170 Matching Annotations
  1. May 2024
    1. Types of Social Movements Sociologists identify several types of social movements according to the nature and extent of the change they seek. This typology helps us understand the differences among the many kinds of social movements that existed in the past and continue to exist today (Snow & Soule, 2009). One of the most common and important types of social movements is the reform movement, which seeks limited, though still significant, changes in some aspect of a nation’s political, economic, or social systems. It does not try to overthrow the existing government but rather works to improve conditions within the existing regime. Some of the most important social movements in U.S. history have been reform movements. These include the abolitionist movement preceding the Civil War, the women’s suffrage movement that followed the Civil War, the labor movement, the Southern civil rights movement, the Vietnam era’s antiwar movement, the contemporary women’s movement, the gay rights movement, and the environmental movement. A revolutionary movement goes one large step further than a reform movement in seeking to overthrow the existing government and to bring about a new one and even a new way of life. Revolutionary movements were common in the past and were responsible for the world’s great revolutions in Russia, China, and several other nations. Reform and revolutionary movements are often referred to as political movements because the changes they seek are political in nature. Another type of political movement is the reactionary movement, so named because it tries to block social change or to reverse social changes that have already been achieved. The antiabortion movement is a contemporary example of a reactionary movement, as it arose after the U.S. Supreme Court legalized most abortions in Roe v. Wade (1973) and seeks to limit or eliminate the legality of abortion.

      slide 6

    1. reactionary movement advocates the restoration of a previous state of social affairs,
    2. Types of social movements
    3. revolutionary movement advocates rapid, precipitous change
    4. reform movement works for slow, evolutionary change
    1. are those which are organised for ‘improvement’ or ‘purification’ of the cultural or socialorder by eliminating ‘evil’ or ‘low’ customs, beliefs or institutions.

      slide 6 (approximate)

    2. typologies widely used for social movements to tribal movements: (1)reactionary; (2) conservative; (3) revisionary or revolutionary. The reactionary movementtries to launch a movement to bring back ‘the good old days’, whereas the conservativemovement tries to maintain the status quo. The revisionary or revolutionary movements

      slide 6 (approximate)

  2. Mar 2024
    1. The battalion arrived in Bialystok on July 5, and two days laterwas ordered to carry out a "thorough search of the city , , , forBolshevik commissars and Communists," The war diary entry of,the following day makes clear what this meant: "a search of theJewish quarter,"
    1. 29:40 Demonising "toxic masculinity" makes it grow stronger

      See this in relation to Dune 2 scene in which the princess comments to the emperor that "Surpressing the prophet (Paul) will only make the religion grow"

    1. It is a specific set of social relations resulting from capitalist accumulation, which not only drive the reproduction of capitalism but act as a central stabilizing mechanism in modern society.
  3. Feb 2024
    1. In World War IIas in World War I, soldiers classified friends and foes in terms of rel-ative cleanliness, but in this conflict they were much more apt tomake sweeping judgments about the population and to rank peopleaccording to rigid biological hierarchies. Even the ordinary infan-tryman adopted a racialized point of view, so that “the Russians”the Germans had fought in 1914–1918 were transformed into anundifferentiated peril, “the Russian,” regarded as “dull,” “dumb,”“stupid,” or “depraved” and “barely humanlike.”
    2. recisely becauseGermans had begun to think in terms of Feindbilder, or “visions ofthe enemy,” Goebbels regarded exhibitions such as these a “fantas-tic success.”

