301 Matching Annotations
  1. Nov 2023
  2. Oct 2023
    1. the name knot is a direct reference to actual knots tied on the rope. One end of the rope was then attached to a big spool which the rope was wound up on and the other end of the rope was attached to a type of triangular wooden board in a very specific way. The idea was actually pretty simple. The wooden board which was called the chip log was then thrown overboard from the back of the ship and one of the sides of the wooden ship had a lead weight to keep it vertical on the surface of the sea. As the ship then sped forward, the wood was supposed to stay mostly still on the surface of the water, with the rope quickly unwinding from the spool. On the rope, there were knots spaced out on regular intervals either every 47 feet and 3 inches or every 48 ft, depending on which source you use. The idea was that the sailors would use a small hourglass which measured either 28 seconds or 30 seconds, again, depending on the source and they would count how many knots went by in that time and the answer that they then derived from this exercise was the ship's speed, measured in literal knots

      Origin of "knot" as a unit of length

      Also "knot" is nautical miles per hour.

    2. one being that a nautical mile is the meridian arc length, corresponding to one minute of a degree of latitude. In other words, the full circumference of the earth is 360° and a nautical mile is one 60th of one degree at the equator but that's a historical definition. Today, a nautical mile is defined using the metric system like everything else and it is exactly 1,852 meters.

      Historic and current definitions of "nautical mile"

    3. the United States officially started defining its own units by using the metric system as a reference, way back in 1893 with something called the Mendenhall Order. And that means that, for example, today, the inch is not defined as the length of three barley corns which genuinely was its official definition for centuries, instead the inch is now officially defined as 25.4 millimeters and all other US customary units have similar metric definitions

      United States Customary Units defined with metric measurements

      Also referred to as the Traditional System of Weights and Measures

  3. Sep 2023
  4. Aug 2023
    1. In computing, the robustness principle is a design guideline for software that states: "be conservative in what you do, be liberal in what you accept from others". It is often reworded as: "be conservative in what you send, be liberal in what you accept". The principle is also known as Postel's law, after Jon Postel, who used the wording in an early specification of TCP.

      https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robustness_principle

      Robustness principle: be conservative in what you do, be liberal in what you accept from others.

  5. Jun 2023
    1. Unlike many developed countries, the United States lacks a national curriculum or teacher-training standards. Local policies change constantly, as governors, school boards, mayors and superintendents flow in and out of jobs.

      Many developed countries have national curricula and specific teacher-training standards, but the United States does not. Instead decisions on curricular and standards are created and enforced at the state and local levels, often by politically elected figures including governors, mayors, superintendents, and school boards.

      This leaves early education in the United States open to a much greater sway of political influence. This can be seen in examples of Texas attempting to legislate the display the ten commandments in school classrooms in 2023, reading science being neglected in the adoption of Culkins' Units of Study curriculum, and other footballs like the supposed suppression of critical race theory in right leaning states.

  6. May 2023
  7. Apr 2023
    1. It sounds like the non-enthusiast “reimplement everything in my favorite language” answer is that Go’s FFI is a pain, even for C.

      Relative to the experience that Golang developers are used to, yes, it's a pain.

      But that isn't to say it's any more or less painful on an absolute scale, esp. wrt what comprises typical experiences in other ecosystems.

    1. A primary advantage of REST over HTTP is that it uses open standards, and does not bind the implementation of the API or the client applications to any specific implementation.
  8. Mar 2023
    1. As others pointed out, OATH's claims of "open source" have little meaning when compared to other authentication protocols such as SAML. When you include the entire Liberty Alliance specifications as well as the Web Services Initiative protocols and methods (as devised by Microsoft and IBM) there's nary a proprietary bit of code involved. Actually, there's no code involved at all. Protocols are, by their very nature, open. If you can't read the protocol specification then you can't very well implement it, can you?
    1. 1930s Wilson Memindex Co Index Card Organizer Pre Rolodex Ad Price List Brochure

      archived page: https://web.archive.org/web/20230310010450/https://www.ebay.com/itm/165910049390

      Includes price lists

      List of cards includes: - Dated tab cards for a year from any desired. - Blank tab cards for jottings arranged by subject. - These were sold in 1/2 or 1/3 cut formats - Pocket Alphabets for jottings arranged by letter. - Cash Account Cards [without tabs]. - Extra Record Cards for permanent memoranda. - Monthly Guides for quick reference to future dates. - Blank Guides for filing records by subject.. - Alphabet Guides for filing alphabetically.

      Memindex sales brochures recommended the 3 x 5" cards (which had apparently been standardized by 1930 compared to the 5 1/2" width from earlier versions around 1906) because they could be used with other 3 x 5" index card systems.

      In the 1930s Wilson Memindex Company sold more of their vest pocket sized 2 1/4 x 4 1/2" systems than 3 x 5" systems.

      Some of the difference between the vest sized and regular sized systems choice was based on the size of the particular user's handwriting. It was recommended that those with larger handwriting use the larger cards.

      By the 1930's at least the Memindex tag line "An Automatic Memory" was being used, which also gave an indication of the ubiquity of automatization of industrialized life.

      The Memindex has proved its success in more than one hundred kinds of business. Highly recommended by men in executive positions, merchants, manufacturers, managers, .... etc.

      Notice the gendering of users specifically as men here.

      Features: - Sunday cards were sold separately and by my reading were full length tabs rather than 1/6 tabs like the other six days of the week - Lids were custom fit to the bases and needed to be ordered together - The Memindex Jr. held 400 cards versus the larger 9 inch standard trays which had space for 800 cards and block (presumably a block to hold them up or at an angle when partially empty).

      The Memindex Jr., according to a price sheet in the 1930s, was used "extensively as an advertising gift".

      The Memindex system had cards available in bundles of 100 that were labeled with the heading "Things to Keep in Sight".

