235 Matching Annotations
  1. Jun 2024
    1. you can take a lot more than you are and have a lot more information

      for - adjacency - open source - Stop Reset Go complexity mapping - objective - Nora Bateson comment on more information - diversity - Indyweb/Indranet - progress trap mitigation

      adjacency - between - Nora Bateson comment - Stop Reset Go complexity mapping<br /> - open source - progress trap mitigation - Indyweb/Indranet

      • adjacency relationship
        • When Nora talks about the
          • oversimplified,
          • reductionist
        • problem-solving approach that most of modernity employs to tackle wicked problems,
        • it boils down to oversimplification.
        • There are usually far more causes and conditions to a problem than are known to construct the solution
        • In Deep Humanity praxis, this is how we get into progress traps, the shadow side of progress
        • The Stop Reset Go complexity mapping system is designed to reveal greater information by
          • creating a space for diverse perspectives to systematically engage in addressing the same wicked problem
        • This system must be open source in order to create the space for maximum diversity
        • The Stop Reset Go process is specifically designed as a workspace for diversity for the purpose of
          • mitigating progress traps and
          • helping find more effective ways to address wicked problems
        • This is done by using Trailmark Markin notation within the Indyweb/Indranet people-centered, interpersonal software ecosystem
  2. May 2024
  3. Apr 2024
    1. Divergence of views istherefore universal and necessarily so. This is of immensevalue to us, difference of opinion is in fact the parent of im-provement and progress. Divergence causes us to comparenotes as it were, it helps to broaden our views.
  4. Mar 2024
    1. Ongweso Jr., Edward. “The Miseducation of Kara Swisher: Soul-Searching with the Tech ‘Journalist.’” The Baffler, March 29, 2024. https://thebaffler.com/latest/the-miseducation-of-kara-swisher-ongweso.

      ᔥ[[Pete Brown]] in Exploding Comma

    2. Kara Swisher certainly can't blame the issues within technology on diversity, equity, or incluse and simultaneously call herself a journalist. As a woman with a self-professed diverse view of the world, she allowed too much boosterism in her take on technology without voicing any concerns of its effects.

    3. In fact, Uber’s top lawyer—Tony West, a Black man—has been the public face of Uber’s campaign against laws that would force the company to pay livable wages to its largely Black and brown workforce.
    4. “white male homogeneity”

      or even more specific cis-gender white male homogeneity or cisheteropatriarchy

      Does cis-gender white male homogeneity act in ways (cuckoo-like) similar to how narcissists, sociopaths, and psychopaths can act when brought to power in society? (Though obviously at much larger percentages of the population.) What are the long term effects?

    1. How does a culture that prizes equality of opportunity explain, or indeedaccommodate, its persistently marginalized people?

      Is some of the "backlash" against diversity, equity and inclusion efforts in 2020s America a manifestation of attempting to prevent a shift in the status quo of class structure in America?

      How is the history of the space potentially useful in easing the potential transition to something better?

  5. Feb 2024
    1. "I think it is important to recognize that bias exists, and you must coach leaders in a way that will allow them to recognize it, asserts Henderson. “This will help them build inclusive behaviors that help recognize things that exist in all of us that can at times get in the way of being inclusive and respectful of others.

    2. While the language of oppression is still with us, new words continue to emerge that are more accurate and descriptive, and allow us to be more successful in ameliorating oppression and more productive in our interactions with each other. If humankind can relearn the language of diversity, then we can relearn how to respect and treat each other with honor, dignity and love

  6. Jan 2024
    1. How do we support the emergence of a powerful GCM that expresses strategic and relational congruences (of analysis and action) within a GCM where diversity (ontological and epistemological) is inherent?

      for - question - uniting amongst diversity - GCM - global citizens movement

      • How do we support the emergence of a powerful GCM
      • that expresses
        • strategic and
        • relational congruences (of - analysis and - action)
      • within a GCM where diversity (
      • ontological and
      • epistemological)
      • is inherent?

      Comment - Deep Humanity, with Common Human Denominators could be proposed as a unifying framework

  7. Dec 2023
  8. Nov 2023
  9. Sep 2023
  10. Aug 2023
  11. Jul 2023
    1. The final decision on the list wasmade by me.

      Robert Hutchins takes sole responsibility for the final decision on the selection for the books which appear in The Great Books of the Western World series.