      feindbilder - an idea of an enemy, a created image

    3. Well-appointed homes were ransacked and formerly prominent cit-izens tormented because Jews were regarded as profiteers whosewealth and social standing mocked the probity of the Volksgemein-schaft; children and the elderly were terrorized because they were“the Jew” whose very existence threatened Germany’s moral, polit-ical, and economic revival
    4. But the rapid and uni-form responses by local Nazis indicated a basic readiness and desireto carry out anti-Jewish actions
    5. The requirement that Jews add “Sarah” or “Israel” to their legalnames in January 1938 made even more clear the aim of the Nazisto register Jews as a prelude to physical expulsion.
    6. fears based on recollections of the general strikes in 1919and 1920 and gruesome stories about atrocities in the Russian civilwar. It also fortified the image of the Jew as an intractable, immedi-ate danger.
    7. In the context of the Spanish CivilWar, which broke out in July 1936, the Moscow “show trials”against old Bolsheviks in August 1936, and the November 1936anti-Comintern pact between Germany and Japan, the Nazis persis-tently linked Germany’s Jews to the Communist threat.
    8. most Germans welcomed legis-lation clarifying the position of Jews and hoped it would bring to anend the graffiti and broken windows of anti-Jewish hooliganism.
    9. half-Jews and quarter-Jews carried both good and bad genes and therefore could not beregarded as completely Jewish. Gross and others argued that mixedJews would eventually be absorbed into the Aryan race if they wereprohibited from marrying each other.
    10. Jewish men who were imagined to prey on Germanwomen: the gender of the Jewish peril was male, while Aryan vul-nerability was female
    11. “What am I going to do?” won-dered Richard Tesch, an owner of a bakery in Ballendstedt’s mar-ketplace: “Israel has been buying goods from me for a long time.Am I supposed to no longer sell to him? And if I do it anyway, thenI’ve lost the other customers.
    12. The acknowledgment that there was a fundamental differencebetween Germans and Jews revived much older superstitions hold-ing that physical contact with Jews was harmful or that Jewish mendefiled German women.
    13. The startling events of the spring of 1933, when more andmore Germans realized that they were not supposed to shop inJewish stores and when German companies felt compelled to fireJewish employees and remove Jewish businessmen from corporateboards, moved Germany quite some distance toward the ultimategoal of “Aryanizing” the German economy.
    14. Public humiliations such as these depended on bystanders willing totake part in the spectacle. They accelerated the division of neigh-borhoods into “us” and “them.
    15. As thousands of new converts joined the para-military units of the SA, whose numbers shot up ninefold from500,000 in January 1933 to 4.5 million one year later, the scale ofantisemitic actions expanded dramatically. Becoming a Nazi meanttrying to become an antisemite as well.
    16. It was along this circuitry,in which Germans imagined themselves as the victims of Jews andother “back-stabbers,” that “self-love” could turn into lethal “other-hate.”
    17. Anti-semitism did not arrive on the scene as something completely new,but it acquired much greater symbolic value when people associ-ated it with being German.
    18. the Nazis considered theJewish threat to be “lethal” and active, a perspective that gavetheir assault on the Jews a sense of urgency and necessity that madeGerman citizens more willing to go along
    19. The idea of normality had become racialized, so that entitlement tolife and prosperity was limited to healthy Aryans, while newly iden-tified ethnic aliens such as Jews and Gypsies, who before 1933had been ordinary German citizens, and newly identified biologicalaliens such as genetically unfit individuals and so-called “asocials”were pushed outside the people’s community and threatened withisolation, incarceration, and death.
    20. Local Nazidoctors in Dortmund greeted “the new era” with an April 1933proposal to establish a municipal “race office” that on the basisof 80,000 files on schoolchildren would prepare a “racial archiveof the entire population of greater Dortmund.”
    21. The Ahnenpass enabled the Nazi regime to enforce the Septem-ber 1935 Nuremberg racial law
    22. The fact is that it is totally possible,” he carefully noted,“that the National Socialist state would use such a law to make it aduty for those without means and who are dependent on handoutsfrom the state to more or less ‘voluntarily’ take their lives.
    23. The euthanasia “actions” anticipated the Holocaust. Figuringout by trial and error the various stages of the killing process, fromthe identification of patients to the arrangement of special trans-ports to the murder sites to the killings by gas in special chambersto the disposal of the bodies, and mobilizing medical experts whoworked in secret with a variety of misleading euphemisms to con-ceal their work
    24. . The Nazis carried out involuntary euthanasia in order“to purge the handicapped from the national gene pool,” but war-time conditions gave the program legitimacy and cover.
    25. In Berchtesgarden, in southern Germany, schoolteachers an-notated the tables of ancestors prepared by schoolchildren andhanded them over to public-health officials
    26. German legal com-mentators reassured the German public by citing U.S. programs asprecedents and quoting Oliver Wendell Holmes’s 1927 opinion,“three generations of imbeciles are enough”
    27. “the police have theresponsibility to safeguard the organic unity of the German people,its vital energies, and its facilities from destruction and disintegra-tion.” This definition gave the police extremely wide latitude. Any-thing that did not fit the normative standards of the people’s com-munity or could be construed as an agent of social dissolutiontheoretically fell under the purview of the police.
    28. However, crime could be reduced by removing the dan-gerous body, either by isolating “asocials” in work camps or bysterilizing genetically “unworthy” individuals. In the Nazi legal sys-tem, genetics replaced milieu as the point of origin of crime
    29. Did shesympathize a little bit with people who were not considered wor-thy? Perhaps so, because Gisela recalled the incident in postwar in-terviews; but other Germans continued to improve themselves bygrooming themselves as Aryans, sitting up straighter, filling out thetable of ancestors, and fitting in at the camps, which gave legiti-macy to the selection process that had created Gisela’s anxiety inthe first place
    30. The Ministry of Education authorized the National So-cialist Teachers’ League to organize retraining camps in order to“equip,” as Rust put it, teachers with lesson plans in “heredity andrace”; an estimated 215,000 of Germany’s 300,000 teachers at-tended two-week retreats at fifty-six regional sites and two nationalcenters that mixed athletics, military exercises, and instruction.
    31. The consciousness of generation, and the assumption thatold needed to be replaced with new, undoubtedly opened youngminds to the tenets of racial hygiene, which were repeatedly parsedin workshops and lectures.
    32. Filled with photographs, graphs, and tables, thepropaganda of the Office for Racial Politics made the crucial dis-tinction between quantity and quality—Zahl und Güte—easy tounderstand. Unlike Streicher’s vulgar antisemitic newspaper, DerStürmer, the Neues Volk appeared to be objective, a sobering state-ment of the difficult facts of life

