130 Matching Annotations
  1. Last 7 days
  2. Nov 2023
    1. sadly the now global sustainability industry is mostly stuck with the very 00:05:03 mindset that is the root cause of the wickednesses we are in over six decades
      • for key insight - sustainability industry is stuck

      • key insight

        • claim
          • sustainability industry is plagued with the same root cause as the problem that it is trying to solve
    1. The phenomenological approach projects a radical criticism of scientific naturalism,which assumes that the object of science is to find laws that govern reality, where the person isconceived as another object of nature.
      • for: scientific naturalism - critique, scientific naturalism - phenomenology, consciousness - objectification of, SELF-consciousness

      • comment

        • Good observation that is quite salient to the hard problem of consciousness. Language can be used to describe any observable pattern.
        • Our own bodies are an observable pattern. As we associate our consciousness with our body, It is a small step to observe our own consciousness. SELF-consciousness is what allows us to be observer and observed at different times.
  3. Oct 2023
    1. To be clear, global open source software projects will be unable to strictly comply with provisions contained in current drafts of the CRA. Much of the world's open source software will likely soon be either 1) blocked for distribution in the EU or 2) publicly accessible with caveats similar to “this software is not appropriate or approved for use or distribution in the European Union market.”

      Linux foundation's fear of the CRA is not so much the requirements made wrt software, but the requirements of demonstrating/documenting compliance. #openvraag what are the carve outs in current texts? What do the pre-ambles say wrt who specific admin reqs apply to. Isn't OS by definition compliant in the sense that the rationale of OS party is increasing its security?

    1. on the traditional empiricist account we do not have direct access to the facts of the external world 00:11:03 that is we do not experience externality directly but only immediately not immediately but immediately because between us and the external world are those what do you call them oh yes 00:11:18 sense organs and so the question is how faithfully they report what is going on out there well to raise the question how faithful is the sensory report 00:11:30 of the external world is to assume that you have some reliable non-sensory way of answering that question that's the box you can't get out of and so there is always this gap 00:11:42 between reality as it might possibly be known by some non-human creature and reality as empirically sampled by the senses whose limitations and distortions are very well 00:11:56 known but not perfectly classified or categorized or or measured
      • for: good explanation: empiricism, empiricism - knowledge gap, quote, quote - Dan Robinson, quote - philosophy, quote - empiricism - knowledge gap, Critique of Pure Reason - goal 1 - address empiricism and knowledge gap

      • good explanation : empiricism - knowledge gap

      • quote

        • on the traditional empiricist account
          • we do not have direct access to the facts of the external world
          • that is we do not experience externality directly but only MEDIATELY, not immediately but MEDIATELY
            • because between us and the external world are those what do you call them oh yes, sense organs
          • and so the question is how faithfully they report what is going on out there
          • To raise the question how faithful is the sensory report of the external world
            • is to assume that you have some reliable non-sensory way of answering that question
          • That's the box you can't get out of and so there is always this gap between
            • reality as it might possibly be known by some non-human creature and
            • reality as empirically sampled by the senses
              • whose limitations and distortions are very well known
                • but not perfectly classified or categorized or or measured
      • Comment

        • Robinson contextualizes the empiricist project and gap thereof, as one of the 4 goals of Kant's Critique of Pure Reason.
        • Robinson informally calls this the "Locke" problem, after one of the founders of the Empiricist school, John Locke.
        • Robinson also alludes to a Thomas Reed approach to realism that contends that we don't experience reality MEDIATELY, but IMMEDIATELY, thereby eliminating the gap problem altogether.
        • It's interesting to see how modern biology views the empericist's knowledge gap, especially form the perspective of the Umwelt and Sensory Ecology
    2. when one's reason has learned completely to understand its own power in respect of objects which can be 00:19:40 presented to it in experience it should easily be able to determine with completeness and certainty the extent and the limits of its attempted employment beyond the bounds of experience
      • for: Critique of Pure Reason - motivation
    3. what metaphysical foundation at once respects the achievements of science and provides a grounding so that science itself 00:14:18 understands the basis upon which its claims ultimately depend one might argue that that is the project of the first critique
      • for: critique of pure reason - goal - provide metaphysical foundation for science

      • paraphrase

        • Another goal of the Kant's Critique of Pure Reason is to provide a metaphysical foundation that
          • respects the achievements of science and
          • provides a grounding so that science itself understands the basis upon which its claims ultimately depend
    4. virtually every sentence of the critique 00:04:20 presents difficulties attempts have been made to provide commentaries comprehensively illuminating uh comprehensively illuminating each individual section of the work 00:04:33 and some of these run to several volumes without getting near its end and then one commentator com noting what it's like to read the critique of pure reason says it is quote 00:04:46 a disagreeable task because the work is dry obscure opposed to all ordinary notions and long-winded as well who said that 00:04:59 kant
      • for: Kant, quote, quote- Kant, Kant - critique of pure reason - difficult to understand

      • quote: on reading the Critique of Pure Reason

        • a disagreeable task because the work is dry obscure opposed to all ordinary notions and long-winded as well
      • author: Immanuel Kant

      • comment

        • Now I don't feel so bad! :D
    5. the human mind will ever 00:00:59 give up metaphysical research is as little to be expected as that we should prefer to give up breathing all together to avoid inhaling impure air there will therefore always be 00:01:13 metaphysics in the world nay everyone especially every man of reflection will have it and for want of a recognized standard will shape it for himself after his own 00:01:24 pattern
      • for: Kant, quote, quote - metaphysics, quote - Kant, critique of pure reason, Dan Robinson, philosophy, quote - metaphysics - ubiquity

      • quote

        • the human mind will ever give up metaphysical research is as little to be expected
        • as that we should prefer to give up breathing all together to avoid inhaling impure air
        • there will therefore always be metaphysics in the world
        • nay everyone especially every man of reflection will have it and for want of a recognized standard will shape it for himself after his own pattern
      • author: Immanuel Kant
    6. even as you set out to ignore metaphysics you're probably engaged in some form of manifest physical speculation
      • for: quote, quote - metaphysics

      • quote

        • even as you set out to ignore metaphysics, you're probably engaged in some form of metaphysical speculation.
      • author: Dan Robinson
      • date: 2011
  4. Sep 2023
    1. https://web.archive.org/web/20230930153114/https://ia.net/topics/unraveling-the-digital-markets-act

      ia writer and their positive take on the EU DMA from their business perspective. Then again, they actually read the thing which most others don't seem to have done. No mention though of the connection to the DSA, AIR or GDPR who all 4 together mean a lot more than each individually.