    1. By tying the question of limits to human needsand requirements for their satisfaction, they neither demand asceti-cism or renunciation, nor pursue unspecifed moral suasion in termsof “we should consume less.” Rather, they highlight the necessity –diffcult to pursue but rich in participatory rewards – to jointly defnethe conditions necessary to live a good life, and the subsequent stepsnecessary to make such a good life possible for all individuals. By pro-viding freedom to pursue the good life in an ecologically and sociallyfrayed world, these limits offer the beneft of ensuring that all otherindividuals living now and into the future can do so as well.
      • Comment
      • perspective is critical.
      • Rather than employing moral suasion, we need to really define what is meant by a good life.
      • Many of the materially wealthy are emotionally unhappy, and so material wealth does not equate to "a good life"
      • This point must be really understood by the elites of the world.
      • Often elites come from a background of escaping poverty themselves and wealth acts as a pathological buffer against extreme poverty
    2. Justice in the context of consumption corridorsmeans that every person deserves access to a defned minimum level ofecological and social resources necessary to be able to live a good life,solely because they are a human being (what scholars call a natural-law-based perspective on justice).
      • Definition - Natural Law
      • a natural law based perspective of justice claims that every person deserves access to a defined minimum level of ecological and social resources necessary to live a "good life".
    3. Minimum consumption standards will ensure that individualsliving now or in the future are able to satisfy their needs, safeguardingaccess to the necessary quality and quantity of ecological and socialresources. Maximum consumption standards, in turn, are needed toensure that consumption by some individuals does not threaten theopportunity for a good life for others. The space between the foor ofminimum consumption standards and the ceiling of maximum con-sumption standards produces a sustainable consumption corridor.

      -Paraphrase - Minimum consumption standards - will ensure that individuals living now or in the future are able to satisfy their needs, safeguarding access to the necessary quality and quantity of ecological and social resources. - Maximum consumption standards* - in turn, are needed to ensure that consumption by some individuals does not threaten the opportunity for a good life for others. - Consumption corridor - Sustainable consumption corridor** - The space between the floor of minimum consumption standards and the ceiling of maximum con- sumption standards produces a sustainable consumption corridor.

    1. A complaint some users have about the Sonos Beam (Gen 2) and Arc soundbars is that there’s no built-in decoding for the lossless DTS:X and DTS-HD Master Audio formats.

      Sonos not supporting the free/non-royalty payment multi-channel system is the most Sonos thing I've ever heard.

  9. Feb 2023
  10. tantek.com tantek.com
    Five years ago last Monday, the @W3C Social Web Working Group officially closed^1. Operating for less than four years, it standardized several foundations of the #fediverse & #IndieWeb: #Webmention #Micropub #ActivityStreams2 #ActivityPub Each of these has numerous interoperable implementations which are in active use by anywhere from thousands to millions of users. Two additional specifications also had several implementations as of the time of their publication as W3C Recommendations (which you can find from their Implementation Reports linked near the top of each spec). However today they’re both fairly invisible "plumbing" (as most specs should be) or they haven’t picked up widespread use like the others: #LinkedDataNotifications (LDN) #WebSub To be fair, LDN was only one building block in what eventually became SoLiD^2, the basis of Tim Berners–Lee’s startup Inrupt. However, in the post Elon-acquisition of Twitter and subsequent Twexodus, as Anil Dash noted^3, “nobody ran to the ’web3’ platforms”, and nobody ran to SoLiD either. The other spec, WebSub, was roughly interoperably implemented as PubSubHubbub before it was brought to the Social Web Working Group. Yet despite that implementation experience, a more rigorous specification that fixed a lot of bugs, and a test suite^4, WebSub’s adoption hasn’t really noticeably grown since. Existing implementations & services are still functioning though. My own blog supports WebSub notifications for example, for anyone that wants to receive/read my posts in real time. One of the biggest challenges the Social Web Working Group faced was with so many approaches being brought to the group, which approach should we choose? As one of the co-chairs of the group, with the other co-chairs, and our staff contacts over time, we realized that if we as chairs & facilitators tried to pick any one approach, we would almost certainly alienate and lose more than half of the working group who had already built or were actively interested in developing other approaches. We (as chairs) decided to do something which very few standards groups do, and for that matter, have ever done successfully. From 15+ different approaches, or projects, or efforts that were brought^5 to the working group, we narrowed them down to about 2.5 which I can summarize as: 1. #IndieWeb building blocks, many of which were already implemented, deployed, and showing rough interoperability across numerous independent websites 2. ActivityStreams based approaches, which also demonstrated implementability, interoperability, and real user value as part of the OStatus suite, implemented in StatusNet, Identica, etc. 2.5 "something with Linked Data (LD)" — expressed as a 0.5 because there wasn’t anything user-visible “social web” with LD working at the start of the Working Group, however there was a very passionate set of participants insisting that everything be done with RDF/LD, despite the fact that it was less of a proven social web approach than the other two. As chairs we figured out that if we were able to help facilitate the development of these 2.5 approaches in parallel, nearly everyone who was active in the Working Group would have something they would feel like they could direct their positive energy into, instead of spending time fighting or tearing down someone else’s approach. It was a very difficult social-technical balance to maintain, and we hit more than a few bumps along the way. However we also had many moments of alignment, where two (or all) of the various approaches found common problems, and either identical or at least compatible solutions. I saw many examples where the discoveries of one approach helped inform and improve another approach. Developing more than one approach in the same working group was not only possible, it actually worked. I also saw examples of different problems being solved by different approaches, and I found that aspect particularly fascinating and hopeful. Multiple approaches were able to choose & priortize different subsets of social web use-cases and problems to solve from the larger space of decentralized social web challenges. By doing so, different approaches often explored and mapped out different areas of the larger social web space. I’m still a bit amazed we were able to complete all of those Recommendations in less than four years, and everyone who participated in the working group should be proud of that accomplishment, beyond any one specification they may have worked on. With hindsight, we can see the positive practical benefits from allowing & facilitating multiple approaches to move forward. Today there is both a very healthy & growing set of folks who want simple personal sites to do with as they please (#IndieWeb), and we also have a growing network of Mastodon instances and other software & services that interoperate with them, like Bridgy Fed^6. Millions of users are posting & interacting with each other daily, without depending on any large central corporate site or service, whether on their own personal domain & site they fully control, or with an account on a trusted community server, using different software & services. Choosing to go from 15+ down to 2.5, but not down to 1 approach turned out to be the right answer, to both allow a wide variety^7 of decentralized social web efforts to grow, interoperate via bridges, and frankly, socially to provide something positive for everyone to contribute to, instead of wasting weeks, possibly months in heated debates about which one approach was the one true way. There’s lots more to be written about the history of the Social Web Working Group, which perhaps I will do some day. For now, if you’re curious for more, I strongly recommend diving into the group’s wiki https://www.w3.org/wiki/Socialwg and its subpages for more historical details. All the minutes of our meetings are there. All the research we conducted is there. If you’re interested in contributing to the specifications we developed, find the place where that work is being done, the people actively implementing those specs, and even better, actively using their own implementations^8. You can find the various IndieWeb building blocks living specifications here: * https://spec.indieweb.org/ And discussions thereof in the development chat channel: * https://chat.indieweb.org/dev If you’re not sure, pop by the indieweb-dev chat and ask anyway! The IndieWeb community has grown only larger and more diverse in approaches & implementations in the past five years, and we regularly have discussions about most of the specifications that were developed in the Social Web Working Group. This is day 33 of #100DaysOfIndieWeb #100Days ← Day 32: https://tantek.com/2023/047/t1/nineteen-years-microformats → 🔮 Post Glossary: ActivityPub https://www.w3.org/TR/activitypub/ ActivityStreams2 https://www.w3.org/TR/activitystreams-core/ https://www.w3.org/TR/activitystreams-vocabulary/ Linked Data Notifications https://www.w3.org/TR/ldn/ Micropub https://micropub.spec.indieweb.org/ Webmention https://webmention.net/draft/ WebSub https://www.w3.org/TR/websub/ References: ^1 https://www.w3.org/wiki/Socialwg ^2 https://www.w3.org/wiki/Socialwg/2015-03-18-minutes#solid ^3 https://mastodon.cloud/@anildash/109299991009836007 ^4 https://websub.rocks/ ^5 https://indieweb.org/Social_Web_Working_Group#History ^6 https://tantek.com/2023/008/t7/bridgy-indieweb-posse-backfeed ^7 https://indieweb.org/plurality ^8 https://indieweb.org/use_what_you_make - Tantek
    1
    1. How digital solutions improve regulatory compliance: Facility documentation