      hiding behind objectivity. ppl saying things and being like well its just fact w/o the ability to double check

    33. By the middle of 1937 the Office of Racial Politics hadtrained over 2,000 “racial educators,” who on the basis of an eight-week course in Berlin received a special speaker’s certificate enti-tling them to address Germans on population and race policy. Certi-fication was part of the effort to make German racism objective
    34. Repeated references to the “false humanity”and “exaggerated pity” of the liberal era indicated exactly whatwas at stake: the need to prepare Germans to endorse what univer-sal or Christian ethics would regard as criminal activity.
    35. What was necessary, he insisted, was to“recognize yourself” (“Erkenne dich selbst”), which meant identi-fying with the idealized portraits of new Germans and following thetenets of hereditary biology to find a suitable partner for marriage,to marry only for love, and to provide the Volk with healthy chil-dren.
    36. new visual regime repeatedly in-troduced the German body, most often in portraits of sunnyathletes, large families, and marching soldiers, and sometimes bycontrast in juxtaposed close-up shots of misshapen, degenerate
    37. vast network of Gemeinschaftslager or com-munity camps was established across Germany; at one point or an-other, most Germans passed through them. Alongside concentra-tion camps and killing camps, the training camps were fundamentalparts of the Nazi racial project.

      gemeinschaftslager - community / training camps to educate germans on racial ideology

    38. It was the modern, scientificworld of “ethnocrats” and biomedical professionals, not the anti-communist Freikorps veterans of the SA, who devised Ahnenpässeand certificates of genetic health and evaluated the genetic worth ofindividuals.