  5. Jul 2023
    1. the trouble with that film is that maybe first of all no one who is an Evangelical Christian where I live is 00:06:00 actually going to watch that film second of all those guys already know in a way what the film is saying
      • critique of Don't look up
        • "I told you so" approach
        • we don't need any more wagging the finger
        • it shouldn't be staged as missing things, as efficiency
        • it should be staged as increasing pleasure of being a living being in the biosphere
      • comment
        • the film fails to reach the audience that could lead to deep transformation
        • evangelical Christians' narrative is already that an apocalypse is coming and THAT is the transformative event that will clean up an imperfect earth
  6. May 2023
    1. far 00:28:27 from delivering Utopia
      • quote worthy
      • "far from delivering Utopia

        • what it mostly delivers is a commodification of the human body
        • that disproportionately benefits those who already have power and privilege."
        • Mary Harrington

        • I don't think we can put this back in its box in that again

        • I agree with you but to my eye the proper response to this era is
          • not stamping our foot on the accelerator but
          • two-fold resistance and a two or perhaps even just a two-fold note of caution
            • firstly in retaining a humanist anthropology in defiance of all those currently sawing away at the branch we're sitting on and
            • secondly in mounting a vigorous defense of those without power
              • now increasingly at the sharp end of biotech's unacknowledged glass politics
  7. Apr 2023
    1. And then, of course, browsers are themselves being likened to operating systems. Walled gardens, with no efficiency to speak of, with very little freedom, with too much leverage from the browser vendors. A perfect exploitation machine for keeping you within itself, all while it will do anything to harvest information about your activities, so it can show you some ads as soon as it can. An operating system alright. Yeah, just relax and no harm will come to you.
    1. Moreover, browsers are not the right way to be using web anyway. See my thought on this in the Data-Supplied Web article.
    2. he only advantage of building something in a web browser is that you can view websites right in them. If your task is not to display a webpage, or build a website, if CSS+HTML is not the limit of your imagination, then there's no reason to be building complex shit in the web browser! I can see hitching a web browser ride as a ubiquitous cross-platform graphical backend (over WebGL) if you are willing to deal with all the overhead and impact on speed. But with the libraries like SDL and Skia (which browsers use), that seems kind of pointless.
    1. chaque électron du cosmos possède son propre champ, et chaque photon de l'univers se trouve au même niveau.

      Euh, quoi? Non. Il n'y aurait, selon la théorie quantique des champs, qu'un seul champ électrique partagé par tous les électrons. Et en ce qui concerne les photons de l'univers, qu'est-ce que c'est sensé vouloir dire qu'ils se trouvent "au même niveau"?

  8. Mar 2023
    1. Then Marx put Hegel's philosophy in terms of "materialism," which is to say that Marx despiritualized Hegel's work altogether. Again, this is in Marx' own terms. And this is now seen as the future revolutionary potential of Europe. Europeans may see this as revolutionary, but American Indians see it simply as still more of that same old European conflict between being and gaining. The intellectual roots of a new Marxist form of European imperialism lie in Marx'--and his followers'--links to the tradition of Newton, Hegel and the others.
      • Comment
      • Means sees Marxist, leftist thinking as not fundamentally breaking from the same destructive worldview adopted by the capitalists.
      • They are cut from the same stone
      • Leftist thinking still turns to industrialisation and it's efficiencies, and the objectification of nature as natural resources, and their subsequent plunder, albeit, distributed to more people
    2. The only possible opening for a statement of this kind is that I detest writing. The process itself epitomizes the European concept of "legitimate" thinking; what is written has an importance that is denied the spoken. My culture, the Lakota culture, has an oral tradition, so I ordinarily reject writing. It is one of the white world's ways of destroying the cultures of non-European peoples, the imposing of an abstraction over the spoken relationship of a people.
      • Quote
      • The only possible opening for a statement of this kind is that I detest writing. The process itself epitomizes the European concept of "legitimate" thinking; what is written has an importance that is denied the spoken. My culture, the Lakota culture, has an oral tradition, so I ordinarily reject writing. It is one of the white world's ways of destroying the cultures of non-European peoples, the imposing of an abstraction over the spoken relationship of a people.

      • Comment

      • One critique of this statement is that it wasn't only European cultures that created written language. It has a rich non European history.
      • also, from an evolutionary perspective, written language use a major variable Facilitating Evolutionary Transition (FET) for a Major Evolutionary Transition (MET) of our species.

      • https://jonudell.info/h/facet/?max=100&expanded=true&user=stopresetgo&exactTagSearch=true&any=Major+Evolutionary+Transition

    1. In the new collection, The Good It Promises, The Harm It Does, activists and scholars address the deeper problems that EA poses to social justice efforts. Even when EA is pursued with what appears to be integrity, it damages social movements by asserting that it has top-down answers to complex, local problems, and promises to fund grass-roots organizations only if they can prove that they are effective on EA’s terms.
    2. Despite the liberating intentions of many of its advocates, EA is, irredeemably conservative.  It favors welfare-oriented interventions that increase countable measures of well-being and both neglects and diverts funds from social movements that address injustices and agitate for social change, particularly in marginalized communities both in the US and in the Global South.
      • Inherent in its design, Effective Altruism treats and instead of the root of social ills.
      • Despite the liberating intentions of many of its advocates,
      • EA is, irredeemably conservative.
      • It favors welfare-oriented interventions that increase countable measures of well-being
      • It does harm to social movements that address injustices and agitate for social change
      • particularly in marginalized communities both in the US and in the Global South
      • by:
        • diverting and neglecting funding to them
        • funding an “effective” organization’s expansion into another country
      • encourages colonialist interventions that impose elite institutional structures
      • and sideline community groups whose local histories and situated knowledges are invaluable guides to meaningful action.
    1. By synthesizing knowledge around these questions, we aim to reveal the obstacles that still prevent the application of these important concepts at wide scale in the real world. Such insight also helps to identify ways to overcome the obstacles.
      • Paraphrase
      • The aim of the study is to:
        • reveal the obstacles that still prevent the application of = downscaled planetary boundaries and = downscaled doughnut economics at wide scale in the real world and in so doing
        • help identify ways to overcome the obstacles
  9. Feb 2023
    1. Idée de départ (Battle Royal) Idée avec casque VR Idée avec une projection interactive

      Pourquoi pas une sous partie idée ?