      One wonders what sort of advice he may have sought out or received with respect to a much broader diversity of topics and writers with respect to his own time. I reminded a bit of the article The 102 Great Ideas (Life, 1948) which highlights a more progressive stance with respect to women and feminism in the examples used.

      See: LIFE. “The 102 Great Ideas: Scholars Complete a Monumental Catalog.” January 26, 1948. Https://books.google.com/books?id=p0gEAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA92&source=gbs_toc_r&cad=2#v=onepage&q&f=false. Google Books.

  12. Apr 2023
    1. The Medici effect is a concept that describes the way in which innovation arises from the intersection of different disciplines and ideas. The term was coined by author Frans Johansson in his book “The Medici Effect: What Elephants and Epidemics Can Teach Us About Innovation”. The Medici family of Renaissance-era Florence is used as an example of the way in which the intersection of different disciplines, such as art, science, and finance, led to a period of great innovation and cultural advancement. Similarly, Johansson argues that innovation today is more likely to occur when people from different backgrounds and disciplines come together to share ideas and collaborate. The Medici effect highlights the importance of diversity, curiosity, and creativity in driving innovation and problem-solving.

      Frans Johansson's "Medici effect" which describes innovation arriving from an admixture of diversity of people and their ideas sounds like a human-based mode of combinatorial creativity similar to that seen in the commonplace book/zettelkasten traditions. Instead of the communication occurring between a person and their notes or written work, the communication occurs between people.

      How is the information between these people crystalized? Some may be written, some may be in prototypes and final physical products, while some may simply be stored in the people themselves for sharing and re-sharing over time.

  13. Mar 2023
    1. Whose values do we put through the A.G.I.? Who decides what it will do and not do? These will be some of the highest-stakes decisions that we’ve had to make collectively as a society.’’

      A similar set of questions might be asked of our political system. At present, the oligopolic nature of our electoral system is heavily biasing our direction as a country.

      We're heavily underrepresented on a huge number of axes.

      How would we change our voting and representation systems to better represent us?

  14. Feb 2023
    1. they come from every socioeconomic status they're lawyers they have grad degrees they have college degrees and there's also people who come into it who only have a high school degree 00:01:53 but i think we really miss something if we believe that the white people in america and in other countries who are attracted to this movement come only from poverty or uneducated it's not accurate
      • the white nationalist movement is very diverse
  15. Jan 2023
    1. Kimura's theory explains the diversity paradox that puzzled Darwin. Why are we surrounded by such an astonishing diversity of birds and insects and microbes? From the point of view of Darwin, a small number of dominant species would have been sufficient. Kimura explains the mystery by invoking the power of genetic drift, which becomes suddenly rapid and effective just when it is needed, when small populations can vary fast enough to become genetically isolated and form new species.

      !- solution to : diversity paradox - genetic drift

    2. . Naively, we should expect Darwinian evolution to result in a world with a much smaller number of species, each selected by superior fitness to be a winner in the game of survival. All through his life, Darwin was puzzled by the abundance of weird and wonderful species that look like losers but still survive. I call this abundance the diversity paradox.   If only the fittest survive, we should expect to find a few hundred superbly fit species adapted to live in various habitats. Darwin looked at the real world and found an extravagant display of species, with a great diversity of superficial differences. He saw elaborate structures that are expensive to maintain. The theory of evolution by natural selection should tend to keep creatures plain and simple, but nature appears to prefer structures that are elegant and complicated.

      !- definition : Darwin’s diversity paradox

    1. although the ocean and rainforest seem to be two different extremes of dissimilar environments, surf and turf have several similarities. One similarity that is present in both environments, yet seems counterintuitive is the fact both a reef and a rainforest are essentially nutrient desserts. Both ocean water and forest soil contain low levels of biologically relevant nutrients, and as a result, organisms have developed creative and sometimes symbiotic/mutualistic strategies to thrive in these nutrient-poor environments.

      Interesting point that there is a regime of low nutrients which enables higher diversity. I'll look for some references! Here's a Minute Earth video explaining this very well - https://youtu.be/mWVATekt4ZA

    1. I've seen a bunch of people sharing this and repeating the conclusion: that the success is because the CEO loves books t/f you need passionate leaders and... while I think that's true, I don't think that's the conclusion to draw here. The winning strategy wasn't love, it was delegation and local, on the ground, knowledge.