      not exactly a bait and switch but somewhere along those lines, hitler gained loyalty by kicking out communism and then harnessed the goodwill to be like "you know what else we need to do"

    39. But it also made demands on ordinary Germans, who neededto visualize the Volk as a vital racial subject, to choose appropriatemarriage partners, and to accept “limits to empathy.”
    40. he Germanpopulation was being resorted according to supposed genetic val-ues, a project that required all Germans to reexamine their rela-tives, friends, and neighbors.
    41. The journalistSebastian Haffner noted that people in his circle in Berlin suddenlyfelt authorized to express an opinion on the “Jewish question,”speaking fluently about quotas on Jews, percentages of Jews, anddegrees of Jewish influence
    42. a ministerial committeeon “population and race,” which met on 28 June 1933 to draftcomprehensive racial legislation giving the state the right to sterilizecitizens
    43. a domestic-sounding vocabulary; a rhetoric of “cleaning,” “sweeping clean,”“housecleaning” strengthened the tendency to see politics in thedrastic terms of friends and foes
    44. Racial thinking presumed thatonly the essential sameness of the German ethnic community guar-anteed biological strength. For the Nazis, the goal of racial puritymeant excluding Jews, whom they imagined to be a racially alienpeople who had fomented revolution and civil strife and divided theGerman people.
    45. In place of the quarrels of party, the contests of inter-est, and the divisions of class, which they believed compromised theability of the nation to act, the Nazis proposed to build a unified ra-cial community guided by modern science. Such an endeavor wouldprovide Germany with the “unity of action” necessary to surviveand prosper in the dangerous conditions of the twentieth century
    46. . It drew up a long list of internaland external dangers that imperiled the nation. At the same time, itrested on extraordinary confidence in the ability of racial policy totransform social life.
    47. In other words, biology appeared to provideGermany with highly useful technologies of renovation. The Na-zis regarded racism as a scientifically grounded, self-consciouslymodern form of political organization.
    48. thousands of“ethnocrats” and other professionals mobilized to build the newbiomedical structures of the Third Reich. They oriented their ca-reers and ambitions toward the wide spaces that Nazi Germany’sracial vision had opened up.
    49. Race defined the new realities of the ThirdReich for both beneficiaries and victims—it influenced how youconsulted a doctor, whom you talked to, and where you shopped.
    50. As parents, educators, volunteers, and soldiers, millions of Ger-mans played new parts in cultivating Aryan identities and segregat-ing out unworthy lives. They did not always do so willingly, andthey certainly did not anticipate the final outcomes of total war andmass murder.
    51. until the very end of the Reich in 1945, they handedout hundreds of thousands of copies of the eight-mark “people’sedition” along with pamphlets providing advice on how to main-tain good racial stock and prepare Ahnenpässe, “Germans, HeedYour Health and Your Children’s Health,” “A Handbook for Ger-man Families,” and “Advice for Mothers.”
    52. Family archives, racial categories, and individual identitiesbecame closely calibrated with one another over the course of theThird Reich
    53. all the humor about Jewishness in Germany, the fear of stum-bling upon Jewish grandmothers and the relief when only a “Jewishgreat-grandmother,” “who cannot hurt you anymore,” turned up,did not dispel the suspicion that Jews were different.

      the mandatory nature of the racial passport and the nuremberg laws about jewish blood in mixed lineage emphasized that being aryan was a good thing and allowed people with a small amount of jewish ancestry to develop antisemitic feelings towards jewish people

    54. Significantly, thestate did not issue racial passports; Germans had to prepare thempersonally. They thus attained for themselves their racial status asAryans.

      by motivating germans to trace ancestry for mandatory passports and inclusion in the community, they "legitimize" the feeling of racial connection and exclusivity