    2. ETAT DE L’ART

      (ca été dit par le prof déjà il me semble) être un peu plus concis dans vos explications :)

    3. Call of duty Warzone

      ça marche pas :(

    4. 09-02

      La tableau de bord n'est pas à jour :(

    1. If, on the other hand, I were to show you a brain scan taken before I believed it was going to rain, and after, there is no one in the world who could have the faintest clue what ideas these pictures were illustrating.

      They're working on it, for example, The neural architecture of language: Integrative modeling converges on predictive processing

  10. Jan 2023
  11. Dec 2022
    1. Contemporary academia engages, more or less permanently, in self-critique on any and every front it can imagine. In a tech-centered world, language matters, voice and style matter, the study of eloquence matters, history matters, ethical systems matter. But the situation requires humanists to explain why they matter, not constantly undermine their own intellectual foundations. The humanities promise students a journey to an irrelevant, self-consuming future; then they wonder why their enrollments are collapsing. Is it any surprise that nearly half of humanities graduates regret their choice of major?
  12. Mar 2022
    1. Now you get it, this is the goal: free economy through free currency.

      But how are those two linked? This is the classic logical fallacy / sleight of hand of most currency oriented blockchain stuff ... how on earth does creating your own currency give anyone more freedom?

      Created money (including us dollars etc) only get value to the extent they are convertible into something with "use-value". Sure, control of the currency gives some power but it is relatively minor compared to the big question of the "real economy" where production and exchange of "real" stuff actually happens.

  13. Feb 2022
    1. In June, discussing Permacoin, I returned to the issue of economies of scale: increasing returns to scale (economies of scale) pose a fundamental problem for peer-to-peer networks that do gain significant participation. One necessary design goal for networks such as Bitcoin is that the protocol be incentive-compatible, or as Ittay Eyal and Emin Gun Sirer (ES) express it: the best strategy of a rational minority pool is to be honest, and a minority of colluding miners cannot earn disproportionate benefits by deviating from the protocol They show that the Bitcoin protocol was, and still is, not incentive-compatible. Even if the protocol were incentive-compatible, the implementation of each miner would, like almost all technologies, be subject to increasing returns to scale. Since then I've become convinced that this problem is indeed fundamental. The simplistic version of the problem is this: The income to a participant in a P2P network of this kind should be linear in their contribution of resources to the network. The costs a participant incurs by contributing resources to the network will be less than linear in their resource contribution, because of the economies of scale. Thus the proportional profit margin a participant obtains will increase with increasing resource contribution. Thus the effects described in Brian Arthur's Increasing Returns and Path Dependence in the Economy will apply, and the network will be dominated by a few, perhaps just one, large participant. The advantages of P2P networks arise from a diverse network of small, roughly equal resource contributors. Thus it seems that P2P networks which have the characteristics needed to succeed (by being widely adopted) also inevitably carry the seeds of their own failure (by becoming effectively centralized).
  14. Jan 2022
    1. Software can’t single-handedly solve for the “completeness” of every contract, but it can help — and through token enabled ownership, it can help communities overcome the bootstrap problem to fostering innovation. 

      Indeed to the first part. ... and how can it help? Plenty of good answers to that e.g. software and tech allow us to track more things making them observable to all parties and hence contractable on. But how does that relate to the blockchain?

      And similarly on token-based ownership: how does that overcome the bootstrap problem (and what is that problem? A lack of capital, a lack of cohesion etc?)

    2. But if we accept that contracts are simply decision logic — akin to computer programs, then contract theory gives us a framework for thinking about different types of smart contracts and crypto-enabled projects — and how they can scale (including governance of them).

      That's a very big "accept". What do they mean by "decision logic"? Most contract systems seem quite different from decision logic in that there are whole sets of institutions and stuff (courts, laws, constitutions, governments, culture) dealing with that which is "incomplete" in most contracts including enforcements etc

    3. Let’s start by identifying projects that are (mostly) “complete”. These projects aim to specify a system end-to-end, minimizing the need for subjective interpretation, renegotiation, and external governance. In software terminology, the goal of these systems is to be “correct by construction”. Bitcoin’s proof-of-work mining is one such system. Bitcoin’s completeness is a function of its verifiable computation — deterministic hashing algorithms plus hard-coded game-theoretic incentives. Together, these consistently drive the system towards the outcome of producing a correct chain, while minimizing the need for human interpretation or external decision-making.

      Right ... a few questions here. First, what happens if someone steals my bitcoin via fraud or similar? Then we suddenly need enforcement etc.

      Second, how is that different from current banking system that also largely runs without human interpretation. The key difference (as i understand it) is the "decentralization" i.e. no central authority. But why does that make it more complete (if anything it makes it more incomplete as bitcoin is so similar).

    1. What I learnt from Francesco Nachira and his interest in constructivism and theories of language and cognition is that decentralisation can never be just about decentralising infrastructures. One always needs to have a requisite strategy for decentralising institutions as well.So that’s why we always aimed at the decentralisation of economic and political power as the necessary condition of possibility that was needed to deliver on the true emancipatory potential of decentralising digital infrastructures. When I look at the promises made by the proponents of DAOs and NFTs, they seem to believe that technology itself would somehow do the job: once we code a DAO correctly, it will ensure a new institutional form and that form would have revolutionary effects, etc. This seems to me short-sighted and also very inward-looking.It’s not, of course, only about decentralising power. It’s also about creating new institutions to keep old power – which, by now, has taken on new forms – in check. Where are these new institutions when it comes to crypto and Web3? Everyone seems to believe that big tech platforms and Wall Street and Hollywood will just stand idle as they are being disrupted by “crypto.” Does this really sound plausible to anyone?

      Exactly: they believe that "technology itself would somehow do the job".

    2. Well, first of all, I don’t see how Web3 – focused as it is on the creator economy and tokenisation – would allow us to deal with questions regarding infrastructural power and the industrial policy of the future… things like broadband, 5G, data centres, cloud computing, AI, quantum computing, microchips, the next generation of batteries. It’s not just the advertising business models of Web 2.0 that should concern us. What does Web3 offer us here? Not much. The Web3 discourse accepts today’s status quo as a fact and moves on to discuss all these other aspects.Most of the stuff about DeFi seems to me just a temporary phenomenon – the result of central banks’ inaction and delay in grasping the threats that come from leaving this industry unregulated. In this sense, China seems to be seeing through all the Web3 rhetoric and asking the right strategic questions, both in terms of controlling the whole stack, from batteries to AI, to establishing control over the FinTech sector in a way that would reduce risks to the country’s overall financial system. Europe, of course, doesn’t operate in the same political climate, so acting so resolutely about Web3 might not be an option (also for geopolitical reasons). It’s hard to imagine Chinese policymakers spending any time discussing Dogecoin.
    3. This purely technical effort at decentralisation also falls short in thinking about the political and social institutions that are needed to take full advantage of this decentralisation. The big questions that I – and you – have been raising over the past decade, with regards to the political economy of data and infrastructures, of technological sovereignty, of the geopolitics of the stacks, all seem to have dropped the agenda completely. What is being “decentralised” is the ability to extract value and make money, incentivising even further the financialisation of social behaviours. Worse, it seems that people pushing the Web3 agenda have learned very little from the experiences of all the other movements, from free software to Indymedia to the rise of digital democratic cities, that did try to build a more decentralised and democratic digital sphere.