      This win comes from a leader who acknowledges people in the stores know their communities and can see and react faster to sales trends in store... <br /> —Aram Zucker-Scharff (@Chronotope@indieweb.social) https://indieweb.social/@Chronotope/109597430733908319 Dec 29, 2022, 06:27 · Mastodon for Android

      Also heavily at play here in their decentralization of control is regression toward the mean (Galton, 1886) by spreading out buying decisions over a more diverse group which is more likely to reflect the buying population than one or two corporate buyers whose individual bad decisions can destroy a company.

      How is one to balance these sorts of decisions at the center of a company? What role do examples of tastemakers and creatives have in spaces like fashion for this? How about the control exerted by Steve Jobs at Apple in shaping the purchasing decisions of the users vis-a-vis auteur theory? (Or more broadly, how does one retain the idea of a central vision or voice with the creative or business inputs of dozens, hundreds, or thousands of others?)

      How can you balance the regression to the mean with potentially cutting edge internal ideas which may give the company a more competitive edge versus the mean?

  16. Dec 2022
    1. whereas division implies separation (“portion,” “piece,” “unit”) diversity implies variety within a whole (“assortment,” “heterogeneity”)
  17. Nov 2022
    1. locally-based staff and carries out its programs in conjunction with local partners. Teams of international instructors and volunteers support the programs through projects year-round.

      So many good features in your project!

      Employing local staff that know the setting and can be role models for the kids.

      Supporting mentoring by volunteers to scale.

      Working with bodies to get a visceral experience that change is possible.

      Mentoring in groups to build a community.

      Spotlighting diversity and building bridges beyond the local community.

      Some related resources: Ballet dancer from Kibera

      Fighting poverty and gang violence in Rio's favelas with ballet

  18. Sep 2022
    1. social groups create a pressure toward conformity so powerful that it can overcome individual preferences, and by amplifying random early differences, it can cause segregated groups to diverge to extremes.
    1. The need for students to participate in the larger conversations around subject mattershelps writers creating more intellectual prose, but this becomes difficult in a “culture

      prone to naming winners and losers, rights and wrongs. You are in or out, hot or not, on the bus or off it. But academics seldom write in an all-or- nothing mode” (p. 26).

      Our culture is overly based on the framing of winners or losers and we don't leave any room for things which aren't a zero sum game. (See: Donald J. Trump's framing of his presidency.) We shouldn't approach academic writing or even schooling or pedagogy in general as a zero sum game. We need more space and variety for neurodiversity as teaching to the middle or even to the higher end is going to destroy the entire enterprise.


      Politics is not a zero sum game. Even the losers have human rights and deserve the ability to live their lives.

    1. This post is a classic example of phenomenon that occurs universally. One person devises something that works perfectly for them, be it a mouse trap design, a method of teaching reading or … an organisation system. Other people see it in action and ask for the instructions. They try to copy it and … fail. We are all individuals, and what works for one does not work for all. Some people reading this post go “wow, cool!” Others go “What…???” One size does not fit all. Celebrate the difference! The trick is to keep looking for the method that works for you, not give up because someone else’s system makes your eyeballs spin!

      all this, AND...

      some comes down to the explanations given and the reasons. In this case, they're scant and the original is in middling English and large chunks of Japanese without any of the "why".

    1. wherever I go around the country first just to honor them and to thank them for the years they've steward hid these lands and second to remind myself to remind us to be more humble as we walk

      A Native American's view of land acknowledgement statements

      on these lands acknowledging that there is a story that though that goes beyond the history that we've read and that we were taught in our schools

  19. Aug 2022
  20. www.pingidentity.com www.pingidentity.com
    1. Diversity, Equity & Inclusion Diversity enables the innovation and creativity needed to move the world forward. We are committed to creating an inclusive culture that is welcoming, respectful and provides equal opportunities for all.
    1. In an academic article published in the Journal of Consumer Research, leading experts define inclusion as follows: “Inclusion refers to creating a culture that fosters belonging and incorporation of diverse groups and is usually operationalized as opposition to exclusion or marginalization.”2 This definition is chock-full of great terms to unpack, but one of the most essential is belonging.
  21. Jul 2022
    1. Their value lies intheir diversity - companies exploit the fact that thesepeople make different sense of the same phenomenaand therefore respond in diverse ways.