    55. Whereas an Aryanidentity opened the way for a future in the Third Reich, a Jewishone closed it down.
    56. By 1936 almost all Germans—all who were not Jewish—had begun to prepare for themselves an Ahnenpass, or racial pass-port, which laid the foundation for the racial archives establishedin all German households
  4. Oct 2023
    1. ideologies and addictions have a lot in common and what most of they have in common is the rigid 00:20:32 incapacity and unwillingness to look at the truth of it t
      • for: comparison, comparison - ideology - addiction

      • comparison: ideology, addiction

        • what they most have in common is the rigid incapacity and unwillingness to look at the truth of it
    2. any ideology really is a big 00:18:56 antidote to vulnerability because now we have an answer to everything and uh now we're we can justify whatever we do we don't have to be vulnerable we don't to look at the truth 00:19:10 so the ideologies are very seductive and and and they work like like the addict is in denial of the problem that he's creating for himself let alone for other people 00:19:23 that a person who is connected or addicted to an ideology will be in denial of the harm being done to themselves and particularly to others so yes i think it's useful to talk about 00:19:37 [Music] ideology as addictive
      • for: Gabor Mate, Gabor Mate - ideology as addiction, quote , quote - Gabor Mate, ideology as addiction

      • quote

        • any ideology really is a big antidote to vulnerability because now we have an answer to everything and now we can justify whatever we do we don't have to be vulnerable
        • we don't to look at the truth so the ideologies are very seductive and they work like the addict is in denial of the problem that he's creating for himself let alone for other people
        • a person who is connected or addicted to an ideology will be in denial of the harm being done to themselves and particularly to others so yes i think it's useful to talk about ideology as addictive
  5. Jul 2023
    1. Politics is an extension of war by other means. Arguments are soldiers. Once you know which side you’re on, you must support all arguments of that side, and attack all arguments that appear to favor the enemy side; otherwise it’s like stabbing your soldiers in the back—providing aid and comfort to the enemy.

      This is a great discription of how ideologies work. You pick a side and you have to deffend and adopt all the points that the ideology stands for without second guess it.

  6. Jan 2023
    1. i don't feel like we have any major  uh disagreement about you know everything you just   said michael uh let me say also regarding you know  my book capital in the 21st century you know it's   a book that has lots of limitations and and you  know i have on many issues you know i've tried to   00:26:31 to to to make progress since then so this  was written 10 years ago i wrote capital   and ideology much more recently which i  think addresses some of the shortcomings   but this is and still this book has also a  lot of limitations so you know i'm trying to   make progress all the time and i certainly  don't pretend that all the answers are in   you know one book and that being said i think you  know many many things that you've mentioned you   know again i fully agree with

      !- Thomas Piketty : Agreement with Michael and limitations of past books - Piketty states that every book has a lot of limitations. Capital and Ideology is his recent book and addresses some of the shortcomings of Capital in the 21st Century

  7. Oct 2022
    1. Beautiful is better than ugly. Explicit is better than implicit. Simple is better than complex. Complex is better than complicated. Flat is better than nested. Sparse is better than dense. Readability counts. Special cases aren't special enough to break the rules. Although practicality beats purity. Errors should never pass silently. Unless explicitly silenced. In the face of ambiguity, refuse the temptation to guess. There should be one– and preferably only one –obvious way to do it.[a] Although that way may not be obvious at first unless you're Dutch. Now is better than never. Although never is often better than right now.[b] If the implementation is hard to explain, it's a bad idea. If the implementation is easy to explain, it may be a good idea. Namespaces are one honking great idea – let's do more of those!
  8. Jul 2022
    1. Hayek makes a moral argument that government's attempts to control the economy enslave its people.

      Philip Booth: When we give more and more power to the state, gradually there is an erosion of, first, economic freedom

  9. Jun 2022
  10. Apr 2022
    1. ReconfigBehSci [@SciBeh]. (2021, December 18). @STWorg but I feel I know smart people who definitely believe their own Covid minimising nonsense, and while ideology is undoubtedly a factor, it can’t be all.... [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/SciBeh/status/1472170862728163343

  11. Jan 2022
  12. Dec 2021
  13. Nov 2021
  14. Oct 2021
    1. Because at the end of the day, all structures are, in some ways, ideology made manifest.

