit group
      • based primarily of biological kin
    11. Although social anxiety can serve useful functions, it can also involve excessive worry, negative affect, and exaggerated avoidance of social situations. Understanding the root causes of anxiety-related problems is an essential step in the development of interventions and policies to reduce dysfunction.
      • Although social anxiety can serve useful functions,
      • it can also involve excessive worry, negative affect, and exaggerated avoidance of social situations.
      • Understanding the root causes of anxiety-related problems
      • is an essential step
      • in the development of
      • interventions and policies
      • to reduce dysfunction.
  13. Jan 2023
    1. On the other hand, it means that you now need to trust that Apple isn’t going to fuck with the podcasts you listen to.

      There really is no substantial increase in trust. You were already trusting their player to do the right thing.

    1. Premium feeds are rehosted by Apple and it's huge PITA because we have ad-supported public feeds and ad-free premium feeds and need to build them twice.

      The author here makes it sound like they have to reach out and grab content stream chunks, stitch them together with their own hands, and then plonk them down on the assembly line for 14 hours a day or something.

      It's a program. You write a program that does the building.

    1. 个人学习可能取决于他人行为的主张突出了将学习环境视为一个涉及多个互动参与者的系统的重要性
  14. Dec 2022
    1. At its most tame, Ancient Apocalypse simply reinforces a deeply conservative understanding of human history. Conservative, yes, because despite Hancock’s claim to challenge every orthodoxy going, his ideas—like those of Ignatius Loyola Donnelly, Erich von Däniken, and other so-called “pseudo-archaeologists”—rest on a baseline assumption that technology should always be advancing in linear fashion, from primitive simplicity to modern complexity.

      There is a broad, conservative baseline assumption within much of archaeology that technology always proceeds in a linear fashion from primitive simplicity to modern complexity.

      Archaeologists and historians need to watch carefully for this cognitive bias.

    1. programs with type errors must still be specified to have a well-defined semantics

      Use this to explain why Bernhardt's JS wat (or, really, folks' gut reaction to what they're seeing) is misleading.

    1. The author of this editorial claims that there is moral value in using the emissions made by a human body over the course of its lifetime in determining if one should be given life. Making a departure from natural selection, and from sexual attraction and ignoring maternal instinct and cultural familial practices and norms. He proposes that the act of being alive can be measured in its impact upon others who will share the future climate them and since the impact is not 0 then there must be an upper limit of "too many". Immorally, he does not include a measure of "too few" and does not make any mention of the problems society has with exponential population decline. Such as Japan currently selling more adult than infant diapers as their population collapses because of too few children. In fact there is no mention of generational replacement or reproduction rate. Just a simplistic measure of a human impact upon the environment with the entirety of positive impact deleted, omitted, ignored completely. There is in fact no moral high ground in maintaining or promoting the idea that human life has no positive value to the earth. Failing to see ones own value or the value of human life as a whole, rejecting the desire to help human kind survive and prosper and reducing human beings to objects with emissions and no positive output potential is morally reprehensible and not a scientifically sound conclusion, given the observable facts. Among them, that every human being alive on the planet today, standing shoulder to shoulder, would not fill the area of los angeles, and setting aside one acre of our best land for every human being on earth would require an area no arger than texas. There is no scientific basis for concluding there are too many people or that the future humans would benefit from lower population. it is a common error, in the media today, where the impact on climate is evaluated out of the context of all other scilences where positive impacts and negative impacts of human life are observable. Such as biological sciences or earth sciences. it is true, that if we lived on a gas giant, where the only element of the planetary ecosystem was the climate, then such an evaluation of our "carbon footprint" would be meaningful. but since we have a planet with oceans dryland and predators and dangerous conditions, it is morrally reprehensible to suggest our population not maximize its potential to survive to see the future so many are trying to protect by literally throwing their babies out with the bathwater. It is impossible to contribute to the well-being of human life in editorial if you do not have a love of human life. My heart goes out to anyone who takes this article seriously. You do not have to limit your fertility to help humankind survive.