      Humans make sense of information in different ways and as a result respond to it and their environments in diverse manners, a fact from which companies can derive direct value.


      This idea is becoming more commonplace now, but here it is in print in 1994. Are there earlier versions of this in the literature?

  22. Jun 2022
    1. Dance might seem like the creative medium that could leastbenefit from “organizing.”

      I really appreciate that he's actively using examples from across a variety of domains to indicate the depth and breadth of areas which can benefit from commonplacing and note taking domains.

    Tags

    Annotators

    1. Kahler et al. (2011)and Kahler (2010) found that wild rice populations in lakes and rivers at the landscape scale tend to behighly distinct from one another and that the St. Louis River estuary may have its own “genetic identity”(Kern and Kahler 2014).

      Highly distinct populations with own genetic identity. Check out these papers for in depth info on Manomin genetic diversity - Kahler et al 2011, Kahler 2010, Kern and Kahler 2014

    1. if the process of seeing differently is the process of first and foremost having awareness of the fact that everything you do has an assumption 00:00:14 figure out what those are and by the way the best person to reveal your own assumptions to you is not yourself it's usually someone else hence the power of diversity the importance of diversity 00:00:26 because not only does that diversity reveal your own assumptions to you but it can also complexify your assumptions right because we know from complex systems theory that the best solution is most likely to 00:00:40 exist within a complex search space not a simple search space simply because of statistics right so whereas a simple search space is more adaptable it's more easily to adapt it's 00:00:52 less likely to contain the best solution so what we really want is a diversity of possibilities a diversity of assumptions which diverse groups for instance enable

      From a Stop Reset Go Deep Humanity perspective, social interactions with greater diversity allows multi-meaningverses to interact and the salience landscape from each conversant can interact. Since each life is unique, the diversity of perspectival knowing allows strengths to overlap weaknesses and different perspectives can yield novelty. The diversity of ideas encounter each other like diversity in a gene pool, evolving more offsprings which may randomly have greater fitness to the environment.

      Johari's window is a direct consequence of this diversity of perspectives, this converged multi-meaningverse of the Lebenswelt..

    1. I’ve also learned, thanks to my doctoral training in sociology, that one must expand one’s personal problems into the structural, to recognize what’s rotten at the local level as an instantiation of the institutional. Our best public sociologists, like Tressie McMillan Cottom and Jess Calarco, do this exceptionally well.
    1. A recent book that advocates for this idea is Range: Why Generalists Triumph in a Specialized world by David Epstein. Consider reading Cal Newport’s So Good They Can’t Ignore You along side it: So Good They Can’t Ignore You focuses on building up “career capital,” which is important for everyone but especially people with a lot of different interests.1 People interested in interdisciplinary work (including students graduating from liberal arts or other general programs) might seem “behind” at first, but with time to develop career capital these graduates can outpace their more specialist peers.

      Similar to the way that bi-lingual/dual immersion language students may temporarily fall behind their peers in 3rd and 4th grade, but rocket ahead later in high school, those interested in interdisciplinary work may seem to lag, but later outpace their lesser specializing peers.

      What is the underlying mechanism for providing the acceleration boosts in these models? Are they really the same or is this effect just a coincidence?

      Is there something about the dual stock and double experience or even diversity of thought that provides the acceleration? Is there anything in the pedagogy or productivity research space to explain it?

  23. May 2022
    1. https://colinwalker.blog/?date=2022-03-08#p2

      Some interesting looking female bloggers listed here.

  24. Apr 2022
    1. Hilda Bastian, PhD. (2021, February 6). Unofficial unnamed AstraZeneca insider says they are doing the interim analysis for the US trial of the Oxford vaccine. AstraZeneca spokesperson says 4-6 weeks till data release. Https://t.co/VUHgbHN02d One is wrong? Or they’ll release only when have FDA minimum follow-up? Https://t.co/LgjfX8AIti [Tweet]. @hildabast. https://twitter.com/hildabast/status/1357862227106095105

    1. Even as he was critical of overabundance, Gesner exulted in it, seeking exhaustiveness in his accumulation of both themes and works from which others could choose according to their judgment and interests.

      Note here the presumed freedom to pick and choose based on interest and judgement. Who's judgement really? Book banning and religious battles would call to question which people got to exercise their own judgement.

  25. Mar 2022
    1. Refinement is a social process

      The idea that refinement is a social process is a powerful one, but it is limited by the society's power structures, scale, and access to the original material and least powerful person's ability to help refine it.