      Nails it pretty well and there is probably something inherent in the technical approach that guarantees falling short here.

  15. Dec 2021
    1. We will suggest that there isa reason why so many key Enlightenment thinkers insisted that theirideals of individual liberty and political equality were inspired byNative American sources and examples. Because it was true.
    2. For Europeanaudiences, the indigenous critique would come as a shock to thesystem, revealing possibilities for human emancipation that, oncedisclosed, could hardly be ignored.

      Indigenous peoples of the Americas critiqued European institutions for their structures and lack of freedom. In turn, while some Europeans listened, they created an evolutionary political spectrum of increasing human complexity to combat this indigenous critique.

    3. That, Pinker tells us, is the kind of dismal fate ordained for usby evolution. We have only escaped it by virtue of our willingness toplace ourselves under the common protection of nation states,courts of law and police forces; and also by embracing virtues ofreasoned debate and self-contro

      It's interesting to note that the founders of the United States famously including Alexander Hamilton and Aaron Burr regularly participated in duel culture which often ended in death despite its use as a means of defending one's honor and relieving tensions between people.

    1. you look at Rousseau he's writing two years later you know this is what everybody's discussing and the sort of social circles he's in so what does he do he synthesizes there's these two positions there's the evolutionist position and there's this sort of 00:53:31 indigenous critique possession and he does both so he comes up with the the first fusion well yes there was this primordial state where we were truly free and equal and that's cool but of 00:53:44 course then social evolution sets in and we lose it but you know someday we might get there again so basically by synthesizing these two opposed positions he essentially invents leftist discourse

      Graeber and Wengrow argue that Rousseau invents leftist discourse by juxtaposing the evolutionist idea of societies and the indigenous critique in Discourse on the Origin and Basis of Inequality Among Men (Discours sur l'origine et les fondements de l'inégalité parmi les hommes) in 1754.

    1. It is also related to the EA movement in that, despite no official relationship between SFF and EA, despite the person who runs SFF not considering himself an Effective Altruist (Although he definitely believes, as I do, in being effective when being an altruist, and also in being effective when not being an altruist), despite SFF not being an EA organization, despite the words ‘altruist’ or ‘effective’ not appearing on the webpage, at least this round of the SFF process and its funds were largely captured by the EA ecosystem. EA reputations, relationships and framings had a large influence on the decisions made. A majority of the money given away was given to organizations with explicit EA branding in their application titles (I am including Lightcone@CFAR in this category). 

      Indeed. Because the people funding it think like that. They are in a given worldview.

    2. Whether or not they would consider themselves EAs as such, the other recommenders effectively thought largely Effective Altruist frameworks, and seemed broadly supportive of EA organizations and the EA ecosystem as a way to do good. One other member shared many of my broad (and often specific) concerns to a large extent, mostly the others did not. While the others were curious and willing to listen, there was some combination of insufficient bandwidth and insufficient communicative skill on our part, which meant that while we did get some messages of this type across on the margin and this did change people’s decisions in impactful ways, I think we mostly failed to get our central points across more broadly.


    1. s is a common structure for national intermediaryorganizations active in the federal policy arena.

      according to who?



  16. Nov 2021
  17. Aug 2021
    1. The Edgerton Essays are named for Norman Rockwell’s famous 1943 painting, “Freedom of Speech.” Rockwell depicted Jim Edgerton, a farmer in their small town, rising to speak and being respectfully listened to by his neighbors. That respectful, democratic spirit is too often missing today, and what we’re hoping to cultivate with this series.
  18. Jul 2021
    1. Recommendations DON'T use shifted PPMI with SVD. DON'T use SVD "correctly", i.e. without eigenvector weighting (performance drops 15 points compared to with eigenvalue weighting with (p = 0.5)). DO use PPMI and SVD with short contexts (window size of (2)). DO use many negative samples with SGNS. DO always use context distribution smoothing (raise unigram distribution to the power of (lpha = 0.75)) for all methods. DO use SGNS as a baseline (robust, fast and cheap to train). DO try adding context vectors in SGNS and GloVe.
  19. May 2021
  20. Mar 2021
    1. Eduard Bernstein

      why couldn't they give Jewish people a crumb of rep. and include the fact that his family was Jewish 😐😐



  21. Feb 2021
    1. some bullshittersbullshit because they are naı ̈ve, biased, or sloppyin their handling of statements. They do notrealize they are crafting or spreading bullshit.There is a primary need therefore to be alert tothe possibility of bullshit. While accepting itsubiquity, one must avoid becoming so accustomedto bullshit as to be indifferent to its presence. Inother words, it is necessary to develop a healthycynicism about the possibility of bullshit.

      I wouldn't phrase it this way. Instead, I consider intellectual thought a healthy way to go.

      Existentialists have gone about this by considering every choice in life as reborn; by being conscious of what we do, we shape not only our own consequence but also that of others.

      In other words: behave like you're experiencing everything for the first time, except with wisdom.

    1. trois enfants scolarisés âgés de 12 ans.

      échantillon trop peu représentatif de la population parente (enfants avec autisme)

    2. dans 16 écoles élémentaires et  10 écoles secondaires de l’état d’Iowa.

      échantillon trop peu représentatif de la population parente (enfants autistes)

    3. les enfants avec autisme inclus dans les écoles, de 5-9 ans et de 12-14 ans.

      Echantillon imprécis et trop peu représentatif de la population parente.

    4. Dans un premier temps, ils ont été enregistrés dans leurs classes pendant trois situations de vie (jeu, repas, hygiène) et dans un second temps, chacun a bénéficié de l’usage du programme pendant 6 sessions.