      As healthcare regulations become increasingly complex, digital solutions are becoming essential tools for compliance. This recent blog post provides a comprehensive overview of how technology can streamline compliance tasks, reduce errors, and improve patient safety.

  11. Jan 2023
    1. Standards codify and institutionalize values.

      This is a very important point. When approaching Common Core and State Standards, we should be mindful of the values these standards impose and approach them from a position insistant on issues of race, socio-economic class, identity, and power..

  12. Dec 2022
    1. Tom MacWright, a software developer in Brooklyn, has firsthand experience with the pitfalls of ActivityPub. As an experiment, he tried to turn his photo blog into an actor that could be followed by users via their Mastodon accounts. It worked in the end—and you can search for @photos@macwright.com from your Mastodon instance to follow his photography—but it wasn't easy.

      Example of how ActivityPub standards don't work in practice, in part because Mastodon is an 800 pound gorilla which actively flauts or adds their own "standards".

    2. "Queer people built the Fediverse," she said, adding that four of the five authors of the ActivityPub standard identify as queer. As a result, protections against undesired interaction are built into ActivityPub and the various front ends. Systems for blocking entire instances with a culture of trolling can save users the exhausting process of blocking one troll at a time. If a post includes a “summary” field, Mastodon uses that summary as a content warning.
    1. He filled the library at Vivarium with texts onthese subjects and transformed the production of manuscripts in hisscriptorium by developing proper standards and methods forcopying. As one of the few notable scholars of his period,Cassiodorus played a vital role in the survival of classical culture inItaly, saving books from the smoking ruins of Roman libraries,preserving and reproducing them

      What exactly were the standards created for copying manuscripts by Cassiodorus at the scriptorium at Vivarium?

    1. Note: it is not possible to apply a boolean scope with just the query param being present, e.g. ?active, that's not considered a "true" value (the param value will be nil), and thus the scope will be called with false as argument. In order for the scope to receive a true argument the param value must be set to one of the "true" values above, e.g. ?active=true or ?active=1.

      Is this behavior/limitation part of the web standard or a Rails-specific thing?

    1. This document is a companion to the IIIF Content Search API Specification, Version 2.0. It describes the changes to the API specification made in this major release, including ones that are backwards incompatible with version 1.0, the previous version.
  13. Nov 2022
    1. Donations

      To add some other intermediary services:

      To add a service for groups:

      To add a service that enables fans to support the creators directly and anonymously via microdonations or small donations by pre-charging their Coil account to spend on content streaming or tipping the creators' wallets via a layer containing JS script following the Interledger Protocol proposed to W3C:

      If you want to know more, head to Web Monetization or Community or Explainer

      Disclaimer: I am a recipient of a grant from the Interledger Foundation, so there would be a Conflict of Interest if I edited directly. Plus, sharing on Hypothesis allows other users to chime in.