    2. There is a growing risk that advancing technology will widen the gap between rich and poor, and produce further disadvantages for poorly educated citizens.

      Nice that he takes this sort of inclusive approach so early in the evolution of the internet.

  26. Feb 2022
    1. But the coverage, as our editorial page later noted in 2018, “deplored the inhumanity of the perpetrators without ever really acknowledging the humanity of the victims” or the community terrorized by their brutal deaths. The ire was directed at the “poor, white trash” killers, as Mencken put it; there was no empathy for — or even real interest in — the Black victims.
    2. Pretending we were all the same never worked, because it ignored the fact that we’re not all given the same opportunities to succeed or fail on our merits; some are privileged, others are oppressed. Refusing to recognize that only prolonged difficult conversations and much-needed soul-searching, dooming more generations to repeat the cycle.
    1. First, consider who gets to make the rules. Tenured scholars who, as we’ve noted, are mostly white and male, largely make the rules that determine who else can join the tenured ranks. This involves what sociologists call “boundary work,” or the practice of a group setting rules to determine who is good enough to join. And as such, many of the rules established around tenure over the years work really well for white scholars, but don’t adequately capture the contributions of scholars of color.

      Boundary work is the practice of a group that sets the rules to determine who is and isn't good enough to join the group.

      Link to Groucho Marx quote, "I refuse to join any club that would have me as a member."

    1. 11 different ethnic groups,
    2. law prohibits any discrimination and guarantee all persons equal and effective protection against discrimination on any ground such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status.56
    3. promotion of multilingualism and the maintenance of indigenous practices
    4. the maintenance of such gender and role conceptions in Namibian society at large

      patriarchal stereotypes of men and women throughout Namibia, but they vary from each individual culture in specifics

  27. Jan 2022
    1. A recent addition to the writer-editor-reader relationship is something called a “sensitivity reader,” that is someone of diverse background who can advise on dicey cultural matters whom writers are now encouraged to consult.
    2. You live only until an objection scares the people whose job is more and more to avoid objections — that new, primary executive function.

      Are there other examples of this job function in the broader American culture? What do these job descriptions and titles look like?

  28. Dec 2021
  29. Nov 2021
    1. Poultry scientists have also succeeded in selecting for parthenogenesis, increasing the incidence in Beltsville small white turkeys more than threefold, to 41.5 percent in five generations. Environmental factors—like high temperatures or a viral infection—also seem to trigger poultry parthenogenesis.

      Parthenogenesis can be selected for in breeding.

      What might this look like in other animal models. What do the long term effects of such high percentages potentially look like?

      Could this be a tool for guarding against rising temperatures in the looming climate crisis?

    1. There’s a tendency to refer to people, or a person, as “diverse.” Even with the best intentions, referring to people this way feels a lot like euphemism for “outside the majority,” or “different from the dominant group.”
  30. Oct 2021
    1. “Hurry up and do it before someone else does!” she told him. And so he did.

      At least he did it quickly as possible because it's a known fact that people can have similar ideas as you.

      article

    1. ephemera

      Definition of ephemera 1: something of no lasting significance —usually used in plural

      2 ephemera plural : paper items (such as posters, broadsides, and tickets) that were originally meant to be discarded after use but have since become collectibles

      merriam webster

    2. A handful of African-American designers seemed exempt from Modernism’s influence, which may be because they didn’t work in advertising or commerce.

      This is not surprising at all. Funny thing is just as he mentioned that...it made me realize there's barely any black designers being known, especially around that time.

    1. The podcast focuses on the troubled history of “objectivity” and how it has been used to gatekeep and exclude people of color, queer and trans people, and people organizing for their labor rights and communities.

      I learned about this podcast through Sandy and Nora.

  31. Sep 2021
    1. "If you look at a map of the distribution of languages around the world and you compare it with maps that show the distribution of mammal species or bird species, you see an extraordinarily similar picture: The hot spots of linguistic diversity, in so many cases, coincide with hot spots of biological diversity," he said.

      Making the connection between language diversity and biodiversity.

  32. Aug 2021
    1. This now brings diversity to the table. It is deliberately interdisciplinary. Notes from poets interact with notes from scientists and notes from wise elders.

      This is the closest phrase I've seen in the zettelkasten space that ties back directly into the commonplace book tradition of sententiae.