      La délimitation temporelle n'est pas précisée

    5. Cinq enfants de 7 à 12 ans ont participé à l’étude

      L'échantillon de l'étude est bien trop peu représentatif des personnes vivant avec un syndrome d'autisme.

  22. Jan 2021
  23. Dec 2020
  24. Oct 2020
  25. Jul 2020
    1. What is it for?Mainly to make us think. But also raising awareness, exposing assumptions, provoking action, sparking debate, even entertaining in an intellectual sort of way, like literature or film.
  26. Jun 2020
    1. Если постоянно принимать критику текста на себя, то так и умереть можно
  27. Apr 2020
    1. Ainsi, grâce aux activités technocréatives de type participatif, les élèves ont le potentiel de développer des compétences bien adaptées au 21e siècle. À commencer par la pensée critique et la pensée informatique jusqu’à la résolution cocréative de problèmes complexes.

      il s'agit d'une rhétorique, L'auteure s'appuie sur l' enchaînement des trois étages d'argumentation en amont pour emporter l'adhesion et persuader le lecteur, notamment par l'utilisation de l'adverbe "ainsi" pour signifier la conséquence. Egalement L'utilisation de "grâce à" à une connotation positive soit un jugement de valeur qui vient renforcer la persuasion.

    1. Nous devrions faire preuve de la même ouverture envers les digisexuels. À mesure que les technologies sexuelles immersives se répandent plus largement, nous devrions les aborder, ainsi que leurs utilisateurs, avec un esprit ouvert.

      L'auteur prend ici un partie très défini au sein du débat. Néanmoins, considerer les technologies sexuelles comme une réelle orientation sexuelle pourrait mener à une augmentation de celle çi. Or serait-il judicieux pour l'espèce humain d'encourager les relations avec de la technologie? A terme, cela ne pourrait-il pas mener à une génération technologique, avec moins d'intéractions, moins de naissances, et une perte graduelle de la société? On peut se demander si la technologie ne devrait pas simplement rester un outil, et pas devenir le futur de la race humaine.

    2. Nous croyons qu’au cours des décennies à venir, à mesure que ces technologies deviendront plus sophistiquées et plus répandues, il y aura un nombre croissant de personnes qui choisiront de rechercher des activités et des partenaires sexuels entièrement auprès d’agents artificiels ou dans des environnements virtuels.

      L'auteur offre ici son opinion. L'article est dans les faits une compilation de recherches et d'opinions personnelles. Bien qu'intéressant et plausible, il n'y a pas encore de faits prouvés pour soutenir l'hypothèse.

    3. À mesure que ces technologies se développent, elles permettront des expériences sexuelles que plusieurs personnes trouveront aussi satisfaisantes, ou sinon plus dans certains cas, que celles avec des partenaires humains.

      L'auteur ne se base que sur des suppositions. Bien que plausible, il est important de garder en tête que cela pourrait avoir des répercussions positives, mais aussi des répercussions bien négatives. Au cours de l'article, l'auteur omet de citer les potentiels dangers de cet avènement.

    4. que le monde réel ne pourrait jamais réaliser

      Nous pourrions emettre une critique vis à vis de ce commentaire, qui joue sur les sentiments du lecteur, et qui implique qu'un fantasme, une expérience virtuelle, non partagé, pourrait offrir une experience meilleure que la realité. Or cela serait limiter l'expérience sexuelle à un pure acte physique, à des sensations où la communication et le lien emotionnel n'apporte pas quelque chose de supplémentaire.

  28. Mar 2020
    1. Chapman describes the inductive approach as a gathering of facts and taking an inventory of visual qualities in a work. After thoroughly taking in the visual elements, the relationships among these visual elements must be compiled into a summary ofthe impressions that “captures the essence of what we have seen” (p. 80). Chapman also warns against premature judgment and emotional reactions. Only after one has described each part of the work, analyzed the relationship among parts, interpreted these relationships, and summarized the recurrent ideas, can one move onto the judgment by citing the information gathered before the judgment stage.

      Chapman approach

    2. develop constructive approachesto critique (formative, peer-to-peer, self-reflective, summative) that are supportive in intent and that offer alternative points of view.” (AI.18). By Art II: Intermediate, students will “use constructive critical approaches to critique (formative, peer-to-peer, self-reflective, summative).
    3. 1) interpret, reflect on, and evaluate the characteristics, purposes, and merits of personal work and the work of others and 2) identify, analyze, and apply criteria for making visual aesthetic judgments of personal work and the work of others.”

      these are good to include in our learning objectives?

    4. Peer critique in the secondary art classroom:Strategies for best practices

      Peer critique secondary (college?) best practices

    1. Empathic critique is collaboration, not competition. Empathic class critique in studio art is not a debate session. It is a hunt for visual effects, meaning, purpose, and new ideas. All participants are acting in their own best interest by being their naturally helpful selves. Competition is replaced by mutual discovery.

      definition and new approach called empathic critique

    1. I give some display guidelines for them to follow so the presentation looks good and work can be seen easily by all participants. Students who are not finished might use the time to keep working to finish. It is sometimes found that students without work on display are not as interested and they are more apt to offer negative comments. 

      provide display guidelines on how to present the art work.

    2. Successful Art Class Critique


  29. Nov 2019
  30. Oct 2019
    1. Eduquer à l'esprit critique pour sortir des polémiques

      Source : Hassan, B., Auffret A. (2018) Oui à la controverse scientifique, non à la polémique, The conversation. Consulté en ligne https://theconversation.com/oui-a-la-controverse-scientifique-non-a-la-polemique-94188

      Cet article a pour thème la place des scientifiques dans le débat public. Le débat scientifique, incarné par la controverse, est caractérisé par la recherche de consensus, la soumission aux faits et le doute critique. Il contraste avec la polémique, caractéristique du débat public, qui vise à défendre des intérêts particuliers et à discréditer l’adversaire. Pour apaiser le débat, laisser une place plus importante aux scientifiques pour informer le politique et le public permettrait de palier aux insuffisances des médias en la matière. Mais les scientifiques, en tant qu’individus, peuvent aussi biaiser le débat volontairement ou non. Ce n’est donc pas la place des individus dans le débat, mais la nature du débat public qui doit changer pour quitter le versant de la polémique et adopter celui de la controverse.

      Cet article très convaincant, laisse cependant une question en suspens. Comme dans tout débat, la controverse est soumise à un juge. Dans la sphère scientifique, ce sont les pairs et les faits. Lors du passage à la sphère publique de la controverse, la question est de savoir qui est ce juge. Une des pistes serait de doter le public des capacités de discernement. N'est-ce pas le projet de l'éducation à l'esprit critique ?