  14. tantek.com tantek.com
    #TwitterMigration, first time? Have posted notes to https://tantek.com/ since 2010, POSSEd tweets & #AtomFeed. Added one .htaccess line today, and thanks to #BridgyFed, #Mastodon users can follow my #IndieWeb site @tantek.com@tantek.com No Mastodon install or account needed. Just one line in .htaccess: RewriteRule ^.well-known/(host-meta|webfinger).* https://fed.brid.gy/$0 [redirect=302,last] is enough for Mastodon users to search for and follow that @tantek.com@tantek.com username. Took a little more work to setup Bridgy Fed to push new posts to followers. Note by the way both the redundancy & awkwardness (it’s not a clickable URL) of such @-@ (AT-AT) usernames when you’re already using your own domain. Why can’t Mastodon follow a username of “@tantek.com”? Or just “tantek.com”? And either way expanding it internally if need be to the AT-AT syntax. Why this regression from what we had with classic feed readers where a domain was enough to discover & follow a feed? Also, why does following show a blank result? Contrast that with classic feed readers which immediately show you the most recent items in a feed you subscribed to. Lastly (for now), I asked around and no one knew of a simple public way to “preview” or “validate” that @tantek.com@tantek.com actually “worked”. You have to be *logged-in* to a Mastodon instance and search for a username to check to see if it works. Contrast that with https://validator.w3.org/feed/ which you can use without any log-in to validate your classic feed file. Why these regressions from the days of feed readers? - Tantek
    1
    1. https://forum.obsidian.md/t/alternative-checkboxes-icon-bullets-copy-and-paste/35962

      A list of alternative checkboxes or icon bullets for Obsidian (and potentially other platforms). Potentially useful for search and filtering as well.


      • [ ] to-do
      • [/] incomplete
      • [x] done
      • [-] canceled
      • [>] forwarded
      • [<] scheduling
      • [?] question
      • [!] important
      • [*] star
      • ["] quote
      • [l] location
      • [b] bookmark
      • [i] information
      • [S] savings
      • [I] idea
      • [p] pros
      • [c] cons
      • [f] fire
      • [k] key
      • [w] win
      • [u] up
      • [d] down
    1. https://dainty-sable-264aa3.netlify.app/project/measuring_thinking_tools.html

      Openness should be broken out into smaller subsections to highlight the importance of supporting standards as a primary item by itself. Many of these axes are easier, low-hanging fruit that developers will iterate on anyway. Focusing on the harder and more subtle features like standards is a better way to go for the audience that can really use this now.

      Many of these axes are better for a commercial market.

    1. How Shipping Containers Took Over the World (then broke it) by Calum on YouTube

      Oct 5, 2022

      The humble shipping container changed our society - it made International shipping cheaper, economies larger and the world much, much smaller. But what did the shipping container replace, how did it take over shipping and where has our dependance on these simple metal boxes led us?

  15. Oct 2022
    1. standards are documentation, not legislation. We have been working in the w3c Social Web Working Group to clarify and document newer, simpler protocols, but rough consensus and running code does define the worlds we see

      Marks says standards should be descriptive (doc) of actual things used/happening, not prescriptive (legislation). Usable distinction. Interesting to me is that the EU data strategy does both, legislation that has a mechanism to point to documentation and declare it a rule or instigate the creation of such documentation.

    1. For the second time Goutor mentions using different size cards for different note types, but doesn't specifically advise for it or provide a reason. Perhaps his advice for consistency and card size applies only to cards of particular types? (p28)

      link to: https://hypothes.is/a/XPphjkNZEe2s3i9VV4qt1g


      Incidentally he also specifically mentions 7x9" cards here too. How frequently used were these as a standard?

    2. While he previously recommended using note cards of the same size, the examples in Goutor (1980) have 3x5" cards for bibliographic notes and 5x7" or larger cards for content notes. (p19, 21)


      Is there a reason stated anywhere here for this discrepancy or change? One would ostensibly keep them in different places/sections of one's card index, but does the size difference help to differentiate the two to aid in sorting? Is the larger card intended to hold more long form writing?

      Goutor is in Canada, so were 5x7" cards more common or standardized there in the late 1970s and early 80s?

      A5 measures 148 × 210 millimeters or 5.83 × 8.27 inches, so is a bit larger than 5x7".

      5x7" is a more standard photo size, so was this chosen as the result of storage options from the photography space?

      5x7" is scantly available in America in 2022, but only from Hamilco. A few others make cardstock in that size but not specifically as index cards.

    1. “I always thought that was sort of black magic,” Vint Cerf, a pioneer of Internet infrastructure, told me.

      Vint Cerf on NTP

      If Vint Cerf thinks it is black magic, you know it is going to be deeply complex code. The rest of the article bears this out.

  16. Sep 2022
    1. Posted byu/jackbaty4 hours agoCard sizes .t3_xib133._2FCtq-QzlfuN-SwVMUZMM3 { --postTitle-VisitedLinkColor: #9b9b9b; --postTitleLink-VisitedLinkColor: #9b9b9b; --postBodyLink-VisitedLinkColor: #989898; } I've been on-again/off-again with paper for PKM, but one thing remains consistent each time: I don't enjoy using 4x6 index cards. I much prefer 3x5-inch cards. I realize that it's irrational, but there it is.My question is if I dive into building an antinet, will I regret using 3x5 cards? I already have hundreds of them. I have dividers, holders, and storage boxes for them. I just prefer how they _feel_, as weird as that sounds.I'd like to hear if people are using 3x5 cards successfully or if you've come to regret it.

      While it may be slightly more difficult to find larger metal/wood cases for the 4x6 or 5x8 cards, it's a minor nuisance and anyone who wants them will eventually find the right thing for them. Beyond this, choose the card size that feels right to you.

      If you don't have an idea of what you need or like, try things out for 10-20 cards and see how it works for you, your handwriting size, and general needs. People have been using 3x5, 4x6, and even larger for hundreds of years without complaining about any major issues. If Carl Linnaeus managed to be okay with 3x5, which he hand cut by the way, I suspect you'll manage too.

      Of course I won't mention to the Americans the cleverness of the A6, A5, A4 paper standards which allows you to fold the larger sizes in half to get the exact next smaller size down. Then you might get the benefit of the smaller size as well as the larger which could be folded into your collection of smaller cards, you just have to watch out for accidentally wrapping ("taco-ing") a smaller card inside of a larger one and losing it. I suppose you could hand cut your own 5" x 6" larger cards to do this if you found that you occasionally needed them.

      For the pocketbook conscious, 3x5 does have the benefit of lower cost as well as many more options and flexibility than larger sizes.

      At least commercial card sizes are now largely standardized, so you don't have deal with changing sizes the way Roland Barthes did over his lifetime.