      Kudos to the author for this.

      I like the fact that he highlights the diversity of thought he's getting by plumbing the depths of a variety of types of writers and creators. Very reminiscent of another early commonplace book tradition of the bee analogy.

  33. Jul 2021
  34. Jun 2021
    1. Panel: The Future of Note Taking (FoNT) Speakers engaged in reimagining the technology and practices of digital note taking will discuss their work and engage each other and attendees in conversation. The panel will be moderated by Dan Whaley (Hypothesis) and feature speakers Ward Cunningham (FedWiki), Daniel Doyon (Readwise), Bastien Guerry (Org-mode), Eduardo Ivanec (Agora), Oliver Sauter (Memex), Conor White Sullivan (Roam), and Junyu Zhan (Logseq).

      For this panel I think it might have been useful to have someone like Maggie Appleton participate for her perspective with respect to some of the history, design, and even anthropology of this space.

      Anne-Laure Le Cunff might have been an interesting participant for her leadership and writing on use and UI as well as thinking about "why" note taking.

      I'd also nominate Argentina Ortega Sáinz for her work on academic integrations of Zotero with tools like Obsidian.

      Perhaps worth noting when revisiting this topic next year? cc: @dwhly @nateangell @hypothesis

    1. The ecosystem behind React gave you too many choices of this sort, which fragmented the tech stack and caused the infamous “Javascript fatigue”.

      To me, the reason React ruined web development is because it homogenized & centralized the practice, in an abstraction that is decoupled & non-interoperable with other techniques & styles.

      The author is arguing that React didn't centralize enough, but to me, it sucked all the oxygen out of the diverse interesting place that was web development. That it didn't try to solve all problems in the stack is, if anything, a most relief. It succeeded because it didn't bundle in a data-layer. It succeeded because it didn't bundle in state. It succeeded because it didn't bundle in routing. Each of these areas have evolved independently & seen great strides across the last half decade. That's a huge win, that's why React is so strong: because it didn't try to form opinions.

      Alas React itself implies a strong opinion, has a big abstraction that de-empowers & de-inter-operates with the DOM, that keeps it from working in concert with any other technology. It has enormous diversity, but only under it's own umbrella. It has crushed a much livelier sporting aspect of web development.

      I'm so tired of weenies complaining about fragmentation. Get lost and fuck off. This medium is flexible & diverse & interesting. Stop applying your industrial software want, your software authoritarianism, "why can't everyone just do it my way/the right way" horse shit. Such a shitty attitude, from people selling FUD & clutching at the idea that everyone's gonna be happy & productive if we can just make the right framework. How uncreative & droll.

    1. include a commitment to diversity in the selection process for who we bring into our community.

      구성원을 받을 때 있어 commitment to diversity 가 있어. (구체적인건 안나오네 ㅠㅜ)

  35. May 2021
    1. we all may appear to be different on the outside, but we are all made up of the same things in the inside.

      Teach a child to see the shared humanity in all of us. And part of that commonality is to have our own quirks. We need to find teach to see that balance and nuance.

  36. Apr 2021
    1. Can we reconfigure growth to mean richness in difference? Flourishing interdependent diversity of networks, network protocols and forms of interaction? What does this mean for digital decay, and can the decay of files, applications and networks become some form of compost, or what might be the most dignified form of digital death and rebirth?

      Also see Apoptosis

  37. Mar 2021
    1. Back in 1987, Cheris Kramarae wrote in Technology and Women’s Voices: Keeping in Touch:“Technological processes developed by men for men are nearly always interpreted by women in ways other than those intended by men.”
    1. Student reflections on micro-credentials earned through the CCoL Global Leaders Program show that students remain skeptical of the efficacy of micro-credentials in college admissions decisions. This adds credence to the belief that micro-credentials can serve as a framework for increasing student agency and promoting 21st Century learning goals, yet more could be done to communicate the value of micro-credentials to those earning them. If “value” is a function of what colleges look at in admissions decisions, and colleges need good examples in order to develop a systematic and fair way to assess badge submissions, this could present a chicken-and-egg problem.

      Highlights the need for a holistic approach - the ecosystem idea. Efficacy relates to the perceived goal, and if a common goal is to increase inclusion and diversity in higher education then Colleges need to determine the criteria they will use to evaluate a range of badges.

  38. Feb 2021