    1. The actors fall down and move with the cell phone images as she drives around singing. I feel scared for the actors since they have to fall. I feel happy that she is expressing her emotions by people falling and the man and the dog in the back seat show a different happier perspective.

  31. Jul 2019
  32. uofstthomasmn-my.sharepoint.com uofstthomasmn-my.sharepoint.com
    1. Walter Benjamin,

      arguably not the best example since cinema is now an equally credible art form, and benjamin was critical only because he did not see the potential of the medium (or any technologically-aided artistic practices).

    2. . Most of these programs are not difficult to use and provide the basis for wide-ranging experimentation by students and teachers alike.

      offering a place for readers to engage in the activities mentioned, encouraging growth in the practices she values

    3. On the other hand, machine reading may reveal patterns overlooked in close reading

      interrelated reading strategies

    4. keyword searches exhaust the repertoire of machine reading and that the gap between analy-sis and interpretation yawns so wide as to form an unbridgeable chasm rather than a dynamic interaction.

      limited views arise from ignorance/lack of in-depth investigation

    5. which implies that drawing conclusions from machine analysis is a mechanical exercise devoid of creativity, insight, or literary value.

      effective summary of how some view digital reading habits

    6. The scientific research is valuable and should not be ignored, but our experiences are also valuable and can tell us a great deal about the advantages and disadvantages of hyperreading compared with close reading, as well as the long-term effects of engaging in either or both of these reading strategies

      personal experiences are valuable in rationalising, testing and expanding understanding of what is learned through active readings of academic studies.

    7. , the example illustrates the unsurprising fact that read-ing someone else’s synthesis does not give as detailed or precise a picture as reading the primary sources themselves.

      importance of fact-checking any material before accepting the information it presents

    8. how valid is this conclusion?

      important to evaluate sources

    9. they fail to measure how much digital reading is going on or its effects on reading abilities

      thoughtful critique of an accredited source.

  33. Oct 2018
    1. We may hate and fear the death of a loved one, and do whatever we can to prevent it, while also recognizing “that a mortal life is the only life in which the people one loves could actually be.” This tension is, says Nussbaum, “part of the best human life” (Nussbaum 1990: 381).

      The author makes a crucial reference to Nussbaum in order to emphasize the power of life and being mortal. Nussbaum states that this specific, unaltered type of life is the "only life in which the people one loves could actually be". Nussbaum critiques the idea of transhumanism regarding the advantages of embracing devices that exceed the standards of mortality in order to demonstrate her cherishing attitude toward the simple and natural way of life. In addition, Nussbaum introduces the paradox comprising of the fear and embracement of death. While death brings sorrow and remorse, it also brings contentment and satisfaction because the living know that with death comes release from worldly pains.

  34. Aug 2018
    1. Burns (2015) builds on this to investigate how within digital humanitarianism discourses, big data produce and perform subjects ‘in need’ (individuals or com-munities affected by crises) and a humanitarian ‘saviour’ community that, in turn, seeks answers through big data

      I don't understand what Burns is arguing here. Who is he referring to claims that DHN is a "savior" or "the solution" to crisis response?

      "Big data should therefore be be conceptualized as a framing of what can be known about a humanitarian crisis, and how one is able to grasp that knowledge; in short, it is an epistemology. This epistemology privileges knowledges and knowledge- based practices originating in remote geographies and de- emphasizes the connections between multiple knowledges.... Put another way, this configuration obscures the funding, resource, and skills constraints causing imperfect humanitarian response, instead positing volunteered labor as ‘the solution.’ This subjectivity formation carves a space in which digital humanitarians are necessary for effective humanitarian activities." (Burns 2015: 9–10)

    2. Crises are often not a crisis of information. It is often not a lack of data or capacity to analyse it that prevents ‘us’ from pre-venting disasters or responding effectively. Risk management fails because there is a lack of a relational sense of responsibility. But this does not have to be the case. Technologies that are designed to support collaboration, such as what Jasanoff (2007) terms ‘technologies of humility’, can be better explored to find ways of framing data and correlations that elicit a greater sense of relational responsibility and commitment.

      Is it "a lack of relational sense of responsibility" in crisis response (state vs private sector vs public) or is it the wicked problem of power, class, social hierarchies, etc.?

      "... ways of framing data and correlations that elicit a greater sense of responsibility and commitment."

      That could have a temporal component to it to position urgency, timescape, horizon, etc.

    3. In some ways this constitutes the production of ‘liquid resilience’ – a deflection of risk to the individuals and communities affected which moves us from the idea of an all-powerful and knowing state to that of a ‘plethora of partial projects and initiatives that are seeking to harness ICTs in the service of better knowing and governing individuals and populations’ (Ruppert 2012: 118)

      This critique addresses surveillance state concerns about glue-ing datasets together to form a broader understanding of aggregate social behavior without the necessary constraints/warnings about social contexts and discontinuity between data.

      Skimmed the Ruppert paper, sadly doesn't engage with time and topologies.

    4. Indeed, as Chandler (2015: 9) also argues, crowdsourcing of big data does not equate to a democratisation of risk assessment or risk governance:

      Beyond this quote, Chandler (in engaging crisis/disaster scenarios) argues that Big Data may be more appropriately framed as community reflexive knowledge than causal knowledge. That's an interesting idea.

      *"Thus, It would be more useful to see Big Data as reflexive knowledge rather than as causal knowledge. Big Data cannot help explain global warming but it can enable individuals and household to measure their own energy consumption through the datafication of household objects and complex production and supply chains. Big Data thereby datafies or materialises an individual or community’s being in the world. This reflexive approach works to construct a pluralised and multiple world of self-organising and adaptive processes. The imaginary of Big Data is that the producers and consumers of knowledge and of governance would be indistinguishable; where both knowing and governing exist without external mediation, constituting a perfect harmonious and self-adapting system: often called ‘community resilience’. In this discourse, increasingly articulated by governments and policy-makers, knowledge of causal connections is no longer relevant as communities adapt to the real-time appearances of the world, without necessarily understanding them."