  15. Nov 2022
    1. unused classes

      again: unmatched class selectors

      additionally, it's not the fact that they are unmatched (or that they are class selectors specifically) that it's a problem—it's the fact that there are a lot of them

      the entire choice of focusing on classes and class selectors here is basically a red herring

    1. J. Russell Ramsay, Ph.D.

      Prof of clinical psychology in psychiatry. Specializes in CBT for ADHD. Think I orginally learned about from mentions by Russell Barkley, and listened to conversations of the ADHD reWired podcast

    1. Meta-analysis statistical procedures provide a measure of the difference between two groups thatis expressed in quantitative units that are comparable across studies

      The units are only "comparable across studies" if there weren't any mishaps (eg, clinical or methodological heterogeneity). If there's clinical heterogeneity, then we're probably comparing apples to oranges (ie, either participants, interventions, or outcomes are different among studies). If there's methodological heterogeneity, then that means there's a difference in study design

    2. Quadrants I and II: The average student’s scores on basic skills assessments increase by21 percentiles when engaged in non-interactive, multimodal learning (includes using textwith visuals, text with audio, watching and listening to animations or lectures that effectivelyuse visuals, etc.) in comparison to traditional, single-mode learning. When that situationshifts from non-interactive to interactive, multimedia learning (such as engagement insimulations, modeling, and real-world experiences – most often in collaborative teams orgroups), results are not quite as high, with average gains at 9 percentiles. While notstatistically significant, these results are still positive.

      I think this is was Thomas Frank was referring to in his YT video when he said "direct hands-on experience ... is often not the best way to learn something. And more recent cognitive research has confirmed this and shown that for basic concepts a more abstract learning model is actually better."

      By "more abstract", I guess he meant what this paper calls "non-interactive". However, even though Frank claims this (which is suggested by the percentile increases shown in Quadrants I & II), no variance is given and the authors even state that, in the case of Q II (looking at percentile increase of interactive multimodal learning compared to interactive unimodal learning), the authors state that "results are not quite as high [as the non-interactive comparison], with average gains at 9 percentiles. While not statistically significant, these results are still positive." (emphasis mine)

      Common level of signifcances are \(\alpha =.20,~.10,~.05,~.01\)

    1. Contents 1 Overview 2 Reasons for failure 2.1 Overconfidence and complacency 2.1.1 Natural tendency 2.1.2 The illusion of control 2.1.3 Anchoring 2.1.4 Competitor neglect 2.1.5 Organisational pressure 2.1.6 Machiavelli factor 2.2 Dogma, ritual and specialisation 2.2.1 Frames become blinders 2.2.2 Processes become routines 2.2.3 Resources become millstones 2.2.4 Relationships become shackles 2.2.5 Values becomes dogmas 3 The paradox of information systems 3.1 The irrationality of rationality 3.2 How computers can be destructive 3.3 Recommendations for practice 4 Case studies 4.1 Fresh & Easy 4.2 Firestone Tire and Rubber Company 4.3 Laura Ashley 4.4 Xerox 5 See also 6 References

      Wiki table of contents of the Icarus paradox

    1. That's a whole different topic. Mastodon isn't built for single-user instances.

      That's the entire topic, my guy!

      "We should be optimising Mastodon so it incentivises more serve[r]s with fewer people." is the very premise of the conversation!

      Mastodon "push[ing] the direction of the protocol or make it harder to cultivate an ecosystem of smaller ones."? "it needs to be easier to start smaller ones"? Are you just not paying attention to the conversations you're responding to?

      Reminds me of:

      What fascinated me was that, with every single issue we discussed, we went around in a similar circle — and Kurt didn’t seem to see any problem with this, just so long as the number of 2SAT clauses that he had to resolve to get a contradiction was large enough.


    1. layers of wat are essentially hacks to build something resembling a UI toolkit on top of a document markup language

      So make your application document-driven (i.e. actually RESTful).

      It's interesting that we have Web forms and that we call them that and yet very few people seem to have grokked the significance of the term and connected it to, you know, actual forms—that you fill out on paper and hand over to someone to process, etc. The "application" lies in that latter part—the process; it is not the visual representation of any on-screen controls. So start with something like that, and then build a specialized user agent for it if you can (and if you want to). If you find that you can't? No big deal! It's not what the Web was meant for.

    1. Socrates is turned into a systematic set of psycho-technologies that you internalise into your metacognition. So, what became crucial for Plato, as we saw, was argumentation. But for Antisthenes the actual confrontation with Socrates was more important. Both Plato and Antisthenes are interested in the transformation that Socrates is affording.Plato sees this happening through argumentation. Antesthenes sees it as happening through confrontation because... And you can see how they're both right, because in Socratic elenchus, Socrates comes up and he argues with you. But of course he's also confronting you. We talked about how he was sort of slamming the Axial revolution into your face! So, Antesthenes has a follower, Diogenes, and Diogenes epitomizes this: This confrontation. And by looking at the kinds of confrontation we can start to see what the followers of Antesthenes are doing. So Diogenes basically does something analogous to provocative performance art. He gets in your face in a way that tries to provoke you to realizations. Those kinds of insights that will challenge you. He tries to basically create aporia in you, that shocked experience that you had when confronting Socrates that challenges you to radically transform your life. But instead of using argumentation and discussion, as Socrates did and Plato picked up on, they were really trying to hone in on how to try to be as provocative as possible.