      My personal experience and a long history of so many manuals on the topic saying "cards of the same size" indicates that you assuredly won't have fun mixing different sized slips together. I personally use 3x5" cards in a waste book sense, but my main/permanent collection is in 4x6" format. Sometimes I think I should have done 3 x 5, but it's more like jealousy than regret, particularly when it comes to the potential of a restored fine furniture card catalog. But then again...

  17. Aug 2022
    1. While the admin-istrative scientist Luhmann ignores the librarian’s dictum in his consideration of theproper paper for the project out of spatial concerns, DIN 1504, which, apart from theInternational Library Format, only allows DIN A 6 and DIN A 7 for “literature cards,”18regrettably goes unused.

      Despite his career as an administrative scientist, Luhmann eschewed the International Library Format which allows for DIN A6 and DIN A7 for "literature cards."

      Cross reference:

      1. See Deutsches Institut für Normung e.V. (DIN), Publikation und Dokumentation 2. Erschließung von Dokumenten, Informationsverarbeitung, Reprographie, Bibliotheksverwaltung, Normen, vol. 154 of DIN-Taschenbuch , 2nd ed. (Berlin, Kö ln: Beuth, 1984), 64f.

      link to https://hypothes.is/a/hKgd_t1jEeyxoxOujPZNkg

    1. Depending on the scope of the notes that need to be taken, one uses either the A6format, or the next bigger one, which is A5 (21 x 14.8 cm), or the double sized A4 (29.6 x 21cm). After filling them with words, sheets of A5 size will be folded once, A4 size twice, sothat they return to our basic A6 size.

      This is the first time I've seen in the literature the suggestion to write notes on larger sheets and then fold them up. This is largely only recommended here because of the standardization of the paper sizes in such a way that folding an A4 makes an A5 and folding an A5 gives an A6 and so on...

    2. alphabetical rules as presented by the Reich’s Committee on Economy
    3. the date “2nd of August 1932” turns into 1932-08-02 according to the“Classification bibliographique” IV (Tableau auxiliaire: Temps. Brüssel 1904).
    4. For use on the desk, papersheets are the right choice.

      paper over card in terms of sheet thickness, particularly over time

    1. shall I adopt the 3x5 slip or the 4x61

      Dow indicates in 1924 that 3 x 5" and 4 x 6" are both commonly had in a range of materials the US as well as boxes or cases to keep them in. He does mention that one can also cut their own paper, indicating that this is a possibility.

    1. Mechanical form.Use standard size (8t/,xll in.) type-writer pa er or the essay paper in standard use a t the in-stitution. %or typing, use an unruled bond paper of goodquality, such as “Paragon Linen” or “Old Hampshire Mills.”At the left of the page leave a margin of 1% to l’/e inches;and a t the top, bottom, and right of the page, a margin of1 inch. Write only on one side of the paper. In ty in thelines should be double-spaced. Each chapter shouyd feginon a new page. Theses for honors and degrees must be typed;other essays may be typed or legibly written in ink. Whetherthe essay is typed or written, the use of black ink is prefer-able. The original typewritten copy must be presented. Incase two copies of a thesis are required, the second copymust be the first carbon and must be on the same quality ofpaper as the original.

      Definitely a paragraph aimed at the student in the manner of a syllabus, but also an interesting tidbit on the potential evolution of writing forms over time.


      How does language over time change with respect to the types and styles of writing forms, particularly when they're prescribed or generally standardized over time? How do these same standards evolve over time and change things at the level of the larger pictures?

  18. Jul 2022
    1. Because I wanted to make use of a unified version of the overall universe of knowledge as a structural framework, I ended up using the Outline of Knowledge (OoK) in the Propædia volume that was part of Encyclopedia Britannica 15th edition, first published 1974, the final version of which (2010) is archived at -- where else? -- the Internet Archive.

      The Outline of Knowledge appears in the Propædia volume of the Encyclopedia Britannica. It is similar to various olther classification systems like the Dewey Decimal system or the Universal Decimal Classification.

    1. https://udcsummary.info/php/index.php?lang=en

      Interesting defined vocabulary and concatenation/auxiliary signs for putting ideas into proximity.

      Could be useful for note taking. Probably much harder to get people to adopt this sort of thing with shared notes/note taking however.

      Somewhat similar to the Dewey Decimal classification system.

    1. https://www.zylstra.org/blog/2022/06/spring-83/

      I've been thinking about this sort of thing off and on myself.

      I too almost immediately thought of Fraidyc.at and its nudge at shifting the importance of content based on time and recency. I'd love to have a social reader with additional affordances for both this time shifting and Ton's idea of reading based on social distance.

      I'm struck by the seemingly related idea of @peterhagen's LindyLearn platform and annotations: https://annotations.lindylearn.io/new/ which focuses on taking some of the longer term interesting ideas as the basis for browsing and chewing on. Though even here, one needs some of the odd, the cutting edge, and the avant garde in their balanced internet diet. Would Spring '83 provide some of this?

      I'm also struck by some similarities this has with the idea of Derek Siver's /now page movement. I see some updating regularly while others have let it slip by the wayside. Still the "board" of users exists, though one must click through a sea of mostly smiling and welcoming faces to get to it the individual pieces of content. (The smiling faces are more inviting and personal than the cacophony of yelling and chaos I see in models for Spring '83.) This reminds me of Stanley Meyers' frequent assertion that he attempted to design a certain "sense of quiet" into the early television show Dragnet to balance the seeming loudness of the everyday as well as the noise of other contemporaneous television programming.

      The form reminds me a bit of the signature pages of one's high school year book. But here, instead of the goal being timeless scribbles, one has the opportunity to change the message over time. Does the potential commercialization of the form (you know it will happen in a VC world crazed with surveillance capitalism) follow the same trajectory of the old college paper facebook? Next up, Yearbook.com!

      Beyond the thing as a standard, I wondered what the actual form of Spring '83 adds to a broader conversation? What does it add to the diversity of voices that we don't already see in other spaces. How might it be abused? Would people come back to it regularly? What might be its emergent properties?