      "Rather than engaging in external understandings of causality in the world, Big Data works on changing social behaviour by enabling greater adaptive reflexivity. If, through Big Data, we could detect and manage our own biorhythms and know the effects of poor eating or a lack of exercise, we could monitor our own health and not need costly medical interventions. Equally, if vulnerable and marginal communities could ‘datafy’ their own modes of being and relationships to their environments they would be able to augment their coping capacities and resilience without disasters or crises occurring. In essence, the imaginary of Big Data resolves the essential problem of modernity and modernist epistemologies, the problem of unintended consequences or side-effects caused by unknown causation, through work on the datafication of the self in its relational-embeddedness.42 This is why disasters in current forms of resilience thinking are understood to be ‘transformative’: revealing the unintended consequences of social planning which prevented proper awareness and responsiveness. Disasters themselves become a form of ‘datafication’, revealing the existence of poor modes of self-governance."*

      Downloaded Chandler paper. Cites Meier quite a bit.

    5. ut Burns finds that humanitarian staff often describe the local communities and ‘crowds’ as the ‘eyes, ears and sensors’ of UN staff, which does not index a genuine collaborative relationship. He states: ‘In all these cases, the discourse talks of putting local people “in the driving seat” when in reality the direction of the journey has already been decided’ (Burns 2015: 48). Burns (2015: 42) also notes that this leads to a transformation of social responsibility into individual responsibility.Neoliberalism’s promotion of free market norms is therefore much more than the simple ideology of free market economics. It is a specific form of social rule that institutionalises a rationality of competition, enterprise indi-vidualised responsibility. Although the state ‘steps back’ and encourages the free conduct of individuals, this is achieved through active intervention into civil society and the opening up of new areas to the logic of private enter-prise and individual initiative. This is the logic behind the rise of resilience

      Burns criticism of humanitarian response as not truly collaborative and an abdication of the state's responsibility for social welfare to the private sector.

  35. Jun 2018
  36. May 2018
    1. The MVPs are evaluated in terms of the current ways in which they are being used; they are not being evaluated as (prospective) designs. Certainly these platforms are not finished products; there is a clear sense that they remain in-process; ever-frequent updates and even complete pivots will be made. In this sense, prototyping is no longer a stage within design, but the only outcome of design. Without forethought, prior evaluation, whether against a strong vision, or of consequential risk, is this still design? Is designing as foreseeing disappearing beneath permanent iteration?
  37. Mar 2018
    1. Prepare some inviting questions.

      This is perhaps the most important step in the process. DO NOT simply request "Thoughts?" or "Please check out my site and let me know what I can do to make it better." These types of messages offer the reviewer nothing to work with.

      The examples listed in this section are relevant to career evaluation/feedback, but here are some potential questions for requesting constructive critique of your ePortfolio:

      • *My goal is to emphasize my leadership skills and experience. Does this ePortfolio communicate that?
      • Does the order/organization of this site make sense? Are things located where you think they should be? For example, do you think my Collaboratory experience should be moved to the technology page?
      • Did you feel any of the reflections were insufficient in terms of detail and development? Were there any that you had questions about after reading?*
  38. Jan 2018
    1. Plus qu’une vérification des informations, la multiplication des fakes appelle un travail d’éditorialisation, qui recontextualise les contenus partagés en explicitant les logiques transactionnelles[+] NoteVoir les travaux de Manuel ZACKLAD, notamment Transactions communicationnelles symboliques et communauté d'action : réflexions préliminaires , colloque de Cerisy "Connaissance Activité Organisation », 2003 ou « La théorie des transactions intellectuelles : une approche gestionnaire et cognitive pour le traitement du COS », Intellectica, Paris, ARCo,2000/1, 30, pp. 195-222. [9] qui les motivent. Cela suppose non seulement de reconnaître la multiplicité des points de vue, mais aussi leur mobilité dans l’espace et le temps en tant que productions sociales situées, le vrai n’étant que le frottement continu des informations et des contre-informatio

      On a effectivement intérêt à s'outiller pour être en mesure de qualifier les "logiques transactionnelles" à l'oeuvre en sous-texte de nos discussions (comme des dispositifs tels que hypothèse.is nous aident à le faire). Cependant, je me demande quelle conscience commune nous pourrons cultiver de l'impact de notre manière de vivre l'allure (esthétique) de nos délibérations. Car, cela me semble un horizon à viser en plus (outre la maîtrise des moyens techniques de la construction de connaissances partageables) si nous espérons que notre collaboration (et co-éditorialisation) permette de dégager des conclusions relativement stables - provisoires ou non. Si nous voulons cultiver un milieu propice à élaborer une véritable sphère intersubjective (un espace formé de valeurs et structuré autour de certains repères), la dynamique même de nos échanges doit aussi faire l'objet d'une éducation à la fois théorique et technique et, de ce point de vue, il importe de transformer la crise de la vérité (bien réelle) qui affecte notre société en une opportunité concrète de nous rappeler l'utilité d'une formation critique. Mais, cette occasion de bâtir de manière concertée des bases pour une nouvelle co-appartenance ne portera tous ses fruits que si nous articulons à l'enjeu de la formation à une littératie numérique (où la fonction de l'éditorialisation dans la constitution de l'environnement demeure à définir), le souci pour la sensibilisation du public en général (et du monde de l'éducation en particulier) à la question du rôle du développement d'un sens esthétique dans l'effort collectif pour constituer du sens en communs.

  39. Oct 2017
    1. p.74 Summarises the place of the university/multiversity

      (1) The multiversity is a place where great thought and great research are often possible.

      (2) The multiversity is a place from which great contributions can often be made to society.

      (3) The multiversity is a place in which the claims of institutional continuity and efficiency come to head-on collision with its educational aims; the latter are normally wiped off the map.

      (4) The multiversity is a place in which the education of the vast majority ranges from the mediocre to the pernicious. This fact creates new educational norms, which become positive deterrents to the education of any who wish to go beyond the majority. It is for these students -- the bright ones, the original or independent ones, the ones who care deeply --that the university is such bad news. It is in the crazy position of obstructing their education.

      (5) Education at the multiversity is post-secondary, encouraging the transfer of discrete units of information and theory, rather than liberal, encouraging the contemplation of energizing form in what a student comes to know. And the system of lectures, essays and exams, and the root assumptions of thousands of the university's members, canonize the post-secondary version of education. It is possible to go beyond it, but only by radically dissenting from the university. For the twenty-year-old who does not know what he is dissenting in favour of, this is either very isolating or very undermining.

  40. Sep 2017
    1. been to emphasize Austen’s overlooked expansive subtexts and allu-sions, her wide, even global appeal and relevance.

      Transition into feminist readings of Austen from giving examples of older critiques (of secondary sources) of Austen's work. This aids her argument and supports her challenging of previous readings of the work.