      John Vervaeke on Socrates becoming set of psychotechnologies to internalize and augment metacognition. Agues agumentation become central for Plato, whereas confrontation itself become central for Antisthenes. They're disagree about how the cause of the transformation through the Socratic approach

      Unclear is stoics take up Plato's mantle of argumentation orientation, but they at least seem distinct from the Cynics (Antisthenes & teach Diogenes

      Aporia is moment of shock from experience that you're radically transformed. Could be from Diogenes' provocative performance art or through discourse a la Plato & Socrates

      Nietzche may have favored Cynics approach over stoic/Socratic. Possible parallel in left-hand path and right-hand path. Quick & risky vs. slow & steady

    1. Google Scholar is needed to access annotations in context "Listen to the noise: noise is beneficial for cognitive performance in ADHD"

    2. The most intriguing result in the present study is thepositive effect of white noise on performance for theADHD children. This noise effect was present in boththe non-medicated and medicated children. Thissupports the MBA (Moderate Brain Arousal) model(Sikstro ̈m & So ̈derlund, 2007), suggesting that theendogenous (neural) noise level in children withADHD is sub-optimal. MBA accounts for the noise-enhancing phenomenon by stochastic resonance(SR). The model suggests that noise in the environ-ment introduces internal noise into the neural sys-tem through the perceptual system. Of particularimportance, the MBA model suggests that the peakof the SR curve depends on the dopamine level, sothat participants with low dopamine levels (ADHD)require more noise for optimal cognitive performancecompared to controls.

      Author's self-described "most intriguing result"

    3. It has long been known that cognitive processing iseasily disturbed by noise and other distractors(Broadbent, 1958).

      Known for who? General populations? Specific subpopulations?

    4. The MBAmodel predicts that noise enhances memory perfor-mance for ADHD and attenuates performance forcontrols. We will also argue for a link between theeffects of noise, dopamine regulation, and cognitiveperformance.

      Prediction of Moderate Brain Arousal model and author's additional argument.

    5. Results: Noise exerted a positive effect on cognitive performance forthe ADHD group and deteriorated performance for the control group, indicating that ADHD subjectsneed more noise than controls for optimal cognitive performance

      Explains why studies on music at general population have conflicting results (ie, general decrease in capacity to focus with noisy environment). Wonder if this relates to atonal or discordant and dissonant music (free jazz, avant-guarde, etc) or polyrhythmic and odd metered time signatures

    1. I have a suspicion that you're not putting the source for the specific versions of glibc and Linux you used into every one of your projects.

      Why are people so seduced by this dumb argument—to the point that they almost seem proud of it?

      First, it's presumptuous. Who says we're even using glibc instead of some other libc—which I just might choose to include in the projects I work on? Who says we're even using Linux, for that matter?

      Secondly, even if we were, let's assume that we're not, and then see if that teaches us anything about the overall line of reasoning. The original comment was about NPM. NPM is used a fair bit for not just backend stuff but for managing packages used in the browser, too. Let's assume, for simplicity, that our program is entirely a browser-based JS+HTML+CSS app with no backend to speak of. Would the same people argue that, among other things, the Web browser sources would need to be included? Does it even make sense to argue that? Asking the system software question betrays a failure to accurately grapple with the classes of software artifacts we're dealing with, their role in the overall project, and our responsibility for them.

  16. Oct 2022
    1. This shifts the responsibility of checking which posts are new new/updated onto the parser

      For checking which posts are new/updated, this is always the case. The only thing the HTTP cache-related headers can tell is that the feed itself has/hasn't changed.