      It definitely seems quirky and fun in and old school web sort of way, but it also stresses me out looking at the zany busyness of some of the examples of magazine stands. The general form reminds me of the bargain bins at book stores which have the promise of finding valuable hidden gems and at an excellent price, but often the ideas and quality of what I find usually isn't worth the discounted price and the return on investment is rarely worth the effort. How might this get beyond these forms?

      It also brings up the idea of what other online forms we may have had with this same sort of raw experimentation? How might the internet have looked if there had been a bigger rise of the wiki before that of the blog? What would the world be like if Webmention had existed before social media rose to prominence? Did we somehow miss some interesting digital animals because the web rose so quickly to prominence without more early experimentation before its "Cambrian explosion"?

      I've been thinking about distilled note taking forms recently and what a network of atomic ideas on index cards look like and what emerges from them. What if the standard were digital index cards that linked and cross linked to each other, particularly in a world without adherence to time based orders and streams? What does a new story look like if I can pull out a card either at random or based on a single topic and only see it or perhaps some short linked chain of ideas (mine or others) which come along with it? Does the choice of a random "Markov monkey" change my thinking or perspective? What comes out of this jar of Pandora? Is it just a new form of cadavre exquis?

      This standard has been out for a bit and presumably folks are experimenting with it. What do the early results look like? How are they using it? Do they like it? Does it need more scale? What do small changes make to the overall form?


      For more on these related ideas, see: https://hypothes.is/search?q=tag%3A%22spring+%2783%22

  19. Jun 2022
    1. Is it just me or is there something quirky with the rel="canonical" links for docdrop so that there isn't URL parity for the annotations on docdrop and the equivalent youtube videos. I thought it used to work, but when I visit the youtube version, there are no annotations on the page. I thought this used to work the way one would expect. What changed?

      I'm noticing that in this particular case there are two rel-canonical links when one might expect only one:

      <link rel="canonical" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XgMh6iuFbT4"><br /> <link rel="canonical" href="http://docdrop.org/video/XgMh6iuFbT4/">

      Maybe the docdrop link should be a rel="alternate" instead?

      cc: @dwhly

    1. https://briansunter.com/graph/#/page/logseq-social

      Brian Sunter (twitter) using Logseq as a social network platform.

      What simple standards exist here? Could this more broadly and potentially be used to connect personal wikis, digital gardens, zettelkasten, etc?

      Note that in this thread Dave Winer asks about how it can be tied into other standardized pieces to interconnect?

      How can I hook my outlines into your net if I’m not running Logseq?

      — dave.rss (@davewiner) June 13, 2022
      <script async src="https://platform.twitter.com/widgets.js" charset="utf-8"></script>
  20. May 2022
    1. Despite the librarian card-theoreticalrecommendation of only using cardboard or strong paper as a bearer of information,17Luhmann relies on plain typewriter paper for spatial economy, which can quickly lead,however, to the deterioration of the medium with frequent browsing.

      For Luhmann's time, the librarian recommendation for substrate was either cardboard or strong paper as the carrier for information, but he eschewed this recommendation in favor of plain typewriter paper because it took up less space. This came at the cost of deterioration of many of his cards through regular use however.

    1. Text file You can provide a simple text file that contains one URL per line. The text file must follow these guidelines: The text file must have one URL per line. The URLs cannot contain embedded new lines. You must fully specify URLs, including the http. Each text file can contain a maximum of 50,000 URLs and must be no larger than 50MB (52,428,800 bytes). If you site includes more than 50,000 URLs, you can separate the list into multiple text files and add each one separately. The text file must use UTF-8 encoding. You can specify this when you save the file (for instance, in Notepad, this is listed in the Encoding menu of the Save As dialog box). The text file should contain no information other than the list of URLs. The text file should contain no header or footer information. If you would like, you may compress your Sitemap text file using gzip to reduce your bandwidth requirement. You can name the text file anything you wish. Please check to make sure that your URLs follow the RFC-3986 standard for URIs, the RFC-3987 standard for IRIs You should upload the text file to the highest-level directory you want search engines to crawl and make sure that you don't list URLs in the text file that are located in a higher-level directory. Sample text file entries are shown below. http://www.example.com/catalog?item=1 http://www.example.com/catalog?item=11

      There's been a plaintext sitemap standard this whole time??? Lmao I'm an idiot.

  21. Mar 2022
    1. The current situation is deteriorating as the proliferation of formats reduces the capacity of users to share their work.

      Already in 1998, Ben Shneiderman has presaged and highlights the point of the classic XKCD comic #927 on standards.

  22. Feb 2022
    1. In preparing these instructions, Gaspard-Michel LeBlond, one of their authors, urges the use of uniform media for registering titles, suggesting that “ catalog materials are not diffi cult to assemble; it is suffi cient to use playing cards [. . .] Whether one writes lengthwise or across the backs of cards, one should pick one way and stick with it to preserve uniformity. ” 110 Presumably LeBlond was familiar with the work of Abb é Rozier fi fteen years earlier; it is unknown whether precisely cut cards had been used before Rozier. The activity of cutting up pages is often mentioned in prior descrip-tions.

      In published instructions issued on May 8, 1791 in France, Gaspard-Michel LeBlond by way of standardization for library catalogs suggests using playing cards either vertically or horizontally but admonishing catalogers to pick one orientation and stick with it. He was likely familiar with the use of playing cards for this purpose by Abbé Rozier fifteen years earlier.

    2. It seems to be the fate of libraries that a particular order always coincides with a director ’ s term of service. As soon as a new director, prefect, or manager takes over, one of the fi rst acts tends to be rejection of the present order in favor of establishing a new, often completely different one, mostly legiti-mized by the allegedly encountered chaos that almost forces reorganiza-tion.

      This reorganization of library books and location systems with the change of library directors in the late 1700s sounds similar to the sorts of standards problems today.

      https://xkcd.com/927/

  23. Jan 2022
    1. Depuis longtemps, je suis d’avis que la rigueur d’un cours ne se mesure pas à la quantité de connaissances dont l’enseignant fait étalage, mais aux apprentissages que les étudiants font.