  41. Mar 2017
    1. Not all cards are created equal, even if you can get one – and not everyone can.

      Insightful, the company with the most market share would be the most readily available...

  42. Dec 2016
    1. One challenge is whether – or how – this conversation becomes generative of traditional scholarship, such as a more linear, peer-reviewed article.

      There is, truly, so much potential in these tools and approaches toward asynchronous, distributed reading and writing. One question I have, already, is how such distributed forms of production-consumption further dissolve notions of textuality and authorship so entrenched within traditional notions and practices of scholarship and empirical research. The flattened hierarchies, especially, threaten the institutionalized power structures which have tightly controlled the design, review, and dissemination of scholarship and research.

  43. Apr 2016
    1. But I have emphasized many times that ”modernism” carries with it another idea, that of emancipation from some stagnant, archaic and stifling past, so that ”modern” is always a way to orient action according to an arrow of time that distinguishes the past from the future. An essential component of the concept of modernity is the idea of a future toward which we travel after a radical rupture with the past.

      The crucial formulation of Latour's argument—in tandem with the corollary, below, that "we have never been modern in the very simple sense that while we emancipated ourselves, each day we also more tightly entangled ourselves in the fabric of nature."

  44. Jan 2016
    1. P(B|E) = P(B) X P(E|B) / P(E), with P standing for probability, B for belief and E for evidence. P(B) is the probability that B is true, and P(E) is the probability that E is true. P(B|E) means the probability of B if E is true, and P(E|B) is the probability of E if B is true.
    2. The probability that a belief is true given new evidence equals the probability that the belief is true regardless of that evidence times the probability that the evidence is true given that the belief is true divided by the probability that the evidence is true regardless of whether the belief is true. Got that?
    3. Initial belief plus new evidence = new and improved belief.
    1. In these settings, learning is a side effect of creative production, collaboration, and community organizing, not the explicit purpose of the activity.

      Learning is never a side effect. It is a parallel event, occuring all the time. If we consider learning as a consequent event and an object of some other doing, then we are in danger of committing the same sin as the 'banking' model--x causes y. Dangerous and predictably problematic.

    1. Here’s what the Finns, who don’t begin formal reading instruction until around age 7, have to say about preparing preschoolers to read: “The basis for the beginnings of literacy is that children have heard and listened … They have spoken and been spoken to, people have discussed [things] with them … They have asked questions and received answers.”
  45. Oct 2015
  46. May 2015
    1. Critical thinking disavows its own inventiveness as much as possible.

      This passage reminds me of Eve Sedgwick's essay on reparative reading.

  47. Jan 2014
    1. The Data Life Cycle: An Overview The data life cycle has eight components: Plan : description of the data that will be compiled, and how the data will be managed and made accessible throughout its lifetime Collect : observations are made either by hand or with sensors or other instruments and the data are placed a into digital form Assure : the quality of the data are assured through checks and inspections Describe : data are accurately and thoroughly described using the appropriate metadata standards Preserve : data are submitted to an appropriate long-term archive (i.e. data center ) Discover : potentially useful data are located and obtained, along with the relevant information about the data ( metadata ) Integrate : data from disparate sources are combined to form one homogeneous set of data that can be readily analyzed Analyze : data are analyzed

      The lifecycle according to who? This 8-component description is from the point of view of only the people who obsessively think about this "problem".

      Ask a researcher and I think you'll hear that lifecycle means something like:

      collect -> analyze -> publish

      or a more complex data management plan might be:

      ask someone -> receive data in email -> analyze -> cite -> publish -> tenure

      To most people lifecycle means "while I am using the data" and archiving means "my storage guy makes backups occasionally".

      Asking people to be aware of the whole cycle outlined here is a non-starter, but I think there is another approach to achieve what we want... dramatic pause [to be continued]

      What parts of this cycle should the individual be responsible for vs which parts are places where help is needed from the institution?

    2. An effective data management program would enable a user 20 years or longer in the future to discover , access , understand, and use particular data [ 3 ]. This primer summarizes the elements of a data management program that would satisfy this 20-year rule and are necessary to prevent data entropy .

      Who cares most about the 20-year rule? This is an ideal that appeals to some, but in practice even the most zealous adherents can't picture what this looks like in some concrete way-- except in the most traditional ways: physical paper journals in libraries are tangible examples of the 20-year rule.

      Until we have a digital equivalent for data I don't blame people looking for tenure or jobs for not caring about this ideal if we can't provide a clear picture of how to achieve this widely at an institutional level. For digital materials I think the picture people have in their minds is of tape backup. Maybe this is generational? New generations not exposed widely to cassette tapes, DVDs, and other physical media that "old people" remember, only then will it be possible to have a new ideal that people can see in their minds-eye.

    3. data entropy Normal degradation in information content associated with data and metadata over time (paraphrased from [ 2 ]).

      I'm not sure what this really means and I don't think data entropy is a helpful term. Poor practices certainly lead to disorganized collections of data, but I think this notion comes from a time when people were very concerned about degradation of physical media on which data is stored. That is, of course, still a concern, but I think the term data entropy really lends itself as an excuse for people who don't use good practices to manage data and is a cover for the real problem which is a kind of data illiteracy in much the same way we also face computational illiteracy widely in the sciences. Managing data really is hard, but let's not mask it with fanciful notions like data entropy.

  48. Nov 2013
    1. A major problem is that this possibility of exploring a network is often lost when it is published. The rich experience of interacting with the network within Gephi is converted to a pdf or png format,

      Is it not the task of simplifying, that the research denies herself, when dreaming of showing the full complexity of a phenomenon to it audience?

  49. Oct 2013
    1. Nor is it without advantage, indeed, that inelegant and faulty speeches, yet such as many, from depravity of taste, would admire, should be read before boys and that it should be shown how many expressions in them are inappropriate, obscure, tumid, low, mean, affected, or effeminate

      We often learn the most through bad examples

  50. Sep 2013
    1. Indeed no one may rely on the honesty of his life as a guarantee that he will be able to live securely in Athens; for the men who have chosen to neglect what is their own and to plot against what belongs to others do not keep their hands off citizens who live soberly and bring before you only those who do evil; on the contrary, they advertise their powers in their attacks upon men who are entirely innocent, and so get more money from those who are clearly guilty.

      I know this is going somewhere, Boyle. So please don't take this as a comment like hating repetition. Okay, we good? Good. So far this entire reading is nothing but Tu Quoque. I am sure Isocrates is going to eventually explain himself, but this is all the logical fallacy of using critique to critique. Don't yell at me!