    1. That's an interesting point about empirical testing. If you just ask lawyers and judges in the abstract whether they'd like citations up in the body or down in footnotes, they'll vote for the former. But if you show them actual examples of well-written opinions in which the citations are subordinated, the results are very different.
    1. In the past whenwe attempted to share it, we foundourselves spending more time gettingoutsiders up to speed than on our ownresearch. So I finally had to establishthe policy that we will not provide thesource code outside the group
    1. yogachara theory and i'm thinking here about three nature theory and three naturelessness theory suggests to us that we are simply wired for certain illusions and among them is 00:29:19 the illusion of immediacy um and we're wired to thematize our experience through the framework of subject object duality i often compare this to the way that we're wired for certain 00:29:31 optical illusions for instance you don't have to learn to see the mueller liar illusion as an illusion we all see it as an illusion and it's because of the way our visual system has evolved and there are lots of other optical illusions like 00:29:44 that the color five phenomenon for instance and so forth yogachara really takes very seriously the idea that from beginning with time we've evolved karmic predispositions to certain kinds of 00:29:55 illusions and these are some of them and of course a little bit of reflection shows that that duality has to be illusory um after all um we are 00:30:09 not subject pure subjects standing outside of the world of our experience confronting a world of objects some of them outer and some of them inner that's the vedanta position that ain't the buddhist position instead what we are is 00:30:24 organisms and again i will set aside all of the debates we might have about how those organisms are constituted but we are organisms embedded in an environment and our bodies our sense faculties are 00:30:37 part of the world in which we find ourselves as a consequence our subjectivity our own engagement with the world is constituted not by standing outside and detecting things but rather by being 00:30:51 embedded in the world and the only way that we could possibly become aware of any object whether it's a tree or an apple or a thought or a feeling is to construct that as an object in our field 00:31:04 of consciousness even if in doing so we manage to hide from ourselves the fact that we are constructing it

      yogacara theory holds that we are hard-wired for the illusion of immediacy and to see from subject/object dualism, even though part of us know we are embedded in the world and not completely separate from it.

      !- critical insight : suffering - we manage to hide the fact that we construct the object we experience from ourselves

      Example of this illusion of immediacy is how we have so many visual illusions.

    2. this is not to say that our inner life has some kind of a second grade um existence conventional reality is not 00:25:14 second level reality um because as the guardian and chandra kirti also emphasized we must remember that conventional reality dependent 00:25:26 origination is exactly the same as emptiness which is ultimate reality the only kind of reality anything that we ever encounter is going to have is conventional reality so when i'm talking 00:25:38 here about cognitive illusion i'm not arguing that the existence of our interstates um is illusory i'm arguing that the illusion is that we have immediate access to them as they are and 00:25:51 that their mode of existence um is um intrinsic existence so this allows us to understand the majority analysis of the most fundamental cognitive illusion 00:26:04 of all the illusion of the immediacy of our knowledge of our own minds and the givenness of our own interstates and processes our direct knowledge of them as the kinds of things they are independent of 00:26:18 any concepts that's the illusion that wittgenstein quine and sellers each in there worked so hard in the 20th century to diagnose and to cure but we can put this just as easily and maybe more 00:26:31 easily in the terms of second century indian madhyamaka the fundamental cognitive illusion is to take our mental states to exist intrinsically rather than conventionally and to take our knowledge of them to be 00:26:45 immediate independent of conventions this illusion is pervasive it is instinctive and it is profoundly self-alienating because it obscures the deeply conventional character of our own 00:26:57 existence and of our self-knowledge and this illusion is what according to buddhist philosophers lies at the root of our grasping of our attraction and diversion and hence at the root of the 00:27:09 pervasive suffering of existence

      This fundamental illusion of immediacy lay at the root of our ignorance in the world. We mistaken our mental states to exist intrinsically instead of conventionally. We don't think they depend on language, but they do, in a very deep way.

      From a Deep Humanity perspective, even our instantly arisen mental states are part of the symbolosphere..mediated by the years of language conditioning of our culture.

      !- critical insight of : Buddhist philosophy - we take our mental states to exist intrinsically rather than conventionally - this illusion is pervasive, instinctive and profoundly self-alienating and lay at the root of all suffering Our language symbols are our model through which we interpret reality. We inhabit the symbolosphere but we mistaken it for intrinsic reality.

    3. there's a second kind of cognitive illusion this first cognitive illusion as i've suggested is thematized both in buddhist philosophy and in western philosophy but the second 00:07:06 kind of illusion i find not thematized so much in the west though in some quarters it is some but not all but very much stabilized in in buddhist philosophy and that is the superimposition of subject object 00:07:19 duality um and when we do that um we take the nature of our experience to be primordially structured as subject standing outside of the world viewing an 00:07:31 object now we always know we know that on the slightest bit of reflection that that's crazy that we are biological organisms embedded in a physical world and that 00:07:43 all of our experience is the result of that embodied embedded and embedded experience in the world it's still however almost irresistible to have that kind of image of ourselves as wittgenstein put it as like the eye 00:07:56 to the visual field that we stand outside of the world as pure subject with everything else taken as object and that reflexive taking of experience that way is a very profound kind of cognitive 00:08:09 illusion one that is extremely hard to shake to overcome illusion though we first have to come to know that illusion better you need to know your enemy in 00:08:21 order to defeat your enemy and so i'm going to spend a lot of time trying to acquaint us with the nature of these illusions that is to say if we want to avoid a pointless trek through the desert uh for 00:08:34 water we'd better know that what we're seeing is a mirage and not an oasis when we become aware of that fact then we're able to redirect ourselves in the right uh in the right direction