      Which can lead to an assessment of pedagogical efficacy. It's funny, to me, that those who complain about "grade inflation" (typically admins) rarely entertain the notion that grades could be higher than usual if the course went well. The situation is quite different in "L&D" (Learning and Development, typically for training and professional development in an organizational context). "Oh, great! We were able to get everyone to reach the standard for this competency! Must mean that we've done something right in our Instructional Design!"

    2. baisser les attentes
    1. it’s insecure unless the credentials are served over an encrypted HTTPS connection

      The same is true for login systems that use cookies, but no one cites that as a downside. There's an asymmetric standard being applied to HTTP native authentication.

    1. standards and formulate relevant assessments as a sort of quality control for instruction

      That is one way to look at it, but it's a teacher centered approach. How do standards help students? If they do not help students, then they are useless and should be abandonned.

    2. have familiarity with the properties of various types of equipment

      Standard for review

    3. how to move safely in dynamic situations

      Standard for review

  24. Dec 2021
    1. Post-test histology demonstrated photoperiod-dependent reduction and induction of TH-IR neurons

      Histology staining of three dopamine-synthesizing sources in the hypothalamus support the findings in Figure 5E. The amount of TH cells (dopamine-synthesizing cells) in these regions decreases with 6-OHDA and can be partially rescued with short-day photoperiod exposure.

    2. The behavioral results of focal ablation of TH-IR neurons were partially reversed by exposure to the short-day photoperiod, demonstrating behavioral rescue

      Even with 6'OHDA treatment, exposing the animals to short-day photoperiod resulted in some behavioral rescue, reflected by the animals spending more time spent in the open arm in the EPM test and less time spent immobilized in the forced swim test. The difference in behavior is significant comparing results of the short- vs long-day photoperiod exposure. One additional comparison that could be insightful are the results of 6'OHDA on 12L:12D photoperiod exposure; these can be found in Figure 5 B, and do not appear to be significantly different from the long-photoperiod exposure results. Thus, a follow up idea for the researchers is to consider when the effect of increasing the duration of light-exposure in a day begins to saturate.

    3. then exposed animals to the long-day photoperiod, so as to further reduce their number

      Here, dopamine synthesis is being stopped by two things: the neurotoxic agent 6-OHDA and long-day light exposure, a stressor for nocturnal animals. Both treatments should reduce the presence of dopamine-making neurons.

  25. Nov 2021
    1. just because ESG is about virtue signalling and risk management, does not mean it is meaningless. On the contrary, the very fact that company executives feel the need to “signal” ESG virtues shows how the interplay of digital transparency and shifting social norms is creating a feedback loop that cannot be ignored. If that encourages companies to change strategy, say by cutting carbon emissions, it is good. If it puts pressure on governments to make crucial reforms, like introducing a carbon price, it is even better, particularly if companies are shamed into demanding such policy actions.

      Also, aren't ESG standards and goals are supposed to ratchet up as time goes on?

  26. Oct 2021
  27. Sep 2021
    1. counts of TH-IR neurons in A13 after 6-OHDA treatment were not affected, demonstrating that dopaminergic nuclei located as close as 200 μm were spared by focal toxin delivery

      These findings validate the specificity of 6-OHDA's delivery. In the dopaminergic cell group A13 just 200 μm away from the treatment site, the effects of 6-OHDA are not observed.

    2. Are presynaptic changes in transmitter identity matched by changes in postsynaptic receptor populations

      Following action potential firing, transmitters will be sent from the presynaptic, or sending, neuron to the postsynaptic, or receiving, neuron; the received transmitter will thereby alter the likelihood of that postsynaptic neuron firing its own action potential. The experimenters had observed that at certain clusters of neurons in the CNS, short photoperiod exposure increased production of the transmitter dopamine, and long photoperiod exposure led to an increased production of somatostatin. Consequently, the experimenters are questioning whether expression of those cognate postsynaptic receptors, i.e., dopamine receptors or somatostatin receptors, follow suit.

    3. Long-day exposure produced the opposite effects

      For rats, nocturnal mammals, increased photoperiod exposure is a stressor. Consequently, in both the EPM and FST, rats exhibit more depressive/anxious behaviors following long photoperiod exposure. In the EPM test, these rats spend less time in the open arm, and in the FST, they give up swimming and become almost immobile much sooner than the control group. For the short-day exposure group, the rats have more open arm activity, and in the FST persevere for longer, indicating reduced anxiety relative to the control group.

    4. if receptor activation is more substantial than the level of presynaptic SST.

      When expression of a receptor is greater than that of its transmitter, the likelihood of those transmitters binding to the receptor will be high. Thus, if levels of SST2/4R are high compared to the presynaptic SST, then presynaptic SST will likely be able to bind to the cognate receptor, and induce its inhibitory effects.

    5. The number of TH-immunoreactive (TH-IR) neurons decreased with long-day exposure and increased with short-day exposure in relation to control

      A decreased amount of TH-IR neurons means that less dopamine is being produced; this was observed when the rats were given long-day exposure (19 hours of light, 5 hours of darkness). Short-day exposure (5 hours of light, 19 hours of darkness) resulted in the number of TH-IR neurons increasing, a sign of greater dopamine production. These results were all relative to the control group, rats that experienced a balanced-day with 12 hours of light and 12 hours of darkness.

    6. Genetic programs establish initial expression patterns of neurotransmitters in different classes of neurons (1–3), and activity-dependent neurotransmitter respecification modifies them during development, either adding or switching transmitters (4–9). It is unknown, however, whether sensory stimuli promote transmitter switching in addition to other neuroplastic changes (10) in the adult brain.

      It is known that the young developing brain is able to add or switch the transmitters that their neurons express. The question guiding this research is whether sensory stimuli can cause the already mature (adult) brain to experience changes in the types of transmitters that are produced by their neurons.

  28. Aug 2021
    1. This seamless integration works with any LMS (Open edX, Moodle, ...) thanks to the LTI standard for interoperability.
    1. I'm wondering exactly what problem that LOUD standard is meant to be solving exactly? It doesn't appear that any of the meta data they're listing is over and above anything that's already extant?