      Avery Trufelman ends her podcast series, Nice Try! with these words in an episode entitled, Germania: Architecture in a Fascist Utopia.

      One person’s utopia is another person’s dystopia.

      The structure of the mind becomes the architecture of our reality. This thought became the foundation for a mental model for human experience, since these architectural plans for utopia seem like good ideas on paper, but when we live inside these structure in our daily reality, we realize that we have constructed our own mental prisons, the iron cage envisioned by Max Weber.

    2. It spells out so clearly that Nazi Germany’s worst atrocities and many atrocities the world over were not only the ideas of singular evil men. They were supported and enacted by systems, by groups of people who woke up in the morning and went to offices to work on it.

      Avery Trufelman ends her podcast series, Nice Try! with these words in an episode entitled, Germania: Architecture in a Fascist Utopia.

  15. Sep 2021
  16. Aug 2021
  17. Jul 2021
  18. May 2021
  19. Apr 2021
  20. Mar 2021
    1. An ideology (/ˌʌɪdɪˈɒlədʒi/) is a set of beliefs or philosophies attributed to a person or group of persons
  21. Feb 2021
  22. Jan 2021
    1. gender identity that is neither entirely male nor entirely female

      Female and male are the names of the two sexes, not 'gender identities'.

      Gender' relies on demeaning, regressive stereotypical notions of societal roles for the two sexes,

    2. although exhibited at lower levels than some other species

      What on earth is this trying to say?

    3. A person has the protected characteristic of gender reassignment if the person is proposing to undergo, is undergoing or has undergone a process (or part of a process) for the purpose of reassigning the person's sex by changing physiological or other attributes of sex.

      Why bring this up? The question made no mention of 'gender reassignment'.

  23. Dec 2020
    1. In this we sometimes see the use of American historical references that have been weirdly transposed,

      It has become scripture.

  24. Oct 2020
  25. Sep 2020
    1. A picture is often cited to be worth a thousand words and, for some (but not all) tasks, it is clear that a visual presentation-such as a map or photograph-is dramatically easier to use than is a textual description or a spoken report.

      [[Diagrams]]

      "a picture is worth a thousand words" what's in this statement?

      a picture doesn't equal a thousand words, but its exchange value is roughly equivalent to a thousand words

      similar to a diagram, are images a-signifying? their nature is fundamentally reproductive. if we believe Benjamin's logic, "aura" is lost in reproductions. what this means in practice is that reproductions necessarily cannot reproduce their object of focus. an idea supporting this is derrida's Differance, which identifies a hidden expanse of networked ideas that give meaning to a sign through context and recursive thought

      so if a picture is worth a thousand words, it's because an image can't reproduce a thousand words 1:1 (so the image's signification is immanently constrained), but its use value is roughly equal because those thousand words are invoked in the Differance of the image, in other words, the ideology of the viewer.

      This feels like a minor breakthrough in my understanding of how image and ideology relate. Taken to its logical conclusion, this line of thought comes to mean that images can be categorically defined as visual ideologies.

  26. Aug 2020
    1. Harper, Craig A., and Darren Rhodes. ‘Ideological Responses to the Breaking of COVID-19 Social Distancing Recommendations’, 19 August 2020. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/dkqj6.

    2. Harper, Craig A., and Darren Rhodes. ‘Ideological Responses to the Breaking of COVID-19 Social Distancing Recommendations’, 19 August 2020. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/dkqj6.

    3. Harper, Craig A., and Darren Rhodes. ‘Ideological Responses to the Breaking of COVID-19 Social Distancing Recommendations’, 19 August 2020. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/dkqj6.

  27. Jul 2020
  28. Jun 2020