      Jay talks about the depth of the second cognitive illusion, thematized in Buddhism but not so much in Western philosophy - the illusion of a self with respect to other.

      4E (Embedded, Embodied, Enactive, Extended) Cognition is based on an intuitive idea that we know from very simple experience - you and I are part of the world. We have bodies that are embedded in reality.

      We have a reflexive and profoundly entrenched embrace of dualism - that we are NOT of this world, but stand apart from it. This cognitive illusion is EXTREMELY hard to penetrate.

    1. Wieman, Carl. “How to Become a Successful Physicist.” Physics Today 75, no. 9 (September 2022): 46–52. https://doi.org/10.1063/PT.3.5082

      The details here are also good in teaching almost all areas of knowledge, particularly when problem solving is involved.

      How might one teach the practice of combinatorial creativity?

    2. An adviser should have their students explicitly practice decisions 25 and 26, test their solutions, and try to come up with the ways their decisions could fail, including alternative conclusions that are not the findings that they were hoping for. Thinking of such failure modes is something that even many experienced physicists are not very good at, but our research has shown that it can be readily learned with practice.

      To help fight cognitive bias, one should actively think about potential failure modes of one's decisions and think about alternative conclusions which aren't part of the findings one might have hoped for. Watching out for these can dramatically help increase solution spaces and be on the watch out for innovative alternate or even better solutions.

    3. Cognitive-science research shows that people improve learning efficiency by practicing the set of specific cognitive tasks required for their area of expertise.11. K. A. Ericsson, R. T. Krampe, C. Tesch-Römer, Psych. Rev. 100, 363 (1993); https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.100.3.363A. Ericsson, R. Pool, Peak: Secrets from the New Science of Expertise, HarperOne (2017). Although that approach is based on learning research, it is uncoincidentally quite similar to the ideal master–apprentice method for traditionally teaching a craft (see figure 1).

      The master-apprentice model of teaching and learning in which the master breaks down a problem into a set of subskills which the apprentice solves and practices with regular feedback for improvement is broadly similar to best pathways shown in cognitive science research on improving learning efficiency for building expertise.


    1. To be able to trustone's own experience, even if it often turns out to beinadequate, is one mark of the mature workman. Suchconfidence in o n e ' s own experience is indispensable tooriginality in any intellectual pursuit, and the file is onetool by which I have tried to develop and justify suchconfidence.

      The function of memory served by having written notes is what allows the serious researcher or thinker to have greater confidence in their work, potentially more free from cognitive bias as one idea can be directly compared and contrasted with another by direct juxtaposition.

  17. Sep 2022
    1. your cognitive load increases with the level of indentation. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 if r.Method == "GET" { if r.Header.Get("X-API-KEY") == key { // ok return nil }else{ return errors.New("Key is not valid") } } else { return errors.New("Invalid Method") }
    2. Cognitive capacity is the total amount of information the brain is capable of retaining at any particular moment. This amount is finite, so we can say our total capacity is only ever 100%. How much of one’s cognitive capacity is being used towards a particular task at any given time is called the cognitive load
    1. As discussed in Chapter 1, there are many myths and misperceptions sur-rounding who the poor are. The typical image is of someone who haslived in poverty for years at a time, is Black or Hispanic, resides in aninner-city ghetto, receives two or three welfare programs, and is reluctantto work. On all counts, this image is a severe distortion of the reality.

      The authors here do themselves and their public a disservice by repeating the myth up front before trying to dispel it. This may psychologically tend to reinforce it rather than priming the reader to come to believe the opposite.

      A better framing might instead be George Lakoff's truth sandwich: present the truth/actuality, then talk about the myth and then repeat the truth again.

    1. https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/information-overload-helps-fake-news-spread-and-social-media-knows-it/

      Good overview article of some of the psychology research behind misinformation in social media spaces including bots, AI, and the effects of cognitive bias.

      Probably worth mining the story for the journal articles and collecting/reading them.