      If you're going to propose a new set up, why not add some bits to fix the newer problems that have popped up like for paying creators? Being able to inject ads? Better track the number of listens? How far into the file did the listener get? How many ads did they hear?

      And let's not forget:

  29. Jul 2021
  30. datatracker.ietf.org datatracker.ietf.org
    1. It is similarly intended to fail to establish a connection when data from other protocols, especially HTTP, is sent to a WebSocket server, for example, as might happen if an HTML "form" were submitted to a WebSocket server. This is primarily achieved by requiring that the server prove that it read the handshake, which it can only do if the handshake contains the appropriate parts, which can only be sent by a WebSocket client. In particular, at the time of writing of this specification, fields starting with |Sec-| cannot be set by an attacker from a web browser using only HTML and JavaScript APIs such as XMLHttpRequest [XMLHttpRequest].
    2. The WebSocket Protocol is designed on the principle that there should be minimal framing (the only framing that exists is to make the protocol frame-based instead of stream-based and to support a distinction between Unicode text and binary frames). It is expected that metadata would be layered on top of WebSocket by the application Fette & Melnikov Standards Track [Page 9] RFC 6455 The WebSocket Protocol December 2011 layer, in the same way that metadata is layered on top of TCP by the application layer (e.g., HTTP). Conceptually, WebSocket is really just a layer on top of TCP that does the following: o adds a web origin-based security model for browsers o adds an addressing and protocol naming mechanism to support multiple services on one port and multiple host names on one IP address o layers a framing mechanism on top of TCP to get back to the IP packet mechanism that TCP is built on, but without length limits o includes an additional closing handshake in-band that is designed to work in the presence of proxies and other intermediaries Other than that, WebSocket adds nothing. Basically it is intended to be as close to just exposing raw TCP to script as possible given the constraints of the Web. It's also designed in such a way that its servers can share a port with HTTP servers, by having its handshake be a valid HTTP Upgrade request. One could conceptually use other protocols to establish client-server messaging, but the intent of WebSockets is to provide a relatively simple protocol that can coexist with HTTP and deployed HTTP infrastructure (such as proxies) and that is as close to TCP as is safe for use with such infrastructure given security considerations, with targeted additions to simplify usage and keep simple things simple (such as the addition of message semantics).
  31. Jun 2021
  32. stoa.anagora.org stoa.anagora.org
    1. Some conventions may be emerging in a new batch of personal knowledge management tools, or amenable to them; for the duration of this document, we'll refer to these tools as [[personal knowledge management]] tools, [[roam like]] or (preferred as of the time of writing) [[wiki like]].

      It would be incredibly useful to have a list of these [[Roam Research like]] tools so that they can be documented as to what level of input they can/could take and remain compatible from text, to text+[[wiki links]], to the various flavors of markdown up to full HTML perhaps.

      I know a handful are documented at indieweb.org/commonplace_book

  33. May 2021
    1. Whether or not digital gardens should follow any standards is an interesting question.

      What features/functionality should a digital garden have? Is there a canonical list yet?

      I wish more supported Webmention to enable the Memex dream...

    1. why do we have an <img> element? Why not an <icon> element? Or an <include> element? Why not a hyperlink with an include attribute, or some combination of rel values? Why an <img> element? Quite simply, because Marc Andreessen shipped one, and shipping code wins.That’s not to say that all shipping code wins; after all, Andrew and Intermedia and HyTime shipped code too. Code is necessary but not sufficient for success. And I certainly don’t mean to say that shipping code before a standard will produce the best solution.

      Shipping code is necessary, but not sufficient for success.

    1. He proposed the standardized paper size system used globally today except in Canada and the US defined by ISO 216, which has A4 as the most commonly used size.

      This is an interesting bit of trivia.

  34. Apr 2021
  35. Mar 2021
    1. In terms of defining the “open” in open web annotation, I tend to take a standards approach: the Hypothes.is tool is built upon, and our organization advocates for, open standards in web annotation.

      This explanation also highlights an additional idea of open itself. I have heard many in the W3C space criticize the open standard of web annotation arrived at because of the ultimate monoculture of the space. Most of the participants of the process were all related to Hypothes.is in some way and the result was a single product that implemented the standard. To my knowledge no other companies, groups, or individual programmers have separately implemented the standard.

      In this sense, while the "standard" is openly defined, it isn't as open as other standards which were mote slowly evolved and implemented gradually and more broadly by various programming languages and disparate groups.

  36. Feb 2021
  37. Nov 2020
    1. Capacitor's origins lie in Ionic's mission to provide a holistic framework for developing hybrid apps—apps that run on mobile devices, on desktops, and in the browser. It does not only replace Apache Cordova as a “bridge” to native platform access in new Ionic projects but also “provides a consistent, web-focused set of APIs”.
    1. 1.Austausch von Wissen und Erfahrungen, gegenseitige Unterstützung. 2.Aufbau einer Interessengemscheinaft. Gemeinsame Entwicklung, soweit das mit den unterschiedlichen Programmen möglich ist.3.Einen Software-Standard für Verwaltungssoftware entwickeln (also die Programme zueinander kompatibel zu machen, soweit das möglich ist), damit·man diese Komponenten gemeinsam entwickeln kann·diese später vielleicht sogar untereinander austauschbar oder miteinander kombinierbar sind·neue Programmierer mitmachen können, statt allein von vorne anzufangenBetrifft z.B.:·Datenbankstrukturen·Dateiformate·interne und externe APIs4.Entscheidung für eine Software, die wir zukünftig unterstützen, finanziell und entwicklungstechnisch. Die Software soll durch möglichst viele Solawis und Solawi-Typen nutzen können und soll gleichzeitig modular und selbständig durch die Solawis erweitert werden können.

      Die Beispiele können erweitert werden durch die Vorarbeiten die @yova im internationalen Kontext mit Solidbase und in seiner wissenschaftlichen Abschlussarbeit untersucht hat.

  38. Oct 2020
  39. stackoverflow.com stackoverflow.com