    2. n a recent laboratory study, Robert Jagiello, also at Warwick, found that socially shared information not only bolsters our biases but also becomes more resilient to correction.
    3. We confuse popularity with quality and end up copying the behavior we observe.

      Popularity ≠ quality in social media.

    4. Even our ability to detect online manipulation is affected by our political bias, though not symmetrically: Republican users are more likely to mistake bots promoting conservative ideas for humans, whereas Democrats are more likely to mistake conservative human users for bots.
    5. Unable to process all this material, we let our cognitive biases decide what we should pay attention to.

      In a society consumed with information overload, it is easier for our brains to allow our well evolved cognitive biases to decide not only what to pay attention to, but what to believe.

    1. https://thehill.com/homenews/senate/3641225-mcconnell-throws-shade-on-grahams-proposed-national-abortion-ban/

      I've recently run across a few examples of a pattern that should have a name because it would appear to dramatically change the outcomes. I'm going to term it "decisions based on possibilities rather than realities". It's seen frequently in economics and politics and seems to be a form of cognitive bias. People make choices (or votes) about uncertain futures, often when there is a confluence of fear, uncertainty, and doubt, and these choices are dramatically different than when they're presented with the actual circumstances in practice.

      A recent example was a story about a woman who was virulently pro-life who when presented with a situation required her to switch her position to pro-choice.

      Another relates to choices that people want to make about where their children might go to school versus where they actually send them, and the damage this does to public education.

      Let's start collecting examples of these quandaries at all levels of making choices in the real world.

      What is the relationship to this with the mental exercise of "descending into the particular"?

      Does this also potentially cause decision fatigue in cases of voting spaces when constituents are forced to vote for candidates on thousands of axes which they may or may not agree with?

    1. a bigger source tree

      Someone is going to need to eventually explain their convoluted reasons for labeling this a downside.

      Sure, strictly speaking, a bigger source tree is bad, but delegating to package.json and npm install doesn't actually change anything here. It's the same amount of code whether you eagerly fetch all of it at the same time or whether you resort to late fetching.

      Almost none of the hypothetical benefits apply to the way development is handled in practice. There was one arguably nice benefit, but it was a benefit for the application author's repo host (not the application author), and the argument in favor of it evaporated when GitHub acquired NPM, Inc.

    2. Vendoring means that you aren’t going to get automatic bugfixes, or new bugs, from dependencies

      No, those are orthogonal. Whether you obtain the code for your dependency* at the same time you clone your repo or whether you get it by binding by name and then late-fetching it after the clone finishes, neither approach has any irreversible, distinct consequences re bugs/fixes.

      * and it still is a dependency, even when it's "vendored"...

  18. Aug 2022
    1. Anthony Costello. (2022, February 24). The risks of cognitive symptoms lasting at least 12 MONTHS were much higher in the infected group. 4.8x higher for fatigue, 3.2x for brain fog, 5.3x for poor memory, and an incredible 51x for altered taste and smell. We need data on children, but it could easily be similar. (17) https://t.co/JC1qYyW2Xc [Tweet]. @globalhlthtwit. https://twitter.com/globalhlthtwit/status/1496957266016313348

    1. You can use terribly slow scripting and techniques and get something working, not because the tooling is genius, but because the hardware is so incredibly fast.

      If the thesis is sound, then logically we should expect the instances where people have decided to "use terribly slow scripting and techniques" to produce better programs; the not-slow (non-"scripting") stuff to be worse.

      You can only pick one:

      • software is worse because hardware improvements mean that what were previously noticeable inefficiencies are no longer noticeable
      • programs that are written in low-level languages and don't as much incur runtime overheads are better on average because they're written in low-level languages that aren't as wasteful
    1. And it’s like, no, no, you know? This is an adaptation thing. You know, computers are almost as old as television now, and we’re still treating them like, “ooh, mysterious technology thing.” And it’s like, no, no, no! Okay, we’re manipulating information. And everybody knows what information is. When you bleach out any technical stuff about computers, everybody understands the social dynamics of telling this person this and not telling that person that, and the kinds of decorum and how you comport yourself in public and so on and so forth. Everybody kind of understands how information works innately, but then you like you try it in the computer and they just go blank and you know, like 50 IQ points go out the window and they’re like, “doh, I don’t get it?” And it’s the same thing, it’s just mediated by a machine.
    1. Corollary: Spolsky (at least at the time of this article) didn't really understand types, having about the same grasp on computing fundamentals as your average C programmer.